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Ciceros Six-Part (not six paragraph) Oration:

Exordium (introduction)

Narration (background)

Partition (forecast and


Confirmation (development
of points)

Literally, the web that draws listeners into the speech; the
speaker introduces the subject at hand and includes material that
makes the audience both attentive and receptive to the argument.
The hook. Here you can use an objective correlative. (Fancy
word for symbol or symbolic and meaningful event that
illustrates or makes clear the argument youre trying to present.
Background material or context on the topic or argument.
History and word on the street thinking.
Status quo thinking. Some people think this way . . .
Divides the topic into parts; makes clear which parts might be
omitted, and how parts will be arranged; and commits to a
I could talk about this aspect or I could talk about that aspect,
but Im going to talk about . . .
Offers points to develop and substantiate the thesis and provides
reasons, details, illustrations, and examples in support of those

Refutation (consideration of Considers possible objections to the thesis or its supporting

opposing positions)
points and tries to counter those objections.
Peroration (conclusion)

You may be thinking . . . But heres why youre wrong.

Draws together the entire argument as it makes the final
persuasive case to the audience.
So what? Present reasons why or how something could be
further studied or looked at.
Sometimes has a call-to-action. Sometimes offers a new but
related idea
Your absolute final sentence should have a cadence to it. Think
iambic pentameter. This cadence leaves the reader with warm