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It is that part of speech that is used to join words or sentences together, e.g. :

Four and five make nine.

I know when the train arrives.

Kinds of Conjunctions

Coordinate Conjunctions : A Coordinate Conjunction is used to join together clauses of

equal rank, i.e. , it joins two independent sentences as :

Come and sit by me.

Man walks but birds fly.

The above sentences are made up of two sentences which are of equal rank but they are
joined by and or but :

SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS : A Subordinate Conjunction joins a clause to

another on which it depends for its full meaning, as:

I like her because she is kind.

In this sentence, the second sentence because she is kind is dependent on the first
sentence I like her . Therefore, the word because which joins the two is a Subordinate

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS : Conjunctions which are used in pairs; as

Neither I or,

As soonerthan
Whether...or etc.

He is either afraid or frightened

She not only works in a college but also manages his house.
Through she is poor yet she is contented.
No sooner had he gone to bed than he fell asleep.
I dont know whether shes guilty or innocent.
Scarcely had he fallen asleep when he had a dream.
Hardly had I reached the station when the train steamed off.
As long as the epidemic continues we should be careful.
So long as the attack continues we should stay indoors.



WHILE : it express TIME but it can also be used to show contrast:

The bee worked while the cricket sang. (CONTRAST)
The girls sang while the boys played. (CONTRAST)
The lady acted rudely while her husband was away. (TIME)
While he was sitting on the grass a snake bit him. (TIME)

THAT : That is used to express REASON or CAUSE

We eat that we may live.
We work that we may earn.

To express a PURPOSE
Work hard so that you may pass.
Work effectively, that saves time.

To express a RESULT for EFFECT

She is so tired that she cannot go on.
He is so sleepy that his eyes are drooping.

THAN: Than as Conjunction follows Adj. and, Adv. in the COMPARATIVE DEGREE,
Wisdom is better than diamond.
Alok writes better than Sudha.

Since : Means from which time, e.g. ,

Many changes have occurred since India became free.
Its a year since we left Lucknow.
It is also used to express reasons, e.g.,
Since you wish it, it shall be done.
Since you have money, you can buy it.

HOWEVER : It generally proceeds an adjective or adverb, e.g. ,

However much you may struggle, you cannot defeat him.
He did not work hard, however , he passed.

UNLESS : means , if not. E.g. ,

I shall not pass unless you help me.
He cannot go unless he wears shoes.
Unless you tell the truth, he wont be released.

ONLY : means, except that / were it not, e.g.,

I would go with you, only I have no time.
A pretty girl, only she wears specs.

AS IF : is used to express a supposition, e.g.,

The woman walks as if she were lame.
That beggar behaves as if he is blind.

AND : is used in the sense of addition, e.g.,

Six and six make a dozen.
She is young and beautiful.

Is used to denote a sequence, e.g.,

He took out gun and fired.
His foot slipped and he fell.

Is used to denote a result / consequences.

Work hard and you will achieve your aim.
Give me blood and I will give you freedom.

Is used to denote a purpose, e.g.,

He came here and met his brother.
He came to Varanasi and visited the temple.

Is used to denote a continuing process, e.g.,

She can dance for hours and hours.
The baby cried and cried.

Is used to denote a gradual increase /decrease, e.g.,

Day by day its getting colder and colder.
His habits are getting worse and worse.

Is used to denote contrast, e.g.,

There are good people and bad ones.
Every human has two sides, the positive and the negative.

BUT : is used to show contrast , e.g.,

She is very rich but she is unhappy.
He is poor but honest.

Is used in the meaning of yet/however/in spite of,

He worked hard but failed to deliver.
He was lucky but couldnt win love.

Is used to denote disagreement/surprise,e.g.,

You may like her but I dont.
Oh! They are going to get married, but thats amazing!

OR : is used to denote an alternative, e.g.,

She will buy a sari or a suit.
Is Mary a doctor or a nurse?

To mean if not/ otherwise , e.g.,

Produce more grain or you will perish.

Study wisely or you will waste time.

Start early or you will miss the train.

TIME: While, when, before, after, since, as long as, until, no sooner than, etc, as :
Please wait here until I come back.
I will help you when you are in trouble.
You can stay here as longs as you like.
PLACE : Where, wherever , whence, whether,etc, as:
No one knows where he went.
She will accompany you wherever you go.
I dont know whither he has gone.
PURPOSE : That, so that , in order, that, lest, etc like:
We eat that we may live.
Work hard lest you should fail.
She reads a lot so that she may top the class.

MANNER OR EXTENT: As , so far as, as far as, according to, as if, etc. as:
He is a bachelor as far as I know.
She is a good girl so far as her nature in concerned.
Hamlet behaved as if he were mad.

CONCESSION OR CONTRAST: Although, though, if, even, however, whichever, etc,

Although he is poor, he is honest.
Though he scolded me, yet I respect him.
You cannot win the prize however you may try.
Ashe always follows him, whenever he goes.

REASON OR CAUSE: Since, because,as,atc. e.g.,

I like her because she is kind.
Since She stood first in the class, she must be an intelligent student.
He may enter as he is a friend.

CONDITION: if, unless, provided, whatever, etc. e.g.,

If you study, you will pass.
I shall not attend the party unless she invites me.
We can show good result provided that we cooperative with each other.

COMPARISON:, than,, no less than,

Ram is taller than Shyam.
Delhi is not as big as Kolkata.
He is to blame no less than I.

RESULT OR EFFECT :So, that, etc, e.g.,

It rained so heavily that the tanks were flooded.
The water is so cold that I cannot drink it.


The term dyadic communication refer to an interaction between two persons. Even if
more than two persons are present in a situation, it is only two communicators that play a
fundamental role. It provides ideal conditions for close range conditions feedback. The
meaning exchanged between the sender and the receiver is marked by high level of trust.
Telephonic conversation is one form of dyadic conversation where interaction takes place
between two people over the telephone. Although this form doesnt convey body
language and eye-contact, but it is the commonest and fastest way of contacting persons .
It is simple, handy, and in the long run economical and has been termed as a priceless
means of communication.
Few guidelines to be followed for Telephonic Conversation.
Cultivate and use a cheerful and friendly tone.
Follow voice modulation
Never sound hurried, flustered or impatient.
Pronounce your words clearly.
Do not use strong language.
If ever you use a word which may be misunderstood, spell it out.
Listen attentively to the caller. If the message is long keep reassuring that you are
Listening by speaking words such as Yes, Or, Yeah, etc.
Be Courteous in all circumstances.
Dont engage your telephone longer than necessary.
WISH : come to the point-small talk-Thank & end.
Lift the receiver properly
Reveal your identity , e.g. Ruchi Dube Trainer Call One.
Hold the mouthpiece properly.
If you do not know who the caller is, request his/her name and designation.
Even if the caller is annoyed keep your cool.
Give the required information accurately. If it is not readily available promise to ring
back and of course keep your promise.
If a wrong number call comes to you never slam down the receiver or abuse the caller.
Keep a jot pad and a pencil handy near the telephone to note messages if any.
Keep your telephone on your left hand side so hat the right hand is free to write and vice-
versa for left handed people.

Take your fully and correctly, suggested form is given below.


Telephone Message
Message From:
Telephone No:
Message For:
Received At (time): On (date)
Message :
Message taken by :
End the call by saying nice to talk to you., Thank you, etc.
Making calls:
Have a personal telephone directory listing often used phone numbers.
If You are making a call for somebody also. Follow his/her instructions.
Whatever you want to talk about , have all the material ready and at hand, because its
bad manners to keep somebody on the line while you rummage through your files to
search thoroughly actively through turning over or looking through to hunt through
If you have a numbers of things to say Warn the listener by saying I want your opinion
on two points.
If you wish to leave a message , say so and give a few seconds to the receiver to get
ready with pen and paper.
Let your message be clear and accurate important message can be repeated.
End the call by saying Thank you etc.



LATIN communis means common & shared.

Successful Communication is when we have shared information with another and they
see the information the same way we do. So, communication can be said to be the process
of creating shared understanding.
The first & most important reason for communicating is to build relationship with other
people. 2/3 of our total conversation is social interaction the who, is doing what, with
whom, who is in, and who is out, and why. This helps us in establishing a relaxed
relationship thereby leading to a better rapport. We can create rapport through matching
movements, including body language, eye contact, facial expression & voice intonation.

The next step is sharing information, which involve understanding. Information is what
we create inside our heads as we understand. Information is the shape of our thinking.
Everything we communicate, information transfers itself as we filter it through the mental
patterns in our mind. Creating shared understanding , therefore, means displaying
information in a form that the other person can recognize.

The final reason for communicating is of course action , and the key to effective action is
not accurate information but persuasive ideas. An idea is something you can say or write
about. Idea are the currency of communication. We are paid for our ideas. When we
communicate, we trade ideas. Like currencies, ideas have a value & that value can
change; some ideas become more valuable as others lose their value. We judge the
quality of an idea by how meaningful it is.
So, our main purpose in communication is to create and share ideas, and the main way we
trade ideas is in conversation.
Conversation is the most important means of communication we posses. It is flexible and
dynamic, and it is responsible for creating shared meaning. Thus, if you want to
communicate better, begin by improving your conversation.
All the other ways we communicate- Interviews, presentations, group discussions, written
documents, meetings- are variations of this central mode of communication.


The word derived from Latin means to move around with. A conversation is a dynamic
of talking and listening. Without the listening theres no conversation. These two
activities dont merely happen in sequences; they occur simultaneously. Each participant
in a conversation has to be both an active listener & speaker to make the conversation
successful. Listening is the way we find out what the other person mans and how they
think. Listening directs as to make the next move in our conversation, because by
listening we find the common ground, the shared understanding that we are both seeking.