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Article January 2002

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Ezzat H. Fahmy

The American University in Cairo

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Retrieved on: 17 August 2016

de la Socit canadienne de gnie civil

4th Structural Specialty Conference

of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering

Montral, Qubec, Canada

5-8 juin 2002 / June 5-8, 2002

Ezzat H. FahmyA, Ahmed A HassaneinB

A Department of Construction Engineering, The American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

B Civil Engineering Department, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

ABSTRACT: The finite difference method was used to develop analytical model to investigate the

behavior of composite beams with web openings. The model accounts for material non-linearity, and the

slip at the interface between the steel beam and the concrete slab. The model can analyze composite

beams with concrete slabs on ribbed metal deck as well as composite beams with solid concrete slabs.

The shear resisted by the slab is considered in the model. Variation of the shear force along the opening

length can be accommodated in this model. Buckling and instability failures are not considered in the

present model. The validity of the model was verified by comparing the predicted analytical results with

some of the experimental results available in the literature. Good agreement was obtained between the

analytical and experimental results.

Study of the effect of opening length, opening height, and opening eccentricity on the behavior and

strength of the composite beam are also presented.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Composite beams are used in construction more often nowadays. The composite construction results in a

shallower beam depth and consequently smaller floor-to floor height.

Often, utility ducts are required to pass from one side to the other of the composite beam. Passing these

ducts under the composite beam results in a larger floor height and loss of the advantage gained by using

composite construction. The use of composite beams with web openings offers an engineering solution

for this problem by eliminating the space required under the beam. However, the presence of such

openings affects the behavior of the composite beam.

Before the engineer can make use of the tangible benefits of composite beams with web openings, the

behavior and strength of such beams should be thoroughly investigated and fully comprehended.

Several investigators studied experimentally and analytically the behavior and strength of composite

beams with web openings. Todd and cooper (1980) presented an analytical model to determine the

ultimate strength of composite beams with unreinforced rectangular openings assuming the shear to be

carried by the steel beam only.

Clawson and Darwin (1982) presented the results of an experimental investigation of six composite

beams with concentric rectangular web openings. In another paper, Clawson and Darwin (1982)

developed a method for strength computation of this type of beams in which the ability of the slab to resist

shear stresses was taken into account.

1

Fahmy (1988) presented analytical model for computing the ultimate strength and mode of failure of

composite beams with web openings. The contribution of the slab in resisting the shear was taken into

consideration in that model.

The ultimate strength of composite beams with unreinforced rectangular web openings was investigated

using the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) (Darwin and Donahey 1988) and (Darwin and Lucas

1990).

The truss analogy was used to determine the ultimate strength of the slab of the composite beam in the

region of the opening (Cho and Redwood 1992). They also presented in a second paper in the same year

the experimental results of six full scale composite beams with nine web openings to investigate the

validity of the above mentioned truss analogy.

This paper presents an analytical model based on the finite difference technique to study the behavior,

strength and mode of failure of composite beams with web openings. The model can accommodate the

slip at the interface between the steel beam and the concrete slab and takes the resistance of the slab to

shear into consideration.

2.

ANALYTICAL MODEL

A typical single span composite steel-concrete beam with web opening is shown in figure 1. The beam

has (n) panels and (n+1) shear connectors. The forces acting on the steel beam, the concrete slab, and

on the connectors are shown in figure 2.

with panel and connectors numbering

slab, and connectors

1. The concrete slab and the steel beam deflects equally at all points along the span.

2. The strain distribution in both the concrete slab and the steel beam is linear, even at the vicinity of the

opening.

3. Shear connection between the concrete slab and the steel beam is provided by shear connectors

placed at discrete points along the span of the beam.

4. Both concrete slab and steel beam resist the vertical shear.

The actual stress-strain relationship for the concrete and steel were idealized as elastic-perfect plastic

curve. The load-slip relationship of the connectors is presented by a smooth hyperbolic curve as shown in

figure 3 (Ma 1973) in the form:

C

+B

[1] Q =

-A

Where A, B, and C are three constants determined by three points on the curve.

2

The equilibrium conditions at the i th panel are given by:

[2]

Fs(i) + Fb(i) = 0

[3]

Fb(i) [

db(i)

2

+ dC + t S

D N(i)

2

The compatibility condition at the interface between the concrete slab and the steel beam is written as:

[4]

i+ 1 i =

[ bt (i) sb(i) ] ds

S(i)

From the equilibrium of the horizontal forces, the shear on the ith connector is given by:

[5]

Fs(i) Fs(i1) = Q i

If the concrete slab and the steel beam are both in the elastic range, the strain difference in equation [4]

can be expressed in terms of the applied forces Fb(i) and Fs(i) and the moments Mb(i) and Ms(i) as follows:

[6]

[7]

bt (i) =

Fb(i)

E b A b(i)

Fs(i)

Mb(i) db(i) /2

E b Ib(i)

M s(i) [d C + t S - dN(i) /2]

sb(i) =

+

E s A s(i)

E s I s(i)

When the stress-strain relationship for the steel or the concrete is not elastic, the strain difference can no

longer be expressed as a linear function of the applied moments and axial forces. A numerical method

was used to determine the strain difference in this case. The method is essentially an iterative process in

which a value is first assumed for the end slip, 1, and consequently the value of Q1 is obtained from the

load-slip relationship of the connectors. Knowing that Fs(0) = 0, the value of Fs(1) can be obtained from

equation [5]. The moments Mb(1) and Ms(1) and the strain distribution through the composite beam depth

can be determined in the 1st panel using the numerical technique developed by Ma (1973). Hence, the slip

2 can be determined from equation [4]. After computing Fs(1) and 2, the interaction forces, moments, and

strain distribution through the composite beam depth at each panel and the slip at each connector can be

computed successively by setting i =1, 2, 3..,n in the described process. If the computed slip at the

center of the beam, or the force at the other end of the beam in case of unsymmetrical beam, is close

enough to zero, a solution is obtained. Otherwise, a revised value for the end slip has to be assumed and

the computation is repeated until solution is obtained.

3

The stress in each panel is checked for cracking of concrete slab or yielding of steel beam. Cracking of

the concrete occurs if:

[8]

sb(i) fct

Von Misses yield criteria is used to describe yielding of the steel beam web under the combined action of

the axial and shear stresses. Thus, yielding of the steel beam web occurs if:

[9]

2

+ 3 2

Fyw

2

w (i)

w (i)

Where:

[10] w (i) =

k V(i)

A w(i)

The coefficient k defines the ratio of the shear resisted by the steel beam web to the total applied shear on

the beam and is defined as:

[11] k =

Vp

Vp + Vs

The ultimate shear resistance of the concrete slab, Vs, is considered to be:

'

[12] Vs = 0.9 t2

s fc

This resistance is based on an effective slab width in resisting shear be = 3 tS (Clawson et al 1982) and

ultimate shear strength under combined flexural and axial compression v s = 0.3 fC' (ACI 318M 1988).

The ultimate shear resistance of steel beam web at the vicinity of the opening, VW, is given by:

[13] Vp =

Fyw

3

t w dw

[14] F(i) FyF

If any of the panels has yielded and/or cracked, the computation steps have to be repeated under the

same load but with the corresponding material properties for the yielded panels and a reduced concrete

slab depth for the cracked panels. The same process has to be repeated until no further panels crack or

yield. Crushing of the concrete slab occurs if the top fiber strain exceeds the limiting value of 0.003.

A computer program coded in FORTRAN77 was developed to perform the computation incrementally in

both the elastic and inelastic stages of loading. The output of the program provides at each load

increment the slip at each connector, the strain distribution through the composite beam depth, the

interaction force, the moment resisted by the steel beam and by the concrete slab, the curvature, and

deflection at each panel of the composite beam. Details of the analytical method and listing of the

computer program are documented in the literature by Hassanein (1995).

3.

To verify the analytical model, it was used to analyze three composite beams similar to beams 2N, 3N,

and 3S experimentally tested by Lawson et al [1992]. The geometric and material properties of the

analyzed beams are given in tables 1 and 2. Comparison between the experimental results for the

ultimate moment, ultimate shear with the analytical results are given in table 3.

Table 3 shows that the analytical model underestimated the moment capacity at the low end moment of

the opening by about 5% while it underestimated the shear at the same location by about 10% for two of

the beams. The difference in the shear capacity may be attributed to neglecting the common part between

the web and the flange of the beam in resisting the shear.

Table 1. Geometric properties of the test beams (Lawson et al 1992)

Beam

Steel Beam Size

Opening Dimensions (cm)

Number

Height

Length

Location*

2N

533x210x82 UB

35

35

267.5

3N

533x210x82 UB

25

45

82.5

3S

533x210x82 UB

20

60

90

Thickness Rib Height

Width**

6

6

200

6

6

200

6

6

200

Steel Beam

Concrete Strength

Beam

Flange

f c'

Numbe

Yield

Ultimate

Yield

(MPa)

r

(MPa)

(MPa)

(MPa)

2N

30.9

317

486

349

3N

34.4

309

481

341

3S

34.4

309

481

341

Table 3. Comparison between the experimental and the analytical results

Experimental Results

Analytical Results

Beam

Number

Vu (kN)

Mu (kN.m)

Vu (kN)

Mu (kN.m)

2N

652

174

623.3

166.2

3N

242

400

229.4

358

3S

242

400

230.1

358.3

4.

Web

Ultimate

(MPa)

501

495

495

Manal/Mexp

Vanal/Vexp

0.96

0.95

0.95

0.95

0.90

0.90

The developed analytical model was used to analyze 16 series of composite beams of the same

geometric properties but with varying web opening sizes and locations. The dimensions and material

properties of the analyzed beams were similar in all regards except for the dimension and location of the

opening. The composite beam consisted of W 310x28 steel beam supporting 100mm thick concrete slab

incorporating 25 mm ribbed metal deck. The slab width was considered as 1727 mm (16ts+bo). The yield

stress of steel beam was 300.9 MPa. All beams were over-connected to avoid failure of connector. The

geometric properties of the analyzed beams are given in table 4.

4.1

Interaction Diagram

The interaction diagram is a graphical representation for the relationship between the shear and moment

at the center of the opening at failure of the composite beam. In order to plot the interaction diagram for a

composite beam with a specified opening size, the opening was placed at different locations along the

beam span and the beam was analyzed for every case. At failure, the shear and moment were recorded.

The recorded values were normalized with respect to the moment and shear capacity of the steel section

of the composite beam, Mp and Vp. Results at each of these locations represents one point on the

interaction diagram.

Table 4. Geometric properties of the analyzed beams

Beam

Opening

Opening

Eccentricity

Numbe

Height

Length

(cm)

r

(cm)

(cm)

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

B10

B11

B12

B13

B14

B15

B16

4.2

0

13.1

15.7

18.2

20.7

22.8

23.3

23.8

25.8

18.2

18.2

18.2

18.2

18.2

18.2

18.2

0

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

45

15

30

60

45

45

45

45

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

+3.8

+2.5

-2.5

-3.8

%

Reduction

in Web

Area

0

45

54

62

71

78

80

82

89

62

62

62

62

62

62

62

Number of

Connectors

Degree of

Interaction

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

42

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

130%

Figure 4 shows the interaction diagrams for beams B1 through B9. The only variable for these beams was

the opening height. It can be seen from this figure that increasing the opening height decreases the

moment capacity and shear strength of the composite beam. This reduction is due to the reduction in the

web area of the steel beam.

The figure also shows that the interaction curves for beams B2 and B3, with reduction in the web area of

45% and 54% respectively, coincides with that of the full beam when the opening is placed near the

support. This indicates that for the analyzed beam dimensions, placing an opening with height less than

about 54% of the beam depth near the end of the beam does not have effect on the moment or shear

capacity of the beam. Failure of the composite beam in this case occurred at mid-span. However, when

the opening was placed further from the support, the moment capacity of the beam was reduced.

For openings with height more than 54% of the beam depth, both moment and shear capacities of the

composite beam reduce with the increase of the opening height.

4.3

The effect of opening length can be investigated from the results of beam B1, B4, and beams B10 through

B12. Figure 5 shows the interaction diagrams for these beams.

Both ultimate moment and shear strength of the composite beam decrease with increasing the opening

length. When the opening is placed near the support (M/V 0), increasing the opening length reduces the

shear strength of the beam. This is due to the increase of the vierendeel moment caused by the increase

in opening length. When the opening is placed at mid span (M/V = ), the ultimate moment capacity of the

composite beams slightly decreases with increasing the opening length.

2.00

2.00

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

B8

B9

1.60

M/MP

1.40

1.20

1.00

1.60

1.40

0.80

1.20

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.60

0.40

0.40

0.20

0.20

0.00

0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.45

B1

B10

B11

B4

B12

1.80

M/MP

1.80

0.00

0.00

0.50

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

V/VP

V/VP

On close inspection of figure 5, it can be seen that for certain range of M/V the opening length did not

have an effect on the beam behavior as the failure occurred at mid-span not at the location of the opening.

4.4 Effect of Opening Eccentricity

Beams B1, B4, and B13 through B16 were selected to study the effect of the opening eccentricity with

respect to mid height of the steel beam depth. The interaction diagrams for these beams are shown in

figure 6

2.00

B1

1.80

B13

M/MP

1.60

B14

1.40

B4

1.20

B15

1.00

B16

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50

V/VP

Figure 6. Effect of opening eccentricity

When the opening is placed close to the beam end and the failure is mainly due to shear, changing the

opening eccentricity does not affect the behavior of the beam. This is attributed to the fact that shear

capacity of the composite beam is based solely on the available web area. However, when the opening

was placed at the center of the span, the moment capacity of the composite beam increases as the

opening gets closer to top of the steel beam. This increase is attributed to the increase in the arm of the

moment caused by the interaction force Fb(i).

4.5

Modes of Failure

The model exhibits four modes of failure depending on the dimensions and location of the opening. These

modes are:

4.6.1

Shear failure

The composite beam fails in shear when the concrete slab reaches its ultimate shear capacity and the

steel beam web yields due to the equivalent Von Misses stress. When an opening with large height is

placed near the end if the beam (low M/V ratio), the vertical shear is the main cause of the beam failure.

In this case, the steel beam web yields mainly due the component of the shear in the equivalent Von

Misses stress while the stresses in the beam flanges are well below the yield stress, figure 7. For short

opening, the difference in the shear stresses at both sides of the opening is very small and the steel beam

web yields at both sides of the opening forming four-hinge failure mechanism, figure 8(a).

4.6.2

As the opening moves towards mid-span the shear force decreases while the applied moment increases

at the location of the opening. For some opening dimensions, the equivalent stresses at the opening do

not reach the yield stress of the material. However, failure occurs at mid-span where the beam has full

cross section due to pure bending. In this case, the load carrying capacity of the composite beam is not

affected by the presence of the opening.

4.6.3

Three-Hinge mechanism

As the opening moves further towards the point of maximum moment (higher M/V ratio), the applied

moment at the location of the opening increases while the applied shear decreases. The strain and stress

distribution for the case of M/V= 4.7 is show in figure 9. For this case, the stress in the bottom flange of

8

the beam reaches the yield stress at both the low and high moment ends. At the same time, the

equivalent stress reaches the yield limit in the beam web at the high-end moment and in the portion of the

web below the opening at the low-end moment. Thus, a three-hinge mechanism forms at the location of

the opening as shown in figure 8(b).

4.6.4

When the opening is located at the center of the beam, where the shear is zero, failure occurs due to

yielding of the steel beam above and below the opening and crushing of the concrete slab, figure 8(c).

5.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the results presented in this paper, the following conclusions may be drawn:

1. The height of the opening affects the ultimate strength of the composite beam. When the opening is

placed in the low M/V region, the shear capacity decreases with the increase of the opening height.

When the opening is located at mid span of the beam, the ultimate moment decreases with the

increase of the opening height. Between these two extreme locations, the percentage of reduction in

the ultimate moment and shear capacities vary with the change in M/V ratio.

2. The opening length affects the capacity of the composite beam. At the low M/V region, the shear

capacity of the composite beam decreases with increasing the opening length. At mid span of the

beam, the ultimate moment capacity decreases with increasing the opening length. Between these two

extreme locations, the percentage of reduction in the ultimate moment and shear capacities vary with

the change in M/V ratio.

3. Eccentricity of the opening with respect to the steel beam mid-height does not affect the ultimate shear

capacity of the composite beam for low M/V locations. However, at high M/V locations, the ultimate

moment capacity increases as the opening approaches the top of the steel beam.

6 REFERENCES

Cho, S.H. and Redwood, R.G. (1992) Slab behavior I Composite Beams at Opening. I: Analysis, Journal

of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 118, 2287-2303.

Cho, S.H. and Redwood, R.G. (1992) Slab behavior I Composite Beams at Opening. II: Tests and

Verification, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 118, 2304-2322.

Clawson, W.C. and Darwin, D. (1982) Tests of Composite Beams with Web Opening, Journal of the

Structural Division, ASCE, 108: 145-162.

Clawson, W.C. and Darwin, D. (1982) Strength of Composite Beams at Web Opening, Journal of the

Structural Division, ASCE, 108: 623-641.

Darwin, D. and Donahey, R.C. (1988) LRFD for Composite Beams with Web Openings, Journal of the

Structural Engineering, ASCE, 114: 435-552.

Darwin, D. and Lucas, W.K. (1990) LRFD for Steel and Composite Beams with Web Openings, Journal of

the Structural Engineering, ASCE, 116: 1579-1593.

Fahmy, E.H. (1988) Strength of Composite Beams with Web Openings, CSCE 1988, 1, Calgary, Alberta,

Canada: 552-565.

Hassanien, Ahmed Abdel Baset (1995) Non-linear Analysis of Composite Beams with Web Opening,

Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the Master of Science, The American

University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt.

Lawson, R.M. and Chung, K.F. (1992) Tests on Composite Beams with Large Web Opening to Justify

Existing Design Methods, Journal of the Structural Engineer, 70:1-7

Ma, K.P. (1973) Inelastic Analysis of Composite Beams with Partial Connection, M.Sc. Thesis, McMaster

University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Todd, D.M. and Cooper, P.B. (1980) Strength of Composite Beams with Web Openings, Journal of the

Structural Division, ASCE, 106: 431-444.

7

NOTATIONS

Ab(I) , As(I)

Aw(I)

db(i)

dN(i)

dc

dw

Eb, Es

Fb(I) , Fs(I)

FyF, Fyw

fct, f c

Ib(i), Is(I)

M

M(I), Mb(I) , Ms(I)

Mp

Qi

S(I)

ts

V

V(i)

Vp, Vs

bt(i), sb(I)

(i)

sb(I)

F(I), w(I),

w(I),

Cross-sectional area of the steel beam and the concrete slab at panel (i).

Cross-sectional area of the steel beam web at panel (i).

Depth of the steel beam at the panel (i).

Uncracked depth of the concrete slab at the panel (i).

Depth of the ribbed metal deck.

Depth of the steel beam web.

Modulus of elasticity of the steel beam and the concrete slab at panel (i).

Interaction force in the steel beam and the concrete slab at panel (I).

The yield stress of the steel beam flange and web.

Tensile and compressive strength of concrete slab.

Moment of inertia of the steel beam and the concrete slab at panel (i).

Moment at mid-length of opening.

Applied moment, moment resisted by the steel beam, and the slab at panel (i).

Plastic moment of the steel beam.

The shear force on the connector (i).

Length of the panel (i).

Thickness of the slab.

Shear at mid-length of opening.

Applied shear on the composite beam at the panel (i).

Shear strength of the steel beam and the concrete slab.

Strain at the top of the steel beam and bottom of the concrete slab at panel (i).

Slip at connector (i).

Stress at the bottom of the concrete slab at panel (i).

Normal stress in the steel beam flange and web at panel (i).

Shear stress in the steel beam web at panel (i).

10

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