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CK-12 Foundation

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AUTHOR

CK-12 Foundation

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herein by this reference.

Complete terms can be found at http://www.ck12.org/about/

terms-of-use.

Printed: February 25, 2015

iii

Contents

www.ck12.org

Contents

1

iv

1.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Points, Lines, and Planes, Review Answers

1.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Segments and Distance, Review Answers .

1.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Angles and Measurement, Review Answers

1.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Midpoints and Bisectors, Review Answers .

1.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Angle Pairs, Review Answers . . . . . . .

1.6

Geometry - Second Edition, Classifying Polygons, Review Answers . .

1.7

Geometry - Second Edition, Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . .

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1

2

5

7

10

13

14

17

2.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Inductive Reasoning, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Conditional Statements, Review Answers . . . . . . . . .

2.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Deductive Reasoning, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . .

2.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Algebraic and Congruence Properties, Review Answers . .

2.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Proofs about Angle Pairs and Segments, Review Answers .

2.6

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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26

29

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3.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Lines and Angles, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Parallel Lines, Review Answers . . . . . . .

3.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Proving Lines Parallel, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . .

3.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Perpendicular Lines, Review Answers . . . .

3.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Parallel and Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane,

Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.6

Geometry - Second Edition, The Distance Formula, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . .

3.7

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Review

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34

35

37

40

42

43

47

49

4.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Sums, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Congruent Figures, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using SSS and SAS, Review Answers . . . .

4.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using ASA, AAS, and HL, Review Answers

4.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles, Review Answers . . . . . . .

4.6

Chapter 4 Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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50

51

53

55

58

60

63

5.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Midsegments of a Triangle, Review Answers . . . . .

5.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Perpendicular Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers

5.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Angle Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers . . . .

5.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Medians and Altitudes in Triangles, Review Answers .

5.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Inequalities in Triangles, Review Answers . . . . . . .

5.6

Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Indirect Proof, Review Answers . . . . . .

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71

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75

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5.7

6

Contents

6.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Angles in Polygons, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Parallelograms, Review Answers . . . . . . .

6.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Proving Quadrilaterals are Parallelograms, Review Answers

6.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Rectangles, Rhombuses and Squares, Review Answers . . .

6.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Trapezoids and Kites, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . .

6.6

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Similarity, Answer Key

7.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Ratios and Proportions, Review Answers . . .

7.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Similar Polygons, Review Answers . . . . . .

7.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity by AA, Review Answers . . . . . .

7.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity by SSS and SAS, Review Answers .

7.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Proportionality Relationships, Review Answers

7.6

Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity Transformations, Review Answers .

7.7

Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Self-Similarity, Review Answers . .

7.8

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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81

83

86

89

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92

93

94

95

96

97

99

101

103

8.1

Geometry - Second Edition, The Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers . . . . . .

8.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers

8.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Using Similar Right Triangles, Review Answers . . . . .

8.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Special Right Triangles, Review Answers . . . . . . . .

8.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Tangent, Sine and Cosine, Review Answers . . . . . . .

8.6

Geometry - Second Edition, Inverse Trigonometric Ratios, Review Answers . . . . .

8.7

Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Laws of Sines and Cosines, Review Answers

8.8

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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105

106

109

111

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114

115

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9.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Parts of Circles and Tangent Lines, Review Answers . . . . . . . .

9.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Arcs, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Chords, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Inscribed Angles, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Angles of Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review Answers . . . . .

9.6

Geometry - Second Edition, Segments of Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review Answers . . .

9.7

Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Writing and Graphing the Equations of Circles, Review

Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.8

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Triangles and Parallelograms, Review Answers . . . . . .

10.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Trapezoids, Rhombi, and Kites, Review Answers . . . . .

10.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Similar Polygons, Review Answers . . . . . . . .

10.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Circumference and Arc Length, Review Answers . . . . .

10.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Circles and Sectors, Review Answers . . . . . .

10.6

Geometry - Second Edition, Area and Perimeter of Regular Polygons, Review Answers

10.7

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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116

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135

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137

139

140

11.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Solids, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

v

Contents

11.2

11.3

11.4

11.5

11.6

11.7

11.8

www.ck12.org

Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area of Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers

Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area of Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers .

Geometry - Second Edition, Volume of Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers . . .

Geometry - Second Edition, Volume of Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers . . . .

Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area and Volume of Spheres, Review Answers .

Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Similar Solids, Review Answers . . . . . . .

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.1

Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Symmetry, Review Answers . . . . . . .

12.2

Geometry - Second Edition, Translations and Vectors , Review Answers . . . .

12.3

Geometry - Second Edition, Reflections, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.4

Geometry - Second Edition, Rotations, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.5

Geometry - Second Edition, Composition of Transformations, Review Answers

12.6

Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Tessellations, Review Answers . . . . .

12.7

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi

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162

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www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

Basics of Geometry,

Answer Key

Chapter Outline

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Points, Lines, and Planes, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

and Planes, Review Answers

For 1-5, answers will vary. One possible answer for each is included.

1.

2.

3.

4.

6. W X, YW , line m, XY and WY .

2

5.

www.ck12.org

8. In addition to the pictures to the right, three planes may not intersect at all and can be parallel.

9. A circle.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

PQ intersects RS at point Q.

Points E and H are coplanar, but their rays, EF and GH are non-coplanar.

IJ , IK, IL, and IM with common endpoint I and J, K, L and M are non-collinear.

Always

Sometimes

Sometimes

Sometimes

Never

Always

Sometimes

Never

Always

Sometimes

#18: By definition, a point does not take up any space, it is only a location. #21: The ray is never read BA,

the endpoint is always stated first.

To make #15 true, they must be three non-collinear points. For #16, the two rays must lie on the same line,

which it does not state. For #20, four points could be coplanar, but you only need three points to make a plane,

so the fourth point could be in another plane. For #23, theorems can also be proven true by definitions and

previously proven theorems.

The walls, ceiling and floor are all planes. When two of them intersect the intersection is a line (i.e. the ceiling

and a wall). When two walls and either the ceiling or the floor intersect the intersection is a point.

The spokes on a wheel are segments. They intersect at a point.

Cities on a map are points and the distance between them can be found by measuring the segment connecting

the points.

29-33.

3

1.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Points, Lines, and Planes, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

www.ck12.org

Distance, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

1.625 in

2.875 in

3.7 cm

8.2 cm

2.75 in

4.9 cm

4.625 in

8.7 cm

9.

10. O would be halfway between L and T , so that LO = OT = 8 cm

11.

a.

b. TA + AQ = T Q

c. T Q = 15 in

12.

a.

b. HM + MA = HA

c. AM = 11 cm

13. BC = 8 cm, BD = 25 cm, and CD = 17 cm

15.

a.

b.

c.

d.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

RS = 4

QS = 14

TS = 8

TV = 12

x = 3, HJ = 21, JK = 12, HK = 33

x = 11, HJ = 52, JK = 79, HK = 131

x = 1, HJ = 2 31 , JK = 5 32 , HK = 8

x = 17, HJ = 27, JK = 153, KH = 180

x = 16, HJ = 7, JK = 15, KH = 22

One possible answer.

5

www.ck12.org

|7 (6)|= 13

|3 2|= 5

|0 (9)|= 9

|4 1|= 5

Answers vary, but hopefully most students found their heights to be between 7 and 8 heads.

Answers should include some reference to the idea that multiplying and dividing by ten (according to the

prefixes) is much easier than keeping track of 12 inches in a ft, 3 ft in a yard, 5280 ft in a mile, etc.

28. Answers vary, but students should recognize that the pedometer is more likely to yield a false reading because

a persons stride length varies. One possible way to minimize this error would be to average a persons stride

length over a relatively long distance-i.e. count the number of steps taken in 100 m.

29. Answers vary. The cubit was the first recorded unit of measure and it was integral to the building of the

Egyptian pyramids.

30. Students should comment on the ideal proportions found in the human face and how these correspond to

our perception of beauty.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

www.ck12.org

Measurement, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

False, it is a straight angle.

True

True

False, you use a compass.

False, B is the vertex.

True

True

True

False, it is equal to the sum of the smaller angles within it.

Acute

12. Obtuse

13. Obtuse

14. Acute

15. Obtuse

16. Acute

17 & 18: Drawings should look exactly like 12 and 16, but with the appropriate arc marks.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

40

122

18

87

AE = CD, ED = CB, m6 EDC = 90 , m6 EAC = m6 ABC

24.

25. An interior point would be (2, 0).

8

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www.ck12.org

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

27.

m6 QOP = 100

m6 QOT = 130

m6 ROQ = 30

m6 SOP = 70

(x + 7) + (2x + 19) = 56

(3x + 26) = 56

3x = 30

x = 10

(4x 23) + (4x 23) = 130

(8x 46) = 130

8x = 176

x = 22

(5x 13) + 90 = (16x 55)

(5x + 77) = (16x 55)

22 = 11x

x = 2

(x 9) + (5x + 1) = (9x 80)

(6x 8) = (9x 80)

72 = 3x

x = 24

Students should comment about the necessity to have a number of degrees in a line that is divisible by 30, 45,

60 and 90 degrees because these degree measures are prevalent in the study of geometrical figures. Basically,

setting the measure of a straight line equal to 180 degrees allows us to have more whole number degree

measures in common geometrical figures.

www.ck12.org

Bisectors, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

12 in

5 in

5 in

13 in

90

10 in

24 in

90

8 triangles

PS

QT ,V S

90

45

bisector

bisector

PU is a segment bisector of QT

45

x = 9, y = 14

x = 14

x = 20

d = 13

x = 12

a = 22 , x = 12

55 each

10

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28. 2 in each

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

(3, -5)

(1.5, -6)

(5, 5)

(-4.5, 2)

(7, 10)

11

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35. (6, 9)

36. This is incorrect. She should have written AB = CD or AB

= CD.

37. This formula will give the same answer.

x1 + x2 y1 + y2

,

= (mx , my )

2

2

y1 + y2

x1 + x2

= mx and

= my

2

2

amp; x1 + x2 = 2mx and y1 + y2 = 2my

amp; x1 = 2mx x2

For#34,

and y1 = 2my y2

x1 = 2(3) (1) = 7

y1 = 2(6) 2 = 10

38.

39. A square or a rectangle.

40. Midpoint could be used to determine where you might want to make a stop halfway through a trip (if using a

map the longitude and latitude could be used in the formula for midpoint). We often want to find the middle

of something-the middle of a wall to hang a picture, the middle of a room to divide it in half, etc.

12

www.ck12.org

Review Answers

1.

a.

b.

c.

d.

45

8

71

(90 z)

a.

b.

c.

d.

135

62

148

(180 x)

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

6

6

6

6

INM and 6 MNL (or 6 INK and 6 KNL )

INJand 6 JNK

INM and 6 MNL (or 6 INK and 6 KNL)

a.

b.

c.

d.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

117

90

63

117

Always

Sometimes

Never

Always

Always

Never

Sometimes

Always

x = 7

x = 34

y = 13

x = 17

x = 15

y = 9

y = 8

x = 10.5

x = 4

y = 3

x = 67 , y = 40

x = 38 , y = 25

x = 15 , x = 4

x = 11 ,

x = 2

x = 1 + 102, x = 1 102

x = 11 , y = 7

13

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Polygons, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

Equilateral and equiangular triangle

Right isosceles triangle.

Obtuse scalene triangle

Acute isosceles triangle

Obtuse isosceles triangle

No, there would be more than 180 in the triangle, which is impossible.

No, same reason as #7.

9.

All the angles in an equilateral triangle must be equal. So, an equilateral triangle is also an equiangular

triangle.

Concave pentagon

Convex octagon

Convex 17-gon

Convex decagon

Concave quadrilateral

Concave hexagon

A is not a polygon because the two sides do not meet at a vertex; B is not a polygon because one side is curved;

C is not a polygon because it is not closed.

2 diagonals

19. 5 diagonals

14

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20. A dodecagon has twelve sides, so you can draw nine diagonals from one vertex.

21. The pattern is below

TABLE 1.1:

Number of sides

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

This shows us that the number diagonals from one vertex increase by one each time. So, for an ngon, there are

(n 3) diagonals from one vertex.

22. Octagon has 20 total diagonals Nonagon has 27 total diagonals Decagon has 35 total diagonals Undecagon

has 44 total diagonals Dodecagon has 54 total diagonals The pattern is 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 20, 27, 35, 44, 54. To

find the next term you would add one more than was added previously. For example, the next term you would

add 11. The equation is n(n3)

2 .

23. Sometimes

24. Always

25. Always

26. Never

27. Always

28. Sometimes, a square is ALWAYS a quadrilateral.

29. Sometimes, you can draw AT MOST n 3 diagonals from one vertex.

30. Sometimes, a 5-point star is ALWAYS a decagon.

For questions 31-34 answers will vary.

31.

15

32.

33.

34. a rhombus or diamond

36. Use #9 to help you. It is the same construction, but do not draw the third side.

16

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

E

B

L

A

H

M

F

O

J

G

I

K

D

C

N

17

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C HAPTER

Answer Key

Chapter Outline

2.1

2.2

18

2.3

2.4

R EVIEW A NSWERS

2.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROOFS ABOUT A NGLE PAIRS AND S EG MENTS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

2.6

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1. 9, 21

2. 20, 110

3.

a.

b. there are two more points in each star than its figure number.

c. n + 2

4.

a. 10;

b. 48

c. 2n

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

19, 24; 164; 5n + 11

64, 128; 34, 359, 738, 368; 2n

12, 1; 307; 11n + 78

12, 0; 93; odd terms: 3n + 12, even terms: 4n

6 7 35 n

7 , 8 ; 36 ; n+1

2n

12 14 70

23 , 27 ; 139 ; 4n1

13, 15; 71; (1)n1 (2n + 1)

21, 25; 137; (1)n (4n 3)

1 1 1 (1)n

12 , 14 ; 70 ; 2n

8, 11; 73; odd terms 2n + 3, even terms 2n + 14

36, 49; 1225; n2

38, 51; the amount that is added is increasing by two with each term.

48, 63; the amount that is added is increasing by two with each term.

216, 343; the term number cubed, n3 .

8, 13; add the previous two terms together to get the current term.

There is a good chance that Tommy will see a deer, but it is not definite. He is reasoning correctly, but there

are other factors that might affect the outcome.

19

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22. Maddie has experimented multiple times and recognized a pattern in her results. This is a good example of

inductive reasoning.

23. Juan does not use inductive reasoning correctly. It is important that conclusions are based on multiple

observations which establish a pattern of results. He only has one trial.

24. Answers vary-correct answers should include multiple experiments or trials which indicate a clear pattern for

outcomes.

25. Answers vary.

26. n(n+3)

2

27. (n+1)(n+2)

2

28. n(n+1)(n+2)

2

29. Students should notice that the points are collinear. Thus, they could find the rule by finding the equation of

the line using any two of the three points. The equation is y = 5x 2.

30. The sequences in problems 5, 6 and 8 are of the same type. They can be modeled by linear equations because

they have a constant slope or rate of change. In other words, the same value is added or subtracted each time

to get the next term.

20

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Statements, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

Hypothesis: A triangle has three congruent sides. Conclusion: It is an equilateral triangle.

Hypothesis: Three points lie in the same plane. Conclusion: The three points are coplanar.

Hypothesis: x = 3. Conclusion: x2 = 9.

Hypothesis: You take yoga. Conclusion: You are relaxed.

Hypothesis: You are a baseball player. Conclusion: You wear a hat.

Converse: If x ends in 0 or 5, then 5 divides evenly into x. True. Inverse: If 5 does not divide evenly into x,

then x does not end in 0 or 5. True. Contrapositive: If x does not end in 0 or 5, then 5 does not divide evenly

into it. True

Converse: If you are relaxed, then you take yoga. False. You could have gone to a spa. Inverse: If you do not

take yoga, then you are not relaxed. False. You can be relaxed without having had taking yoga. You could

have gone to a spa. Contrapositive: If you are not relaxed, then you did not take yoga. True

Converse: If you wear a hat, then you are a baseball player. False. You could be a cowboy or anyone else who

wears a hat. Inverse: If you are not a baseball player, then you do not wear a hat. False. Again, you could be

a cowboy. Contrapositive: If you do not wear a hat, then you are not a baseball player. True

If a triangle is equilateral, then it has three congruent sides. True. A triangle has three congruent sides if and

only if it is equilateral.

If three points are coplanar, then they lie in the same plane. True. Three points lie in the same plane if and

only if they are coplanar.

If x2 = 9, then x = 3. False. x could also be -3.

If B is the midpoint of AC, then AB = 5 and BC = 5. This is a true statement.

If AB 6= 5 and BC 6= 5, then B is not the midpoint of AC. This is true.

If B is noncollinear with A and C.

If AB 6= 5 and BC 6= 5, then B is not the midpoint of AC. It is the same as #14.

the original statement

pq

p q

p q

pq

pq

p q

q p

19. the contrapositive

pq

q p

q p

21

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pq

q p

p q

pq

21. If a U.S. citizen can vote, then he or she is 18 or more years old. If a U.S. citizen is 18 or more years old, then

he or she can vote.

22. If a whole number is prime, then it has exactly two distinct factors. If a whole number has exactly two distinct

factors, then it is prime.

23. If points are collinear, then there is a line that contains the points. If there is a line that contains the points,

then the points are collinear.

24. If 2x = 18, then x = 9. If x = 9, then 2x = 18.

25.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Yes.

No, x could equal -4.

No, again x could equal -4.

Yes.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Yes.

Yes.

Yes.

Yes.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Yes.

Yes.

Yes.

Yes.

a.

b.

c.

d.

Yes.

No, 6 ABC could be any value between 0 and 90 degrees.

No, again 6 ABC could be any value between 0 and 90 degrees.

Yes.

26.

27.

28.

30. Answers vary.

22

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Reasoning, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

No conclusion

If a shape is a circle, then we dont need to study it. Law of Syllogism.

You dont text while driving. Law of Contrapositive.

It is sunny outside. Law of Detachment.

You are not wearing sunglasses. Law of Contrapositive.

My mom did not ask me to clean my room. Law of Contrapositive.

If I go to the park, I will give my dog a bath. Law of Syllogism.

This is a sound argument, but it doesnt make sense because we know that circles exist. p q

qr

rs

st

pt

pq

p

q

pq

q

p

If I need a new watch battery, then I go to the mall. If I go to the mall, then I will shop. If I shop, then I will

buy shoes. Conclusion: If I need a new watch battery, then I will buy shoes.

If Annas teacher gives notes, then Anna writes them down. If Anna writes down the notes, then she can do

the homework. If Anna can do the homework, then she will get an A on the test. If Anna gets an A on the test,

her parents will take her out for ice cream. Conclusion: If Annas teacher gives notes, then Annas parents

will buy her ice cream.

Inductive; a pattern of weather was observed.

Deductive; Beth used a fact to determine what her sister would eat.

Deductive; Jeff used a fact about Nolan Ryan.

Either reasoning. Inductive; surfers observed patterns of weather and waves to determine when the best time

to surf is. Deductive; surfers could take the given statement as a fact and use that to determine when the best

time to surf is.

Inductive; observed a pattern.

Both-Inductive: Amani noticed a pattern of behavior. Deductive: Amani ruled out possible explanations until

there was only one remaining.

Deductive: The detectives narrowed their field of suspects by eliminating those who couldnt have committed

the crime.

See the following table:

TABLE 2.1:

p

T

F

p

F

T

p p

F

F

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TABLE 2.2:

p

T

T

F

F

p

F

F

T

T

q

T

F

T

F

q

F

T

F

T

p q

F

T

T

T

q q

T

T

T

T

p (p q)

T

T

F

F

TABLE 2.3:

p

T

T

F

F

q

F

T

F

T

q

T

F

T

F

TABLE 2.4:

p

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

q

T

T

F

F

T

T

F

F

r

T

F

T

F

T

F

T

F

r

F

T

F

T

F

T

F

T

pq

T

T

F

F

F

F

F

F

(p q) r

T

T

F

T

F

T

F

T

qr

T

F

T

T

T

F

T

T

p ( q r)

T

T

T

T

T

F

T

T

TABLE 2.5:

p

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

q

T

T

F

F

T

T

F

F

24

r

T

F

T

F

T

F

T

F

q

F

F

T

T

F

F

T

T

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TABLE 2.6:

p

T

T

T

T

F

F

F

F

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

q

T

T

F

F

T

T

F

F

r

T

F

T

F

T

F

T

F

r

F

T

F

T

F

T

F

T

q r

T

T

F

T

T

T

F

T

p (q r)

T

T

F

T

F

F

F

F

There are two more T s in #24. We can conclude that parenthesis placement matters.

p q r is always true except the one case when p, q, and r are all false.

True; Law of Syllogism

Not valid

True; Law of Contrapositive

Not valid

True; Law of Detachment

Not valid

25

2.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Algebraic and Congruence Properties, Review Answers

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Congruence Properties, Review Answers

1. 3x + 11 = 16

3x = 27

Subtraction PoE

x = 9

Division PoE

2. 7x 3 = 3x 35

4x 3 = 35

Subtraction PoE

4x = 32

Addition PoE

x = 8

Division PoE

2

3. 3 g + 1 = 19

2

Subtraction PoE

3 g = 18

g = 27

Multiplication PoE

4. 21 MN = 5

MN = 10

Multiplication PoE

6

5. 5m ABC = 540

m6 ABC = 108

Division PoE

6. 10b 2(b + 3) = 5b

10b 2b 6 = 5b

Distributive Property

8b 6 = 5b

Combine like terms

6 = 3b

Subtraction PoE

2=b

Division PoE

b=2

Symmetric PoE

7. 14 y + 56 = 31

3y + 10 = 4

Multiplication PoE (multiplied everything by 12)

3y = 6

Subtraction PoE

y = 2

Division PoE

8. 14 AB + 31 AB = 12 + 21 AB

3AB + 4AB = 144 + 6AB

Multiplication PoE (multiplied everything by 12)

7AB = 144 + 6AB

Combine like terms

AB = 144

Subtraction PoE

9. 3 = x

10. 12x 32

11. x = 12

12. y + z = x + y

13. CD = 5

14. z + 4 = y 7

15. Yes, they are collinear. 16 + 7 = 23

16. No, they are not collinear, 9 + 9 6= 16. I cannot be the midpoint.

17. 6 NOP must be an obtuse angle because it is supplementary with 56 , meaning that m6 NOP is 180 56 =

124 . 90 < 124 < 180 , so by definition 6 NOP is an obtuse angle.

18. 6 ABC

= 6 DEF

6 GHI

= 6 JKL;

= 6 s have = measures; m6 ABC + m6 GHI = m6 DEF + m6 GHI; Substitution

19. M is the midpoint of AN, N is the midpoint MB; AM = MN, MN = NB; Transitive

20. 6 BFE or 6 BFG

21. EFBF

22. Yes, EG = FH because EF = GH and EF + FG = EG and FG + GH = FH by the Segment Addition

Postulate. FG = FG by the Reflexive Property and with substitution EF + FG = EG and FG + EF = FH.

26

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23. Not necessarily, G could slide along EH.

24. See the following table:

TABLE 2.7:

Statement

1. 6 EBF

= 6 HCG

6 ABE

6

= DCH

2. m6 EBF = m6 HCG

m 6 ABE = m6 DCH

3. m6 ABF = m6 EBF + m6 ABE

m 6 DCG = m6 HCG + m6 DCH

4. m6 ABF = m6 EBF + m6 ABE

m 6 DCG = m6 EBF + m6 ABE

5. m6 ABF = m6 DCG

6. 6 ABF

= 6 DCG

Reason

Given

Angle Addition Postulate

Substitution PoE

Transitive PoE

TABLE 2.8:

Statement

1. AB = CD

2. BC = BC

3. AB + BC = CD + BC

4. AC = BD

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

Reason

Given

Reflexive PoE

Addition PoE

Segment Addition Postulate

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

See the following table:

TABLE 2.9:

Statement

1. 6 DAB is a right angle

2. m6 DAB = 90

3. AC bisects 6 DAB

4. m6 DAC = m6 BAC

5. m6 DAB = m6 DAC + m6 BAC

6. m6 DAB = m6 BAC + m6 BAC

7. m6 DAB = 2m6 BAC

8. 90 = 2m6 BAC

9. 45 = m6 BAC

Reason

Given

Definition of a right angle

Given

Definition of an angle bisector

Angle Addition Postulate

Substitution PoE

Combine like terms

Substitution PoE

Division PoE

27

2.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Algebraic and Congruence Properties, Review Answers

33.

TABLE 2.10:

Statement

1. 6 1 and 6 2 form a linear pair m6 1 = m6 2

2. 6 1 and 6 2 are supplementary

3. m6 1 + m6 2 = 180

4. m6 1 + m6 1 = 180

5. 2m6 1 = 180

6. m6 1 = 90

7. 6 1 is a right angle

28

Reason

Given

Linear Pair Postulate

Definition of Supplementary

Substitution

Simplify

Division PoE

Definition of a right angle

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Angle Pairs and Segments, Review Answers

1. See the following table:

TABLE 2.11:

Statement

1. ACBD, 6 1

=6 4

2. m6 1 = m6 4

3. 6 ACB and 6 ACD are right angles

4. m6 ACB = 90

m 6 ACD = 90

5. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 ACB

m 6 3 + m6 4 = m6 ACD

6. m6 1 + m6 2 = 90

m 6 3 + m6 4 = 90

7. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 3 + m6 4

8. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 3 + m6 1

9. m6 2 = m6 3

10. 6 2

=6 3

Reason

Given

lines create right angles

Definition of right angles

Angle Addition Postulate

Substitution

Substitution

Substitution

Subtraction PoE

TABLE 2.12:

Statement

1. 6 MLN

= 6 OLP

2. m6 MLN = m6 OLP

3. m6 MLO = m6 MLN + m6 NLO

m 6 NLP = m6 NLO + m6 OLP

4. m6 NLP = m6 NLO + m6 MLN

5. m6 NLP = m6 MLO

6. 6 NLP

= 6 MLO

Reason

Given

Angle Addition Postulate

Substitution

Substitution

TABLE 2.13:

Statement

1. AEEC, BEED

2. 6 BED is a right angle

6 AEC is a right angle

3. m6 BED = 90

m 6 AEC = 90

4. m6 BED = m6 2 + m6 3

m 6 AEC = m6 1 + m6 2

Reason

Given

lines create right angles

Angle Addition Postulate

29

2.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Proofs about Angle Pairs and Segments, Review Answers

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Statement

5. 90 = m6 2 + m6 3

90^ = m6 1 + m6 2

6. m6 2 + m6 3 = m6 1 + m6 2

7. m6 3 = m6 1

8. 6 3

=6 1

Reason

Substitution

Substitution

Subtraction PoE

TABLE 2.14:

Statement

1. 6 L is supplementary to 6 M

6 P is supplementary to 6 O

6 L

=6 O

2. m6 L = m6 O

3. m6 L + m6 M = 180

m 6 P + m6 O = 180

4. m6 L + m6 M = m6 P + m6 O

5. m6 L + m6 M = m6 P + m6 L

6. m6 M = m6 P

7. 6 M

=6 P

Reason

Given

Definition of supplementary angles

Substitution

Substitution

Subtraction PoE

TABLE 2.15:

Statement

1. 6 1

=6 4

2. m6 1 = m6 4

3. 6 1 and 6 2 are a linear pair

6 3 and 6 4 are a linear pair

4. 6 1 and 6 2 are supplementary

6 3 and 6 4 are supplementary

5. m6 1 + m6 2 = 180

m 6 3 + m6 4 = 180

6. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 3 + m6 4

7. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 3 + m6 1

8. m6 2 = m6 3

9. 6 2

=6 3

Reason

Given

Given (by looking at the picture) could also be Definition of a Linear Pair

Linear Pair Postulate

Substitution

Substitution

Subtraction PoE

TABLE 2.16:

Statement

1. 6 C and 6 F are right angles

2. m6 C = 90 , m6 F = 90

30

Reason

Given

Definition of a right angle

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Statement

3. 90 + 90 = 180

4. m6 C + m6 F = 180

Reason

Addition of real numbers

Substitution

TABLE 2.17:

Statement

1. lm

2. 6 1 and 6 2 are right angles

3. 6 1

=6 2

Reason

Given

lines create right angles.

Right Angles Theorem

TABLE 2.18:

Statement

1. m6 1 = 90

2. 6 1 and 6 2 are a linear pair

3. 6 1 and 6 2 are supplementary

4. m6 1 + m6 2 = 180

5. 90 + m6 2 = 180

6. m6 2 = 90

Reason

Given

Definition of a linear pair

Linear Pair Postulate

Definition of supplementary angles

Substitution

Subtraction PoE

TABLE 2.19:

Statement

1. lm

2. 6 1 and 6 2 make a right angle

3. m6 1 + m6 2 = 90

4. 6 1 and 6 2 are complementary

Reason

Given

lines create right angles

Definition of a right angle

Definition of complementary angles

TABLE 2.20:

Statement

1. lm, 6 2

=6 6

2. m6 2 = m6 6

3. 6 5

=6 2

6

4. m 5 = m6 2

5. m6 5 = m6 6

Reason

Given

Vertical Angles Theorem

Transitive

31

2.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Proofs about Angle Pairs and Segments, Review Answers

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

32

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AM

= MG,CP

= PE, AH

= HE, MH

= HP, GH

= HC

6 AMH, 6 HMG and 6 CPH, 6 HPE

6 AHC

6 MAH, 6 HAC and 6 MGH, 6 HGE

GC

AE, GC

6 AHM, 6 MHG

6 AGH

= 6 HGE

Given;

= angles have = measures; m6 ACE = m6 ACH + m6 ECH; m6 ACE = m6 ACH + m6 ACH; Combine

like terms; 21 m6 ACE = m6 ACH; AC is the angle bisector of 6 ACH; Definition of an angle bisector

90

26

154

26

64

25

75

105

90

50

40

25

130

155

130

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

D

F

H

B

I

C

G

A

J

E

33

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C HAPTER

Lines, Answer Key

Chapter Outline

3.1

3.2

A NSWERS

3.3

34

3.4

3.5

THE C OORDINATE P LANE , R EVIEW A NSWERS

3.6

3.7

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

AB || VW , among others

BC BW , among others

one, AV

one, CD

6 6

6 3

6 2

6 1

6 8

6 8

6 5

m6 3 = 55 (vertical angles), m6 1 = 125 (linear pair), m6 4 = 125 (linear pair)

m6 8 = 123 (vertical angles), m6 6 = 57 (linear pair), m6 7 = 57 (linear pair)

No, we do not know anything about line m.

No, even though they look parallel, we cannot assume it.

17.

19.

20.

21.

22.

18.

Fold the paper so that the lines match up and the crease passes through the point you drew.

Same as number 19.

One way to do this is to use the edges of the ruler as guide lines. The sides of the ruler are parallel.

Use the ruler to draw a line. Turn the ruler perpendicular to the first line (make sure it is perpendicular by

matching up a marking on the ruler to the original line. Use the ruler edge to draw the perpendicular line.

35

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23. Parallel lines are evident in the veins of the leaves of ferns and the markings on some animals and insects.

Parallel planes are illustrated by the surface of a body of water and the bottom.

24. Trees are usually perpendicular to the ground. Each leaf of a fern is perpendicular to the stem.

25. Some branches of trees are skew.

26. Any two equations in the form y = b, where b is a constant.

27. Any two equations in the form x = b, where b is a constant.

28. These two lines are parallel to each other.

31. It appears that the slopes of parallel lines are the same and the slopes of perpendicular lines are opposite

reciprocals.

32. y = 2x 11

33. y = 53 x + 2

34. y = 32 x + 6

35. y = 4x 5

36

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Parallel Lines, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

Supplementary

Congruent

Congruent

Supplementary

Congruent

Supplementary

Supplementary

Same Side Interior

Alternate Interior

None

Same Side Interior

Vertical Angles

Corresponding Angles

Alternate Exterior

None

6 1, 6 3, 6 6, 6 9, 6 11, 6 14, and 6 16

x = 70 , y = 90

x = 15 , y = 40

x = 9 , y = 26

x = 21 , y = 17

x = 25

y = 18

x = 20

x = 31

y = 12

See the following table:

TABLE 3.1:

Statement

1. l || m

2. 6 1

=6 5

3. m6 1 = m6 5

4. 6 1 and 6 3 are supplementary

5. m6 1 + m6 3 = 180

6. m6 3 + m6 5 = 180

7. 6 3 and 6 5 are supplementary

Reason

Given

Corresponding Angles Postulate

Linear Pair Postulate

Definition of Supplementary Angles

Substitution PoE

Definition of Supplementary Angles

TABLE 3.2:

Statement

1. l || m

Reason

Given

37

Statement

2. 6 1

=6 5

6

3. 5

=6 8

4. 6 1

=6 8

Reason

Corresponding Angles Postulate

Vertical Angles Theorem

Transitive PoC

TABLE 3.3:

Statement

1. l || m

2. 6 4 and 6 6 are supplementary

3. m6 4 + m6 6 = 180

4. 6 2

= 6 6, 6 4

=6 8

6

6

5. m 2 = m 6, m6 4 = m6 8

6. m6 2 + m6 8 = 180

7. 6 2 and 6 8 are supplementary

Reason

Given

Same Side Interior Angles Theorem

Definition of Supplementary Angles

Corresponding Angles Postulate

Substitution PoE

Definition of Supplementary Angles

TABLE 3.4:

Statement

1. l || m, s || t

2. 6 4

= 6 12

6

3. 12

= 6 10

4. 6 4 = 6 10

Reason

Given

Corresponding Angles Postulate

Corresponding Angles Postulate

Transitive PoC

TABLE 3.5:

Statement

1. l || m, s || t

2. 6 2

= 6 13

3. 6 13

= 6 15

6

4. 2 = 6 15

Reason

Given

Alternate Exterior Angles Theorem

Corresponding Angles Postulate

Transitive PoC

TABLE 3.6:

Statement

1. l || m, s || t

2. 6 6

=6 9

6

3. 4

=6 7

4. 6 6 and 6 7 are supplementary

38

Reason

Given

Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

Vertical Angles Theorem

Same Side Interior Angles

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Statement

5. 6 9 and 6 4 are supplementary

32.

33.

34.

35.

Reason

Same Angle Supplements Theorem

x = 15 , y = 21

x = 37 , y = 28

The Same Side Interior Angles Theorem says that two angles are supplementary, not congruent.

39

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Parallel, Review Answers

1. Start by copying the same angle as in Investigation 3-1, but place the copy where the alternate interior angle

would be.

2. This question could be considered a trick question, because you are still copying two congruent angles, not

two supplementary ones, like asked. Indicate the consecutive interior angles with arc marks, but copy the

adjacent angle to the one that was copied in # 14.

3. Given, 6 1

= 6 3, Given, 6 2

= 6 3, Corresponding Angles Theorem, Transitive Property

4. Given, 6 1 = 6 3, Given, 6 2

= 6 3, l || m

5. Give, Converse of the Alternate Interior Angles Theorem, Given, Converse of the Alternate Interior Angles

Theorem, Parallel Lines Property

6. See the following table:

TABLE 3.7:

Statement

1. m l, n l

2. m6 l = 90 , m6 2 = 90

3. m6 1 = m6 2

4. m || n

Reason

Given

Definition of Perpendicular Lines

Transitive Property

Converse of Corresponding Angles Theorem

TABLE 3.8:

Statement

1. 6 1

=6 3

2. m || n

40

Reason

Given

Converse of Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

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Statement

3. m6 3 + m6 4 = 180

4. m6 1 + m6 4 = 180

5. 6 1 and 6 4 are supplementary

Reason

Linear Pair Postulate

Substitution

Definition of Supplementary Angles

TABLE 3.9:

Statement

1. 6 2

=6 4

2. m || n

3. 6 1

=6 3

Reason

Given

Converse of Corresponding Angles Theorem

Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

TABLE 3.10:

Statement

1. 6 2

=6 3

2. m || n

3. 6 1

=6 4

Reason

Given

Converse of Corresponding Angles Theorem

Alternate Exterior Angles Theorem

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

none

yes, AK || LJ by Converse of Consecutive Interior Angles Theorem

yes, LG || KD by Converse of Corresponding Angles Theorem

none

none

yes, AD || GJ by Converse of Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

58

73

107

58

49

107

49

x = 30

x = 15

x = 12

x = 26

x = 5

Construction, the first and last lines are parallel. You might conjecture that two lines perpendicular to the same

line are parallel to each other.

29. You could prove this using any of the converse theorems learned in this section because all four angles

formed where the transversal intersects the two parallel lines are right angles. Thus, Alternate Interior Angles,

Alternate Exterior Angles and Corresponding Angles are all congruent and the Same Side Interior Angles are

supplementary.

30. These two angles should be supplementary if the lines are parallel.

41

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Perpendicular Lines, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

90

90

45

16

72

84

41

24

78

90

126

54

180

not

not

90

34

56

90

56

134

134

34

See the following table:

TABLE 3.11:

Statement

1. l m, l n

2. 6 1 and 6 2 are right angles

3. m6 1 = 90 , m6 2 = 90

4. m6 1 = m6 2

5. 6 1

=6 2

6. m || n

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

42

x = 12

x = 9

x = 13.5

x = 8

x = 4

x = 30

Reason

Given

Definition of perpendicular lines

Definition of right angles

Transitive PoE

Converse of the Corresponding Angles Postulate

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Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate

Plane, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

1

3

-1

2

7

-2

4

undefined

Perpendicular

8. Parallel

9. Perpendicular

43

3.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Parallel and Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

10. Neither

11. Perpendicular

12. Parallel

44

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13. Neither

14. Parallel

15. y = 5x 7

45

3.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Parallel and Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

46

y = 32 x 5

y = 14 x + 2

y = 32 x + 1

y = 2x + 1

y = x 10

y = x 4

y = 13 x 4

y = 25 x + 7

x = 1

y=8

y = 3x + 13

Perpendicular y = 23 x + 2

y = 32 x 4

Parallel y = 15 x + 7

y = 15 x 3

Perpendicular y = x

y = x

Neither y = 2x + 2

y = 2x 3

: y = 43 x 1

||: y = 43 x + 5 41

: y = 3x 3

||: y = 13 x + 7

: y = 7

||: x = 3

: y = x 4

||: y = x + 8

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Formula, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

17.09 units

19.20 units

5 units

17.80 units

22.20 units

14.21 units

6.40 units

9.22 units

6.32 units

6.71 units

12 units

7 units

4.12 units

18.03 units

2.83 units

7.81 units

4 units

9 units

5.66 units

9.49 units

4.12 units

4.47 units

y = 21 x 3

y = 3x + 5

y = 23 x 4

y = 52 x + 8

(9, -4)

(8, -1)

y = 53 x 6, (0, 6)

47

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30. y = 2x + 1

31. There are 12 possible answers: (-27, 9), (23, 9), (-2, -16), (-2, 34), (-17, -11), (-17, 29), (13, -11), (13, 29),

(-22, 24), (-22, -6), (18, 24), and (18, -6)

32. 1. Graph the two lines. 2. Determine the slope of a perpendicular line to the two lines. 3. Use the slope

from #2 to count from one line to the next to find a point on each line that is also on a perpendicular line. 4.

Determine coordinates of the points from #3. 5. Plug the points from #4 into the distance formula and solve.

48

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m6 1 = 90

m6 2 = 118

m6 3 = 90

m6 4 = 98

m6 5 = 28

m6 6 = 118

m6 7 = 128

m6 8 = 52

m6 9 = 62

49

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C HAPTER

Answer key

Chapter Outline

50

4.1

4.2

4.3

SAS, R EVIEW A NSWERS

4.4

AND HL, R EVIEW A NSWERS

4.5

R EVIEW A NSWERS

4.6

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Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

43

121

41

86

61

51

13

60

70

118

68

116

161

141

135

a = 68 , b = 68 , c = 25 , d = 155 , e = 43.5 , f = 111.5

See the following table:

TABLE 4.1:

Statement

1. Triangle with interior and exterior angles.

2. m6 1 + m6 2 + m6 3 = 180

3. 6 3 and 6 4 are a linear pair, 6 2 and 6 5 are a linear

pair, and 6 1 and 6 6 are a linear pair

4. 6 3 and 6 4 are supplementary, 6 2 and 6 5 are

supplementary, and 6 1 and 6 6 are supplementary

5. m6 1 + m6 6 = 180 , m6 2 + m6 5 = 180

m 6 3 + m6 4 = 180

6. m6 1 + m6 6 + m6 2 + m6 5 + m6 3 + m6 4 = 540

7. m6 4 + m6 5 + m6 6 = 360

Reason

Given

Triangle Sum Theorem

Definition of a linear pair

Linear Pair Postulate

Combine the 3 equations from #5.

Subtraction PoE

TABLE 4.2:

Statement

1. 4ABC with right angle B

2. m6 B = 90

3. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C = 180

4. m6 A + 90 + m6 C = 180

5. m6 A + m6 C = 90

6. 6 A and 6 C are complementary

Reason

Given

Definition of a right angle

Triangle Sum Theorem

Substitution

Subtraction PoE

Definition of complementary angles

51

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

52

x = 14

x = 9

x = 22

x = 17

x = 12

x = 30

x = 25

x = 7

x = 8

x = 17

x = 11

x = 7

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

R

= 6 U, 6 A

= 6 G, 6 T

= 6 H, RA

= UG, AT

= GH, RT

= UH

6

6

6

6

6

B = T, I = O, G = P, BI = T O, IG = OP, BG = T P

Third Angle Theorem

90 , they are congruent supplements

Reflexive, FG

= FG

Angle Bisector

4FGI

= 4FGH

6 A

= 6 E and 6 B

= 6 D by Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

Vertical Angles Theorem

No, we need to know if the other two sets of sides are congruent.

AC

= CE and BC

= CD

4ABC = 4EDC

Yes, 4FGH

= 4KLM

No

Yes, 4ABE

= 4DCE

No

4BCD

= 4ZY X

CPCTC

m6 A = m6 X = 86 , m6 B = m6 Z = 52 , m6 C = m6 Y = 42

m6 A = m6 C = m6 Y = m6 Z = 35 , m6 B = m6 X = 110

m6 A = m6 C = 28 , m6 ABE = m6 DBC = 90 , m6 D = m6 E = 62

m6 B = m6 D = 153 , m6 BAC = m6 ACD = 15 , m6 BCA = m6 CAD = 12

See the following table:

6

TABLE 4.3:

Statement

1. 6 A

= 6 D, 6 B

=6 E

6

6

2. m A = m D, m6 B = m6 E

3. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C = 180

m 6 D + m6 E + m6 F = 180

4. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C = m6 D + m6 E + m6 F

5. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C = m6 A + m6 B + m6 F

6. m6 C = m6 F

7. 6 C

=6 F

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

Reason

Given

Triangle Sum Theorem

Substitution PoE

Substitution PoE

Subtraction PoE

Transitive PoC

Reflexive PoC

Symmetric PoC

Reflexive PoC

4ABC is either isosceles or equiangular because the congruence statement tells us that 6 A

= 6 B.

53

29.

30. 4SMR

4SMT

4T

MA

4AMR

and 4SRA

=

=

=

= 4RAT

= 4AT S

= 4T SA

54

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4.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using SSS and SAS, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

Yes, 4DEF

= 4IGH

No, HJ and ED are not congruent because they have different tic marks

No, the angles marked are not in the same place in the triangles.

Yes, 4ABC

= 4RSQ

No, this is SSA, which is not a congruence postulate

No, one triangle is SSS and the other is SAS.

Yes, 4ABC

= 4FED

Yes, 4ABC

= 4Y XZ

AB = EF

AB

= HI

6 C

=6 G

6 C

=6 K

AB

= JL

AB

= ON

See the following table:

TABLE 4.4:

Statement

1. AB

= DC, BE

= CE

6

6

2. AEB = DEC

3. 4ABE

= 4ACE

Reason

Given

Vertical Angles Theorem

SAS

TABLE 4.5:

Statement

1. AB

= DC, AC

= DB

2. BC

= BC

3. 4ABC

= 4DCB

Reason

Given

Reflexive PoC

SSS

TABLE 4.6:

Statement

1. B is a midpoint of DC, ABDC

2. DB

= BC

3. 6 ABD and 6 ABC are right angles

4. 6 ABD

= 6 ABC

5. AB = AB

6. 4ABD

= 4ABC

Reason

Given

Definition of a midpoint

lines create 4 right angles

All right angles are

=

Reflexive PoC

SAS

55

4.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using SSS and SAS, Review Answers

18. See the following table:

TABLE 4.7:

Statement

1. AB is an angle bisector of 6 DAC,

AD

= AC

2. 6 DAB

= 6 BAC

3. AB = AB

4. 4ABD

= 4ABC

Reason

Given

Definition of an Angle Bisector

Reflexive PoC

SAS

TABLE 4.8:

Statement

1. B is the midpoint of DC, AD

= AC

2. DB = BC

3. AB

= AB

4. 4ABD

= 4ABC

Reason

Given

Definition of a Midpoint

Reflexive PoC

SSS

TABLE 4.9:

Statement

1. B is the midpoint of DE and AC, 6 ABE is a right

angle

2. DB

= BE, AB

= BC

3. m6 ABE = 90

4. m6 ABE = m6 DBC

5. 4ABE

= 4CBD

Reason

Given

Definition of a Midpoint

Definition of a Right Angle

Vertical Angle Theorem

SAS

TABLE 4.10:

Statement

1. DB is the angle bisector of 6 ADC,

AD

= DC

6

2. ADB

= 6 BDC

3. DB

= DB

4. 4ABD

= 4CBD

22.

23.

24.

25.

56

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Reason

Given

Definition of an Angle Bisector

Reflexive PoC

SAS

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26. Check the measures of the three sides in your triangle with your ruler to make sure that they are 5cm, 3cm and

2cm. If you are having trouble, follow the directions in investigation 4-2 using these lengths.

27. Match up your construction with the original to see if they are the same.

28. Your triangle should look like this.

29 and 30. These are the two triangles you should create in these two problems.

57

4.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using ASA, AAS, and HL, Review Answers www.ck12.org

4.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using ASA, AAS, and HL, Review

Answers

1. Yes, AAS, 4ABC FDE

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

=

Yes, ASA, 4ABC

= 4IHG

No

No

Yes, SAS, 4ABC

= 4KLJ

No

Yes, SAS, 4RQP

Yes, HL, 4ABC

= 4QPR

Yes, SAS, 4ABE

= 4DBC

No

No

Yes, ASA, 4KLM

= 4MNO

Yes, SSS, 4W ZY

= 4Y XW

Yes, AAS, 4W XY

= 4QPO

6 DBC

6

= DBA because they are both right angles.

6 CDB

= 6 ADB

DB = DB

See the following table:

TABLE 4.11:

Statement

1. DBAC,

DB is the angle bisector of 6 CDA

2. 6 DBC and 6 ADB are right angles

3. 6 DBC

= 6 ADB

4. 6 CDB = 6 ADB

5. DB

= DB

6. 4CDB

= 4ADB

Reason

Given

Definition of perpendicular

All right angles are

=

Definition of an angle bisector

Reflexive PoC

ASA

19. CPCTC

20. 6 L

= 6 O and 6 P

= 6 N by the Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

6

6

21. LMP = NMO by the Vertical Angles Theorem

22. See the following table:

TABLE 4.12:

Statement

1. LP || NO, LP

= NO

6

6

6

2. L = O, P = 6 N

3. 4LMP

= 6 OMN

23. CPCTC

24. See the following table:

58

Reason

Given

Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

ASA

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TABLE 4.13:

Statement

1. LP || NO, LP

= NO

6

6

6

2. L = O, P = 6 N

3. 4LMP

= 6 OMN

4. LM

MO

=

5. M is the midpoint of PN.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

Reason

Given

Alternate Interior Angles

ASA

CPCTC

Definition of a midpoint

A

=6 N

6 C

=6 M

PM

= MN

LM

= MO or LP

= NO

UT

= FG

SU

= FH

See the following table:

6

TABLE 4.14:

Statement

1. SV WU, T is the midpoint of SV and WU

2. 6 STW and 6 UTV are right angles

3. 6 STW

= 6 UTV

4. ST = TV ,W T

= TU

5. 4STW

= 4UTV

6. W S

= UV

Reason

Given

Definition of perpendicular

All right angles are

=

Definition of a midpoint

SAS

CPCTC

TABLE 4.15:

Statement

1. 6 K

= 6 T, EI is the angle bisector of 6 KET

2. 6 KEI

= 6 T EI

3. EI

EI

=

4. 4KEI

= 4T EI

5. 6 KIE

= 6 T IE

6. EI is the angle bisector of 6 KIT

Reason

Given

Definition of an angle bisector

Reflexive PoC

AAS

CPCTC

Definition of an angle bisector

59

4.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles, Review Answers

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Equilateral Triangles, Review Answers

All of the constructions are drawn to scale with the appropriate arc marks.

1.

2.

3.

4.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

60

5.

x = 10, y = 7

x = 14

x = 13

x = 16

x = 7

x=1

y=3

y = 11 , x = 4

x = 25 , y = 19

x = 3, y = 8

Yes, 4ABC is isosceles. 4ABD is congruent to 4CBD by ASA. Therefore segments AB and BC are congruent

by CPCTC. Or, 6 A is congruent to 6 C by third angles theorem and thus the triangle is isosceles by the converse

of the Base Angles Theorem.

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a.

b.

c.

d.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

90

30

60

2

Always

Sometimes

Sometimes

Never

Always

a = 46 , b = 88 , c = 46 , d = 134 , e = 46 , f = 67 , g = 67

See the following table:

TABLE 4.16:

Statement

1. Isosceles 4CIS, with base angles 6 C and 6 SIO is

the angle bisector of 6 CIS

2. 6 C

=6 S

6

3. CIO

= 6 SIO

4. IO

= IO

5. 4CIO

= 4SIO

6. CO

= OS

7. 6 IOC

= 6 IOS

6

8. IOC and 6 IOS are supplementary

9. m6 IOC = m6 IOS = 90

10. IO is the perpendicular bisector of CS

Reason

Given

Base Angles Theorem

Definition of an Angle Bisector

Reflexive PoC

ASA

CPCTC

CPCTC

Linear Pair Postulate

Congruent Supplements Theorem

Definition of a bisector (Steps 6 and 9)

TABLE 4.17:

Statement

1. Equilateral 4RST with RT

= ST

= RS

2. 6 R

=6 S

3. 6 S

=6 T

4. 6 R

=6 T

5. 4RST is equilangular

Reason

Given

Base Angles Theorem

Base Angles Theorem

Transitive PoC

Definition of an Equiangular 4

TABLE 4.18:

Statement

1. Isosceles 4ICS with 6 C and 6 S, IO is the perpendicular bisector of CS

2. 6 C

=6 S

3. CO

= OS

4. m6 IOC = m6 IOS = 90

5. 4CIO

= 4SIO

Reason

Given

Base Angle Theorem

Definition of a bisector

Definition of a bisector

ASA

61

4.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

Statement

6. 6 CIO

= 6 SIO

7. IO is the angle bisector of 6 CIS

Reason

CPCTC

Definition of an Angle Bisector

TABLE 4.19:

Statement

1. Isosceles 4ABC with base angles 6 B and 6 C,

Isosceles 4XY Z with base angles 6 Y and 6 Z, 6 C

=

6 Z, BC

= YZ

2. 6 B

= 6 C, 6 Y

=6 Z

6

3. 6 B

Y

=

4. 4ABC

= 4XY Z

Reason

Given

Transitive PoC

ASA

29. Construct a 60 angle, then extend one side. The adjacent angle is 120 .

30. In investigations 3-2 and 3-3 you learned how to construct perpendiculars (i.e. 90 angles). You could make a

90 angle and copy your 30 onto it to make 120 . See investigation 1-2 for a review of copying an angle.

31. Method 1: Construct a 90 angle and bisect it. Method 2: Construct a 30 angle, bisect the 30 angle and copy

the resulting 15 angle onto the original 30 to make a total of 45 .

62

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For 1-5, answers will vary.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

One leg and the hypotenuse from each are congruent, 4ABC

= 4Y XZ

Two angles and a side that is NOT between them, 4ABC

= 4SRT

All three sides are congruent, 4ABC

= 4CDA

Two sides and the angle between them, 4ABF

= 4ECD

Linear Pair Postulate

Base Angles Theorem

Exterior Angles Theorem

Property of Equilateral Triangles

Triangle Sum Theorem

Equilateral Triangle Theorem

Property of an Isosceles Right Triangle

63

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C HAPTER

Relationships with

Triangles, Answer Key

Chapter Outline

5.1

5.2

R EVIEW A NSWERS

5.3

A NSWERS

5.4

R EVIEW A NSWERS

5.5

5.6

5.7

64

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of a Triangle, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

RS = TU = 6

TU = 8

x = 5, TU = 10

x=4

No, we cannot say that the triangles are congruent. We do not know any angle measures.

y = 18

x = 12

x = 5.5

x=6

x = 14, y = 24

x = 6, z = 26

x = 5, y = 3

x = 1, z = 11

a. 53

b. 106

c. The perimeter of the larger triangle is double the perimeter of the midsegment triangle.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

(3, 6), (2, 2), (-5, -3)

(2, 2), (1, -2), (-1, 1)

(5, 0), (5, -4), (2, 0)

GH = 13 , HI = 2, GI = 12

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

-2), (-3, -8)

GH = 90 9.49, Yes, GH is half of this side

(0, 3), (0, -5) and (-4, -1)

(-1, 4), (3, 4) and (5, -2)

a. M(0, 3), N(1, 2), O(4, 0);

b. slope of MN and AC = 5, slope of NO and AB = 23 , and slope of MO and BC = 34 ;

65

c. MN =

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26.

a. M(1, 3), N(5, 2), O(2, 1);

b. slope of MN and AC = 41 , slope of NO and AB = 12 , and slope of MO and BC = 2;

3 y1 +y3

2 y1 +y2

, M x1 +x

27. L x1 +x

2 , 2

2 , 2

28. slope of LM =

y1 +y3

y1 +y2

2 2

x1 +x3

x1 +x2

2 2

y3 y2

x3 x2

= slope of AT

y1 + y3 y1 + y2 2

x1 + x3 x1 + x2 2

29. length of LM =

+

2

2

2

2

s

2

2

x3 x2

y3 y2

=

+

2

2

r

1

1

(x3 x2 )2 + (y3 y2 )2

=

4

q4

1

2

= 2 (x3 x2 ) + (y3 y2 )2 = 12 AT

30. We have just proven algebraically that the midsegment (or segment which connects midpoints of sides in a

triangle) is parallel to and half the length of the third side.

s

66

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Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4. Yes, but for #2, the circumcenter is not within the triangle.

5. For acute triangles, the circumcenter is inside the triangle. For right triangles, the circumcenter is on the

hypotenuse. For obtuse triangles, the circumcenter is outside the triangle.

6. By the definition of a perpendicular bisector, all three sides are bisected and therefore each half is congruent

and all six triangles are right triangles. Then, by the definition of a circumcenter, the distance from it to each

vertex is congruent (the hypotenuses of each triangle). Therefore, all 6 triangles are congruent by HL.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

x = 16

x=8

x=5

x = 12

x = 31

x = 34

a. AE = EB, AD = DB

67

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b. No, AC 6= CB

c. Yes, AD = DB

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

No, we dont know if T is the midpoint of XY .

m = 12

(4, 2)

y=

2x + 10

2 5

C is going to be on the perpendicular

In the picture, it is

above AB, but it also could be

bisector of AB.

below AB on y = 2x + 10. AB = 2 5, so AC is also 2 5. So, C will be 2 5 units above or below AB on

y = 2x + 10.

21-25. drawing

68

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26.

27.

28. The perpendicular bisector of one side in a triangle is the set of all points equidistant from the endpoints of

that side. When we find the perpendicular bisector of a second side, we find all the points equidistant from

the endpoints of the second side (one of which is an endpoint of the first side as well). This means that the

intersection of these two lines is equidistant from all three vertices of the triangle. The segments connecting

this point (the circumcenter) to each vertex would be the radius of the circumscribed circle.

29. Fill in the blanks: There is exactly one circle which contains any three points.

30. See the following table:

TABLE 5.1:

Statement

2. D is the midpoint of AB

3. AD

= DB

4. 6 CDA and 6 CDB are right angles

5. 6 CDA

= 6 CDB

6. CD = CD

Reason

Given

Definition of a perpendicular bisector

Definition of a midpoint

Definition of a perpendicular bisector

Definition of right angles

Reflexive PoC

69

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Statement

7. 4CDA

= 4CDB

8. AC = CB

Reason

SAS

CPCTC

TABLE 5.2:

Statement

1. 4ABC is a right isosceles triangle and BD is the

bisector of AC

2. D is the midpoint of AC

3. AD

= DC

4. AB

= BC

5. BD

= BD

6. 4ABD and 4CBD are congruent.

Reason

Given

Definition of a perpendicular bisector

Definition of a midpoint

Definition of Isosceles Triangle

Reflexive Property of Congruence

SSS

= 6 CBD (CPCTC), each must be 45 . Also, since 6 ABC is a right

angle and 6 A

= 6 C, by Base Angles Theorem, 6 A and 6 C = 45 . Therefore, by the converse of the Base

Angles Theorem, 4ABD and 4CBD are isosceles.

70

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1-3. Construct the incenter using investigation 5-2.

4. Yes, by definition, angle bisectors are on the interior of the angle. So, the incenter will be on the interior of all

three angles, or inside the triangle.

5. They will be the same point.

6. x = 6

7. x = 3

8. x = 8

9. x = 7

10. x = 9

11. x = 9

12. No, the line segment must be perpendicular to the sides of the angle also.

13. No, it doesnt matter if the bisector is perpendicular to the interior ray.

14. Yes, the angles are marked congruent.

15. A is the incenter because it is on the angle bisectors. B is the circumcenter because it is equidistant to the

vertices.

16. A is the circumcenter because it is equidistant to the vertices. B is the incenter because it is equidistant to the

sides.

17. See the following table:

TABLE 5.3:

Statement

1. AD

= DC

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

6

6

DAB

= 6 DCB

BD

= BD

4ABD

= 4CBD

6 ABD

= 6 DBC

BD bisects 6 ABC

18.

19.

20.

21.

Reason

Given

The shortest distance from a point to a line is perpendicular.

Definition of perpendicular lines

All right angles are congruent

Reflexive PoC

HL

CPCTC

Definition of an angle bisector

Incenter

Circumcenter

Circumcenter

Incenter

22-25. In an equilateral triangle the circumcenter and the incenter are the same point.

71

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27. slope of BA is -2 and slope of BC is 21 . The rays are perpendicular because their slopes are opposite reciprocals.

29-31.

32. BD is the angle bisector of 6 ABC. Since ADAB and CDCB, 4DAB and 4DCB are right triangles. Since

we have shown that AB

= BC and we know BD

= BD by the reflexive property, 4DAB

= 4DCB by HL. Thus,

6 ABD = 6 CBD by CPCTC. Now we can conclude that BD is the angle bisector of 6 ABC by definition of an

angle bisector.

72

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Altitudes in Triangles, Review Answers

1-3. Use Investigation 5-3 to find the centroid.

4. The centroid will always be inside of a triangle because medians are always on the interior of a triangle.

5-7. Use Investigation 5-4 and 3-2 to find the orthocenter. For #6, the orthocenter will be outside of the triangle.

8. If a triangle is equilateral, then the incenter, circumcenter, orthocenter and centroid will all be the same point.

This is because all of the sides are equal and all the angles are equal.

9. You only have to construct two lines for each point of concurrency. That is because any two lines intersect at

one point. The fact that a third line intersects at this point does not change the location of the point.

10. y = 21 x + 2

11. y = 3x 3

12. y = x + 4

13. y = 31 x 5

14. GE = 10

BE = 15

15. GF = 8

CF = 24

16. AG = 20

GD = 10

17. GC = 2x

CF = 3x

18. x = 2, AD = 27

19. See the following table:

TABLE 5.4:

Statement

1. 4ABC

= 4DEF, AP and DO are altitudes

2. AB = DE

3. 6 P and 6 O are right angles

4. 6 P

=6 O

6

5. ABC

= 6 DEF

6. 6 ABC and 6 ABP are a linear pair

6 DEF and 6 DEO are a linear pair

7. 6 ABC and 6 ABP are supplementary

6 DEF and 6 DEO are supplementary

8. 6 ABP

= 6 DEO

9. 4APB

= 4DOE

10. AP = DO

Reason

Given

CPCTC

Definition of an altitude

All right angles are congruent

CPCTC

Definition of a linear pair

Linear Pair Postulate

Congruent Supplements Theorem

AAS

CPCTC

73

5.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Medians and Altitudes in Triangles, Review Answers

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TABLE 5.5:

Statement

1. Isosceles 4ABC with legs AB and AC

BDDC and CEBE

2. 6 DBC

= 6 ECB

3. 6 BEC and 6 CEB are right angles

4. 6 BEC

= 6 CEB

5. BC = BC

6. 4BEC

= 4CDB

7. BD

= CE

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

Definition of perpendicular lines

All right angles are congruent

Reflexive PoC

AAS

CPCTC

M(2, 5)

y = 2x + 1

N(1, 3)

y = 4x + 1

intersection (0, 1)

Centroid

(1, -1)

(1, 3)

x1 +x2 +x3 y1 +y2 +y3

.

,

3

3

30. (1, -5)

74

Reason

Given

x1 +x2 y1 +y2

,

2 , 2

using the third vertex, the centroid is

x +x2

x3 +2( 1 2

3

y +y2

y3 +2( 1 2

3

=

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Triangles, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

AB, BC, AC

BC, AB, AC

AC, BC, AB

6 B, 6 A, 6 C

6 B, 6 C, 6 A

6 C, 6 B, 6 A

No, 6 + 6 < 13

No, 1 + 2 = 3

Yes

Yes

No, 23 + 56 < 85

Yes

1 < 3rd side <17

11 < 3rd side <19

12 < 3rd side <52

Both legs must be longer than 12

0 < x < 10.3

m6 1 > m6 2 because 7 > 6

IJ, IG, GJ, GH, JH

m6 1 < m6 2, m6 3 > m6 4

a=b

a>b

a<b

d<a<e<c<b

a=b<d<e<c

x < 18

x>3

m6 C < m6 B < m6 A because AB < AC

SAS theorem doesnt apply here since the angle is not between the pair of congruent sides.

Since the median AB bisects the side CT ,CB

= BT . By the reflexive property, AB

= AB. If CA > AT , then we

can use the SSS Inequality Theorem to conclude that m6 ABT < m6 ABC. Since m6 ABT and m6 ABC are also

a linear pair and must be supplementary, the smaller angle must be acute. Hence, 6 ABT is acute.

75

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Indirect Proof, Review Answers

Answers will vary. Here are some hints.

Assume n is odd, therefore n = 2a + 1.

Use the definition of an equilateral triangle to lead you towards a contradiction.

Remember the square root of a number can be negative or positive.

Use the definition of an isosceles triangle to lead you towards a contradiction.

If x + y is even, then x + y = 2n, where n is any integer.

Use the Triangle Sum Theorem to lead you towards a contradiction.

With the assumption of the opposite of AB + BC = AC, these three lengths could make a triangle, thus making

A, B, and C non-collinear.

8. If we assume that we have an even number of nickels, then the value of the coin collection must be a multiple

of ten and we have a contradiction.

9. Assume that the last answer on the quiz is false. This implies that the fourth answer is true. If the fourth

answer is true, then the one before it (the third answer) is false. However, this contradicts the fact that the third

answer is true.

10. None. To prove this by contradiction, select each statement as the true statement and you will see that at

least one of the other statements will also be true. If Charlie is right, then Rebecca is also right. If Larry is

right, then Rebecca is right. If Rebecca is right, then Larry is right.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

76

www.ck12.org

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

BE

AE

AH

CE

AG

The point of concurrency is the circumcenter and use Investigation 5-1 to help you. The circle should pass

through all the vertices of the triangle (inscribed triangle).

The point of concurrency is the incenter and use Investigation 5-2 to help you. The circle should touch all the

sides of the triangle (inscribed circle).

The point of concurrency is the centroid and it is two-thirds of the medians length from the vertex (among

other true ratios). It is also the balancing point of a triangle.

The point of concurrency is called the orthocenter. The circumcenter and the orthocenter can lie outside a

triangle when the triangle is obtuse.

x 7 < third side < 3x + 5

77

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C HAPTER

Polygons and

Quadrilaterals, Answer Key

Chapter Outline

78

6.1

6.2

A NSWERS

6.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROVING Q UADRILATERALS ARE PARALLEL OGRAMS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

6.4

R EVIEW A NSWERS

6.5

6.6

www.ck12.org

1. See the following table:

TABLE 6.1:

# of sides

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

# of 4s from one

vertex

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

4s 180 (sum)

180

360

540

720

900

1080

1260

1440

1620

1800

Each angle in a

regular ngon

60

90

108

120

128.57

135

140

144

147.27

150

angles

360

360

360

360

360

360

360

360

360

360

2340

3780

26

20

157.5

165

30

10

360

18

30

17

24

10

11

x = 60

x = 90 , y = 20

x = 35

y = 115

x = 105

x = 51 , y = 108

x = 70 , y = 70 , z = 90

x = 72.5 , y = 107.5

x = 90 , y = 64

x = 52 , y = 128 , z = 123

larger angles are 135

smallest angle is 36

x = 117.5

79

= 360

n

n

360

180 n180 n+360

=

n

n

360

360

=

n

n

31. a = 120 , b = 60 , c = 48 , d = 60 , e = 48 , f = 84 , g = 120 , h = 108 , j = 96

80

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Parallelograms, Review Answers

m6 A = 108 , m6 C = 108 , m6 D = 72

m6 P = 37 , m6 Q = 143 , m6 D = 37

all angles are 90

m6 E = m6 G = (180 x) , m6 H = x

a = b = 53

c=6

d = 10, e = 14

f = 5, g = 3

h = 25 , j = 11 , k = 8

m = 25 , n = 19

p = 8, q = 3

r = 1, s = 2

t = 3, u = 4

96

85

43

42

12

2

64

42

(2, 1), Find the midpoint of one of the diagonals since the midpoints are the same for both

slope of EF = slope of GH = 41 ; slope of EH = slope of FG = 52 ; Slopes of opposite sides are the same,

therefore opposite

sides are parallel.

24. EF = HG = 17; FG = EH = 29; lengths of opposite sides are the same (congruent).

25. A quadrilateral in the coordinate plane can be show to be a parallelogram by showing any one of the three

properties of parallelograms shown in questions 22-24.

26. See the following table:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

TABLE 6.2:

Statement

1. ABCD is a parallelogram with diagonal BD

2. AB || DC, AD || BC

3. 6 ABD

= 6 BDC, 6 ADB

= 6 DBC

4. DB = DB

5. 4ABD

= 4CDB

6

6. 6 A

C

=

Reason

Given

Definition of a parallelogram

Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

Reflexive PoC

ASA

CPCTC

81

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TABLE 6.3:

Statement

1. ABCD is a parallelogram with diagonals BD and AC

2. AB || DC, AD || BC

3. 6 ABD

= 6 BDC, 6 CAB

= 6 ACD

DC

4. AB

=

5. 4DEC

= 4BEA

6. AE

= EC, DE

= EB

Reason

Given

Definition of a parallelogram

Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

Opposite Sides Theorem

ASA

CPCTC

TABLE 6.4:

Statements

1. ABCD is a parallelogram

2. m6 1 = m6 3 and m6 2 = m6 4

3. m6 1 + m6 2 + m6 3 + m6 4 = 360

4. m6 1 + m6 2 + m6 1 + m6 2 = 360

5. 2(m6 1 + m6 2) = 360

6. m6 1 + m6 2 = 180

29.

30.

31.

32.

82

w = 135

x = 16

y = 105

z = 60

Reasons

Given

Opposite angles congruent in parallelogram

Sum of angles in quadrilateral is 360

Substitution

Simplification

Division POE

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Quadrilaterals are Parallelograms, Review

Answers

1. No

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

x=5

x = 8 , y = 10

x = 4, y = 3

Yes

Yes

No

See the following table:

TABLE 6.5:

Statement

1. 6 A

= 6 C, 6 D

=6 B

2. m6 A = m6 C, m6 D = m6 B

3. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C + m6 D = 360

4. m6 A + m6 A + m6 B + m6 B = 360

5. 2m6 A + 2m6 B = 360

2m 6 A + 2m6 D = 360

6. m6 A + m6 B = 180

m 6 A + m6 D = 180

7. 6 A and 6 B are supplementary

6 A and 6 D are supplementary

8. AD || BC, AB || DC

9. ABCD is a parallelogram

Reason

Given

Definition of a quadrilateral

Substitution PoE

Combine Like Terms

Division PoE

Definition of Supplementary Angles

Consecutive Interior Angles Converse

Definition of a Parallelogram

TABLE 6.6:

Statement

1. AE

= EC, DE

= EB

6

2. AED

= 6 BEC

6 DEC

= 6 AEB

Reason

Given

Vertical Angles Theorem

83

6.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Proving Quadrilaterals are Parallelograms, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

Statement

3. 4AED

= 4CEB

4AEB = 4CED

4. AB

= DC, AD

= BC

5. ABCD is a parallelogram

Reason

SAS

CPCTC

Opposite Sides Converse

TABLE 6.7:

Statement

1. 6 ADB

= 6 CBD, AD

= BC

2. AD || BC

3. ABCD is a parallelogram

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

see graph

-2

3 5

see graph

The triangle is formed by the midsegments of the triangle formed when the parallelograms overlap. Four

congruent triangles are formed within this center triangle, which is also congruent to the three outer triangles.

84

Reason

Given

Alternate Interior Angles Converse

Theorem 5-10

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28.

29.

30.

31.

parallelogram

slope of W X = slope of Y Z = 3; slope of XY = slope of ZW = 12 opposite sides parallel

midpoint of diagonal YW is (1.5, 3.5); midpoint of diagonal XZ is (1.5, 3.5); midpoints bisect each other

Each side of the parallelogram is parallel to the diagonal. For example, XY || DU || ZW , so opposite sides

are parallel. They are also half the length of the diagonal so opposite sides are congruent. Either proves that

W XY Z is a parallelogram.

85

6.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Rectangles, Rhombuses and Squares, Review Answers

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Rhombuses and Squares, Review Answers

1.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

13

26

24

10

90

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

12

21.4

11

54

90

a.

b.

c.

d.

90

90

45

45

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

86

Rhombus, all sides are congruent and the diagonals are perpendicular.

None

Parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other.

Square, the diagonals bisect each other, are congruent, and perpendicular.

Rectangle, all angles are right angles.

None

Square, all the angles and sides are congruent.

Parallelogram, one set of sides are parallel and congruent.

Sometimes, with the figure is a square.

Always

Sometimes, when it is a square.

Always

Sometimes, when it is a square.

Never

Square

Rhombus

Rectangle

Parallelogram

Answers will vary. One possibility: Another way to determine if a quadrilateral is a square would be to find

the length of all the sides using the distance formula. All sides must be equal. Then, find the slopes of each

side. If the adjacent sides have perpendicular slopes, then the angles are all 90 and thus congruent.

, z = 37

x = 10, w = 53 , y = 37

x = 45 , y = 90 , z = 2 2

x = y = 13, w = z = 25

See the following table:

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TABLE 6.8:

Statements

1. ABCD is a rectangle

2. BW

= WC, AY

= Y D, BX

= XA, CZ

= ZD

3. BD = AC

4. XY is a midsegment in 4ABD

ZY is a midsegment in 4ACD

XW is a midsegment in 4ABC

W Z is a midsegment in 4BCD

5. XY = 21 BD = W Z and XW = 12 AC = Y Z

6. 12 BD = 12 AC

7. XY = W Z = Y Z = XW

8. W XY Z is a rhombus

Reasons

1. Given

2. Definition of a midpoint

3. Diagonals are congruent in a rectangle

4. Definition of a midsegment in a triangle

parallel side.

6. Division POE

7. Substitution

8. Definition of a rhombus

28. Answers may vary. The quadrilateral inscribed in the rhombus will always be a rectangle because the diagonals

of a rhombus are perpendicular and the opposite sides of the inscribed quadrilateral will be parallel to the

diagonals and thus perpendicular to one another.

29. Answers may vary. First, the square is a rhombus, the inscribed quadrilateral will be a rectangle (see problem

28). Second, the diagonals of the square are congruent so the sides of the inscribed quadrilateral will be

congruent (see problem 27). Since the sides of the inscribed quadrilateral are perpendicular and congruent the

parallelogram is a square.

30.

Start by drawing a segment 2 inches long. Construct the perpendicular bisector of this segment. Mark off

points on the perpendicular bisector .75 inches from the point of intersection. Connect these points to the

endpoint of your original segment.

31.

There are an infinite number of rectangles with diagonals of length 3 inches. The picture to the left shows

three possible rectangles. Start by drawing a segment 3 inches long. Construct the perpendicular bisector of

the segment to find the midpoint. Anchor your compass at the midpoint of the segment and construct a circle

which contains the endpoints of your segment (radius 1.5 inches). Now you can draw a second diameter to

87

6.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Rectangles, Rhombuses and Squares, Review Answers

your circle and connect the endpoints to form a rectangle with diagonal length 3 inches.

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and Kites, Review Answers

1.

a.

b.

c.

d.

55

125

90

110

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

50

50

90

25

115

2.

3. No, if the parallel sides were congruent, then it would be a parallelogram. By the definition of a trapezoid, it

can never be a parallelogram (exactly one pair of parallel sides).

4. Yes, the diagonals do not have to bisect each other.

5. Construct two perpendicular lines to make the diagonals. One diagonal is bisected, so measure an equal length

on either side of the point of intersection on one diagonal. Mark this as two vertices. The other two vertices

are on the other diagonal. Place them anywhere on this diagonal and connect the four points to create the kite.

Answers will vary.

6. 33

7. 28

8. 8

9. 11

10. 37

11. 5

12. x = 4

13. x = 5, y = 73

14. x = 11, y = 17

15. y = 5

16. y = 45

17. x = 12 , y = 8

18. parallelogram

19. square

20. kite

21. trapezoid

22. None

23. isosceles trapezoid

24. rectangle

89

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25. rhombus

26. See the following table:

TABLE 6.9:

Statement

1. KE

= T E and KI

= TI

2. EI = EI

3. 4EKI

= 4ET I

4. 6 KES

= 6 T ES and 6 KIS

= 6 T IS

5. EI is the angle bisector of 6 KET and 6 KIT

Reason

Given

Reflexive PoC

SSS

CPCTC

Definition of an angle bisector

TABLE 6.10:

Statement

1. KE

= T E and KI

= TI

2. 4KET and 4KIT are isosceles triangles

3. EI is the angle bisector of 6 KET and 6 KIT

4. EI is the perpendicular bisector of KT

5. KT EI

Reason

Given

Definition of isosceles triangles

Theorem 6-22

Isosceles Triangle Theorem

TABLE 6.11:

Statement

1. T RAP is an isosceles trapezoid with T R || AP

2. T P

= RA

3. AP = AP

4. 6 T PA

= 6 RAP

5. 4T PA

= 4RAP

6. TA = RP

Reason

Given

Definition of isosceles trapezoid

Reflexive PoC

Base angles congruent in isosceles trapezoid

SAS

CPCTC

29. The sides of the parallelogram inscribed inside a kite will be parallel to the diagonals because they are

triangle midsegments. Since the diagonals in a kite are perpendicular, the sides of the parallelogram will

be perpendicular as well. The diagonals in a kite are not congruent so only opposite sides of the parallelogram

will be congruent and thus preventing the parallelogram from being a square.

30. Since the diagonals are congruent and the sides of the inscribed parallelogram are half the length of the

diagonals they are parallel to (because they are triangle midsegments), they are all congruent. This makes the

inscribed parallelogram a rhombus.

90

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Never

Always

Always

Sometimes

Sometimes

Never

Always

Sometimes

TABLE 6.12:

Opposite

sides ||

Diagonals

Opposite

sides

=

Opposite angles

=

Diagonals

=

No

No

No

No,

base

6 s

=

Non-vertex

6 s

Yes

All 6 s

=

Yes

All 6 s

=

No

Yes

Trapezoid

Isosceles

Trapezoid

Kite

One set

One set

Diagonals

bisect each

other

No

No

No

No

Yes

No

Non-parallel

sides

No

Parallelogram

Rectangle

Rhombus

Square

Both sets

Both sets

Both sets

Both sets

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

All sides

=

All sides

=

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

91

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C HAPTER

Chapter Outline

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

A NSWERS

7.6

7.7

7.8

92

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Proportions, Review Answers

1.

a.

b.

c.

d.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

4:3

5:8

6:19

6:8:5

2:1

1:3

2:1

1:1

5:4:3

x = 18 , angles are 54 , 54 , 72

x = 3; 9, 12, 15

x = 4; 12, 20

x = 16; 64, 112

X = 4; 20, 36

x = 4; 12, 44

a+b

c+d

b = d

d(a + b) = b(c + d)

ad + bd = bc + bd

ad = bc

ab

cd

b = d

d(a b) = b(c d)

ad bd = bc bd

ad = bc

x = 12

x = 5

y = 16

x = 12, 12

y = 21

z = 3.75

x = 13.9 gallons

The president makes $800,000, vice president makes $600,000 and the financial officer makes $400,000.

1 32 cups water

60 marshmallows; 6 cups miniatures

False

True

True

False

28

18

7

24

93

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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

94

True

False

False

False

True

True

False

True

IG

BG

BI

6 B

= AT

= HT

= 6 H, 6 I

= 6 A, 6 G

= 6 T, HA

3

5

5 or 3

HT = 35

IG = 27

57, 95, 35 or 53

m6 E = 113 , m6 Q = 112

3

2

3 or 2

12

21

6

18

No, 32

26 6= 12

Yes, 4ABC 4NML

Yes, ABCD STUV

Yes, 4EFG 4LMN

x = 12, y = 15

31

x = 20, y = 7

14.6

a 7.4, b = 9.6

X = 6, y = 10.5

121

1:3

30u2 , 270u2 , 1 : 9, this is the ratio of the lengths squared or

1 2

3 .

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AA, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

4T RI

T R, T I, AM

12

6

6, 12

4ABE 4CDE because 6 BAE

= 6 DCE and 6 ABE

= 6 CDE by the Alternate Interior Angles Theorem.

AE

BE

Answers will vary. One possibility: CE = DE

One possibility: 4AED and 4BEC

AC = 22.4

Only two angles are needed because of the 3rd Angle Theorem.

Congruent triangles have the same shape AND size. Similar triangles only have the same shape. Also,

congruent triangles are always similar, but similar triangles are not always congruent.

Yes, right angles are congruent and solving for the missing angle in each triangle, we find that the other two

angles are congruent as well.

FE = 43 k

k = 16

right, right, similar

Yes, 4DEG 4FDG 4FED

Yes, 4HLI 4HKJ

No only vertical angles are congruent

Yes, they are to the same line.

Yes, the two right angles are congruent and 6 OEC and 6 NEA are vertical angles.

x = 48 f t.

Yes, we can use the Pythagorean Theorem to find EA. EA = 93.3 f t.

70 ft

29 ft 2 in

24 ft

Answers will vary. Check your answer by considering whether or not it is reasonable.

27.

28. m6 1 + m6 2 = 90 , therefore m6 GDF = m6 2 and m6 EDF = 6 1. This shows that the three angles in each

triangle are congruent to the three corresponding angles in each of the other triangles. Thus, they are all

similar.

29. DF

30. GD

31. FE

95

7.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity by SSS and SAS, Review Answers

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SSS and SAS, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

96

No. One is much larger than the other.

There are 2.2 cm in an inch, so that is the scale factor.

There is no need. With the A and A parts of ASA we have triangles with two congruent angles. The triangles

are similar by AA.

4DFE

DF, EF, DF

DH = 7.5

4DBE

SAS

27

AB, BE, AC

7

8

Yes, 21

= 24

. This proportion will be valid as long as AC || DE.

Yes, 4ABC 4DFE, SAS

No, the angle is not between the given sides

Yes, 4ABC 4DFE, SSS

Yes, 4ABE 4DBC, SAS

15

No, 10

20 6= 25

24

No, 32

6= 16

20

x=3

x = 6, y = 3.5

The building is 10 ft tall.

The childs shadow is 105 inches long.

The side lengths are 15, 36, 39

The radio tower

is 55 ft.

AB = BC = 11.25, AC = 3, DE = EF = 5, DF = 2

AB

BC

AC

3

DE = EF = DF = 2

Yes, 4ABC 4DEF by SSS similarity.

slope of CA = slope of LO = undefined (vertical); slope of AR = slope of OT = 0 (horizontal).

90 , vertical and horizontal lines are perpendicular.

T O = 6, OL = 8,CA = 4 and AR = 3; LO : CA = OT : AR = 2 : 1

Yes, by SAS similarity.

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4ECF 4BCD

DF

CD

FE

DF, DB

14.4

21.6

16.8

45

The parallel sides are in the same ratio as the sides of the similar triangles, not the segments of the sides.

yes

no

yes

no

x=9

y = 10

y = 16

z=4

x=8

x = 2.5

a = 4.8, b = 9.6

a = 4.5, b = 4, c = 10

a = 1.8, b = 37

x = 5, y = 7

3

2 b or 1.5b

16

5 a or 3.2a

Casey mistakenly used the length of the angle bisector in the proportion rather than the other side length. The

correct proportion is a5 = 75 , thus a = 25

7.

28. The path will intersect the third side 2.25 m from the 3 m side and 3.75 m from the 5 m side.

29. a = 42m and b = 56m

30. Blanks are in red.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

TABLE 7.1:

Statement

and AC || XD

2. 6 BAC

= 6 CAD

6

6

3. X = BAC

4. 6 CAD

= 6 ADX

6

6

5. X = ADX

6. 4XAD is isosceles

7. AX

= AD

8. AX = AD

BA

BC

9. AX

= CD

Reason

Given

Definition of an angle bisector

Corresponding Angles Postulate

Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

Transitive PoC

Base Angles Converse

Definition of an Isosceles Triangle

Congruent segments are also equal

Theorem 7-7

97

Statement

BC

BA

= CD

10. AD

98

Reason

Substitution PoE

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Transformations, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

(2, 6)

(-8, 12)

(4.5, -6.5)

k = 23

k=9

k = 21

20, 26, 34

2 23 , 3, 5

k = 52

14

k = 11

original: 20, dilation: 80, ratio: 4:1

If k = 1, then the dilation is congruent to the original figure.

A0 (6, 12), B0 (9, 21),C0 (3, 6)

A0 (9, 6), B0 (3, 12),C0 (0, 7.5)

15.

16. k = 2

17. A00 (4, 8), B00 (48, 16),C00 (40, 40)

18. k = 2

19.

a. 5

b.

5

c. 3 5

d. 2 5

e. 4 5

20.

a. 5

5

b. 10 5

c. 20 5

99

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21.

a. OA : OA0 = 1 : 2

AB : A0 B0 = 1 : 2

b. OA : OA00 = 1 : 4

AB : A00 B00 = 1 : 4

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

22.

x=3

y = 2x + 1

(3, 7)

This point is the center of the dilation.

The scale factor is 3.

28.

0 O0

0 G0

0 D0

29. DDO

= 3, OOG

= 3 and GGD

= 3.

30. 3

31. To dilate the original figure by a scale factor of 4 make one additional tick mark with your compass.

32. To dilate the original figure by a scale factor of 12 construct the perpendicular bisectors of CG,CO and CD to

find the midpoints of the segments which will be your G0 , O0 and D0 respectively.

100

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Self-Similarity, Review Answers

1.

2. See the following table:

TABLE 7.2:

Stage 0

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

Number of Segments

1

2

4

8

16

32

1

1

3

1

9

1

27

1

81

1

243

2

3

4

9

8

27

16

81

32

243

4. The length of each segment will be

1

3n

units.

5.

1

6. Number of edges: 192 Edge length: 27

Perimeter:

192

27

7.

8. See the following table:

TABLE 7.3:

Color

No Color

Stage 0

0

1

Stage 1

1

8

Stage 2

9

64

Stage 3

73

512

101

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9. Answers will vary. Many different flowers (roses) and vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, and artichokes) are

examples of fractals in nature.

10. Answers will vary.

102

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1.

a. x = 12

b. x = 14.5

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

x = 10 ; 50 , 60 , 70

3.75 gallons

yes

no

yes, AA

yes, SSS

no

no

A0 (10.5, 3), B0 (6, 13.5),C0 (1.5, 6)

x = 19

3

x=1

z=6

a = 5, b = 7.5

103

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C HAPTER

Right Triangle

Trigonometry, Answer Key

Chapter Outline

8.1

8.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , C ONVERSE OF THE P YTHAGOREAN T HEO REM , R EVIEW A NSWERS

8.3

A NSWERS

8.4

8.5

104

8.6

A NSWERS

8.7

R EVIEW A NSWERS

8.8

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Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

505

9 5

799

12

10

10 14

26

3p 41

2

2

x + y

9 2

yes

no

no

yes

yes

no

20 39

14 429

17 287

4

4 5

493

5 10

36.6 20.6

33.6

25.2

3 2

4 s

16 3

a2 + 2ab + b2

c2 + 4 21 ab = c2 + 2ab

a2 + 2ab + b2 = c2 + 2ab, which simplifies to a2 + b2 = c2

1

1 2

2

2 (a +

b)(a 1+ b) = 2 (a1 + 2ab + b )

1

2 2 ab + 2 c = ab + 2 c

1 2

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 (a + 2ab + b ) = ab + 2 c a + 2ab + b = 2ab + c , which simplifies to a + b = c

105

8.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers

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the Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers

1.

a. c = 15

b. 12 < c < 5

c. 15 < c < 21

2.

a. a = 7

b. 7 < a < 24

c. 1 < c < 7

3. It is a right triangle because 8, 15, 17 is a Pythagorean triple. The x indicates that this set is a multiple of 8,

15, 17.

4. right

5. no

6. right

7. acute

8. right

9. obtuse

10. right

11. acute

12. acute

13. right

14. obtuse

15. obtuse

16. acute

17. obtuse

106

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18. One way is to use the distance formula to find the distances of all three sides and then use the converse of the

Pythagorean Theorem. The second way would be to find the slope of all three sides and determine if two sides

are perpendicular.

19. c = 13

20. d = 194

21. The sides of 4ABC are a multiple of 3, 4, 5 which is a right triangle. 6 A is opposite the largest side, which is

the hypotenuse, making it 90 .

22. See the following table:

TABLE 8.1:

Statement

1. In 4ABC, a2 + b2 < c2 , and c is the longest side. In

4LMN, 6 N is a right angle.

2. a2 + b2 = h2

3. c2 > h2

4. c > h

5. 6 C is the largest angle in 4ABC.

6. m6 N = 90

7. m6 C > m6 N

8. m6 C > 90

9. 6 C is an obtuse angle.

10. 4ABC is an obtuse triangle.

23.

24.

25.

26.

Reason

Given

Pythagorean Theorem

Transitive PoE

Take the square root of both sides

The largest angle is opposite the longest side.

Definition of a right angle

SSS Inequality Theorem

Transitive PoE

Definition of an obtuse angle.

Definition of an obtuse triangle.

right

obtuse

acute

(1, 5), (-2, -3)

27 and 28. answers vary, you can check your answer by plotting the points on graph paper and measuring with a

protractor or using the distance formula to verify the appropriate inequality.

29 and 30. While your diagram may be different because your angle at A may be different, the construction should

look something like this:

107

8.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers

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31. The sum of the angles in a triangle must be 180 , if 6 C is 90 , then both 6 A and 6 B are acute.

32. You could construct a line perpendicular to AB through 6 B (you will need to extend the segment beyond B to

do the construction). Next, select any point on this perpendicular segment and call it C. By connecting A and

C you will make 4ABC.

108

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Right Triangles, Review Answers

4KML

4JML 4JKL

KM = 6 3

JK = 6 7

KL= 3 21

16 2

15 7

2

35

14 6

20 10

2 102

x = 12 5

y = 5 5

z=9 2

x = 4

y = 465

z = 14 5

8 41

17. x = 32

5 , y = 5 , z = 2 41

18. x = 9,

y = 3 34

19. x = 9 20481 , y = 81

40 , z = 40

20. See the following table:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

TABLE 8.2:

Statement

1. 4ABD with ACDB and 6 DAB is a right angle.

2. 6 DCA and 6 ACB are right angles

3. 6 DAB

= 6 DCA

= 6 ACB

6

6

4. D = D

5. 4CAD

= 4ABD

6

6

6. B = B

7. 4CBA

= 4ABD

8. 4CAD

= 4CBA

Reason

Given

Definition of perpendicular lines.

All right angles are congruent.

Reflexive PoC

AA Similarity Postulate

Reflexive PoC

AA Similarity Postulate

Transitive PoC

TABLE 8.3:

Statement

1. 4ABD with ACDB and 6 DAB is a right angle.

2. 4ABD 4CBA 4CAD

AB

3. BC

AB = DB

Reason

Given

Theorem 8-5

Corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional.

109

8.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Using Similar Right Triangles, Review Answers

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

6.1%

10.4%

9.4%

ratios are 31 and 93 , which both reduce to the common ratio 3. Yes, this is true for the next pair of terms since

27

9 also reduces to 3.

geometric mean; geometric mean

10

20

1

See the following table:

TABLE 8.4:

Statement

a

b

1. ae = d+e

and db = d+e

2. a2 = e(d + e) and b2 = d(d + e)

3. a2 + b2 = e(d + e) + d(d + e)

4. a2 + b2 = (e + d)(d + e)

5. c = d + e

6. a2 + b2 = c2

110

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Reason

Theorem 8-7

Cross-Multiplication Property

Combine equations from #2.

Distributive Property

Segment Addition Postulate

Substitution PoE

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Triangles, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

x 2

x

3, 2x

15 2

11 2

8

90 2or 127.3 ft.

a = 2 2, b = 2

c = 6 2, d

= 12

e = f =13 2

g = 10 3, h= 20

k = 8, j= 8 3

x = 11 3, y = 22 3

m = 9, n= 18

q = 14 6, p= 28 3

s = 9,t = 3 3

x = w

=9 2

a = 9 3, b = 18 3

p = 6 15, q = 6 5

Yes, its a 30-60-90 triangle.

No, it isnot even a right triangle.

16 + 6 3

8 + 8 3

x

:x 3

4 2 in

3

3 in

2

25

2

4 3 f t

27

2

3 in

2

12

3960

ft

s

3

2

111

8.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Tangent, Sine and Cosine, Review Answers

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and Cosine, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

112

d

f

f

e

f

d

d

e

d

e

f

e

D, D

equal, complement

reciprocals

0.4067

0.7071

28.6363

0.6820

sin A = 45 , cos A = 53 , tan A = 43

2

sin A = 2 , cos A = 2 2 , tan A = 1

x = 9.37, y = 12.72

x = 14.12, y = 19.42

x = 20.84, y = 22.32

x = 19.32, y = 5.18

x = 5.85, y = 12.46

x = 20.89, y = 13.43

x = 435.86 f t.

x = 56 m

25.3 ft

42.9 ft

94.6 ft

49 ft

14 miles

The hypotenuse is the longest side in a right triangle. Since the sine and cosine ratios are each a leg divided

by the hypotenuse, the denominator is always going to be greater than the numerator. This ensures a ratio that

is less than 1.

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Trigonometric Ratios, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.7

31.0

44.7

39.4

46.6

36.9

34.6

82.9

70.2

m6 A =

38 , BC = 9.38, AC = 15.23

AB = 4 10, m6 A = 18.4 , m6 B = 71.6

BC = 51, m6 A = 45.6, m6 C =

44.4

m6 A = 60

, BC = 12, AC = 12 3

CB = 7 5, m6 A = 48.2 , m6 B = 41.8

m6 B = 50 , AC = 38.14, AB = 49.78

You would use a trig ratio when given a side and an angle and the Pythagorean Theorem if you are given two

sides and no angles.

47.6

1.6

44.0

192

11 f t 17 f t 5 in; 54

51

For problem 20: since the earth tilts on its axis, the position of the sun in the sky varies throughout the year

for most places on earth. Thus, the angle at which the sun hits a particular object will vary at different times

of the year. For problem 21: the water pressure in the hose will affect the path of the water, the more pressure,

the longer the water will travel in a straight path before gravity causes the path of the water to arc and come

back down towards the ground.

Tommy used OA instead of OA for his tangent ratio.

Tommy used the correct ratio in his equation here, but he used the incorrect angle measure he found previously

which caused his answer to be incorrect. This illustrates the benefit of using given information whenever

possible.

Tommy could have used Pythagorean Theorem to find the hypotenuse instead of a trigonometric ratio.

cos 50

sin 20

As the angle measures increase, the sine value increases.

As the angle measures increase, the cosine value decreases.

The sine and cosine values are between 0 and 1.

tan 85 = 11.43, tan 89 = 57.29, and tan 89.5 = 114.59. As the tangent values get closer to 90 , they get

larger and larger. There is no maximum, the values approach infinity.

The sine and cosine ratios will always be less than one because the denominator of the ratios is the hypotenuse

which is always longer than either leg. Thus, the numerator is always less than the denominator in these ratios

resulting in a value less than one.

113

8.7. Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Laws of Sines and Cosines, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

Laws of Sines and Cosines, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

114

m6 B = 84 , a = 10.9, b = 13.4

m6 B = 47 , a = 16.4, c = 11.8

m6 A = 38.8 , m6 C = 39.2 , c = 16.2

b = 8.5, m6 A = 96.1 , m6 C = 55.9

m6 A = 25.7 , m6 B = 36.6, m6 C = 117.7

m6 A = 81 , m6 B = 55.4 , m6 C = 43.6

b = 11.8, m6 A = 42 , m6 C = 57

b = 8.0, m6 B = 25.2 , m6 C = 39.8

m6 A = 33.6 , m6 B = 50.7 , m6 C = 95.7

m6 C = 95 , AC = 3.2, AB = 16.6

BC = 33.7, m6 C = 39.3 , m6 B = 76.7

m6 A = 42 , BC = 34.9, AC = 22.0

m6 B = 105 , m6 C = 55 , AC = 14.1

m6 B = 35 , AB = 12, BC = 5

Yes, BC would still be 5 units (see isosceles triangle below); the measures of 6 C are supplementary as shown

below.

www.ck12.org

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

6

BC = 4.4,

AC = 10.0, m A = 26

AB = 5 10, m6 A = 18.4 , m6 B = 71.6

6

BC = 6 7, m6 A = 41.4

, m C = 48.6

m6 A = 30

, AC = 25 3, BC = 25

BC = 7 13, m6 A = 31 , m6 B

= 59

m6 B = 45 , AC = 32, AB = 32 2

m6 B = 63 , BC = 19.1, AB = 8.7

m6 C =

19 , AC = 22.7, AB = 7.8

BC = 4 13, m6 B = 33.7 , m6 C = 56.3

acute

right, Pythagorean triple

obtuse

right

acute

obtuse

x = 2

x = 2 110

x=6 7

2576.5 ft.

x = 29.2

AC = 16.1, m6 A = 41.6 , m6 C = 63.4

m6 A = 123.7 , m6 B = 26.3 , m6 C = 30

115

www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

Chapter Outline

116

9.1

R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A NGLES OF C HORDS , S ECANTS , AND TAN GENTS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S EGMENTS OF C HORDS , S ECANTS , AND TAN GENTS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.7

E QUATIONS OF C IRCLES , R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.8

www.ck12.org

and Tangent Lines, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

diameter

secant

chord

point of tangency

common external tangent

common internal tangent

center

radius

the diameter

4 lines

11. 3 lines

12. none

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

J J

D = E because they have the same radius length.

2 common tangents

CE = 7

y = x2

yes

no

E =2

117

9.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Parts of Circles and Tangent Lines, Review Answers

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

www.ck12.org

yes

4 10

4 11

x=9

x=3

x = 5

x=8 2

a.

b.

c.

d.

= 6 BED by vertical angles.

BC = 37

AD = 35

m6 C = 53.1

TABLE 9.1:

Statement

1. AB and CB with points of tangency at A and C. AD

and DC are radii.

2. AD

= DC

3. DAAB and DCCB

4. m6 BAD = 90 and m6 BCD = 90

5. Draw BD.

6. 4ADB and 4DCB are right triangles

7. DB

= DB

8. 4ABD

= 4CBD

9. AB

= CB

Reason

Given

All radii are congruent.

Tangent to a Circle Theorem

Definition of perpendicular lines

Connecting two existing points

Definition of right triangles (Step 4)

Reflexive PoC

HL

CPCTC

29.

a. kite

b. center, bisects

30. AT

= BT

= CT

= DT by theorem 10-2 and the transitive property.

31. 9.23

8

32. 8 ;

3 3 3

33. Since AW and W B both share point W and are perpendicular to VW because a tangent is perpendicular to the

radius of the circle. Therefore A, B and W are collinear. V T

= VW because they are tangent segments to circle

A from the same point, V , outside the circle. Similarly, VW

= VU because they are tangent segments to circle

B from V . By the transitive property of congruence, V T

= VU. Therefore, all three segments are congruent.

118

www.ck12.org

Arcs, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

minor

major

semicircle

major

minor

semicircle

c

c

yes, CD

= DE

66

228

yes, they are in the same circle with equal central angles

yes, the central angles are vertical angles, so they are equal, making the arcs equal

no, we dont know the measure of the corresponding central angles.

90

49

82

16

188

172

196

270

x = 54

x = 47

x = 25

J J

A= B

62

77

139

118

257

319

75

105

68

105

255

217

119

www.ck12.org

Chords, Review Answers

1. No, see picture. The two chords can be congruent and perpendicular, but will not bisect each other.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

120

AC

c

DF

c

JF

DE

6 HGC

6 AGC

AG, HG,CG, FG, JG, DG

107

8

118

133

140

120

x = 64 , y = 4

x = 8,

y = 10

x = 3 26, y 12.3

x=9 5

x = 9, y = 4

x = 4.5

x=3

x = 7

x = 4 11

c = 121.3

mAB

c = 112.9

mAB

c

c by Theorem 10-5.

BF

= FD and BF

= FD

CA = AF by Theorem 10-6.

QS is a diameter by Theorem 10-4.

a-c shown in the diagram below; d. it is the center; e. shown in the diagram; this construction is not done to

scale and your chords might be in different places but this should give you an idea of what it should look like.

www.ck12.org

a.

b.

c.

d.

(1, 5)

m = 0, m is undefined

x=1

for BC:

a. 92 , 23

b. m = 7, m = 71

c. y = 17 x + 15

7

e. Point of intersection (center of the circle) is (1, 2).

f. radius is 5 units

31.

a. 120

b. 60

121

www.ck12.org

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

48

120

54

45

87

27

100.5

95.5

76.5

84.5

51

46

x = 180 , y = 21

x = 60 , y = 49

x = 30 , y = 60

x = 72 , y = 92

x = 200 , y = 100

x = 68 , y = 99

x = 93 , y = 97

x = 10

x = 24

x = 74 , y = 106

x = 35 , y = 35

55

70

110

90

20

90

TABLE 9.2:

Statement

1. Inscribed 6 ABC and diameter BD

m6 ABE = x and m6 CBE = y

2. x + y = m6 ABC

3. AE

= EB and EB

= EC

4. 4AEB and 4EBC are isosceles

5. m6 EAB = x and m6 ECB = y

6. m6 AED = 2x and m6 CED = 2y

c = 2x and mDC

c = 2y

7. mAD

c + mDC

c = mAC

c

8. mAD

c = 2x + 2y

9. mAC

c = 2(x + y )

10. mAC

c = 2m6 ABC

11. mAC

122

Reason

Given

Angle Addition Postulate

All radii are congruent

Definition of an isosceles triangle

Isosceles Triangle Theorem

Exterior Angle Theorem

The measure of an arc is the same as its central angle.

Arc Addition Postulate

Substitution

Distributive PoE

Subsitution

www.ck12.org

Statement

c

12. m6 ABC = 12 mAC

Reason

Division PoE

TABLE 9.3:

Statement

c

1. 6 ACB and 6 ADB intercept AB

c

2. m6 ACB = 12 mAB

1

c

m 6 ADB = 2 mAB

6

6

3. m ACB = m ADB

4. 6 ACB

= 6 ADB

Reason

1. Given

2. Inscribed Angle Theorem

3. Transitive Property

4. Definition of Congruence

c so mDB

c This makes D the midpoint of CB.

c

c and m6 CAB = 1 mCB,

c = 1 mCB.

Also, m6 DOB = mDB

2

2

123

9.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Angles of Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review Answers

1.

www.ck12.org

Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review

Answers

a.

b.

c.

2. No, by definition a tangent line cannot pass through a circle, so it can never intersect with any line inside of

one.

3.

a.

b.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

124

center, equal

inside, intercepted

on, half

outside, half

x = 103

x = 25

x = 100

x = 44

www.ck12.org

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

x = 38

x = 54.5

x = 63 , y = 243

x = 216

x = 42

x = 150

x = 66

x = 113

x = 60, y = 40 , z = 80

x = 60 , y = 25

x = 35 , y = 55

x = 75

x = 45

x = 35 , y = 35

x = 60

x = 47 , y = 78

x = 84 , y = 156

x = 10

x = 3

See the following table:

TABLE 9.4:

Statement

1. Intersecting chords AC and BD.

2. Draw BC

3.

4.

5.

6.

m6

m6

m6

m6

c

DBC = 12 mDC

1 c

ACB = 2 mAB

a = m6 DBC + m6 ACB

c + 1 mAB

c

a = 1 mDC

2

Reason

Given

Construction

Inscribed Angle Theorem

Exterior Angle Theorem

Substitution

TABLE 9.5:

Statement

2. Draw BE.

Reason

Given

Construction

c

3. m6 BEC = 12 mBC

125

9.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Angles of Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review Answers

Statement

c

4. m6 DBE = 12 mDE

6

6

5. m a + m DBE = m6 BEC

6. m6 a = m6 BEC m6 DBE

c 1 c

7. m6 a = 12 m

BC 2 mDE

c mDE

c

8. m6 a = 1 mBC

2

126

Reason

Inscribed Angle Theorem

Exterior Angle Theorem

Subtraction PoE

Substitution

Distributive Property

www.ck12.org

www.ck12.org

Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review

Answers

1. x = 12

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

x = 1.5

x = 12

x = 7.5

x=6 2

x = 10

x = 10

x=8

x=9

x = 22.4

x = 11

x = 20

x = 120

7 17.14

x = 4 66

x = 6

x=

231

x = 4 42

x = 10

The error is in the set up. It should be 10 10 = y (15 + y). The correct answer is y = 5.

10 inches

x=7

x=5

x=3

x=3

x=8

x=6

x=2

x=8

x=2

x = 12, y = 3

127

9.7. Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Writing and Graphing the Equations of Circles, Reviewwww.ck12.org

Answers

Writing and Graphing the Equations of Circles, Review Answers

1. center: (-5, 3), radius = 4

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

center: (7, 10), radius = 2 5

center: (-2, 0), radius = 2 2

(x 4)2 + (y + 2)2 = 16

(x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 7

(x 2)2 + (y 2)2 = 4

(x + 4)2 + (y + 3)2 = 25

a. yes

b. no

c. yes

(x 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 52

(x 10)2 + y2 = 29

(x + 3)2 + (y 8)2 = 200

(x 6)2 + (y + 6)2 = 325

7

37

a-d. bisector of AB is y = 24

x + 24

, bisector of BC is y = x + 8 (e) center of circle (-5, 3) (f) radius 25

2

2

(g) (x + 5) + (y 3) = 625

15. (x 2)2 + (y 2)2 = 25

16. (x + 3)2 + (y 1)2 = 289

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

128

www.ck12.org

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

I

A

D

G

C

B

H

E

J

F

129

www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

Key

Chapter Outline

10.1

A NSWERS

10.2

A NSWERS

10.3

130

10.4

A NSWERS

10.5

A NSWERS

10.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A REA AND P ERIMETER OF R EGULAR P OLY GONS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

10.7

www.ck12.org

Parallelograms, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

A = 144 in2 , P = 48 in

A = 144 cm2 , P = 50 cm

A = 360 m2

A = 112 u2 , P = 44 u

A = 324 f t 2 , P = 72 f t

P = 36 f t

A = 36 in2

A = 210 cm2

6m

Possible answers: 10 6, 12 4

Possible answers: 9 10, 3 30

If the areas are congruent, then the figures are congruent. We know this statement is false, #11 would be a

counterexample.

8 2 cm

P 54.9

cm

A = 96 2 135.8 cm2

15 in

P 74.3 in

A = 180 in2

315 units2

90 units2

14 units2

407.5 units2

560 units2

30 units2

814 units2

72 units2

72 units2

24 acres

64

12 24

3

h = 3 3, A = 9

h = 5 3, A = 25 3

2

h = 2x 3, A = x4 3

x = 20 f t, y = 60 f t

Perimeter is 16 units, Area is 15 square units

131

10.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Trapezoids, Rhombi, and Kites, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

Rhombi, and Kites, Review Answers

1. If a kite and a rhombus have the same diagonal lengths the areas will be the same. This is because both

formulas are dependent upon the diagonals. If they are the same, the areas will be the same too. This does not

mean the two shapes are congruent, however.

2. h(b1 ) + 24s

1

h(b1 ) + 2 12 h b2 b

2

hb1 + h(b22b1 )

2

hb1 +hb2

= h2 (b1 + b2 )

2

3. 44s

4 21 12 d1 12 d2

4

8 d1 d2

1

2 d1 d2

4. 24s + 24s

2 12 12 d1 x + 2 12 12 d1 (d2 x)

1

1

1

2 d1 x + 2 d1 d2 2 d1 x

1

2 d1 d2

5. 160 units2

6. 315 units2

7. 96 units2

2

8. 77 units

9. 100 3 units2

10. 84 units2

11. 1000 units2

12. 63 units2

13. 62.5 units2

14. A = 480 units2

P = 104 units

15. A = 36 1 + 3 units2

P = 12 2 + 2 units

2

16. A = 108 units

P = 12 3 + 2 units

17. A = 5 3 5 + 77 units2

P = 52 units

P = 116

units

19. A = 256 5 units2

P = 96 units

20. A = 12 units2

21. 24 units2

22. Any two numbers with a product of 64 would work.

23. Any two numbers with a product of 108 would work.

24. 90 units2

25. kite, 24 units2

132

www.ck12.org

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

2

2

Trapezoid, 47.5

units units

rhombus, 12 5 units2

8, 14

9, 12

192 units2

a. 200 f t 2

b. 400 f t 2

c. 21

32.

a. 300 f t 2

b. 900 f t 2

c. 31

133

www.ck12.org

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

134

9

25

1

16

49

4

36

121

1

6

2

9

7

3

5

12

1

4

1

2

5 units2

24 units

100 cm

468.75 cm2

96 units2

198 f t 2

54 in

32 units

4

9

2

3

Diagonals are 12 and 16. The length of the sides are 12 2 and 16 2.

Because

the diagonals of these rhombi are congruent, the rhombi are actually squares.

25 2

2.34 inches

1

Scale: 192

, length of model 5.44 inches

27.5 by 20 cm, yes because the drawing is 10.8 by 7.87 inches

9 by 6 inches

10 by 14 inches

Baby Bella $0.05, Mama Mia $0.046, Big Daddy $0.046, the Mama Mia or Big Daddy are the best deals.

1.5 bottles, so shell need to buy 2 bottles.

www.ck12.org

and Arc Length, Review Answers

TABLE 10.1:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

diameter

15

8

6

84

18

25

2

36

radius

7.5

4

3

42

9

12.5

1

18

Circumference

15

8

6

84

18

25

2

36

r = 44

in

C = 20 cm

16

Thediameter is the same length as the diagonals of the square.

32 2

16

9

80

15

r = 108

r = 30

r = 72

120

162

15

40 125.7 in.

a. 26 81.7 in

b. 775 complete rotations

26. The Little Cheese, 3.59:1; The Big Cheese, 3.49:1; The Cheese Monster, 3.14:1; Michael should buy The

Little Cheese

27. 31 gumdrops

28. 18 in

29. 93 in

30. 30 ft

135

10.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Circles and Sectors, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

10.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Circles and Sectors, Review Answers

TABLE 10.2:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

136

radius

2

4

5

12

9

3 10

17.5

Area

4

16

25

144

81

90

306.25

30

49

900

36

54

1.0416

189

2.6 4 3

33

20.25

40.5

8 3

2

15

120

10

198

123.61

292.25

1033.58

13.73

21.21

54.4

Square 10, 000 f t 2 ; Circle 12, 732 f t 2 ; the circle has more area.

18 units

40

circumference

4

8

10

24

18

6 10

35

14

60

12

www.ck12.org

Perimeter of Regular Polygons, Review

Answers

1. radius

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

apothem

6

equilateral

10cm

5 3 cm

60 cm

150 3

A = 384 3

P = 96

A=8 2

P = 6.12

A = 68.26

A = 72

A = 688.19

P = 100

A = 73.47

P = 15.45

A = 68.26

P = 63

6.5

12

a = 11.01

a = 14.49

93.86, 94.15

30 94.25

The perimeter of the 40-gon is closer to the circumference because it is closer in shape to the circle. The more

sides a polygon has, the closer it is to a circle.

695.29, 703.96

225 706.86

The area of the 40-gon is closer to the area of the circle because it is closer in shape to the circle than the

20-gon.

Start with 21 asn. n = 6, so all the internal triangles are equilateral triangles with

sides s.Therefore the apothem

3

3 s (s)(6). Reducing this

1

is

s from the 30-60-90 ratio. Plugging this in for n and a, we have A =

2

we end up with A = 3 2 3 s2 .

26.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

sin x2 = 2rs ; cos x2 = ar

s = 2r sin 2x

a = r cos x2

1

x

x

2r

sin

r

cos

= r2 sin

2

2

2

x

x

2

nr sin 2 cos 2

x

2

cos

x

2

28. 77.25 in2

137

10.6. Geometry - Second Edition, Area and Perimeter of Regular Polygons, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

30. 153.44 in2

31. polygon with 30 sides: 254.30 in2 ; circle 254.47 in2 ; They are very close, the more sides a regular polygon

has the closer to a circle it becomes.

2

x

s

s

32. First, take s = 2r sin 2 and solve for r to get = 2 sin x . Next, replace r in the formula to get n 2 sin x

sin

(2)

(2)

ns2 cos( x )

We can reduce this to 4 sin x2 .

(2)

2

33. 16055.49 cm

34. 4478.46 in2

138

x

2

cos

x

2

www.ck12.org

1. A = 225

P = 60

2. A = 198

P = 58

3. A = 124.71

P = 48

4. A = 139.36

P = 45

5. A = 3000

P = 232

6. A = 403.06

P = 72

7. 72

8. 154

9. 162 3

10. C = 34

A = 289

11. C = 30

A = 225

12. 54 units2

13. 1070.12

14. 1220.39

15. 70.06

139

www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

11

Answer Key

Chapter Outline

11.1

11.2

R EVIEW A NSWERS

11.3

R EVIEW A NSWERS

11.4

11.5

A NSWERS

11.6

R EVIEW A NSWERS

11.7

11.8

140

www.ck12.org

Solids, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

V =8

F =9

E = 30

F =6

E =6

V =6

F =9

V =6

Yes, hexagonal pyramid. F = 7,V = 7, E = 12

No, a cone has a curved face.

Yes, hexagonal prism. F = 8,V = 12, E = 18

No a hemisphere has a face.

Yes, trapezoidal prism. F = 6,V = 8, E = 12

Yes, concave decagonal prism. F = 10,V = 16, E = 24

Rectangle

Circle

Trapezoid

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

Regular Icosahedron

Decagonal Pyramid

Trapezoidal Prism

All 11 nets

141

www.ck12.org

F +V = E + 2

32 +V = 90 + 2

V = 60

26. regular tetrahedron

27. Use the construction directions from problem 26 to make an equilateral triangle with midsegments. Using

one of the midpoints of the equilateral triangle as a vertex, construct another adjacent equilateral triangle with

midsegments. Your result should look like the picture below.

29. 19

30. 1 red face, 8 yellow faces, 7 blue faces and 4 green faces

142

www.ck12.org

of Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

9 f t.2

10, 000 cm2

triangles, A = 6

The rectangles are 3 6, 4 6, and 6 5. Their areas are 18, 24, and 30.

72

84

Lateral surface area is the area of all the sides, total surface area includes the bases.

rectangle, 2rh

a. 96 in2

b. 192 in2

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

350 cm2

1606.4

390.2

486

182

34

2808

x=8

x = 40

x = 25

60 in2

4100 cm2

The height could be 1, 3, 5, or 15.

4060 f t 2

2940 f t 2

5320 f t 2

22 gal

$341

5 in by 4 + 1 in, 20 + 5 in2 67.83 in2

x2 16 in2 , x = 25 in

5 2

2 x , x = 8

143

11.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area of Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

of Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

vertex

y

lateral edge

w

z

t

7.

8. 5 10 cm

9. 15 in

10. To find the slant

height, we need to find the distance from the center of the edge of the equilateral triangle.

This distance is 3.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

144

671

135

64

1413.72

360

422.35

1847.26

896

1507.96

3, the

lateral faces

36 3

s2 3

576; 321.53

1159.25

1152.23

1473.76

100.8

7

3 = l 2 l = 39

www.ck12.org

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

24

175

10 in

13 in

360 in2

145

11.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Volume of Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers

1. No, the volumes do not have to be the same. One cylinder could have a height of 8 and a radius of 4, while

another could have a height of 22 and a radius of 2. Both have a surface area of 96, but the volumes are not

the same.

2. 960 cubes, yes this is the same as the volume.

3. 280 in3

4. 4 in3

5. 6 in

6. r = 9

7. 5

8. 36 units3

9.

a. 64 in3

b. 128 in3

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

146

882 cm3

3960

902.54

4580.44

147

50.27

7776

x=7

x = 24

x = 32

294 in3

24000 cm3

75 m3

330, 000 f t.3

165, 000 f t.3

495, 000 f t.3

36891.56 cm3

15901.92 cm3

r = 3 cm, h = 12 cm

11 cm

300.44 in3

www.ck12.org

Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers

Unless otherwise specified, all units are units3 .

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

9680

1280

778.71

3392.92

400

396.55

5277.88

128

1884.96

100.53

113.10

188.50

42

200

1066.67

9 3

2

6

18

2

1 3

s

2

12

Find

the volume of one square pyramid then multiply it by 2.

72 3

1 3

2

3s

h = 13.5 in

h = 3.6 cm

r = 3 cm

112 in3

190.87 cm3

471.24 cm3

h = 9 m, r = 6 m

15 ft

147

11.6. Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area and Volume of Spheres, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

and Volume of Spheres, Review Answers

1. No, all the cross sections must be circles because there are no edges.

2. SA = 256 in2

3

V = 2048

3 in

3. SA = 324 cm2

V = 972 cm3

4. SA = 1600 f t 2

3

V = 32000

3 ft

2

5. SA = 16 m

2

V = 32

3m

6. SA = 900 f t 2

V = 4500 f t 3

7. SA = 1024 in2

3

V = 16384

3 in

8. SA = 676 cm2

3

V = 8788

3 cm

9. SA = 2500 yd 2

3

V = 62500

3 yd

10. r = 5.5 in

11. r = 33 m

12. V = 43 f t 3

13. SA = 36 mi2

14. r = 4.31 cm

15. r = 7.5 f t.

16. 2025 cm2

17. 1900 units2

18. 4680 f t 2

19. 91.875 units2

20. 381703.51 cm3

21. 7120.94 units3

22. 191134.50 f t 3

23. 121.86 units3

350

2

24. h = 20

3 cm, SA = 3 cm

25. 21.21 in3

26. 12 cm3 , 19 minutes

27.

a.

b.

c.

d.

28.

148

SA = 2r2 + 2rh

SA = 4r2

SA = 4r2

They are the same. Think back to the explanation for the formula for the surface area of a sphere using

the baseball-it is really the sum of the area of four circles. For the cylinder, the SA is the sum of the areas

of the two circular bases and the lateral area. The lateral area is 2rh, when we replace h with r this part

of the formula becomes the area of two more circles. That makes the total surface area of the cylinder

equal to the area of four circles, just like the sphere.

www.ck12.org

a. 24429 in3

b. 732.87 lbs

c. 50 in

29. 25,132.74 miles

30. 201 million square miles

31. 268 billion cubic miles

149

www.ck12.org

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

150

42

No, 14

10 6= 35

Yes, the scale factor is 4:3.

Yes, the scale factor is 3:5.

No, the top base is not in the same proportion as the rest of the given lengths.

Yes, cubes have the same length for each side. So, comparing two cubes, the scale factor is just the ratio of

the sides.

1:16

8:343

125:729

8:11

5:12

87.48

The volume would be 43 or 64 times larger.

4:9

60 cm

91125 m3

2:3

4:9

y = 8, x= h = 12

w = 4 5, z = 6 5

Vs = 170.67,V

l = 576

LAs = 16 5, LAl = 36 5

Yes, just like the cubes spheres and hemispheres only have a radius to compare. So, all spheres and hemispheres are similar.

49:144, 343:1728

98, 288

The ratio of the lateral areas is 49:144, which is the same as the ratio of the total surface area.

9:25, about 2.78 times as strong

27:125

Animal A, Animal Bs weight is about 4.63 times the weight of animal A but his bones are only 2.78 times as

strong.

81 sq in

small $0.216, large $0.486

8:27

The larger can for $2.50 is a better deal. Using the cost of the canning material and the ratio of the volume of

beans, the equivalent cost of producing the larger can is $2.62. If we just use the volume of bean ratio (as a

consumer would) the cost should be $2.87. Both of these are higher than the $2.50 price.

www.ck12.org

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

F

K

G

A

E

D

J

B

L

C

H

I

H

G

A

B

D

J

I

E

F

C

151

www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

12

Rigid Transformations,

Answer Key

Chapter Outline

12.1

12.2

12.3

12.4

12.5

12.6

12.7

152

www.ck12.org

Symmetry, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

sometimes

always

always

never

sometimes

never

never

always

always

sometimes

a kite that is not a rhombus

a circle

an isosceles trapezoid

n

15.

16.

17.

18. none

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

19.

H is the only one with rotational symmetry, 180 .

line symmetry

rotational symmetry

line symmetry

line symmetry (horizontal)

rotational symmetry

153

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

154

2 lines

6 lines

4 lines

180

60 , 120 , 180 , 240 , 300

90 , 180 , 270

none

120 , 240

40 , 80 , 120 , 160 , 200 , 240 , 280 , 320

8 lines of symmetry; angles of rotation: 45 , 90 , 135 , 180 , 225 , 270 , and 315

3 line of symmetry; angles of rotation: 120 , 240

1 line of symmetry; no rotational symmetry

www.ck12.org

www.ck12.org

and Vectors , Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

A vector has direction and size, a ray is part of a line, so it has direction, but no size.

A0 (1, 6)

B0 (9, 1)

C(0, 6)

A00 (4, 15)

D(7, 16)

A000 (9, 24)

All four points are collinear.

A0 (8, 14), B0 (5, 17),C0 (7, 5)

A0 (5, 3), B0 (8, 6),C0 (6, 6)

A0 (6, 10), B0 (3, 13),C0 (5, 1)

A0 (11, 1), B0 (8, 2),C0 (10, 10)

(x, y) (x 6, y + 2)

(x, y) (x + 9, y 7)

(x, y) (x 3, y 5)

(x, y) (x + 8, y + 4)

(x, y) (x 8, y 4)

*

*

*

22.

23.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

24.

D0 (9, 9), E 0 (12, 7), F 0 (10, 14)

Q0 (9, 6),U 0 (6, 0), A0 (1, 9), D0 (2, 15)

h3, 8i

h9, 12i

h0, 7i

(x, y) (x 7, y + 2)

(x, y) (x + 11, y + 25)

(x, y) (x + 15, y 9)

155

www.ck12.org

Review Answers

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

d

p

(-3, 2), (-8, 4), (-6, 7), (-4, 7)

(-6, 4), (-2, 6), (-8, 8)

(2, 2), (8, 3), (6, -3)

(2, 6), (-6, 2), (4, -2)

(2, -2), (8, -6)

(2, -4), (-4, 2), (-2, -6)

(2, 3), (4, 8), (7, 6), (7, 4)

(4, 6), (6, 2), (8, 8)

(2, 4), (-4, 3), (-2, 9)

(-4, -14), (4, -10), (-6, -6)

(-2, -2), (-6, -8)

(-4, 2), (2, -4), (-6, -2)

y = 2

yaxis

y=x

18-20.

22-24.

156

www.ck12.org

26-28.

30.

31. Perpendicular Bisector

32.

157

www.ck12.org

1.

2.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

158

3.

d

d, they are the same because the direction of the rotation does not matter.

270

90

Not rotating the figure at all; 0

(-6, -2)

(-6, -4)

(2, -2) and (6, 4)

www.ck12.org

12.

13.

14.

15.

159

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

x=3

x = 4.5

x = 21

90

180

180

24-26.

28-30.

160

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www.ck12.org

161

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of Transformations, Review Answers

1. Every isometry produces a congruent figure to the original. If you compose transformations, each image will

still be congruent to the original.

2. a translation

3. a rotation

4. (2, 2), (-2, -4), (0, -8), (4, -6)

5. (x, y) (x + 6, y)

6. (x, y) (x 6, y)

7. No, because order does not matter.

8. (-2, -3), (-4, 2), (-9, -3)

9. (x, y) (x, y 5)

10. (x, y) (x, y + 5)

11. (2, -10), (10, -6), (8, -4)

12. A translation of 12 units down.

13. (x, y) (x, y + 12)

14. This image is 12 units above the original.

15. #11 (x, y) (x, y 12), #14 (x, y) (x, y + 12), the 12s are in the opposite direction.

16. (-8, 2), (-6, 10), (-2, 8), (-3, 4)

17. A rotation of 270

18. A rotation of 90

19. It is in the 4th quadrant and are 180 apart.

20. #16 (x, y) (y, x), #19 (x, y) (y, x), the values have the opposite sign.

21. 14 units

22. 14 units

23. rotation, 180

24. the origin

25. 166

26. 122

27. 315

28. 31 units

29. 2(b a), right

30. 2(b a), left

162

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Tessellations, Review Answers

1-7. Yes, all quadrilaterals will tessellate.

8. Equilateral triangle, square, and regular hexagon.

9. Here is one possibility.

11.

12.

13. Answers will vary.

163

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

164

C

E

A

F

J

B

H

D

I

G

www.ck12.org

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