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Lessons from Mumbai Metro



to Metros in

Intro &

Metro Line-1

Metro Line-2

Key Lessons

About Metro project

Models of Governance and Ownership of metros
50:50 joint venture
ownership between the
central and State

A mixture of funding from

both the Central and State

Equity and debt Loans

from multilateral and
domestic financial
institutions tend to be
facilitated through
Government guarantee

Eg. Metro rail projects like

Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi,
Kochi and Kolkata (EastWest, and are currently
following this structure

Government of India
100% by Ministry of
Railways, Government of
Kolkata Metro Railway North
and South corridor and other
metro projects in Kolkata
have been taken up by the
Ministry of Railways
State Government Projects
100% by the State
For example, AhmedabadGandhinagar metro project
Private sector projects
100% Private sector
Eg. Rapid Metrorail Gurgaon,
Hyderabad Metro - L&T
Metro Rail Hyderabad Ltd

Lifecycle stages in Metro project

Planning and



Need for

Project Approvals



Increasing Urbanization
Limited road space
Road Safety issues
Road Traffic congestion

Metro in India
Government initiatives
National Urban Transport Policy

build capacity to plan for

sustainable development

ensure integrated land use

and transport planning

people focused and

equitable allocation of road

To invest in public transport

and non motorized modes

Identifying innovative
financing methods to raise

Jawaharlal Nehru Urban

Renewal Mission (JNNURM)

Incorporating urban
transportation as a key
parameter at the urban
planning stage

Encouraging integrated
land use and transport
planning to minimize travel

To take up urban renewal

programme to reduce

Criteria for selecting metro


Peak Hour


length in
motor in


for 5 km











Need for Mumbai Metro

Population of 20 million with a modal share of 88% in

public transport

Mumbai suburban railway & BEST carry over 7 million


MRTS scheme suggested to connect those parts

which are not connected under sub-urban railway

Currently, one line is operational (Ghatkopar-Versova

11.4 km) is operational; recorded average ridership
of 277,00

Mumbai Metro - Introduction

First Metro line in the country to be developed under

PPP model

Extended to have a track length of 63 km with final

network potentially growing to 160 km

Line 1 is fully elevated; Remaining lines are planned to

be elevated

Change in ownership for Line 2 since Reliance had

pulled out due to differences over timely grant of

Estimated cost: Rs. 67,618 crore, a significant

amount to be funded by JICA

Mumbai Metro Line 1

Mumbai Metro Line-1 - Overview

11.4 km elevated line built between Versova and

Built at a cost INR 4300 crore over 6 years by a

consortium of Reliance Infrastructure Limited through a
PPP model; inaugurated for public use in June 2014

SPV called Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (MMOPL)

administers the project Reliance Infrastructure holds
69%, MMRDA holds 26%, and French Headquartered
company Veolia Transport holds 5%

Line 1 has served over 150 million passengers till date

and sees an average daily ridership of 2,60,000

Project saw significant delays in commissioning, initial timeline of 2011
operational start got delayed until 2014.
Project also saw legal issues pertaining to fare hikes - finally being
settled in MMOPLs favour.

Delays in commissioning

MMRDA supposed to handover acquired land and 100%

Right of Way (RoW) by 2008, but as of August 2008 only
20% was complete.

90-95% RoW handed over to MMOPL in late 2011, a delay

of 3 years

Even in December 2013, civil works were only 95%

complete some approach roads and stations hadnt been
fully completed

Lack of underground utility maps further hampered


The completion date of the project was pushed from 2010

to 2014

Questions Raised:

Why was the responsibility of acquiring land handed over to

If MMRDA was anyhow contractually obligated to do so, why was
there no penalty clause for delaying the project?

The Fare Conundrum

The State government had in mid-2013 notified that fares must
remain in INR 9-13 range

The state had the power to do so, because Mumbai Metro Area
was notified under the Indian Tramways Act, 1886

In late 2013, the Mumbai Metro got notified under the Metro
(Construction of Works) Act, 1978, which gave initial fare setting
power MMOPL.

MMOPL wanted a fare hike to new range of INR 10-40 for the
project as an initial setting.

MMOPL claimed it had the right to do so since the earlier fares set
by the government were now null and void under the new act

Even though MMRDA went to court over this hike, the Bombay
High Court, and later the Supreme Court ruled in MMOPLs favour.

The Curious Acts

All metro systems (except Kolkata metro) in India have
been constructed under Metro Railways (Construction
Works) , 1978.

When construction of Mumbai Metro was started, it was

notified under the Indian Tramways Act, 1886.

The switch to Metro Railways Act was done when 80% of

the project was already complete.

This was done ostensibly to ensure safety certification

from the appropriate railway regulators.

However, the side-effect for this was that MMOPL

suddenly got the power to set initial fares
Question Raised:
Why was the project not implemented under the Metro Act since
initiation itself?

Fare Fixation Committee (FFC)


While passing the 2015 fare hike ruling in favour of MMOPL,

the Supreme Court also urged Center to set up the FFC in a
time-bound manner

The FFC delivered a shocker in July 2015 when it suggested a

hike in maximum fares from existing INR 40 to INR 110

Even though MMRDA took MMOPL to court over this issue,

the Supreme Court upheld the decision of the FFC to allow
MMOPL to hike maximum fares to INR 110

MMOPL wanted to increase fares gradually till INR 110,

starting with a hike of INR 5 in Dec 2015. However, the
Bombay High Court stayed the hike.

Questions Raised:

Why did the FFC suggest a hike to maximum fare of INR 110?

If the system of FFC is implemented, why should the Bombay High

Court question the competence of a Supreme-Court mandated FFC?

Ancillary Revenue Generation


Mumbai Metro had earned 8% of their revenues from

non-fare sources in the previous year.

Primary source of non-fare revenue is leasing out of

station space to stalls.

However, the sources can be further diversified by

looking at other sources of revenue such as
1. Station and rolling stock branding
2. Commercial Development of built up station

Success Story

Gurgaon Rapid Metro embarked on a station branding

exercise - e.g. Vodafone Belvedere,
Micromax Moulsari etc.

Mumbai Metro Line 2

Mumbai Metro Line-2 - Overview

Charkop-Mankhurd-Bandra Route
32 km long, 27 stations

Open competitive bidding: Consortium of Reliance Infra,

SNC Lavalin, Reliance Communication selected
Project launched in Aug-2009
Expected time of commencement of construction:
August 2010
Issues that caused delays:
Bid Processing time > 2 years
Only one bidder submitted the Bid

Question Raised:
Despite only one bidder submitting the bid, no revisions
were made in restructuring to allow more bids

Mumbai Metro Line-2 - Issues

Land acquisition issues:
Land was supposed to be handed over by MMRDA
Coastal regulation zone (CRZ) laws disallowed use of land for carsheds
MoEF also declined to grant clearances for depot land
Right-of-way issues: Lack of coordination with Municipal bodies like
Sewage, water supply, electricity, etc.
The construction did not start even by September 2012
MMRDA threatened Reliance of legal action for not commencing the construction
Reliance blamed government and MMRDA for not handing over land on time
MMRDA failed in its contract obligations to obtain clearances, and right-of-way permits
Termination of PPP agreement in December 2012

Questions Raised:
While selecting land locations for such critical areas,
are inter-agency factors taken into account?

Mumbai Metro Line-2:
Subsequent development of Line-2 would be done under Public-Public-Partnership
Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation (MMRC) incorporated for subsequent lines of Mumbai Metro
Charkop - Mankhurd route, originally constituted Line-2 of Mumbai metro, was extended to
Cost of Line-2 per km stretch under this MMRC model is expected to be 2.5 times under PPP
Still, tussle faced between State Home Ministry and MMRDA over the land for Metro Car-shed
in Mankhurd
Mumbai Metro Line-3:
Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ corridor
First corridor to have a section of it to be constructed underground
Line-3 will be implemented by MMRC. Will be implemented under EPC
The project will be financed by primarily State and Central Government,
and the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA).
Further, the construction of 3 metro stations in proximity to International
airport will receive contribution from Mumbai International Airport Limited.

Mumbai Metro: Key Takeaways

Mumbai Metro: Key Takeaways

Bidding Process

Public Support

The process to choose successful bidder took

considerable time
Delays in developing clarifications to queries by potential
High time in evaluating the bids.
Led to delays in commencement of projects
Reduced the number of bidders.
Led to delays in commencement of projects
Public support critically important to streamline land
Inter-agency coordination is necessary for road
expansion and RoW
Departmental Credibility

Mumbai Metro: Key Takeaways

Approval delays
and Inter-agency

Asset transfer

The lack of inter-agency coordination led to significant delays

in land acquisition and finalization of alignment
Typical problems faced with Railways, Water Supply,
Electricity and Sewage departments
It is paramount to have authorities aware of such inter-agency
coordination issues and that they have guided frameworks in
place to resolve such issues
At the time of expiry of concession agreement, a survey of
assets should be made by independent agency
The survey should be structured along clear specifications
laid out in concession agreement
This shall obviate difference of opinion between
concessionaire and government at the time of handing over
of assets during PPP expiry period

Multi modal integration

Last mile connectivity needs to be

provided to encourage the usage of metro;
absence induces transfer penalty on the

MMOPL had not given due consideration

for multi modal connectivity in line 1

Station Area Traffic Improvement

Scheme (SATIS) initiated to integrate
Metro rail with BEST buses

Success: BEST and Indian Railways

could provide good feeder services to
metro stations on Line-1

Long horizon planning

MMOPL pro-active in implementing new

changes to initial network design; plan
diligently to adapt

Construction of Navi Mumbai airport and

urbanization of Panvel and Thane region;
footfall is expected to increase in the

Increased network efficiency and

contribute to increased ridership due to
last mile connectivity provided

Issue to consider: Master plans dont

currently include cross-connection
between Mumbai and Navi Mumbai

Cost-effective connectivity with Airport

Going forward there would be two major

airport hubs in Mumbai; CSIA airport and
Navi Mumbai airport

Mankhurd Metro station on line 2 to

provide connectivity between the two

It must be ensured that customer

interface, technology and gauge are

Example: Delhi Metro had planned

Connaught Place to be the centre; but
the development of Gurgaon region
has shifted the traffic away

Efficient risk sharing mechanism

Government to bear the following risk:

Land Acquisition (Pre-operation)

MMOPL to bear the following risks:

Financing, Planning (Pre-operation),
Design, Construction & Financing
(Construction risk), O&M, Market and
Performance (Operational risk)

The O&M risk can be transferred to

sub-contractor; can have adversarial
effects leading to poor quality

Right of Way: Due to non availability

of maps from Govt. the foundation
design was increased by a multiple of