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CK-12 Geometry - Second

Edition, Answer Key

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iii

Contents

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Contents
1

iv

Basics of Geometry, Answer Key


1.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Points, Lines, and Planes, Review Answers
1.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Segments and Distance, Review Answers .
1.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Angles and Measurement, Review Answers
1.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Midpoints and Bisectors, Review Answers .
1.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Angle Pairs, Review Answers . . . . . . .
1.6
Geometry - Second Edition, Classifying Polygons, Review Answers . .
1.7
Geometry - Second Edition, Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . .

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1
2
5
7
10
13
14
17

Reasoning and Proof, Answer Key


2.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Inductive Reasoning, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Conditional Statements, Review Answers . . . . . . . . .
2.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Deductive Reasoning, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . .
2.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Algebraic and Congruence Properties, Review Answers . .
2.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Proofs about Angle Pairs and Segments, Review Answers .
2.6
Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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26
29
33

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Parallel and Perpendicular Lines, Answer Key


3.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Lines and Angles, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Parallel Lines, Review Answers . . . . . . .
3.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Proving Lines Parallel, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . .
3.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Perpendicular Lines, Review Answers . . . .
3.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Parallel and Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane,
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6
Geometry - Second Edition, The Distance Formula, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . .
3.7
Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Review
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34
35
37
40
42
43
47
49

Triangles and Congruence, Answer key


4.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Sums, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Congruent Figures, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using SSS and SAS, Review Answers . . . .
4.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using ASA, AAS, and HL, Review Answers
4.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles, Review Answers . . . . . . .
4.6
Chapter 4 Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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51
53
55
58
60
63

Relationships with Triangles, Answer Key


5.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Midsegments of a Triangle, Review Answers . . . . .
5.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Perpendicular Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers
5.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Angle Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers . . . .
5.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Medians and Altitudes in Triangles, Review Answers .
5.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Inequalities in Triangles, Review Answers . . . . . . .
5.6
Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Indirect Proof, Review Answers . . . . . .

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5.7
6

Contents

Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Polygons and Quadrilaterals, Answer Key


6.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Angles in Polygons, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Parallelograms, Review Answers . . . . . . .
6.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Proving Quadrilaterals are Parallelograms, Review Answers
6.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Rectangles, Rhombuses and Squares, Review Answers . . .
6.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Trapezoids and Kites, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6
Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Similarity, Answer Key
7.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Ratios and Proportions, Review Answers . . .
7.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Similar Polygons, Review Answers . . . . . .
7.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity by AA, Review Answers . . . . . .
7.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity by SSS and SAS, Review Answers .
7.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Proportionality Relationships, Review Answers
7.6
Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity Transformations, Review Answers .
7.7
Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Self-Similarity, Review Answers . .
7.8
Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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89
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92
93
94
95
96
97
99
101
103

Right Triangle Trigonometry, Answer Key


8.1
Geometry - Second Edition, The Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers . . . . . .
8.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers
8.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Using Similar Right Triangles, Review Answers . . . . .
8.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Special Right Triangles, Review Answers . . . . . . . .
8.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Tangent, Sine and Cosine, Review Answers . . . . . . .
8.6
Geometry - Second Edition, Inverse Trigonometric Ratios, Review Answers . . . . .
8.7
Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Laws of Sines and Cosines, Review Answers
8.8
Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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104
105
106
109
111
112
113
114
115

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Circles, Answer Key


9.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Parts of Circles and Tangent Lines, Review Answers . . . . . . . .
9.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Arcs, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Chords, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Inscribed Angles, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Angles of Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review Answers . . . . .
9.6
Geometry - Second Edition, Segments of Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review Answers . . .
9.7
Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Writing and Graphing the Equations of Circles, Review
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.8
Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 Perimeter and Area, Answer Key


10.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Triangles and Parallelograms, Review Answers . . . . . .
10.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Trapezoids, Rhombi, and Kites, Review Answers . . . . .
10.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Similar Polygons, Review Answers . . . . . . . .
10.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Circumference and Arc Length, Review Answers . . . . .
10.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Circles and Sectors, Review Answers . . . . . .
10.6
Geometry - Second Edition, Area and Perimeter of Regular Polygons, Review Answers
10.7
Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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117
119
120
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135
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137
139

11 Surface Area and Volume, Answer Key


140
11.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Solids, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
v

Contents
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8

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Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area of Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers
Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area of Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers .
Geometry - Second Edition, Volume of Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers . . .
Geometry - Second Edition, Volume of Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers . . . .
Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area and Volume of Spheres, Review Answers .
Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Similar Solids, Review Answers . . . . . . .
Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12 Rigid Transformations, Answer Key


12.1
Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Symmetry, Review Answers . . . . . . .
12.2
Geometry - Second Edition, Translations and Vectors , Review Answers . . . .
12.3
Geometry - Second Edition, Reflections, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4
Geometry - Second Edition, Rotations, Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.5
Geometry - Second Edition, Composition of Transformations, Review Answers
12.6
Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Tessellations, Review Answers . . . . .
12.7
Chapter Review Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 1. Basics of Geometry, Answer Key

C HAPTER

Basics of Geometry,
Answer Key

Chapter Outline
1.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P OINTS , L INES , AND P LANES , R EVIEW A N SWERS

1.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S EGMENTS AND D ISTANCE , R EVIEW A NSWERS

1.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A NGLES AND M EASUREMENT, R EVIEW A N SWERS

1.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , M IDPOINTS AND B ISECTORS , R EVIEW A N SWERS

1.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A NGLE PAIRS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

1.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , C LASSIFYING P OLYGONS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

1.7

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

1.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Points, Lines, and Planes, Review Answers

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1.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Points, Lines,


and Planes, Review Answers
For 1-5, answers will vary. One possible answer for each is included.

1.

2.

3.

4.

6. W X, YW , line m, XY and WY .
2

5.

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Chapter 1. Basics of Geometry, Answer Key

7. Plane V or plane RST .


8. In addition to the pictures to the right, three planes may not intersect at all and can be parallel.

9. A circle.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

26.
27.
28.

PQ intersects RS at point Q.

AC and AB are coplanar and point D is not.

Points E and H are coplanar, but their rays, EF and GH are non-coplanar.

IJ , IK, IL, and IM with common endpoint I and J, K, L and M are non-collinear.
Always
Sometimes
Sometimes
Sometimes
Never
Always
Sometimes
Never
Always
Sometimes
#18: By definition, a point does not take up any space, it is only a location. #21: The ray is never read BA,
the endpoint is always stated first.
To make #15 true, they must be three non-collinear points. For #16, the two rays must lie on the same line,
which it does not state. For #20, four points could be coplanar, but you only need three points to make a plane,
so the fourth point could be in another plane. For #23, theorems can also be proven true by definitions and
previously proven theorems.
The walls, ceiling and floor are all planes. When two of them intersect the intersection is a line (i.e. the ceiling
and a wall). When two walls and either the ceiling or the floor intersect the intersection is a point.
The spokes on a wheel are segments. They intersect at a point.
Cities on a map are points and the distance between them can be found by measuring the segment connecting
the points.

29-33.
3

1.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Points, Lines, and Planes, Review Answers

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Chapter 1. Basics of Geometry, Answer Key

1.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Segments and


Distance, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1.625 in
2.875 in
3.7 cm
8.2 cm
2.75 in
4.9 cm
4.625 in
8.7 cm

9.
10. O would be halfway between L and T , so that LO = OT = 8 cm
11.
a.
b. TA + AQ = T Q
c. T Q = 15 in
12.
a.
b. HM + MA = HA
c. AM = 11 cm
13. BC = 8 cm, BD = 25 cm, and CD = 17 cm

14. FE = 8 in, HG = 13 in, and FG = 17 in

15.
a.
b.
c.
d.

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

RS = 4
QS = 14
TS = 8
TV = 12

x = 3, HJ = 21, JK = 12, HK = 33
x = 11, HJ = 52, JK = 79, HK = 131
x = 1, HJ = 2 31 , JK = 5 32 , HK = 8
x = 17, HJ = 27, JK = 153, KH = 180
x = 16, HJ = 7, JK = 15, KH = 22
One possible answer.
5

1.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Segments and Distance, Review Answers

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|7 (6)|= 13
|3 2|= 5
|0 (9)|= 9
|4 1|= 5
Answers vary, but hopefully most students found their heights to be between 7 and 8 heads.
Answers should include some reference to the idea that multiplying and dividing by ten (according to the
prefixes) is much easier than keeping track of 12 inches in a ft, 3 ft in a yard, 5280 ft in a mile, etc.
28. Answers vary, but students should recognize that the pedometer is more likely to yield a false reading because
a persons stride length varies. One possible way to minimize this error would be to average a persons stride
length over a relatively long distance-i.e. count the number of steps taken in 100 m.
29. Answers vary. The cubit was the first recorded unit of measure and it was integral to the building of the
Egyptian pyramids.
30. Students should comment on the ideal proportions found in the human face and how these correspond to
our perception of beauty.

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

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Chapter 1. Basics of Geometry, Answer Key

1.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Angles and


Measurement, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

False, two angles could be 5 and 30 .


False, it is a straight angle.
True
True
False, you use a compass.
False, B is the vertex.
True
True
True
False, it is equal to the sum of the smaller angles within it.
Acute

12. Obtuse

13. Obtuse

14. Acute

15. Obtuse

1.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Angles and Measurement, Review Answers


16. Acute

17 & 18: Drawings should look exactly like 12 and 16, but with the appropriate arc marks.

19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

40
122
18
87
AE = CD, ED = CB, m6 EDC = 90 , m6 EAC = m6 ABC

24.
25. An interior point would be (2, 0).

26. An interior point would be (2, 0).


8

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28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

Chapter 1. Basics of Geometry, Answer Key

27.
m6 QOP = 100
m6 QOT = 130
m6 ROQ = 30
m6 SOP = 70
(x + 7) + (2x + 19) = 56
(3x + 26) = 56
3x = 30
x = 10
(4x 23) + (4x 23) = 130
(8x 46) = 130
8x = 176
x = 22
(5x 13) + 90 = (16x 55)
(5x + 77) = (16x 55)
22 = 11x
x = 2
(x 9) + (5x + 1) = (9x 80)
(6x 8) = (9x 80)
72 = 3x
x = 24
Students should comment about the necessity to have a number of degrees in a line that is divisible by 30, 45,
60 and 90 degrees because these degree measures are prevalent in the study of geometrical figures. Basically,
setting the measure of a straight line equal to 180 degrees allows us to have more whole number degree
measures in common geometrical figures.

1.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Midpoints and Bisectors, Review Answers

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1.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Midpoints and


Bisectors, Review Answers

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

12 in
5 in
5 in
13 in
90
10 in
24 in
90
8 triangles
PS
QT ,V S
90
45
bisector
bisector
PU is a segment bisector of QT
45
x = 9, y = 14
x = 14
x = 20
d = 13
x = 12
a = 22 , x = 12
55 each

26. 37.5 each


10

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Chapter 1. Basics of Geometry, Answer Key

27. 3.5 cm each

28. 2 in each

29. You created a right, or 90 angle.

30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

(3, -5)
(1.5, -6)
(5, 5)
(-4.5, 2)
(7, 10)
11

1.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Midpoints and Bisectors, Review Answers

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35. (6, 9)
36. This is incorrect. She should have written AB = CD or AB
= CD.
37. This formula will give the same answer.


x1 + x2 y1 + y2
,
= (mx , my )
2
2
y1 + y2
x1 + x2
= mx and
= my
2
2
amp; x1 + x2 = 2mx and y1 + y2 = 2my
amp; x1 = 2mx x2

For#34,

and y1 = 2my y2

x1 = 2(3) (1) = 7
y1 = 2(6) 2 = 10

38.
39. A square or a rectangle.

40. Midpoint could be used to determine where you might want to make a stop halfway through a trip (if using a
map the longitude and latitude could be used in the formula for midpoint). We often want to find the middle
of something-the middle of a wall to hang a picture, the middle of a room to divide it in half, etc.

12

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Chapter 1. Basics of Geometry, Answer Key

1.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Angle Pairs,


Review Answers
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.

45
8
71
(90 z)

a.
b.
c.
d.

135
62
148
(180 x)

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

6
6
6
6

JNI and 6 MNL (or 6 INM and 6 JNL)


INM and 6 MNL (or 6 INK and 6 KNL )
INJand 6 JNK
INM and 6 MNL (or 6 INK and 6 KNL)
a.
b.
c.
d.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

117
90
63
117

Always
Sometimes
Never
Always
Always
Never
Sometimes
Always
x = 7
x = 34
y = 13
x = 17
x = 15
y = 9
y = 8
x = 10.5
x = 4
y = 3
x = 67 , y = 40
x = 38 , y = 25
x = 15 , x = 4
x = 11 ,
x = 2

x = 1 + 102, x = 1 102
x = 11 , y = 7
13

1.6. Geometry - Second Edition, Classifying Polygons, Review Answers

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1.6 Geometry - Second Edition, Classifying


Polygons, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Acute scalene triangle


Equilateral and equiangular triangle
Right isosceles triangle.
Obtuse scalene triangle
Acute isosceles triangle
Obtuse isosceles triangle
No, there would be more than 180 in the triangle, which is impossible.
No, same reason as #7.

9.
All the angles in an equilateral triangle must be equal. So, an equilateral triangle is also an equiangular
triangle.
Concave pentagon
Convex octagon
Convex 17-gon
Convex decagon
Concave quadrilateral
Concave hexagon
A is not a polygon because the two sides do not meet at a vertex; B is not a polygon because one side is curved;
C is not a polygon because it is not closed.
2 diagonals

19. 5 diagonals
14

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Chapter 1. Basics of Geometry, Answer Key

20. A dodecagon has twelve sides, so you can draw nine diagonals from one vertex.
21. The pattern is below

TABLE 1.1:
Number of sides
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Diagonals from one vertex


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

This shows us that the number diagonals from one vertex increase by one each time. So, for an ngon, there are
(n 3) diagonals from one vertex.
22. Octagon has 20 total diagonals Nonagon has 27 total diagonals Decagon has 35 total diagonals Undecagon
has 44 total diagonals Dodecagon has 54 total diagonals The pattern is 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 20, 27, 35, 44, 54. To
find the next term you would add one more than was added previously. For example, the next term you would
add 11. The equation is n(n3)
2 .
23. Sometimes
24. Always
25. Always
26. Never
27. Always
28. Sometimes, a square is ALWAYS a quadrilateral.
29. Sometimes, you can draw AT MOST n 3 diagonals from one vertex.
30. Sometimes, a 5-point star is ALWAYS a decagon.
For questions 31-34 answers will vary.

31.
15

1.6. Geometry - Second Edition, Classifying Polygons, Review Answers

32.

33.
34. a rhombus or diamond

35. This triangle is to scale.

36. Use #9 to help you. It is the same construction, but do not draw the third side.

16

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Chapter 1. Basics of Geometry, Answer Key

1.7 Geometry - Second Edition, Chapter Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

E
B
L
A
H
M
F
O
J
G
I
K
D
C
N

17

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C HAPTER

Reasoning and Proof,


Answer Key

Chapter Outline
2.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , I NDUCTIVE R EASONING , R EVIEW A NSWERS

2.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , C ONDITIONAL S TATEMENTS , R EVIEW A N SWERS

18

2.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , D EDUCTIVE R EASONING , R EVIEW A NSWERS

2.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A LGEBRAIC AND C ONGRUENCE P ROPERTIES ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

2.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROOFS ABOUT A NGLE PAIRS AND S EG MENTS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

2.6

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 2. Reasoning and Proof, Answer Key

2.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Inductive Reasoning, Review Answers


1. 9, 21
2. 20, 110
3.

a.
b. there are two more points in each star than its figure number.
c. n + 2
4.
a. 10;

b. 48
c. 2n
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

20, 23; 107; 3n + 2


19, 24; 164; 5n + 11
64, 128; 34, 359, 738, 368; 2n
12, 1; 307; 11n + 78
12, 0; 93; odd terms: 3n + 12, even terms: 4n
6 7 35 n
7 , 8 ; 36 ; n+1
2n
12 14 70
23 , 27 ; 139 ; 4n1
13, 15; 71; (1)n1 (2n + 1)
21, 25; 137; (1)n (4n 3)
1 1 1 (1)n
12 , 14 ; 70 ; 2n
8, 11; 73; odd terms 2n + 3, even terms 2n + 14
36, 49; 1225; n2
38, 51; the amount that is added is increasing by two with each term.
48, 63; the amount that is added is increasing by two with each term.
216, 343; the term number cubed, n3 .
8, 13; add the previous two terms together to get the current term.
There is a good chance that Tommy will see a deer, but it is not definite. He is reasoning correctly, but there
are other factors that might affect the outcome.
19

2.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Inductive Reasoning, Review Answers

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22. Maddie has experimented multiple times and recognized a pattern in her results. This is a good example of
inductive reasoning.
23. Juan does not use inductive reasoning correctly. It is important that conclusions are based on multiple
observations which establish a pattern of results. He only has one trial.
24. Answers vary-correct answers should include multiple experiments or trials which indicate a clear pattern for
outcomes.
25. Answers vary.
26. n(n+3)
2
27. (n+1)(n+2)
2
28. n(n+1)(n+2)
2
29. Students should notice that the points are collinear. Thus, they could find the rule by finding the equation of
the line using any two of the three points. The equation is y = 5x 2.
30. The sequences in problems 5, 6 and 8 are of the same type. They can be modeled by linear equations because
they have a constant slope or rate of change. In other words, the same value is added or subtracted each time
to get the next term.

20

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Chapter 2. Reasoning and Proof, Answer Key

2.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Conditional


Statements, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Hypothesis: 5 divides evenly into x. Conclusion: x ends in 0 or 5.


Hypothesis: A triangle has three congruent sides. Conclusion: It is an equilateral triangle.
Hypothesis: Three points lie in the same plane. Conclusion: The three points are coplanar.
Hypothesis: x = 3. Conclusion: x2 = 9.
Hypothesis: You take yoga. Conclusion: You are relaxed.
Hypothesis: You are a baseball player. Conclusion: You wear a hat.
Converse: If x ends in 0 or 5, then 5 divides evenly into x. True. Inverse: If 5 does not divide evenly into x,
then x does not end in 0 or 5. True. Contrapositive: If x does not end in 0 or 5, then 5 does not divide evenly
into it. True
Converse: If you are relaxed, then you take yoga. False. You could have gone to a spa. Inverse: If you do not
take yoga, then you are not relaxed. False. You can be relaxed without having had taking yoga. You could
have gone to a spa. Contrapositive: If you are not relaxed, then you did not take yoga. True
Converse: If you wear a hat, then you are a baseball player. False. You could be a cowboy or anyone else who
wears a hat. Inverse: If you are not a baseball player, then you do not wear a hat. False. Again, you could be
a cowboy. Contrapositive: If you do not wear a hat, then you are not a baseball player. True
If a triangle is equilateral, then it has three congruent sides. True. A triangle has three congruent sides if and
only if it is equilateral.
If three points are coplanar, then they lie in the same plane. True. Three points lie in the same plane if and
only if they are coplanar.
If x2 = 9, then x = 3. False. x could also be -3.
If B is the midpoint of AC, then AB = 5 and BC = 5. This is a true statement.
If AB 6= 5 and BC 6= 5, then B is not the midpoint of AC. This is true.
If B is noncollinear with A and C.
If AB 6= 5 and BC 6= 5, then B is not the midpoint of AC. It is the same as #14.
the original statement
pq
p q
p q
pq

18. the contrapositive


pq
p q
q p
19. the contrapositive
pq
q p
q p
21

2.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Conditional Statements, Review Answers

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20. the original statement


pq
q p
p q
pq
21. If a U.S. citizen can vote, then he or she is 18 or more years old. If a U.S. citizen is 18 or more years old, then
he or she can vote.
22. If a whole number is prime, then it has exactly two distinct factors. If a whole number has exactly two distinct
factors, then it is prime.
23. If points are collinear, then there is a line that contains the points. If there is a line that contains the points,
then the points are collinear.
24. If 2x = 18, then x = 9. If x = 9, then 2x = 18.
25.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Yes.
No, x could equal -4.
No, again x could equal -4.
Yes.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Yes.
Yes.
Yes.
Yes.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Yes.
Yes.
Yes.
Yes.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Yes.
No, 6 ABC could be any value between 0 and 90 degrees.
No, again 6 ABC could be any value between 0 and 90 degrees.
Yes.

26.

27.

28.

29. Answers vary.


30. Answers vary.

22

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Chapter 2. Reasoning and Proof, Answer Key

2.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Deductive


Reasoning, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

10.

11.

12.
13.

14.
15.
16.
17.

18.
19.
20.
21.

I am a smart person. Law of Detachment


No conclusion
If a shape is a circle, then we dont need to study it. Law of Syllogism.
You dont text while driving. Law of Contrapositive.
It is sunny outside. Law of Detachment.
You are not wearing sunglasses. Law of Contrapositive.
My mom did not ask me to clean my room. Law of Contrapositive.
If I go to the park, I will give my dog a bath. Law of Syllogism.
This is a sound argument, but it doesnt make sense because we know that circles exist. p q
qr
rs
st
pt
pq
p
q
pq
q
p
If I need a new watch battery, then I go to the mall. If I go to the mall, then I will shop. If I shop, then I will
buy shoes. Conclusion: If I need a new watch battery, then I will buy shoes.
If Annas teacher gives notes, then Anna writes them down. If Anna writes down the notes, then she can do
the homework. If Anna can do the homework, then she will get an A on the test. If Anna gets an A on the test,
her parents will take her out for ice cream. Conclusion: If Annas teacher gives notes, then Annas parents
will buy her ice cream.
Inductive; a pattern of weather was observed.
Deductive; Beth used a fact to determine what her sister would eat.
Deductive; Jeff used a fact about Nolan Ryan.
Either reasoning. Inductive; surfers observed patterns of weather and waves to determine when the best time
to surf is. Deductive; surfers could take the given statement as a fact and use that to determine when the best
time to surf is.
Inductive; observed a pattern.
Both-Inductive: Amani noticed a pattern of behavior. Deductive: Amani ruled out possible explanations until
there was only one remaining.
Deductive: The detectives narrowed their field of suspects by eliminating those who couldnt have committed
the crime.
See the following table:

TABLE 2.1:
p
T
F

p
F
T

p p
F
F

22. See the following table:


23

2.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Deductive Reasoning, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

TABLE 2.2:
p
T
T
F
F

p
F
F
T
T

q
T
F
T
F

q
F
T
F
T

p q
F
T
T
T

q q
T
T
T
T

p (p q)
T
T
F
F

23. See the following table:

TABLE 2.3:
p
T
T
F
F

q
F
T
F
T

q
T
F
T
F

24. See the following table:

TABLE 2.4:
p
T
T
T
T
F
F
F
F

q
T
T
F
F
T
T
F
F

r
T
F
T
F
T
F
T
F

r
F
T
F
T
F
T
F
T

pq
T
T
F
F
F
F
F
F

(p q) r
T
T
F
T
F
T
F
T

qr
T
F
T
T
T
F
T
T

p ( q r)
T
T
T
T
T
F
T
T

25. See the following table:

TABLE 2.5:
p
T
T
T
T
F
F
F
F

q
T
T
F
F
T
T
F
F

26. See the following table:

24

r
T
F
T
F
T
F
T
F

q
F
F
T
T
F
F
T
T

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Chapter 2. Reasoning and Proof, Answer Key

TABLE 2.6:
p
T
T
T
T
F
F
F
F
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

q
T
T
F
F
T
T
F
F

r
T
F
T
F
T
F
T
F

r
F
T
F
T
F
T
F
T

q r
T
T
F
T
T
T
F
T

p (q r)
T
T
F
T
F
F
F
F

There are two more T s in #24. We can conclude that parenthesis placement matters.
p q r is always true except the one case when p, q, and r are all false.
True; Law of Syllogism
Not valid
True; Law of Contrapositive
Not valid
True; Law of Detachment
Not valid

25

2.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Algebraic and Congruence Properties, Review Answers

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2.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Algebraic and


Congruence Properties, Review Answers
1. 3x + 11 = 16
3x = 27
Subtraction PoE
x = 9
Division PoE
2. 7x 3 = 3x 35
4x 3 = 35
Subtraction PoE
4x = 32
Addition PoE
x = 8
Division PoE
2
3. 3 g + 1 = 19
2
Subtraction PoE
3 g = 18
g = 27
Multiplication PoE
4. 21 MN = 5
MN = 10
Multiplication PoE

6
5. 5m ABC = 540
m6 ABC = 108
Division PoE
6. 10b 2(b + 3) = 5b
10b 2b 6 = 5b
Distributive Property
8b 6 = 5b
Combine like terms
6 = 3b
Subtraction PoE
2=b
Division PoE
b=2
Symmetric PoE
7. 14 y + 56 = 31
3y + 10 = 4
Multiplication PoE (multiplied everything by 12)
3y = 6
Subtraction PoE
y = 2
Division PoE
8. 14 AB + 31 AB = 12 + 21 AB
3AB + 4AB = 144 + 6AB
Multiplication PoE (multiplied everything by 12)
7AB = 144 + 6AB
Combine like terms
AB = 144
Subtraction PoE
9. 3 = x
10. 12x 32
11. x = 12
12. y + z = x + y
13. CD = 5
14. z + 4 = y 7
15. Yes, they are collinear. 16 + 7 = 23
16. No, they are not collinear, 9 + 9 6= 16. I cannot be the midpoint.
17. 6 NOP must be an obtuse angle because it is supplementary with 56 , meaning that m6 NOP is 180 56 =
124 . 90 < 124 < 180 , so by definition 6 NOP is an obtuse angle.
18. 6 ABC
= 6 DEF
6 GHI
= 6 JKL;
= 6 s have = measures; m6 ABC + m6 GHI = m6 DEF + m6 GHI; Substitution
19. M is the midpoint of AN, N is the midpoint MB; AM = MN, MN = NB; Transitive
20. 6 BFE or 6 BFG

21. EFBF
22. Yes, EG = FH because EF = GH and EF + FG = EG and FG + GH = FH by the Segment Addition
Postulate. FG = FG by the Reflexive Property and with substitution EF + FG = EG and FG + EF = FH.
26

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Chapter 2. Reasoning and Proof, Answer Key

Therefore, EG = FH by the Transitive Property.


23. Not necessarily, G could slide along EH.
24. See the following table:

TABLE 2.7:
Statement
1. 6 EBF
= 6 HCG
6 ABE
6
= DCH
2. m6 EBF = m6 HCG
m 6 ABE = m6 DCH
3. m6 ABF = m6 EBF + m6 ABE
m 6 DCG = m6 HCG + m6 DCH
4. m6 ABF = m6 EBF + m6 ABE
m 6 DCG = m6 EBF + m6 ABE
5. m6 ABF = m6 DCG
6. 6 ABF
= 6 DCG

Reason
Given

= angles have = measures


Angle Addition Postulate
Substitution PoE
Transitive PoE

= angles have = measures

25. See the following table:

TABLE 2.8:
Statement
1. AB = CD
2. BC = BC
3. AB + BC = CD + BC
4. AC = BD
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

Reason
Given
Reflexive PoE
Addition PoE
Segment Addition Postulate

No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
See the following table:

TABLE 2.9:
Statement
1. 6 DAB is a right angle
2. m6 DAB = 90
3. AC bisects 6 DAB
4. m6 DAC = m6 BAC
5. m6 DAB = m6 DAC + m6 BAC
6. m6 DAB = m6 BAC + m6 BAC
7. m6 DAB = 2m6 BAC
8. 90 = 2m6 BAC
9. 45 = m6 BAC

Reason
Given
Definition of a right angle
Given
Definition of an angle bisector
Angle Addition Postulate
Substitution PoE
Combine like terms
Substitution PoE
Division PoE

27

2.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Algebraic and Congruence Properties, Review Answers

33.

TABLE 2.10:
Statement
1. 6 1 and 6 2 form a linear pair m6 1 = m6 2
2. 6 1 and 6 2 are supplementary
3. m6 1 + m6 2 = 180
4. m6 1 + m6 1 = 180
5. 2m6 1 = 180
6. m6 1 = 90
7. 6 1 is a right angle

28

Reason
Given
Linear Pair Postulate
Definition of Supplementary
Substitution
Simplify
Division PoE
Definition of a right angle

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Chapter 2. Reasoning and Proof, Answer Key

2.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Proofs about


Angle Pairs and Segments, Review Answers
1. See the following table:

TABLE 2.11:
Statement
1. ACBD, 6 1
=6 4
2. m6 1 = m6 4
3. 6 ACB and 6 ACD are right angles
4. m6 ACB = 90
m 6 ACD = 90
5. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 ACB
m 6 3 + m6 4 = m6 ACD
6. m6 1 + m6 2 = 90
m 6 3 + m6 4 = 90
7. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 3 + m6 4
8. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 3 + m6 1
9. m6 2 = m6 3
10. 6 2
=6 3

Reason
Given

= angles have = measures


lines create right angles
Definition of right angles
Angle Addition Postulate
Substitution
Substitution
Substitution
Subtraction PoE

= angles have = measures

2. See the following table:

TABLE 2.12:
Statement
1. 6 MLN
= 6 OLP
2. m6 MLN = m6 OLP
3. m6 MLO = m6 MLN + m6 NLO
m 6 NLP = m6 NLO + m6 OLP
4. m6 NLP = m6 NLO + m6 MLN
5. m6 NLP = m6 MLO
6. 6 NLP
= 6 MLO

Reason
Given

= angles have = measures


Angle Addition Postulate
Substitution
Substitution

= angles have = measures

3. See the following table:

TABLE 2.13:
Statement
1. AEEC, BEED
2. 6 BED is a right angle
6 AEC is a right angle
3. m6 BED = 90
m 6 AEC = 90
4. m6 BED = m6 2 + m6 3
m 6 AEC = m6 1 + m6 2

Reason
Given
lines create right angles

Definition of a right angle


Angle Addition Postulate
29

2.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Proofs about Angle Pairs and Segments, Review Answers

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TABLE 2.13: (continued)


Statement
5. 90 = m6 2 + m6 3
90^ = m6 1 + m6 2
6. m6 2 + m6 3 = m6 1 + m6 2
7. m6 3 = m6 1
8. 6 3
=6 1

Reason
Substitution
Substitution
Subtraction PoE

= angles have = measures

4. See the following table:

TABLE 2.14:
Statement
1. 6 L is supplementary to 6 M
6 P is supplementary to 6 O
6 L
=6 O
2. m6 L = m6 O
3. m6 L + m6 M = 180
m 6 P + m6 O = 180
4. m6 L + m6 M = m6 P + m6 O
5. m6 L + m6 M = m6 P + m6 L
6. m6 M = m6 P
7. 6 M
=6 P

Reason
Given

= angles have = measures


Definition of supplementary angles
Substitution
Substitution
Subtraction PoE

= angles have = measures

5. See the following table:

TABLE 2.15:
Statement
1. 6 1
=6 4
2. m6 1 = m6 4
3. 6 1 and 6 2 are a linear pair
6 3 and 6 4 are a linear pair
4. 6 1 and 6 2 are supplementary
6 3 and 6 4 are supplementary
5. m6 1 + m6 2 = 180
m 6 3 + m6 4 = 180
6. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 3 + m6 4
7. m6 1 + m6 2 = m6 3 + m6 1
8. m6 2 = m6 3
9. 6 2
=6 3

Reason
Given

= angles have = measures


Given (by looking at the picture) could also be Definition of a Linear Pair
Linear Pair Postulate

Definition of supplementary angles


Substitution
Substitution
Subtraction PoE

= angles have = measures

6. See the following table:

TABLE 2.16:
Statement
1. 6 C and 6 F are right angles
2. m6 C = 90 , m6 F = 90
30

Reason
Given
Definition of a right angle

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Chapter 2. Reasoning and Proof, Answer Key

TABLE 2.16: (continued)


Statement
3. 90 + 90 = 180
4. m6 C + m6 F = 180

Reason
Addition of real numbers
Substitution

7. See the following table:

TABLE 2.17:
Statement
1. lm
2. 6 1 and 6 2 are right angles
3. 6 1
=6 2

Reason
Given
lines create right angles.
Right Angles Theorem

8. See the following table:

TABLE 2.18:
Statement
1. m6 1 = 90
2. 6 1 and 6 2 are a linear pair
3. 6 1 and 6 2 are supplementary
4. m6 1 + m6 2 = 180
5. 90 + m6 2 = 180
6. m6 2 = 90

Reason
Given
Definition of a linear pair
Linear Pair Postulate
Definition of supplementary angles
Substitution
Subtraction PoE

9. See the following table:

TABLE 2.19:
Statement
1. lm
2. 6 1 and 6 2 make a right angle
3. m6 1 + m6 2 = 90
4. 6 1 and 6 2 are complementary

Reason
Given
lines create right angles
Definition of a right angle
Definition of complementary angles

10. See the following table:

TABLE 2.20:
Statement
1. lm, 6 2
=6 6
2. m6 2 = m6 6
3. 6 5
=6 2
6
4. m 5 = m6 2
5. m6 5 = m6 6

Reason
Given

= angles have = measures


Vertical Angles Theorem

= angles have = measures


Transitive

31

2.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Proofs about Angle Pairs and Segments, Review Answers
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

32

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AHM, 6 PHE and 6 GHE, 6 AHC


AM
= MG,CP
= PE, AH
= HE, MH
= HP, GH
= HC
6 AMH, 6 HMG and 6 CPH, 6 HPE
6 AHC
6 MAH, 6 HAC and 6 MGH, 6 HGE
GC
AE, GC
6 AHM, 6 MHG
6 AGH
= 6 HGE
Given;
= angles have = measures; m6 ACE = m6 ACH + m6 ECH; m6 ACE = m6 ACH + m6 ACH; Combine
like terms; 21 m6 ACE = m6 ACH; AC is the angle bisector of 6 ACH; Definition of an angle bisector
90
26
154
26
64
25
75
105
90
50
40
25
130
155
130

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Chapter 2. Reasoning and Proof, Answer Key

2.6 Chapter Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

D
F
H
B
I
C
G
A
J
E

33

www.ck12.org

C HAPTER

Parallel and Perpendicular


Lines, Answer Key

Chapter Outline
3.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , L INES AND A NGLES , R EVIEW A NSWERS

3.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROPERTIES OF PARALLEL L INES , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

3.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROVING L INES PARALLEL , R EVIEW A N SWERS

34

3.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROPERTIES OF P ERPENDICULAR L INES , R E VIEW A NSWERS

3.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , PARALLEL AND P ERPENDICULAR L INES IN


THE C OORDINATE P LANE , R EVIEW A NSWERS

3.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , T HE D ISTANCE F ORMULA , R EVIEW A NSWERS

3.7

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 3. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines, Answer Key

3.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Lines and Angles, Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

AB and EZ, XY and BW , among others


AB || VW , among others
BC BW , among others
one, AV
one, CD
6 6
6 3
6 2
6 1
6 8
6 8
6 5
m6 3 = 55 (vertical angles), m6 1 = 125 (linear pair), m6 4 = 125 (linear pair)
m6 8 = 123 (vertical angles), m6 6 = 57 (linear pair), m6 7 = 57 (linear pair)
No, we do not know anything about line m.
No, even though they look parallel, we cannot assume it.

17.

19.
20.
21.
22.

18.
Fold the paper so that the lines match up and the crease passes through the point you drew.
Same as number 19.
One way to do this is to use the edges of the ruler as guide lines. The sides of the ruler are parallel.
Use the ruler to draw a line. Turn the ruler perpendicular to the first line (make sure it is perpendicular by
matching up a marking on the ruler to the original line. Use the ruler edge to draw the perpendicular line.
35

3.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Lines and Angles, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

23. Parallel lines are evident in the veins of the leaves of ferns and the markings on some animals and insects.
Parallel planes are illustrated by the surface of a body of water and the bottom.
24. Trees are usually perpendicular to the ground. Each leaf of a fern is perpendicular to the stem.
25. Some branches of trees are skew.
26. Any two equations in the form y = b, where b is a constant.
27. Any two equations in the form x = b, where b is a constant.
28. These two lines are parallel to each other.

29. slope of AB equals slope of CD = 56 ; these lines are parallel

30. slope of AB = 53 , slope of CD = 53 ; these lines are perpendicular


31. It appears that the slopes of parallel lines are the same and the slopes of perpendicular lines are opposite
reciprocals.
32. y = 2x 11
33. y = 53 x + 2
34. y = 32 x + 6
35. y = 4x 5

36

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Chapter 3. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines, Answer Key

3.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of


Parallel Lines, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Supplementary
Congruent
Congruent
Supplementary
Congruent
Supplementary
Supplementary
Same Side Interior
Alternate Interior
None
Same Side Interior
Vertical Angles
Corresponding Angles
Alternate Exterior
None
6 1, 6 3, 6 6, 6 9, 6 11, 6 14, and 6 16
x = 70 , y = 90
x = 15 , y = 40
x = 9 , y = 26
x = 21 , y = 17
x = 25
y = 18
x = 20
x = 31
y = 12
See the following table:

TABLE 3.1:
Statement
1. l || m
2. 6 1
=6 5
3. m6 1 = m6 5
4. 6 1 and 6 3 are supplementary
5. m6 1 + m6 3 = 180
6. m6 3 + m6 5 = 180
7. 6 3 and 6 5 are supplementary

Reason
Given
Corresponding Angles Postulate

= angles have = measures


Linear Pair Postulate
Definition of Supplementary Angles
Substitution PoE
Definition of Supplementary Angles

27. See the following table:

TABLE 3.2:
Statement
1. l || m

Reason
Given
37

3.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Parallel Lines, Review Answers

TABLE 3.2: (continued)


Statement
2. 6 1
=6 5
6
3. 5
=6 8
4. 6 1
=6 8

Reason
Corresponding Angles Postulate
Vertical Angles Theorem
Transitive PoC

28. See the following table:

TABLE 3.3:
Statement
1. l || m
2. 6 4 and 6 6 are supplementary
3. m6 4 + m6 6 = 180
4. 6 2
= 6 6, 6 4
=6 8
6
6
5. m 2 = m 6, m6 4 = m6 8
6. m6 2 + m6 8 = 180
7. 6 2 and 6 8 are supplementary

Reason
Given
Same Side Interior Angles Theorem
Definition of Supplementary Angles
Corresponding Angles Postulate

= angles have = measures


Substitution PoE
Definition of Supplementary Angles

29. See the following table:

TABLE 3.4:
Statement
1. l || m, s || t
2. 6 4
= 6 12
6
3. 12
= 6 10

4. 6 4 = 6 10

Reason
Given
Corresponding Angles Postulate
Corresponding Angles Postulate
Transitive PoC

30. See the following table:

TABLE 3.5:
Statement
1. l || m, s || t
2. 6 2
= 6 13
3. 6 13
= 6 15

6
4. 2 = 6 15

Reason
Given
Alternate Exterior Angles Theorem
Corresponding Angles Postulate
Transitive PoC

31. See the following table:

TABLE 3.6:
Statement
1. l || m, s || t
2. 6 6
=6 9
6
3. 4
=6 7
4. 6 6 and 6 7 are supplementary
38

Reason
Given
Alternate Interior Angles Theorem
Vertical Angles Theorem
Same Side Interior Angles

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Chapter 3. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines, Answer Key

TABLE 3.6: (continued)


Statement
5. 6 9 and 6 4 are supplementary
32.
33.
34.
35.

Reason
Same Angle Supplements Theorem

m6 1 = 102 , m6 2 = 78 , m6 3 = 102 , m6 4 = 78 , m6 5 = 22 , m6 6 = 78 , m6 7 = 102


x = 15 , y = 21
x = 37 , y = 28
The Same Side Interior Angles Theorem says that two angles are supplementary, not congruent.

39

3.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Proving Lines Parallel, Review Answers

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3.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Proving Lines


Parallel, Review Answers
1. Start by copying the same angle as in Investigation 3-1, but place the copy where the alternate interior angle
would be.

2. This question could be considered a trick question, because you are still copying two congruent angles, not
two supplementary ones, like asked. Indicate the consecutive interior angles with arc marks, but copy the
adjacent angle to the one that was copied in # 14.

3. Given, 6 1
= 6 3, Given, 6 2
= 6 3, Corresponding Angles Theorem, Transitive Property

4. Given, 6 1 = 6 3, Given, 6 2
= 6 3, l || m
5. Give, Converse of the Alternate Interior Angles Theorem, Given, Converse of the Alternate Interior Angles
Theorem, Parallel Lines Property
6. See the following table:

TABLE 3.7:
Statement
1. m l, n l
2. m6 l = 90 , m6 2 = 90
3. m6 1 = m6 2
4. m || n

Reason
Given
Definition of Perpendicular Lines
Transitive Property
Converse of Corresponding Angles Theorem

7. See the following table:

TABLE 3.8:
Statement
1. 6 1
=6 3
2. m || n
40

Reason
Given
Converse of Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

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Chapter 3. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines, Answer Key

TABLE 3.8: (continued)


Statement
3. m6 3 + m6 4 = 180
4. m6 1 + m6 4 = 180
5. 6 1 and 6 4 are supplementary

Reason
Linear Pair Postulate
Substitution
Definition of Supplementary Angles

8. See the following table:

TABLE 3.9:
Statement
1. 6 2
=6 4
2. m || n
3. 6 1
=6 3

Reason
Given
Converse of Corresponding Angles Theorem
Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

9. See the following table:

TABLE 3.10:
Statement
1. 6 2
=6 3
2. m || n
3. 6 1
=6 4

Reason
Given
Converse of Corresponding Angles Theorem
Alternate Exterior Angles Theorem

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

none
yes, AK || LJ by Converse of Consecutive Interior Angles Theorem
yes, LG || KD by Converse of Corresponding Angles Theorem
none
none
yes, AD || GJ by Converse of Alternate Interior Angles Theorem
58
73
107
58
49
107
49
x = 30
x = 15
x = 12
x = 26
x = 5
Construction, the first and last lines are parallel. You might conjecture that two lines perpendicular to the same
line are parallel to each other.
29. You could prove this using any of the converse theorems learned in this section because all four angles
formed where the transversal intersects the two parallel lines are right angles. Thus, Alternate Interior Angles,
Alternate Exterior Angles and Corresponding Angles are all congruent and the Same Side Interior Angles are
supplementary.
30. These two angles should be supplementary if the lines are parallel.
41

3.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Perpendicular Lines, Review Answers

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3.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of


Perpendicular Lines, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

90
90
45
16
72
84
41
24
78
90
126
54
180

not
not

90
34
56
90
56
134
134
34
See the following table:

TABLE 3.11:
Statement
1. l m, l n
2. 6 1 and 6 2 are right angles
3. m6 1 = 90 , m6 2 = 90
4. m6 1 = m6 2
5. 6 1
=6 2
6. m || n
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

42

x = 12
x = 9
x = 13.5
x = 8
x = 4
x = 30

Reason
Given
Definition of perpendicular lines
Definition of right angles
Transitive PoE

= angles have = measures


Converse of the Corresponding Angles Postulate

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Chapter 3. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines, Answer Key

3.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Parallel and


Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate
Plane, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

1
3

-1
2
7

-2
4
undefined
Perpendicular

8. Parallel

9. Perpendicular
43

3.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Parallel and Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane, Review Answers
www.ck12.org

10. Neither

11. Perpendicular

12. Parallel
44

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Chapter 3. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines, Answer Key

13. Neither

14. Parallel

15. y = 5x 7
45

3.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Parallel and Perpendicular Lines in the Coordinate Plane, Review Answers
www.ck12.org
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

46

y = 32 x 5
y = 14 x + 2
y = 32 x + 1
y = 2x + 1
y = x 10
y = x 4
y = 13 x 4
y = 25 x + 7
x = 1
y=8
y = 3x + 13
Perpendicular y = 23 x + 2
y = 32 x 4
Parallel y = 15 x + 7
y = 15 x 3
Perpendicular y = x
y = x
Neither y = 2x + 2
y = 2x 3
: y = 43 x 1
||: y = 43 x + 5 41
: y = 3x 3
||: y = 13 x + 7
: y = 7
||: x = 3
: y = x 4
||: y = x + 8

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Chapter 3. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines, Answer Key

3.6 Geometry - Second Edition, The Distance


Formula, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

17.09 units
19.20 units
5 units
17.80 units
22.20 units
14.21 units
6.40 units
9.22 units
6.32 units
6.71 units
12 units
7 units
4.12 units
18.03 units
2.83 units
7.81 units
4 units
9 units
5.66 units
9.49 units
4.12 units
4.47 units
y = 21 x 3
y = 3x + 5
y = 23 x 4
y = 52 x + 8
(9, -4)
(8, -1)
y = 53 x 6, (0, 6)

47

3.6. Geometry - Second Edition, The Distance Formula, Review Answers

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30. y = 2x + 1

31. There are 12 possible answers: (-27, 9), (23, 9), (-2, -16), (-2, 34), (-17, -11), (-17, 29), (13, -11), (13, 29),
(-22, 24), (-22, -6), (18, 24), and (18, -6)
32. 1. Graph the two lines. 2. Determine the slope of a perpendicular line to the two lines. 3. Use the slope
from #2 to count from one line to the next to find a point on each line that is also on a perpendicular line. 4.
Determine coordinates of the points from #3. 5. Plug the points from #4 into the distance formula and solve.

48

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Chapter 3. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines, Answer Key

3.7 Chapter Review Answers


m6 1 = 90

m6 2 = 118

m6 3 = 90

m6 4 = 98

m6 5 = 28

m6 6 = 118

m6 7 = 128

m6 8 = 52

m6 9 = 62

49

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C HAPTER

Triangles and Congruence,


Answer key

Chapter Outline

50

4.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , T RIANGLE S UMS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

4.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , C ONGRUENT F IGURES , R EVIEW A NSWERS

4.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , T RIANGLE C ONGRUENCE USING SSS AND


SAS, R EVIEW A NSWERS

4.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , T RIANGLE C ONGRUENCE USING ASA, AAS,


AND HL, R EVIEW A NSWERS

4.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , I SOSCELES AND E QUILATERAL T RIANGLES ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

4.6

C HAPTER 4 R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 4. Triangles and Congruence, Answer key

4.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Sums,


Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

43
121
41
86
61
51
13
60
70
118
68
116
161
141
135
a = 68 , b = 68 , c = 25 , d = 155 , e = 43.5 , f = 111.5
See the following table:

TABLE 4.1:
Statement
1. Triangle with interior and exterior angles.
2. m6 1 + m6 2 + m6 3 = 180
3. 6 3 and 6 4 are a linear pair, 6 2 and 6 5 are a linear
pair, and 6 1 and 6 6 are a linear pair
4. 6 3 and 6 4 are supplementary, 6 2 and 6 5 are
supplementary, and 6 1 and 6 6 are supplementary
5. m6 1 + m6 6 = 180 , m6 2 + m6 5 = 180
m 6 3 + m6 4 = 180
6. m6 1 + m6 6 + m6 2 + m6 5 + m6 3 + m6 4 = 540
7. m6 4 + m6 5 + m6 6 = 360

Reason
Given
Triangle Sum Theorem
Definition of a linear pair
Linear Pair Postulate

Definition of supplementary angles


Combine the 3 equations from #5.
Subtraction PoE

18. See the following table:

TABLE 4.2:
Statement
1. 4ABC with right angle B
2. m6 B = 90
3. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C = 180
4. m6 A + 90 + m6 C = 180
5. m6 A + m6 C = 90
6. 6 A and 6 C are complementary

Reason
Given
Definition of a right angle
Triangle Sum Theorem
Substitution
Subtraction PoE
Definition of complementary angles

51

4.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Sums, Review Answers


19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

52

x = 14
x = 9
x = 22
x = 17
x = 12
x = 30
x = 25
x = 7
x = 8
x = 17
x = 11
x = 7

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Chapter 4. Triangles and Congruence, Answer key

4.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Congruent Figures, Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

R
= 6 U, 6 A
= 6 G, 6 T
= 6 H, RA
= UG, AT
= GH, RT
= UH

6
6
6
6
6
B = T, I = O, G = P, BI = T O, IG = OP, BG = T P
Third Angle Theorem
90 , they are congruent supplements
Reflexive, FG
= FG
Angle Bisector
4FGI
= 4FGH
6 A
= 6 E and 6 B
= 6 D by Alternate Interior Angles Theorem
Vertical Angles Theorem
No, we need to know if the other two sets of sides are congruent.
AC
= CE and BC
= CD

4ABC = 4EDC
Yes, 4FGH
= 4KLM
No
Yes, 4ABE
= 4DCE
No
4BCD
= 4ZY X
CPCTC
m6 A = m6 X = 86 , m6 B = m6 Z = 52 , m6 C = m6 Y = 42
m6 A = m6 C = m6 Y = m6 Z = 35 , m6 B = m6 X = 110
m6 A = m6 C = 28 , m6 ABE = m6 DBC = 90 , m6 D = m6 E = 62
m6 B = m6 D = 153 , m6 BAC = m6 ACD = 15 , m6 BCA = m6 CAD = 12
See the following table:
6

TABLE 4.3:
Statement
1. 6 A
= 6 D, 6 B
=6 E
6
6
2. m A = m D, m6 B = m6 E
3. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C = 180
m 6 D + m6 E + m6 F = 180
4. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C = m6 D + m6 E + m6 F
5. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C = m6 A + m6 B + m6 F
6. m6 C = m6 F
7. 6 C
=6 F

24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Reason
Given

= angles have = measures


Triangle Sum Theorem
Substitution PoE
Substitution PoE
Subtraction PoE

= angles have = measures

Transitive PoC
Reflexive PoC
Symmetric PoC
Reflexive PoC
4ABC is either isosceles or equiangular because the congruence statement tells us that 6 A
= 6 B.
53

4.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Congruent Figures, Review Answers

29.

30. 4SMR
4SMT
4T
MA
4AMR
and 4SRA
=
=
=
= 4RAT
= 4AT S
= 4T SA

54

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Chapter 4. Triangles and Congruence, Answer key

4.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using SSS and SAS, Review Answers

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Yes, 4DEF
= 4IGH
No, HJ and ED are not congruent because they have different tic marks
No, the angles marked are not in the same place in the triangles.
Yes, 4ABC
= 4RSQ
No, this is SSA, which is not a congruence postulate
No, one triangle is SSS and the other is SAS.
Yes, 4ABC
= 4FED
Yes, 4ABC
= 4Y XZ

AB = EF
AB
= HI
6 C
=6 G
6 C
=6 K
AB
= JL
AB
= ON
See the following table:

TABLE 4.4:
Statement
1. AB
= DC, BE
= CE

6
6
2. AEB = DEC
3. 4ABE
= 4ACE

Reason
Given
Vertical Angles Theorem
SAS

16. See the following table:

TABLE 4.5:
Statement
1. AB
= DC, AC
= DB
2. BC
= BC
3. 4ABC
= 4DCB

Reason
Given
Reflexive PoC
SSS

17. See the following table:

TABLE 4.6:
Statement
1. B is a midpoint of DC, ABDC
2. DB
= BC
3. 6 ABD and 6 ABC are right angles
4. 6 ABD
= 6 ABC

5. AB = AB
6. 4ABD
= 4ABC

Reason
Given
Definition of a midpoint
lines create 4 right angles
All right angles are
=
Reflexive PoC
SAS
55

4.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using SSS and SAS, Review Answers
18. See the following table:

TABLE 4.7:
Statement
1. AB is an angle bisector of 6 DAC,
AD
= AC
2. 6 DAB
= 6 BAC

3. AB = AB
4. 4ABD
= 4ABC

Reason
Given
Definition of an Angle Bisector
Reflexive PoC
SAS

19. See the following table:

TABLE 4.8:
Statement
1. B is the midpoint of DC, AD
= AC

2. DB = BC
3. AB
= AB
4. 4ABD
= 4ABC

Reason
Given
Definition of a Midpoint
Reflexive PoC
SSS

20. See the following table:

TABLE 4.9:
Statement
1. B is the midpoint of DE and AC, 6 ABE is a right
angle
2. DB
= BE, AB
= BC
3. m6 ABE = 90
4. m6 ABE = m6 DBC
5. 4ABE
= 4CBD

Reason
Given
Definition of a Midpoint
Definition of a Right Angle
Vertical Angle Theorem
SAS

21. See the following table:

TABLE 4.10:
Statement
1. DB is the angle bisector of 6 ADC,
AD
= DC
6
2. ADB
= 6 BDC
3. DB
= DB
4. 4ABD
= 4CBD

22.
23.
24.
25.
56

Yes
Yes
No
Yes

Reason
Given
Definition of an Angle Bisector
Reflexive PoC
SAS

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Chapter 4. Triangles and Congruence, Answer key

26. Check the measures of the three sides in your triangle with your ruler to make sure that they are 5cm, 3cm and
2cm. If you are having trouble, follow the directions in investigation 4-2 using these lengths.
27. Match up your construction with the original to see if they are the same.
28. Your triangle should look like this.

29 and 30. These are the two triangles you should create in these two problems.

57

4.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using ASA, AAS, and HL, Review Answers www.ck12.org

4.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Triangle Congruence using ASA, AAS, and HL, Review
Answers
1. Yes, AAS, 4ABC FDE
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

=
Yes, ASA, 4ABC
= 4IHG
No
No
Yes, SAS, 4ABC
= 4KLJ
No
Yes, SAS, 4RQP
Yes, HL, 4ABC
= 4QPR
Yes, SAS, 4ABE
= 4DBC
No
No
Yes, ASA, 4KLM
= 4MNO
Yes, SSS, 4W ZY
= 4Y XW
Yes, AAS, 4W XY
= 4QPO
6 DBC
6
= DBA because they are both right angles.
6 CDB
= 6 ADB

DB = DB
See the following table:

TABLE 4.11:
Statement
1. DBAC,
DB is the angle bisector of 6 CDA
2. 6 DBC and 6 ADB are right angles
3. 6 DBC
= 6 ADB

4. 6 CDB = 6 ADB
5. DB
= DB
6. 4CDB
= 4ADB

Reason
Given
Definition of perpendicular
All right angles are
=
Definition of an angle bisector
Reflexive PoC
ASA

19. CPCTC
20. 6 L
= 6 O and 6 P
= 6 N by the Alternate Interior Angles Theorem

6
6
21. LMP = NMO by the Vertical Angles Theorem
22. See the following table:

TABLE 4.12:
Statement
1. LP || NO, LP
= NO

6
6
6
2. L = O, P = 6 N
3. 4LMP
= 6 OMN
23. CPCTC
24. See the following table:
58

Reason
Given
Alternate Interior Angles Theorem
ASA

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Chapter 4. Triangles and Congruence, Answer key

TABLE 4.13:
Statement
1. LP || NO, LP
= NO

6
6
6
2. L = O, P = 6 N
3. 4LMP
= 6 OMN
4. LM
MO
=
5. M is the midpoint of PN.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

Reason
Given
Alternate Interior Angles
ASA
CPCTC
Definition of a midpoint

A
=6 N
6 C
=6 M
PM
= MN
LM
= MO or LP
= NO
UT
= FG
SU
= FH
See the following table:
6

TABLE 4.14:
Statement
1. SV WU, T is the midpoint of SV and WU
2. 6 STW and 6 UTV are right angles
3. 6 STW
= 6 UTV

4. ST = TV ,W T
= TU
5. 4STW
= 4UTV
6. W S
= UV

Reason
Given
Definition of perpendicular
All right angles are
=
Definition of a midpoint
SAS
CPCTC

32. See the following table:

TABLE 4.15:
Statement
1. 6 K
= 6 T, EI is the angle bisector of 6 KET
2. 6 KEI
= 6 T EI
3. EI
EI
=
4. 4KEI
= 4T EI
5. 6 KIE
= 6 T IE
6. EI is the angle bisector of 6 KIT

Reason
Given
Definition of an angle bisector
Reflexive PoC
AAS
CPCTC
Definition of an angle bisector

59

4.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles, Review Answers

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4.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Isosceles and


Equilateral Triangles, Review Answers
All of the constructions are drawn to scale with the appropriate arc marks.

1.

2.

3.

4.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

17.
60

5.
x = 10, y = 7
x = 14
x = 13
x = 16
x = 7
x=1
y=3
y = 11 , x = 4
x = 25 , y = 19
x = 3, y = 8
Yes, 4ABC is isosceles. 4ABD is congruent to 4CBD by ASA. Therefore segments AB and BC are congruent
by CPCTC. Or, 6 A is congruent to 6 C by third angles theorem and thus the triangle is isosceles by the converse
of the Base Angles Theorem.

www.ck12.org
a.
b.
c.
d.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Chapter 4. Triangles and Congruence, Answer key

90
30
60
2

Always
Sometimes
Sometimes
Never
Always
a = 46 , b = 88 , c = 46 , d = 134 , e = 46 , f = 67 , g = 67
See the following table:

TABLE 4.16:
Statement
1. Isosceles 4CIS, with base angles 6 C and 6 SIO is
the angle bisector of 6 CIS
2. 6 C
=6 S
6
3. CIO
= 6 SIO
4. IO
= IO
5. 4CIO
= 4SIO
6. CO
= OS
7. 6 IOC
= 6 IOS
6
8. IOC and 6 IOS are supplementary
9. m6 IOC = m6 IOS = 90
10. IO is the perpendicular bisector of CS

Reason
Given
Base Angles Theorem
Definition of an Angle Bisector
Reflexive PoC
ASA
CPCTC
CPCTC
Linear Pair Postulate
Congruent Supplements Theorem
Definition of a bisector (Steps 6 and 9)

25. See the following table:

TABLE 4.17:
Statement
1. Equilateral 4RST with RT
= ST
= RS
2. 6 R
=6 S
3. 6 S
=6 T
4. 6 R
=6 T
5. 4RST is equilangular

Reason
Given
Base Angles Theorem
Base Angles Theorem
Transitive PoC
Definition of an Equiangular 4

26. See the following table:

TABLE 4.18:
Statement
1. Isosceles 4ICS with 6 C and 6 S, IO is the perpendicular bisector of CS
2. 6 C
=6 S
3. CO
= OS
4. m6 IOC = m6 IOS = 90
5. 4CIO
= 4SIO

Reason
Given
Base Angle Theorem
Definition of a bisector
Definition of a bisector
ASA
61

4.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Isosceles and Equilateral Triangles, Review Answers

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TABLE 4.18: (continued)


Statement
6. 6 CIO
= 6 SIO
7. IO is the angle bisector of 6 CIS

Reason
CPCTC
Definition of an Angle Bisector

27. See the following table:

TABLE 4.19:
Statement
1. Isosceles 4ABC with base angles 6 B and 6 C,
Isosceles 4XY Z with base angles 6 Y and 6 Z, 6 C
=
6 Z, BC
= YZ
2. 6 B
= 6 C, 6 Y
=6 Z
6
3. 6 B
Y
=
4. 4ABC
= 4XY Z

Reason
Given

Base Angles Theorem


Transitive PoC
ASA

28. Bisect a 60 angle as shown.

29. Construct a 60 angle, then extend one side. The adjacent angle is 120 .

30. In investigations 3-2 and 3-3 you learned how to construct perpendiculars (i.e. 90 angles). You could make a
90 angle and copy your 30 onto it to make 120 . See investigation 1-2 for a review of copying an angle.
31. Method 1: Construct a 90 angle and bisect it. Method 2: Construct a 30 angle, bisect the 30 angle and copy
the resulting 15 angle onto the original 30 to make a total of 45 .

62

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Chapter 4. Triangles and Congruence, Answer key

4.6 Chapter 4 Review Answers


For 1-5, answers will vary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

One leg and the hypotenuse from each are congruent, 4ABC
= 4Y XZ

Two angles and the side between them, 4ABC = EDC


Two angles and a side that is NOT between them, 4ABC
= 4SRT
All three sides are congruent, 4ABC
= 4CDA
Two sides and the angle between them, 4ABF
= 4ECD
Linear Pair Postulate
Base Angles Theorem
Exterior Angles Theorem
Property of Equilateral Triangles
Triangle Sum Theorem
Equilateral Triangle Theorem
Property of an Isosceles Right Triangle

63

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C HAPTER

Relationships with
Triangles, Answer Key

Chapter Outline
5.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , M IDSEGMENTS OF A T RIANGLE , R EVIEW A N SWERS

5.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ERPENDICULAR B ISECTORS IN T RIANGLES ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

5.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A NGLE B ISECTORS IN T RIANGLES , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

5.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , M EDIANS AND A LTITUDES IN T RIANGLES ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

5.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , I NEQUALITIES IN T RIANGLES , R EVIEW A N SWERS

5.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , E XTENSION : I NDIRECT P ROOF, R EVIEW A N SWERS

5.7

64

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 5. Relationships with Triangles, Answer Key

5.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Midsegments


of a Triangle, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

RS = TU = 6
TU = 8
x = 5, TU = 10
x=4
No, we cannot say that the triangles are congruent. We do not know any angle measures.
y = 18
x = 12
x = 5.5
x=6
x = 14, y = 24
x = 6, z = 26
x = 5, y = 3
x = 1, z = 11
a. 53
b. 106
c. The perimeter of the larger triangle is double the perimeter of the midsegment triangle.

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

(7, 1), (3, 6), (1, 3)


(3, 6), (2, 2), (-5, -3)
(2, 2), (1, -2), (-1, 1)
(5, 0), (5, -4), (2, 0)
GH = 13 , HI = 2, GI = 12

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

(3, 4), (15,


-2), (-3, -8)
GH = 90 9.49, Yes, GH is half of this side
(0, 3), (0, -5) and (-4, -1)
(-1, 4), (3, 4) and (5, -2)
a. M(0, 3), N(1, 2), O(4, 0);
b. slope of MN and AC = 5, slope of NO and AB = 23 , and slope of MO and BC = 34 ;
65

5.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Midsegments of a Triangle, Review Answers


c. MN =

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26 and AC = 2 26; NO = 13 and AC = 2 13; OM = 5 and BC = 10.

26.
a. M(1, 3), N(5, 2), O(2, 1);
b. slope of MN and AC = 41 , slope of NO and AB = 12 , and slope of MO and BC = 2;

c. MN = 17 and AC = 2 17; NO = 10 and AC = 2 10; OM = 5 and BC = 2 5.




3 y1 +y3
2 y1 +y2
, M x1 +x
27. L x1 +x
2 , 2
2 , 2
28. slope of LM =

y1 +y3
y1 +y2
2 2
x1 +x3
x1 +x2
2 2

y3 y2
x3 x2

= slope of AT
 

y1 + y3 y1 + y2 2
x1 + x3 x1 + x2 2
29. length of LM =
+

2
2
2
2
s
2 
2
x3 x2
y3 y2
=
+
2
2
r
1
1
(x3 x2 )2 + (y3 y2 )2
=
4
q4
1
2
= 2 (x3 x2 ) + (y3 y2 )2 = 12 AT
30. We have just proven algebraically that the midsegment (or segment which connects midpoints of sides in a
triangle) is parallel to and half the length of the third side.
s

66

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Chapter 5. Relationships with Triangles, Answer Key

5.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Perpendicular


Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers

1.

2.

3.
4. Yes, but for #2, the circumcenter is not within the triangle.
5. For acute triangles, the circumcenter is inside the triangle. For right triangles, the circumcenter is on the
hypotenuse. For obtuse triangles, the circumcenter is outside the triangle.
6. By the definition of a perpendicular bisector, all three sides are bisected and therefore each half is congruent
and all six triangles are right triangles. Then, by the definition of a circumcenter, the distance from it to each
vertex is congruent (the hypotenuses of each triangle). Therefore, all 6 triangles are congruent by HL.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

x = 16
x=8
x=5
x = 12
x = 31
x = 34
a. AE = EB, AD = DB
67

5.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Perpendicular Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers

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b. No, AC 6= CB
c. Yes, AD = DB
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

No, not enough information


No, we dont know if T is the midpoint of XY .
m = 12
(4, 2)
y=
2x + 10
2 5
C is going to be on the perpendicular
In the picture, it is
above AB, but it also could be
bisector of AB.
below AB on y = 2x + 10. AB = 2 5, so AC is also 2 5. So, C will be 2 5 units above or below AB on
y = 2x + 10.

21-25. drawing

68

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Chapter 5. Relationships with Triangles, Answer Key

26.

27.
28. The perpendicular bisector of one side in a triangle is the set of all points equidistant from the endpoints of
that side. When we find the perpendicular bisector of a second side, we find all the points equidistant from
the endpoints of the second side (one of which is an endpoint of the first side as well). This means that the
intersection of these two lines is equidistant from all three vertices of the triangle. The segments connecting
this point (the circumcenter) to each vertex would be the radius of the circumscribed circle.
29. Fill in the blanks: There is exactly one circle which contains any three points.
30. See the following table:

TABLE 5.1:
Statement

1. CD is the perpendicular bisector of AB


2. D is the midpoint of AB
3. AD
= DB
4. 6 CDA and 6 CDB are right angles
5. 6 CDA
= 6 CDB

6. CD = CD

Reason
Given
Definition of a perpendicular bisector
Definition of a midpoint
Definition of a perpendicular bisector
Definition of right angles
Reflexive PoC
69

5.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Perpendicular Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers

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TABLE 5.1: (continued)


Statement
7. 4CDA
= 4CDB

8. AC = CB

Reason
SAS
CPCTC

31. See the following table:

TABLE 5.2:
Statement
1. 4ABC is a right isosceles triangle and BD is the
bisector of AC
2. D is the midpoint of AC
3. AD
= DC
4. AB
= BC
5. BD
= BD
6. 4ABD and 4CBD are congruent.

Reason
Given
Definition of a perpendicular bisector
Definition of a midpoint
Definition of Isosceles Triangle
Reflexive Property of Congruence
SSS

32. Since 6 ABC is a right angle and 6 ABD


= 6 CBD (CPCTC), each must be 45 . Also, since 6 ABC is a right
angle and 6 A
= 6 C, by Base Angles Theorem, 6 A and 6 C = 45 . Therefore, by the converse of the Base
Angles Theorem, 4ABD and 4CBD are isosceles.

70

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Chapter 5. Relationships with Triangles, Answer Key

5.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Angle Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers


1-3. Construct the incenter using investigation 5-2.
4. Yes, by definition, angle bisectors are on the interior of the angle. So, the incenter will be on the interior of all
three angles, or inside the triangle.
5. They will be the same point.
6. x = 6
7. x = 3
8. x = 8
9. x = 7
10. x = 9
11. x = 9
12. No, the line segment must be perpendicular to the sides of the angle also.
13. No, it doesnt matter if the bisector is perpendicular to the interior ray.
14. Yes, the angles are marked congruent.
15. A is the incenter because it is on the angle bisectors. B is the circumcenter because it is equidistant to the
vertices.
16. A is the circumcenter because it is equidistant to the vertices. B is the incenter because it is equidistant to the
sides.
17. See the following table:

TABLE 5.3:
Statement
1. AD
= DC

2. BAAD and BCDC


3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

6
6

DAB and 6 DCB are right angles


DAB
= 6 DCB
BD
= BD
4ABD
= 4CBD
6 ABD
= 6 DBC

BD bisects 6 ABC

18.
19.
20.
21.

Reason
Given
The shortest distance from a point to a line is perpendicular.
Definition of perpendicular lines
All right angles are congruent
Reflexive PoC
HL
CPCTC
Definition of an angle bisector

Incenter
Circumcenter
Circumcenter
Incenter

22-25. In an equilateral triangle the circumcenter and the incenter are the same point.
71

5.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Angle Bisectors in Triangles, Review Answers

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26. See diagram for 29-31.

27. slope of BA is -2 and slope of BC is 21 . The rays are perpendicular because their slopes are opposite reciprocals.

28. AB = 20 = 2 5 and BC = 20 = 2 5. They are congruent.


29-31.

32. BD is the angle bisector of 6 ABC. Since ADAB and CDCB, 4DAB and 4DCB are right triangles. Since
we have shown that AB
= BC and we know BD
= BD by the reflexive property, 4DAB
= 4DCB by HL. Thus,

6 ABD = 6 CBD by CPCTC. Now we can conclude that BD is the angle bisector of 6 ABC by definition of an
angle bisector.

72

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Chapter 5. Relationships with Triangles, Answer Key

5.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Medians and


Altitudes in Triangles, Review Answers
1-3. Use Investigation 5-3 to find the centroid.
4. The centroid will always be inside of a triangle because medians are always on the interior of a triangle.
5-7. Use Investigation 5-4 and 3-2 to find the orthocenter. For #6, the orthocenter will be outside of the triangle.
8. If a triangle is equilateral, then the incenter, circumcenter, orthocenter and centroid will all be the same point.
This is because all of the sides are equal and all the angles are equal.
9. You only have to construct two lines for each point of concurrency. That is because any two lines intersect at
one point. The fact that a third line intersects at this point does not change the location of the point.
10. y = 21 x + 2
11. y = 3x 3
12. y = x + 4
13. y = 31 x 5
14. GE = 10
BE = 15
15. GF = 8
CF = 24
16. AG = 20
GD = 10
17. GC = 2x
CF = 3x
18. x = 2, AD = 27
19. See the following table:

TABLE 5.4:
Statement
1. 4ABC
= 4DEF, AP and DO are altitudes

2. AB = DE
3. 6 P and 6 O are right angles
4. 6 P
=6 O
6
5. ABC
= 6 DEF
6. 6 ABC and 6 ABP are a linear pair
6 DEF and 6 DEO are a linear pair
7. 6 ABC and 6 ABP are supplementary
6 DEF and 6 DEO are supplementary
8. 6 ABP
= 6 DEO
9. 4APB
= 4DOE

10. AP = DO

Reason
Given
CPCTC
Definition of an altitude
All right angles are congruent
CPCTC
Definition of a linear pair
Linear Pair Postulate
Congruent Supplements Theorem
AAS
CPCTC

20. See the following table:

73

5.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Medians and Altitudes in Triangles, Review Answers

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TABLE 5.5:
Statement
1. Isosceles 4ABC with legs AB and AC
BDDC and CEBE
2. 6 DBC
= 6 ECB
3. 6 BEC and 6 CEB are right angles
4. 6 BEC
= 6 CEB

5. BC = BC
6. 4BEC
= 4CDB
7. BD
= CE
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Base Angles Theorem


Definition of perpendicular lines
All right angles are congruent
Reflexive PoC
AAS
CPCTC

M(2, 5)
y = 2x + 1
N(1, 3)
y = 4x + 1
intersection (0, 1)
Centroid
(1, -1)
(1, 3)

29. Midpoint of one side is



x1 +x2 +x3 y1 +y2 +y3
.
,
3
3
30. (1, -5)

74

Reason
Given


x1 +x2 y1 +y2
,
2 , 2


using the third vertex, the centroid is

x +x2

x3 +2( 1 2
3

y +y2

y3 +2( 1 2
3


=

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Chapter 5. Relationships with Triangles, Answer Key

5.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Inequalities in


Triangles, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

AB, BC, AC
BC, AB, AC
AC, BC, AB
6 B, 6 A, 6 C
6 B, 6 C, 6 A
6 C, 6 B, 6 A
No, 6 + 6 < 13
No, 1 + 2 = 3
Yes
Yes
No, 23 + 56 < 85
Yes
1 < 3rd side <17
11 < 3rd side <19
12 < 3rd side <52
Both legs must be longer than 12
0 < x < 10.3
m6 1 > m6 2 because 7 > 6
IJ, IG, GJ, GH, JH
m6 1 < m6 2, m6 3 > m6 4
a=b
a>b
a<b
d<a<e<c<b
a=b<d<e<c
x < 18
x>3
m6 C < m6 B < m6 A because AB < AC
SAS theorem doesnt apply here since the angle is not between the pair of congruent sides.
Since the median AB bisects the side CT ,CB
= BT . By the reflexive property, AB
= AB. If CA > AT , then we
can use the SSS Inequality Theorem to conclude that m6 ABT < m6 ABC. Since m6 ABT and m6 ABC are also
a linear pair and must be supplementary, the smaller angle must be acute. Hence, 6 ABT is acute.

75

5.6. Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Indirect Proof, Review Answers

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5.6 Geometry - Second Edition, Extension:


Indirect Proof, Review Answers
Answers will vary. Here are some hints.
Assume n is odd, therefore n = 2a + 1.
Use the definition of an equilateral triangle to lead you towards a contradiction.
Remember the square root of a number can be negative or positive.
Use the definition of an isosceles triangle to lead you towards a contradiction.
If x + y is even, then x + y = 2n, where n is any integer.
Use the Triangle Sum Theorem to lead you towards a contradiction.
With the assumption of the opposite of AB + BC = AC, these three lengths could make a triangle, thus making
A, B, and C non-collinear.
8. If we assume that we have an even number of nickels, then the value of the coin collection must be a multiple
of ten and we have a contradiction.
9. Assume that the last answer on the quiz is false. This implies that the fourth answer is true. If the fourth
answer is true, then the one before it (the third answer) is false. However, this contradicts the fact that the third
answer is true.
10. None. To prove this by contradiction, select each statement as the true statement and you will see that at
least one of the other statements will also be true. If Charlie is right, then Rebecca is also right. If Larry is
right, then Rebecca is right. If Rebecca is right, then Larry is right.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

76

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Chapter 5. Relationships with Triangles, Answer Key

5.7 Chapter Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

BE
AE
AH
CE
AG
The point of concurrency is the circumcenter and use Investigation 5-1 to help you. The circle should pass
through all the vertices of the triangle (inscribed triangle).
The point of concurrency is the incenter and use Investigation 5-2 to help you. The circle should touch all the
sides of the triangle (inscribed circle).
The point of concurrency is the centroid and it is two-thirds of the medians length from the vertex (among
other true ratios). It is also the balancing point of a triangle.
The point of concurrency is called the orthocenter. The circumcenter and the orthocenter can lie outside a
triangle when the triangle is obtuse.
x 7 < third side < 3x + 5

77

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C HAPTER

Polygons and
Quadrilaterals, Answer Key

Chapter Outline

78

6.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A NGLES IN P OLYGONS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

6.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROPERTIES OF PARALLELOGRAMS , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

6.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROVING Q UADRILATERALS ARE PARALLEL OGRAMS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

6.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , R ECTANGLES , R HOMBUSES AND S QUARES ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

6.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , T RAPEZOIDS AND K ITES , R EVIEW A NSWERS

6.6

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 6. Polygons and Quadrilaterals, Answer Key

6.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Angles in Polygons, Review Answers


1. See the following table:

TABLE 6.1:
# of sides
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

# of 4s from one
vertex
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

4s 180 (sum)
180
360
540
720
900
1080
1260
1440
1620
1800

Each angle in a
regular ngon
60
90
108
120
128.57
135
140
144
147.27
150

Sum of the exterior


angles
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360

2340
3780
26
20
157.5
165
30
10
360
18
30
17
24
10
11
x = 60
x = 90 , y = 20
x = 35
y = 115
x = 105
x = 51 , y = 108
x = 70 , y = 70 , z = 90
x = 72.5 , y = 107.5
x = 90 , y = 64
x = 52 , y = 128 , z = 123
larger angles are 135
smallest angle is 36
x = 117.5
79

6.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Angles in Polygons, Review Answers

30. 180 (n2)180


= 360
n
n

360
180 n180 n+360
=
n
n
360
360
=
n
n
31. a = 120 , b = 60 , c = 48 , d = 60 , e = 48 , f = 84 , g = 120 , h = 108 , j = 96

80

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Chapter 6. Polygons and Quadrilaterals, Answer Key

6.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of


Parallelograms, Review Answers
m6 A = 108 , m6 C = 108 , m6 D = 72
m6 P = 37 , m6 Q = 143 , m6 D = 37
all angles are 90
m6 E = m6 G = (180 x) , m6 H = x
a = b = 53
c=6
d = 10, e = 14
f = 5, g = 3
h = 25 , j = 11 , k = 8
m = 25 , n = 19
p = 8, q = 3
r = 1, s = 2
t = 3, u = 4
96
85
43
42
12
2
64
42
(2, 1), Find the midpoint of one of the diagonals since the midpoints are the same for both
slope of EF = slope of GH = 41 ; slope of EH = slope of FG = 52 ; Slopes of opposite sides are the same,
therefore opposite
sides are parallel.

24. EF = HG = 17; FG = EH = 29; lengths of opposite sides are the same (congruent).
25. A quadrilateral in the coordinate plane can be show to be a parallelogram by showing any one of the three
properties of parallelograms shown in questions 22-24.
26. See the following table:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

TABLE 6.2:
Statement
1. ABCD is a parallelogram with diagonal BD
2. AB || DC, AD || BC
3. 6 ABD
= 6 BDC, 6 ADB
= 6 DBC

4. DB = DB
5. 4ABD
= 4CDB
6
6. 6 A
C
=

Reason
Given
Definition of a parallelogram
Alternate Interior Angles Theorem
Reflexive PoC
ASA
CPCTC

27. See the following table:

81

6.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Parallelograms, Review Answers

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TABLE 6.3:
Statement
1. ABCD is a parallelogram with diagonals BD and AC
2. AB || DC, AD || BC
3. 6 ABD
= 6 BDC, 6 CAB
= 6 ACD
DC
4. AB
=
5. 4DEC
= 4BEA
6. AE
= EC, DE
= EB

Reason
Given
Definition of a parallelogram
Alternate Interior Angles Theorem
Opposite Sides Theorem
ASA
CPCTC

28. See the following table:

TABLE 6.4:
Statements
1. ABCD is a parallelogram
2. m6 1 = m6 3 and m6 2 = m6 4
3. m6 1 + m6 2 + m6 3 + m6 4 = 360
4. m6 1 + m6 2 + m6 1 + m6 2 = 360
5. 2(m6 1 + m6 2) = 360
6. m6 1 + m6 2 = 180
29.
30.
31.
32.

82

w = 135
x = 16
y = 105
z = 60

Reasons
Given
Opposite angles congruent in parallelogram
Sum of angles in quadrilateral is 360
Substitution
Simplification
Division POE

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Chapter 6. Polygons and Quadrilaterals, Answer Key

6.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Proving


Quadrilaterals are Parallelograms, Review
Answers
1. No
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
x=5
x = 8 , y = 10
x = 4, y = 3
Yes
Yes
No
See the following table:

TABLE 6.5:
Statement
1. 6 A
= 6 C, 6 D
=6 B
2. m6 A = m6 C, m6 D = m6 B
3. m6 A + m6 B + m6 C + m6 D = 360
4. m6 A + m6 A + m6 B + m6 B = 360
5. 2m6 A + 2m6 B = 360
2m 6 A + 2m6 D = 360
6. m6 A + m6 B = 180
m 6 A + m6 D = 180
7. 6 A and 6 B are supplementary
6 A and 6 D are supplementary
8. AD || BC, AB || DC
9. ABCD is a parallelogram

Reason
Given

= angles have = measures


Definition of a quadrilateral
Substitution PoE
Combine Like Terms
Division PoE
Definition of Supplementary Angles
Consecutive Interior Angles Converse
Definition of a Parallelogram

20. See the following table:

TABLE 6.6:
Statement
1. AE
= EC, DE
= EB
6
2. AED
= 6 BEC
6 DEC
= 6 AEB

Reason
Given
Vertical Angles Theorem
83

6.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Proving Quadrilaterals are Parallelograms, Review Answers

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TABLE 6.6: (continued)


Statement
3. 4AED
= 4CEB

4AEB = 4CED
4. AB
= DC, AD
= BC
5. ABCD is a parallelogram

Reason
SAS
CPCTC
Opposite Sides Converse

21. See the following table:

TABLE 6.7:
Statement
1. 6 ADB
= 6 CBD, AD
= BC
2. AD || BC
3. ABCD is a parallelogram

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

see graph
-2
3 5
see graph
The triangle is formed by the midsegments of the triangle formed when the parallelograms overlap. Four
congruent triangles are formed within this center triangle, which is also congruent to the three outer triangles.

27. see graph


84

Reason
Given
Alternate Interior Angles Converse
Theorem 5-10

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28.
29.
30.
31.

Chapter 6. Polygons and Quadrilaterals, Answer Key

parallelogram
slope of W X = slope of Y Z = 3; slope of XY = slope of ZW = 12 opposite sides parallel
midpoint of diagonal YW is (1.5, 3.5); midpoint of diagonal XZ is (1.5, 3.5); midpoints bisect each other
Each side of the parallelogram is parallel to the diagonal. For example, XY || DU || ZW , so opposite sides
are parallel. They are also half the length of the diagonal so opposite sides are congruent. Either proves that
W XY Z is a parallelogram.

85

6.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Rectangles, Rhombuses and Squares, Review Answers

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6.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Rectangles,


Rhombuses and Squares, Review Answers
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

13
26
24
10
90

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

12
21.4
11
54
90

a.
b.
c.
d.

90
90
45
45

2.

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

24.
25.
26.
27.
86

Rectangle, the diagonals bisect each other and are congruent.


Rhombus, all sides are congruent and the diagonals are perpendicular.
None
Parallelogram, the diagonals bisect each other.
Square, the diagonals bisect each other, are congruent, and perpendicular.
Rectangle, all angles are right angles.
None
Square, all the angles and sides are congruent.
Parallelogram, one set of sides are parallel and congruent.
Sometimes, with the figure is a square.
Always
Sometimes, when it is a square.
Always
Sometimes, when it is a square.
Never
Square
Rhombus
Rectangle
Parallelogram
Answers will vary. One possibility: Another way to determine if a quadrilateral is a square would be to find
the length of all the sides using the distance formula. All sides must be equal. Then, find the slopes of each
side. If the adjacent sides have perpendicular slopes, then the angles are all 90 and thus congruent.
, z = 37
x = 10, w = 53 , y = 37

x = 45 , y = 90 , z = 2 2
x = y = 13, w = z = 25
See the following table:

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Chapter 6. Polygons and Quadrilaterals, Answer Key

TABLE 6.8:
Statements
1. ABCD is a rectangle
2. BW
= WC, AY
= Y D, BX
= XA, CZ
= ZD
3. BD = AC
4. XY is a midsegment in 4ABD
ZY is a midsegment in 4ACD
XW is a midsegment in 4ABC
W Z is a midsegment in 4BCD
5. XY = 21 BD = W Z and XW = 12 AC = Y Z
6. 12 BD = 12 AC
7. XY = W Z = Y Z = XW
8. W XY Z is a rhombus

Reasons
1. Given
2. Definition of a midpoint
3. Diagonals are congruent in a rectangle
4. Definition of a midsegment in a triangle

5. Midsegment in a triangle is half the length of the


parallel side.
6. Division POE
7. Substitution
8. Definition of a rhombus

28. Answers may vary. The quadrilateral inscribed in the rhombus will always be a rectangle because the diagonals
of a rhombus are perpendicular and the opposite sides of the inscribed quadrilateral will be parallel to the
diagonals and thus perpendicular to one another.
29. Answers may vary. First, the square is a rhombus, the inscribed quadrilateral will be a rectangle (see problem
28). Second, the diagonals of the square are congruent so the sides of the inscribed quadrilateral will be
congruent (see problem 27). Since the sides of the inscribed quadrilateral are perpendicular and congruent the
parallelogram is a square.

30.
Start by drawing a segment 2 inches long. Construct the perpendicular bisector of this segment. Mark off
points on the perpendicular bisector .75 inches from the point of intersection. Connect these points to the
endpoint of your original segment.

31.
There are an infinite number of rectangles with diagonals of length 3 inches. The picture to the left shows
three possible rectangles. Start by drawing a segment 3 inches long. Construct the perpendicular bisector of
the segment to find the midpoint. Anchor your compass at the midpoint of the segment and construct a circle
which contains the endpoints of your segment (radius 1.5 inches). Now you can draw a second diameter to
87

6.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Rectangles, Rhombuses and Squares, Review Answers
your circle and connect the endpoints to form a rectangle with diagonal length 3 inches.

88

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Chapter 6. Polygons and Quadrilaterals, Answer Key

6.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Trapezoids


and Kites, Review Answers
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.

55
125
90
110

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

50
50
90
25
115

2.

3. No, if the parallel sides were congruent, then it would be a parallelogram. By the definition of a trapezoid, it
can never be a parallelogram (exactly one pair of parallel sides).
4. Yes, the diagonals do not have to bisect each other.

5. Construct two perpendicular lines to make the diagonals. One diagonal is bisected, so measure an equal length
on either side of the point of intersection on one diagonal. Mark this as two vertices. The other two vertices
are on the other diagonal. Place them anywhere on this diagonal and connect the four points to create the kite.
Answers will vary.
6. 33
7. 28
8. 8
9. 11
10. 37
11. 5
12. x = 4

13. x = 5, y = 73
14. x = 11, y = 17
15. y = 5
16. y = 45
17. x = 12 , y = 8
18. parallelogram
19. square
20. kite
21. trapezoid
22. None
23. isosceles trapezoid
24. rectangle
89

6.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Trapezoids and Kites, Review Answers

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25. rhombus
26. See the following table:

TABLE 6.9:
Statement
1. KE
= T E and KI
= TI

2. EI = EI
3. 4EKI
= 4ET I
4. 6 KES
= 6 T ES and 6 KIS
= 6 T IS
5. EI is the angle bisector of 6 KET and 6 KIT

Reason
Given
Reflexive PoC
SSS
CPCTC
Definition of an angle bisector

27. See the following table:

TABLE 6.10:
Statement
1. KE
= T E and KI
= TI
2. 4KET and 4KIT are isosceles triangles
3. EI is the angle bisector of 6 KET and 6 KIT
4. EI is the perpendicular bisector of KT
5. KT EI

Reason
Given
Definition of isosceles triangles
Theorem 6-22
Isosceles Triangle Theorem

28. See the following table:

TABLE 6.11:
Statement
1. T RAP is an isosceles trapezoid with T R || AP
2. T P
= RA

3. AP = AP
4. 6 T PA
= 6 RAP
5. 4T PA
= 4RAP

6. TA = RP

Reason
Given
Definition of isosceles trapezoid
Reflexive PoC
Base angles congruent in isosceles trapezoid
SAS
CPCTC

29. The sides of the parallelogram inscribed inside a kite will be parallel to the diagonals because they are
triangle midsegments. Since the diagonals in a kite are perpendicular, the sides of the parallelogram will
be perpendicular as well. The diagonals in a kite are not congruent so only opposite sides of the parallelogram
will be congruent and thus preventing the parallelogram from being a square.
30. Since the diagonals are congruent and the sides of the inscribed parallelogram are half the length of the
diagonals they are parallel to (because they are triangle midsegments), they are all congruent. This makes the
inscribed parallelogram a rhombus.

90

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Chapter 6. Polygons and Quadrilaterals, Answer Key

6.6 Chapter Review Answers

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Never
Always
Always
Sometimes
Sometimes
Never
Always
Sometimes

TABLE 6.12:
Opposite
sides ||

Diagonals

Opposite
sides
=

Opposite angles
=

Diagonals
=

No
No

No
No,
base
6 s
=
Non-vertex
6 s
Yes
All 6 s
=
Yes
All 6 s
=

No
Yes

Trapezoid
Isosceles
Trapezoid
Kite

One set
One set

Diagonals
bisect each
other
No
No

No

No

Yes

No
Non-parallel
sides
No

Parallelogram
Rectangle
Rhombus
Square

Both sets
Both sets
Both sets
Both sets

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
All sides
=
All sides
=

No
No
Yes
No
Yes

a = 64 , b = 118 , c = 82 , d = 99 , e = 106 , f = 88 , g = 150 , h = 56 , j = 74 , k = 136

91

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C HAPTER

Similarity, Answer Key

Chapter Outline
7.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , R ATIOS AND P ROPORTIONS , R EVIEW A N SWERS

7.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S IMILAR P OLYGONS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

7.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S IMILARITY BY AA, R EVIEW A NSWERS

7.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S IMILARITY BY SSS AND SAS, R EVIEW A N SWERS

7.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROPORTIONALITY R ELATIONSHIPS , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

7.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S IMILARITY T RANSFORMATIONS , R EVIEW A N SWERS

7.7

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , E XTENSION : S ELF -S IMILARITY, R EVIEW A N SWERS

7.8

92

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 7. Similarity, Answer Key

7.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Ratios and


Proportions, Review Answers
1.
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14.

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

4:3
5:8
6:19
6:8:5

2:1
1:3
2:1
1:1
5:4:3
x = 18 , angles are 54 , 54 , 72
x = 3; 9, 12, 15
x = 4; 12, 20
x = 16; 64, 112
X = 4; 20, 36
x = 4; 12, 44
a+b
c+d
b = d
d(a + b) = b(c + d)
ad + bd = bc + bd
ad = bc
ab
cd
b = d
d(a b) = b(c d)
ad bd = bc bd
ad = bc
x = 12
x = 5
y = 16
x = 12, 12
y = 21
z = 3.75
x = 13.9 gallons
The president makes $800,000, vice president makes $600,000 and the financial officer makes $400,000.
1 32 cups water
60 marshmallows; 6 cups miniatures
False
True
True
False
28
18
7
24

93

7.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Similar Polygons, Review Answers

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7.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Similar Polygons, Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

94

True
False
False
False
True
True
False
True
IG
BG
BI
6 B
= AT
= HT
= 6 H, 6 I
= 6 A, 6 G
= 6 T, HA
3
5
5 or 3
HT = 35
IG = 27
57, 95, 35 or 53
m6 E = 113 , m6 Q = 112
3
2
3 or 2
12
21
6
18
No, 32
26 6= 12
Yes, 4ABC 4NML
Yes, ABCD STUV
Yes, 4EFG 4LMN
x = 12, y = 15
31
x = 20, y = 7
14.6
a 7.4, b = 9.6
X = 6, y = 10.5
121
1:3
30u2 , 270u2 , 1 : 9, this is the ratio of the lengths squared or


1 2
3 .

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Chapter 7. Similarity, Answer Key

7.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity by


AA, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

4T RI
T R, T I, AM
12
6
6, 12
4ABE 4CDE because 6 BAE
= 6 DCE and 6 ABE
= 6 CDE by the Alternate Interior Angles Theorem.
AE
BE
Answers will vary. One possibility: CE = DE
One possibility: 4AED and 4BEC
AC = 22.4
Only two angles are needed because of the 3rd Angle Theorem.
Congruent triangles have the same shape AND size. Similar triangles only have the same shape. Also,
congruent triangles are always similar, but similar triangles are not always congruent.
Yes, right angles are congruent and solving for the missing angle in each triangle, we find that the other two
angles are congruent as well.
FE = 43 k
k = 16
right, right, similar
Yes, 4DEG 4FDG 4FED
Yes, 4HLI 4HKJ
No only vertical angles are congruent
Yes, they are to the same line.
Yes, the two right angles are congruent and 6 OEC and 6 NEA are vertical angles.
x = 48 f t.
Yes, we can use the Pythagorean Theorem to find EA. EA = 93.3 f t.
70 ft
29 ft 2 in
24 ft
Answers will vary. Check your answer by considering whether or not it is reasonable.

27.
28. m6 1 + m6 2 = 90 , therefore m6 GDF = m6 2 and m6 EDF = 6 1. This shows that the three angles in each
triangle are congruent to the three corresponding angles in each of the other triangles. Thus, they are all
similar.
29. DF
30. GD
31. FE

95

7.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity by SSS and SAS, Review Answers

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7.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity by


SSS and SAS, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

96

Yes, SSS. The side lengths are proportional.


No. One is much larger than the other.
There are 2.2 cm in an inch, so that is the scale factor.
There is no need. With the A and A parts of ASA we have triangles with two congruent angles. The triangles
are similar by AA.
4DFE
DF, EF, DF
DH = 7.5
4DBE
SAS
27
AB, BE, AC
7
8
Yes, 21
= 24
. This proportion will be valid as long as AC || DE.
Yes, 4ABC 4DFE, SAS
No, the angle is not between the given sides
Yes, 4ABC 4DFE, SSS
Yes, 4ABE 4DBC, SAS
15
No, 10
20 6= 25
24
No, 32
6= 16
20
x=3
x = 6, y = 3.5
The building is 10 ft tall.
The childs shadow is 105 inches long.
The side lengths are 15, 36, 39
The radio tower
is 55 ft.

AB = BC = 11.25, AC = 3, DE = EF = 5, DF = 2
AB
BC
AC
3
DE = EF = DF = 2
Yes, 4ABC 4DEF by SSS similarity.
slope of CA = slope of LO = undefined (vertical); slope of AR = slope of OT = 0 (horizontal).
90 , vertical and horizontal lines are perpendicular.
T O = 6, OL = 8,CA = 4 and AR = 3; LO : CA = OT : AR = 2 : 1
Yes, by SAS similarity.

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Chapter 7. Similarity, Answer Key

7.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Proportionality Relationships, Review Answers


4ECF 4BCD
DF
CD
FE
DF, DB
14.4
21.6
16.8
45
The parallel sides are in the same ratio as the sides of the similar triangles, not the segments of the sides.
yes
no
yes
no
x=9
y = 10
y = 16
z=4
x=8
x = 2.5
a = 4.8, b = 9.6
a = 4.5, b = 4, c = 10
a = 1.8, b = 37
x = 5, y = 7
3
2 b or 1.5b
16
5 a or 3.2a
Casey mistakenly used the length of the angle bisector in the proportion rather than the other side length. The
correct proportion is a5 = 75 , thus a = 25
7.
28. The path will intersect the third side 2.25 m from the 3 m side and 3.75 m from the 5 m side.
29. a = 42m and b = 56m
30. Blanks are in red.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

TABLE 7.1:
Statement

1. AC is the angle bisector of 6 BADX, A, B are collinear

and AC || XD
2. 6 BAC
= 6 CAD

6
6
3. X = BAC
4. 6 CAD
= 6 ADX

6
6
5. X = ADX
6. 4XAD is isosceles
7. AX
= AD
8. AX = AD
BA
BC
9. AX
= CD

Reason
Given
Definition of an angle bisector
Corresponding Angles Postulate
Alternate Interior Angles Theorem
Transitive PoC
Base Angles Converse
Definition of an Isosceles Triangle
Congruent segments are also equal
Theorem 7-7
97

7.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Proportionality Relationships, Review Answers

TABLE 7.1: (continued)


Statement
BC
BA
= CD
10. AD

98

Reason
Substitution PoE

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Chapter 7. Similarity, Answer Key

7.6 Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity


Transformations, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

(2, 6)
(-8, 12)
(4.5, -6.5)
k = 23
k=9
k = 21
20, 26, 34
2 23 , 3, 5
k = 52
14
k = 11
original: 20, dilation: 80, ratio: 4:1
If k = 1, then the dilation is congruent to the original figure.
A0 (6, 12), B0 (9, 21),C0 (3, 6)
A0 (9, 6), B0 (3, 12),C0 (0, 7.5)

15.
16. k = 2
17. A00 (4, 8), B00 (48, 16),C00 (40, 40)
18. k = 2
19.

a. 5
b.
5
c. 3 5
d. 2 5
e. 4 5
20.

a. 5
5
b. 10 5
c. 20 5
99

7.6. Geometry - Second Edition, Similarity Transformations, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

21.
a. OA : OA0 = 1 : 2
AB : A0 B0 = 1 : 2
b. OA : OA00 = 1 : 4
AB : A00 B00 = 1 : 4

23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

22.
x=3
y = 2x + 1
(3, 7)
This point is the center of the dilation.
The scale factor is 3.

28.
0 O0
0 G0
0 D0
29. DDO
= 3, OOG
= 3 and GGD
= 3.
30. 3
31. To dilate the original figure by a scale factor of 4 make one additional tick mark with your compass.
32. To dilate the original figure by a scale factor of 12 construct the perpendicular bisectors of CG,CO and CD to
find the midpoints of the segments which will be your G0 , O0 and D0 respectively.

100

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Chapter 7. Similarity, Answer Key

7.7 Geometry - Second Edition, Extension:


Self-Similarity, Review Answers
1.
2. See the following table:

TABLE 7.2:

Stage 0
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5

Number of Segments

Length of each Segment

1
2
4
8
16
32

Total Length of the Segments


1

1
3
1
9
1
27
1
81
1
243

2
3
4
9
8
27
16
81
32
243

3. There will be 2n segments.


4. The length of each segment will be

1
3n

units.

5.
1
6. Number of edges: 192 Edge length: 27
Perimeter:

192
27

7.
8. See the following table:

TABLE 7.3:
Color
No Color

Stage 0
0
1

Stage 1
1
8

Stage 2
9
64

Stage 3
73
512
101

7.7. Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Self-Similarity, Review Answers

www.ck12.org

9. Answers will vary. Many different flowers (roses) and vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, and artichokes) are
examples of fractals in nature.
10. Answers will vary.

102

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Chapter 7. Similarity, Answer Key

7.8 Chapter Review Answers


1.
a. x = 12
b. x = 14.5
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

x = 10 ; 50 , 60 , 70
3.75 gallons
yes
no
yes, AA
yes, SSS
no
no
A0 (10.5, 3), B0 (6, 13.5),C0 (1.5, 6)
x = 19
3
x=1
z=6
a = 5, b = 7.5

103

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C HAPTER

Right Triangle
Trigonometry, Answer Key

Chapter Outline
8.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , T HE P YTHAGOREAN T HEOREM , R EVIEW A N SWERS

8.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , C ONVERSE OF THE P YTHAGOREAN T HEO REM , R EVIEW A NSWERS

8.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , U SING S IMILAR R IGHT T RIANGLES , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

8.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S PECIAL R IGHT T RIANGLES , R EVIEW A N SWERS

8.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , TANGENT, S INE AND C OSINE , R EVIEW A N SWERS

104

8.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , I NVERSE T RIGONOMETRIC R ATIOS , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

8.7

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , E XTENSION : L AWS OF S INES AND C OSINES ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

8.8

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 8. Right Triangle Trigonometry, Answer Key

8.1 Geometry - Second Edition, The


Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

505

9 5
799
12
10
10 14
26
3p 41
2
2
x + y
9 2
yes
no
no
yes
yes
no
20 39
14 429
17 287
4
4 5
493

5 10
36.6 20.6
33.6
25.2
3 2
4 s
16 3
a2 + 2ab + b2
c2 + 4 21 ab = c2 + 2ab
a2 + 2ab + b2 = c2 + 2ab, which simplifies to a2 + b2 = c2
1
1 2
2
2 (a +
 b)(a 1+ b) = 2 (a1 + 2ab + b )
1
2 2 ab + 2 c = ab + 2 c
1 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 (a + 2ab + b ) = ab + 2 c a + 2ab + b = 2ab + c , which simplifies to a + b = c

105

8.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers

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8.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Converse of


the Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers
1.
a. c = 15
b. 12 < c < 5
c. 15 < c < 21
2.
a. a = 7
b. 7 < a < 24
c. 1 < c < 7
3. It is a right triangle because 8, 15, 17 is a Pythagorean triple. The x indicates that this set is a multiple of 8,
15, 17.
4. right
5. no
6. right
7. acute
8. right
9. obtuse
10. right
11. acute
12. acute
13. right
14. obtuse
15. obtuse
16. acute

17. obtuse
106

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Chapter 8. Right Triangle Trigonometry, Answer Key

18. One way is to use the distance formula to find the distances of all three sides and then use the converse of the
Pythagorean Theorem. The second way would be to find the slope of all three sides and determine if two sides
are perpendicular.
19. c = 13

20. d = 194
21. The sides of 4ABC are a multiple of 3, 4, 5 which is a right triangle. 6 A is opposite the largest side, which is
the hypotenuse, making it 90 .
22. See the following table:

TABLE 8.1:
Statement
1. In 4ABC, a2 + b2 < c2 , and c is the longest side. In
4LMN, 6 N is a right angle.
2. a2 + b2 = h2
3. c2 > h2
4. c > h
5. 6 C is the largest angle in 4ABC.
6. m6 N = 90
7. m6 C > m6 N
8. m6 C > 90
9. 6 C is an obtuse angle.
10. 4ABC is an obtuse triangle.

23.
24.
25.
26.

Reason
Given
Pythagorean Theorem
Transitive PoE
Take the square root of both sides
The largest angle is opposite the longest side.
Definition of a right angle
SSS Inequality Theorem
Transitive PoE
Definition of an obtuse angle.
Definition of an obtuse triangle.

right
obtuse
acute
(1, 5), (-2, -3)

27 and 28. answers vary, you can check your answer by plotting the points on graph paper and measuring with a
protractor or using the distance formula to verify the appropriate inequality.
29 and 30. While your diagram may be different because your angle at A may be different, the construction should
look something like this:
107

8.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Converse of the Pythagorean Theorem, Review Answers

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31. The sum of the angles in a triangle must be 180 , if 6 C is 90 , then both 6 A and 6 B are acute.
32. You could construct a line perpendicular to AB through 6 B (you will need to extend the segment beyond B to
do the construction). Next, select any point on this perpendicular segment and call it C. By connecting A and
C you will make 4ABC.

108

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Chapter 8. Right Triangle Trigonometry, Answer Key

8.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Using Similar


Right Triangles, Review Answers
4KML
4JML 4JKL
KM = 6 3
JK = 6 7
KL= 3 21
16 2
15 7
2
35
14 6
20 10
2 102
x = 12 5
y = 5 5
z=9 2
x = 4
y = 465

z = 14 5

8 41
17. x = 32
5 , y = 5 , z = 2 41
18. x = 9,
y = 3 34
19. x = 9 20481 , y = 81
40 , z = 40
20. See the following table:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

TABLE 8.2:
Statement
1. 4ABD with ACDB and 6 DAB is a right angle.
2. 6 DCA and 6 ACB are right angles
3. 6 DAB
= 6 DCA
= 6 ACB

6
6
4. D = D
5. 4CAD
= 4ABD

6
6
6. B = B
7. 4CBA
= 4ABD
8. 4CAD
= 4CBA

Reason
Given
Definition of perpendicular lines.
All right angles are congruent.
Reflexive PoC
AA Similarity Postulate
Reflexive PoC
AA Similarity Postulate
Transitive PoC

21. See the following table:

TABLE 8.3:
Statement
1. 4ABD with ACDB and 6 DAB is a right angle.
2. 4ABD 4CBA 4CAD
AB
3. BC
AB = DB

Reason
Given
Theorem 8-5
Corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional.

109

8.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Using Similar Right Triangles, Review Answers
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

6.1%
10.4%
9.4%
ratios are 31 and 93 , which both reduce to the common ratio 3. Yes, this is true for the next pair of terms since
27
9 also reduces to 3.
geometric mean; geometric mean
10
20
1
See the following table:

TABLE 8.4:
Statement
a
b
1. ae = d+e
and db = d+e
2. a2 = e(d + e) and b2 = d(d + e)
3. a2 + b2 = e(d + e) + d(d + e)
4. a2 + b2 = (e + d)(d + e)
5. c = d + e
6. a2 + b2 = c2

110

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Reason
Theorem 8-7
Cross-Multiplication Property
Combine equations from #2.
Distributive Property
Segment Addition Postulate
Substitution PoE

www.ck12.org

Chapter 8. Right Triangle Trigonometry, Answer Key

8.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Special Right


Triangles, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

x 2
x
3, 2x
15 2
11 2
8
90 2or 127.3 ft.
a = 2 2, b = 2
c = 6 2, d
= 12
e = f =13 2
g = 10 3, h= 20
k = 8, j= 8 3
x = 11 3, y = 22 3
m = 9, n= 18

q = 14 6, p= 28 3
s = 9,t = 3 3
x = w
=9 2
a = 9 3, b = 18 3
p = 6 15, q = 6 5
Yes, its a 30-60-90 triangle.
No, it isnot even a right triangle.
16 + 6 3
8 + 8 3
x
:x 3
4 2 in
3
3 in
2
25
2
4 3 f t
27
2
3 in
2
12
3960
ft
s
3
2

111

8.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Tangent, Sine and Cosine, Review Answers

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8.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Tangent, Sine


and Cosine, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

112

d
f
f
e
f
d
d
e
d
e
f
e

D, D
equal, complement
reciprocals
0.4067
0.7071
28.6363
0.6820
sin A = 45 , cos A = 53 , tan A = 43

2
sin A = 2 , cos A = 2 2 , tan A = 1

sin A = 31 , cos A = 2 3 2 , tan A = 4 2


x = 9.37, y = 12.72
x = 14.12, y = 19.42
x = 20.84, y = 22.32
x = 19.32, y = 5.18
x = 5.85, y = 12.46
x = 20.89, y = 13.43
x = 435.86 f t.
x = 56 m
25.3 ft
42.9 ft
94.6 ft
49 ft
14 miles
The hypotenuse is the longest side in a right triangle. Since the sine and cosine ratios are each a leg divided
by the hypotenuse, the denominator is always going to be greater than the numerator. This ensures a ratio that
is less than 1.

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Chapter 8. Right Triangle Trigonometry, Answer Key

8.6 Geometry - Second Edition, Inverse


Trigonometric Ratios, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

23.
24.

25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

33.7
31.0
44.7
39.4
46.6
36.9
34.6
82.9
70.2
m6 A =
38 , BC = 9.38, AC = 15.23
AB = 4 10, m6 A = 18.4 , m6 B = 71.6

BC = 51, m6 A = 45.6, m6 C =
44.4

m6 A = 60
, BC = 12, AC = 12 3
CB = 7 5, m6 A = 48.2 , m6 B = 41.8
m6 B = 50 , AC = 38.14, AB = 49.78
You would use a trig ratio when given a side and an angle and the Pythagorean Theorem if you are given two
sides and no angles.
47.6
1.6
44.0
192

11 f t 17 f t 5 in; 54
51
For problem 20: since the earth tilts on its axis, the position of the sun in the sky varies throughout the year
for most places on earth. Thus, the angle at which the sun hits a particular object will vary at different times
of the year. For problem 21: the water pressure in the hose will affect the path of the water, the more pressure,
the longer the water will travel in a straight path before gravity causes the path of the water to arc and come
back down towards the ground.
Tommy used OA instead of OA for his tangent ratio.
Tommy used the correct ratio in his equation here, but he used the incorrect angle measure he found previously
which caused his answer to be incorrect. This illustrates the benefit of using given information whenever
possible.
Tommy could have used Pythagorean Theorem to find the hypotenuse instead of a trigonometric ratio.
cos 50
sin 20
As the angle measures increase, the sine value increases.
As the angle measures increase, the cosine value decreases.
The sine and cosine values are between 0 and 1.
tan 85 = 11.43, tan 89 = 57.29, and tan 89.5 = 114.59. As the tangent values get closer to 90 , they get
larger and larger. There is no maximum, the values approach infinity.
The sine and cosine ratios will always be less than one because the denominator of the ratios is the hypotenuse
which is always longer than either leg. Thus, the numerator is always less than the denominator in these ratios
resulting in a value less than one.

113

8.7. Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Laws of Sines and Cosines, Review Answers

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8.7 Geometry - Second Edition, Extension:


Laws of Sines and Cosines, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

114

m6 B = 84 , a = 10.9, b = 13.4
m6 B = 47 , a = 16.4, c = 11.8
m6 A = 38.8 , m6 C = 39.2 , c = 16.2
b = 8.5, m6 A = 96.1 , m6 C = 55.9
m6 A = 25.7 , m6 B = 36.6, m6 C = 117.7
m6 A = 81 , m6 B = 55.4 , m6 C = 43.6
b = 11.8, m6 A = 42 , m6 C = 57
b = 8.0, m6 B = 25.2 , m6 C = 39.8
m6 A = 33.6 , m6 B = 50.7 , m6 C = 95.7
m6 C = 95 , AC = 3.2, AB = 16.6
BC = 33.7, m6 C = 39.3 , m6 B = 76.7
m6 A = 42 , BC = 34.9, AC = 22.0
m6 B = 105 , m6 C = 55 , AC = 14.1
m6 B = 35 , AB = 12, BC = 5
Yes, BC would still be 5 units (see isosceles triangle below); the measures of 6 C are supplementary as shown
below.

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Chapter 8. Right Triangle Trigonometry, Answer Key

8.8 Chapter Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

6
BC = 4.4,
AC = 10.0, m A = 26
AB = 5 10, m6 A = 18.4 , m6 B = 71.6

6
BC = 6 7, m6 A = 41.4
, m C = 48.6

m6 A = 30
, AC = 25 3, BC = 25
BC = 7 13, m6 A = 31 , m6 B
= 59

m6 B = 45 , AC = 32, AB = 32 2
m6 B = 63 , BC = 19.1, AB = 8.7
m6 C =
19 , AC = 22.7, AB = 7.8
BC = 4 13, m6 B = 33.7 , m6 C = 56.3
acute
right, Pythagorean triple
obtuse
right
acute
obtuse
x = 2
x = 2 110
x=6 7
2576.5 ft.
x = 29.2
AC = 16.1, m6 A = 41.6 , m6 C = 63.4
m6 A = 123.7 , m6 B = 26.3 , m6 C = 30

115

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C HAPTER

Circles, Answer Key

Chapter Outline

116

9.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , PARTS OF C IRCLES AND TANGENT L INES ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROPERTIES OF A RCS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , P ROPERTIES OF C HORDS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , I NSCRIBED A NGLES , R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A NGLES OF C HORDS , S ECANTS , AND TAN GENTS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S EGMENTS OF C HORDS , S ECANTS , AND TAN GENTS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.7

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , E XTENSION : W RITING AND G RAPHING THE


E QUATIONS OF C IRCLES , R EVIEW A NSWERS

9.8

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 9. Circles, Answer Key

9.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Parts of Circles


and Tangent Lines, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

diameter
secant
chord
point of tangency
common external tangent
common internal tangent
center
radius
the diameter
4 lines

11. 3 lines

12. none

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

radius of B = 4, radius of C = 5, radius of D = 2, radius of


J J
D = E because they have the same radius length.
2 common tangents
CE = 7
y = x2
yes
no

E =2

117

9.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Parts of Circles and Tangent Lines, Review Answers
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

www.ck12.org

yes

4 10
4 11
x=9
x=3
x = 5
x=8 2
a.
b.
c.
d.

Yes, by AA. m6 CAE = m6 DBE = 90 and 6 AEC


= 6 BED by vertical angles.
BC = 37
AD = 35
m6 C = 53.1

28. See the following table:

TABLE 9.1:
Statement
1. AB and CB with points of tangency at A and C. AD
and DC are radii.
2. AD
= DC
3. DAAB and DCCB
4. m6 BAD = 90 and m6 BCD = 90
5. Draw BD.
6. 4ADB and 4DCB are right triangles
7. DB
= DB
8. 4ABD
= 4CBD
9. AB
= CB

Reason
Given
All radii are congruent.
Tangent to a Circle Theorem
Definition of perpendicular lines
Connecting two existing points
Definition of right triangles (Step 4)
Reflexive PoC
HL
CPCTC

29.
a. kite
b. center, bisects
30. AT
= BT
= CT
= DT by theorem 10-2 and the transitive property.
31. 9.23
8
32. 8 ;
3 3 3

33. Since AW and W B both share point W and are perpendicular to VW because a tangent is perpendicular to the
radius of the circle. Therefore A, B and W are collinear. V T
= VW because they are tangent segments to circle
A from the same point, V , outside the circle. Similarly, VW
= VU because they are tangent segments to circle
B from V . By the transitive property of congruence, V T
= VU. Therefore, all three segments are congruent.

118

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Chapter 9. Circles, Answer Key

9.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of


Arcs, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.

minor
major
semicircle
major
minor
semicircle
c
c
yes, CD
= DE

66
228
yes, they are in the same circle with equal central angles
yes, the central angles are vertical angles, so they are equal, making the arcs equal
no, we dont know the measure of the corresponding central angles.
90
49
82
16
188
172
196
270
x = 54
x = 47
x = 25
J J
A= B

62
77
139
118
257
319
75
105
68
105
255
217

119

9.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of Chords, Review Answers

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9.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Properties of


Chords, Review Answers
1. No, see picture. The two chords can be congruent and perpendicular, but will not bisect each other.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

120

AC
c
DF
c
JF
DE
6 HGC
6 AGC
AG, HG,CG, FG, JG, DG
107
8
118
133
140
120
x = 64 , y = 4
x = 8,
y = 10
x = 3 26, y 12.3
x=9 5
x = 9, y = 4
x = 4.5
x=3
x = 7
x = 4 11
c = 121.3
mAB
c = 112.9
mAB
c
c by Theorem 10-5.
BF
= FD and BF
= FD

CA = AF by Theorem 10-6.
QS is a diameter by Theorem 10-4.
a-c shown in the diagram below; d. it is the center; e. shown in the diagram; this construction is not done to
scale and your chords might be in different places but this should give you an idea of what it should look like.

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Chapter 9. Circles, Answer Key

30. for AB:


a.
b.
c.
d.

(1, 5)
m = 0, m is undefined
x=1
for BC:

a. 92 , 23
b. m = 7, m = 71
c. y = 17 x + 15
7
e. Point of intersection (center of the circle) is (1, 2).
f. radius is 5 units

31.
a. 120
b. 60

121

9.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Inscribed Angles, Review Answers

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9.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Inscribed Angles, Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

48
120
54
45
87
27
100.5
95.5
76.5
84.5
51
46
x = 180 , y = 21
x = 60 , y = 49
x = 30 , y = 60
x = 72 , y = 92
x = 200 , y = 100
x = 68 , y = 99
x = 93 , y = 97
x = 10
x = 24
x = 74 , y = 106
x = 35 , y = 35
55
70
110
90
20
90

TABLE 9.2:
Statement
1. Inscribed 6 ABC and diameter BD
m6 ABE = x and m6 CBE = y
2. x + y = m6 ABC
3. AE
= EB and EB
= EC
4. 4AEB and 4EBC are isosceles
5. m6 EAB = x and m6 ECB = y
6. m6 AED = 2x and m6 CED = 2y
c = 2x and mDC
c = 2y
7. mAD
c + mDC
c = mAC
c
8. mAD
c = 2x + 2y
9. mAC
c = 2(x + y )
10. mAC
c = 2m6 ABC
11. mAC
122

Reason
Given
Angle Addition Postulate
All radii are congruent
Definition of an isosceles triangle
Isosceles Triangle Theorem
Exterior Angle Theorem
The measure of an arc is the same as its central angle.
Arc Addition Postulate
Substitution
Distributive PoE
Subsitution

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Chapter 9. Circles, Answer Key

TABLE 9.2: (continued)


Statement
c
12. m6 ABC = 12 mAC

Reason
Division PoE

TABLE 9.3:
Statement
c
1. 6 ACB and 6 ADB intercept AB
c
2. m6 ACB = 12 mAB
1
c
m 6 ADB = 2 mAB
6
6
3. m ACB = m ADB
4. 6 ACB
= 6 ADB

Reason
1. Given
2. Inscribed Angle Theorem
3. Transitive Property
4. Definition of Congruence

32. Since AC || OD, m6 CAB = m6 DOB by Corresponding Angles Postulate.

c so mDB
c This makes D the midpoint of CB.
c
c and m6 CAB = 1 mCB,
c = 1 mCB.
Also, m6 DOB = mDB
2
2

123

9.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Angles of Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review Answers

1.

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9.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Angles of


Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review
Answers

a.

b.

c.
2. No, by definition a tangent line cannot pass through a circle, so it can never intersect with any line inside of
one.
3.

a.

b.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
124

center, equal
inside, intercepted
on, half
outside, half
x = 103
x = 25
x = 100
x = 44

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12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

Chapter 9. Circles, Answer Key

x = 38
x = 54.5
x = 63 , y = 243
x = 216
x = 42
x = 150
x = 66
x = 113
x = 60, y = 40 , z = 80
x = 60 , y = 25
x = 35 , y = 55
x = 75
x = 45
x = 35 , y = 35
x = 60
x = 47 , y = 78
x = 84 , y = 156
x = 10
x = 3
See the following table:

TABLE 9.4:
Statement
1. Intersecting chords AC and BD.
2. Draw BC

3.
4.
5.
6.

m6
m6
m6
m6

c
DBC = 12 mDC
1 c
ACB = 2 mAB
a = m6 DBC + m6 ACB
c + 1 mAB
c
a = 1 mDC
2

Reason
Given
Construction

Inscribed Angle Theorem


Inscribed Angle Theorem
Exterior Angle Theorem
Substitution

32. See the following table:

TABLE 9.5:
Statement

1. Intersecting secants AB and AC.


2. Draw BE.

Reason
Given
Construction

c
3. m6 BEC = 12 mBC

Inscribed Angle Theorem


125

9.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Angles of Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review Answers

TABLE 9.5: (continued)


Statement
c
4. m6 DBE = 12 mDE
6
6
5. m a + m DBE = m6 BEC
6. m6 a = m6 BEC m6 DBE
c 1 c
7. m6 a = 12 m
BC 2 mDE 
c mDE
c
8. m6 a = 1 mBC
2

126

Reason
Inscribed Angle Theorem
Exterior Angle Theorem
Subtraction PoE
Substitution
Distributive Property

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Chapter 9. Circles, Answer Key

9.6 Geometry - Second Edition, Segments of


Chords, Secants, and Tangents, Review
Answers
1. x = 12
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

x = 1.5
x = 12
x = 7.5

x=6 2
x = 10
x = 10
x=8
x=9
x = 22.4
x = 11
x = 20
x = 120
7 17.14
x = 4 66
x = 6
x=
231
x = 4 42
x = 10
The error is in the set up. It should be 10 10 = y (15 + y). The correct answer is y = 5.
10 inches
x=7
x=5
x=3
x=3
x=8
x=6
x=2
x=8
x=2
x = 12, y = 3

127

9.7. Geometry - Second Edition, Extension: Writing and Graphing the Equations of Circles, Reviewwww.ck12.org
Answers

9.7 Geometry - Second Edition, Extension:


Writing and Graphing the Equations of Circles, Review Answers
1. center: (-5, 3), radius = 4
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

center: (0, -8), radius = 2


center: (7, 10), radius = 2 5
center: (-2, 0), radius = 2 2
(x 4)2 + (y + 2)2 = 16
(x + 1)2 + (y 2)2 = 7
(x 2)2 + (y 2)2 = 4
(x + 4)2 + (y + 3)2 = 25
a. yes
b. no
c. yes

(x 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 52
(x 10)2 + y2 = 29
(x + 3)2 + (y 8)2 = 200
(x 6)2 + (y + 6)2 = 325
7
37
a-d. bisector of AB is y = 24
x + 24
, bisector of BC is y = x + 8 (e) center of circle (-5, 3) (f) radius 25
2
2
(g) (x + 5) + (y 3) = 625
15. (x 2)2 + (y 2)2 = 25
16. (x + 3)2 + (y 1)2 = 289
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

128

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Chapter 9. Circles, Answer Key

9.8 Chapter Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

I
A
D
G
C
B
H
E
J
F

129

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C HAPTER

10Perimeter and Area, Answer


Key

Chapter Outline
10.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , T RIANGLES AND PARALLELOGRAMS , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

10.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , T RAPEZOIDS , R HOMBI , AND K ITES , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

10.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A REAS OF S IMILAR P OLYGONS , R EVIEW A N SWERS

130

10.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , C IRCUMFERENCE AND A RC L ENGTH , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

10.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A REAS OF C IRCLES AND S ECTORS , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

10.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , A REA AND P ERIMETER OF R EGULAR P OLY GONS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

10.7

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 10. Perimeter and Area, Answer Key

10.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Triangles and


Parallelograms, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.

A = 144 in2 , P = 48 in
A = 144 cm2 , P = 50 cm
A = 360 m2
A = 112 u2 , P = 44 u
A = 324 f t 2 , P = 72 f t
P = 36 f t
A = 36 in2
A = 210 cm2
6m
Possible answers: 10 6, 12 4
Possible answers: 9 10, 3 30
If the areas are congruent, then the figures are congruent. We know this statement is false, #11 would be a
counterexample.

8 2 cm
P 54.9
cm
A = 96 2 135.8 cm2
15 in
P 74.3 in
A = 180 in2
315 units2
90 units2
14 units2
407.5 units2
560 units2
30 units2
814 units2
72 units2
72 units2
24 acres
64
12 24

3
h = 3 3, A = 9
h = 5 3, A = 25 3
2
h = 2x 3, A = x4 3
x = 20 f t, y = 60 f t
Perimeter is 16 units, Area is 15 square units

131

10.2. Geometry - Second Edition, Trapezoids, Rhombi, and Kites, Review Answers

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10.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Trapezoids,


Rhombi, and Kites, Review Answers
1. If a kite and a rhombus have the same diagonal lengths the areas will be the same. This is because both
formulas are dependent upon the diagonals. If they are the same, the areas will be the same too. This does not
mean the two shapes are congruent, however.
2. h(b1 ) + 24s


1
h(b1 ) + 2 12 h b2 b
2
hb1 + h(b22b1 )

2hb1 +hb2 hb1


2
hb1 +hb2
= h2 (b1 + b2 )
2

3. 44s

4 21 12 d1 12 d2
4
8 d1 d2
1
2 d1 d2
4. 24s + 24s 

2 12 12 d1 x + 2 12 12 d1 (d2 x)
1
1
1
2 d1 x + 2 d1 d2 2 d1 x
1
2 d1 d2
5. 160 units2
6. 315 units2
7. 96 units2
2
8. 77 units

9. 100 3 units2
10. 84 units2
11. 1000 units2
12. 63 units2
13. 62.5 units2
14. A = 480 units2
P = 104 units 
15. A = 36 1 + 3 units2


P = 12 2 + 2 units
2
16. A = 108 units

P = 12 3 + 2 units


17. A = 5 3 5 + 77 units2
P = 52 units

18. A = 396 3 units2


P = 116
units
19. A = 256 5 units2
P = 96 units
20. A = 12 units2
21. 24 units2
22. Any two numbers with a product of 64 would work.
23. Any two numbers with a product of 108 would work.
24. 90 units2
25. kite, 24 units2

132

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26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

Chapter 10. Perimeter and Area, Answer Key

2
2
Trapezoid, 47.5
units units
rhombus, 12 5 units2
8, 14
9, 12
192 units2

a. 200 f t 2
b. 400 f t 2
c. 21
32.
a. 300 f t 2
b. 900 f t 2
c. 31

133

10.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Similar Polygons, Review Answers

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10.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Similar Polygons, Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

134

9
25
1
16
49
4
36
121
1
6
2
9
7
3
5
12
1
4
1
2

5 units2
24 units
100 cm
468.75 cm2
96 units2
198 f t 2
54 in
32 units
4
9
2
3

Diagonals are 12 and 16. The length of the sides are 12 2 and 16 2.
Because
the diagonals of these rhombi are congruent, the rhombi are actually squares.

25 2
2.34 inches
1
Scale: 192
, length of model 5.44 inches
27.5 by 20 cm, yes because the drawing is 10.8 by 7.87 inches
9 by 6 inches
10 by 14 inches
Baby Bella $0.05, Mama Mia $0.046, Big Daddy $0.046, the Mama Mia or Big Daddy are the best deals.
1.5 bottles, so shell need to buy 2 bottles.

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Chapter 10. Perimeter and Area, Answer Key

10.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Circumference


and Arc Length, Review Answers
TABLE 10.1:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

diameter
15
8
6
84
18
25
2
36

radius
7.5
4
3
42
9
12.5
1
18

Circumference
15
8
6
84
18
25
2
36

r = 44
in
C = 20 cm
16
Thediameter is the same length as the diagonals of the square.
32 2
16
9
80
15
r = 108
r = 30
r = 72
120
162
15
40 125.7 in.
a. 26 81.7 in
b. 775 complete rotations

26. The Little Cheese, 3.59:1; The Big Cheese, 3.49:1; The Cheese Monster, 3.14:1; Michael should buy The
Little Cheese
27. 31 gumdrops
28. 18 in
29. 93 in
30. 30 ft

135

10.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Circles and Sectors, Review Answers

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10.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Areas of Circles and Sectors, Review Answers
TABLE 10.2:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

136

radius
2
4
5
12
9
3 10
17.5

Area
4
16
25
144
81
90
306.25

30

49

900

36

54
1.0416
189
2.6 4 3
33
20.25
40.5
8 3
2
15
120
10
198
123.61
292.25
1033.58
13.73
21.21
54.4
Square 10, 000 f t 2 ; Circle 12, 732 f t 2 ; the circle has more area.
18 units
40

circumference
4
8
10
24
18

6 10
35
14
60
12

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Chapter 10. Perimeter and Area, Answer Key

10.6 Geometry - Second Edition, Area and


Perimeter of Regular Polygons, Review
Answers
1. radius
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

apothem
6
equilateral
10cm
5 3 cm
60 cm

150 3
A = 384 3
P = 96
A=8 2
P = 6.12
A = 68.26
A = 72
A = 688.19
P = 100
A = 73.47
P = 15.45
A = 68.26
P = 63
6.5
12
a = 11.01
a = 14.49
93.86, 94.15
30 94.25
The perimeter of the 40-gon is closer to the circumference because it is closer in shape to the circle. The more
sides a polygon has, the closer it is to a circle.
695.29, 703.96
225 706.86
The area of the 40-gon is closer to the area of the circle because it is closer in shape to the circle than the
20-gon.
Start with 21 asn. n = 6, so all the internal triangles are equilateral triangles with 
sides s.Therefore the apothem

3
3 s (s)(6). Reducing this
1
is
s from the 30-60-90 ratio. Plugging this in for n and a, we have A =
2

we end up with A = 3 2 3 s2 .

26.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.



sin x2 = 2rs ; cos x2 = ar
s = 2r sin 2x

a = r cos x2


1
x
x
2r
sin
r
cos
= r2 sin
2
2
2
x
x
2
nr sin 2 cos 2

x
2

cos

x
2

27. 421.21 cm2


28. 77.25 in2
137

10.6. Geometry - Second Edition, Area and Perimeter of Regular Polygons, Review Answers

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29. 195.23 cm2


30. 153.44 in2
31. polygon with 30 sides: 254.30 in2 ; circle 254.47 in2 ; They are very close, the more sides a regular polygon
has the closer to a circle it becomes.

2

x
s
s
32. First, take s = 2r sin 2 and solve for r to get = 2 sin x . Next, replace r in the formula to get n 2 sin x
sin
(2)
(2)

ns2 cos( x )
We can reduce this to 4 sin x2 .
(2)
2
33. 16055.49 cm
34. 4478.46 in2

138

x
2

cos

x
2

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Chapter 10. Perimeter and Area, Answer Key

10.7 Chapter Review Answers


1. A = 225
P = 60
2. A = 198
P = 58
3. A = 124.71
P = 48
4. A = 139.36
P = 45
5. A = 3000
P = 232
6. A = 403.06
P = 72
7. 72
8. 154
9. 162 3
10. C = 34
A = 289
11. C = 30
A = 225
12. 54 units2
13. 1070.12
14. 1220.39
15. 70.06

139

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C HAPTER

11

Surface Area and Volume,


Answer Key

Chapter Outline
11.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , E XPLORING S OLIDS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

11.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S URFACE A REA OF P RISMS AND C YLINDERS ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

11.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S URFACE A REA OF P YRAMIDS AND C ONES ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

11.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , VOLUME OF P RISMS AND C YLINDERS , R E VIEW A NSWERS

11.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , VOLUME OF P YRAMIDS AND C ONES , R EVIEW


A NSWERS

11.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , S URFACE A REA AND VOLUME OF S PHERES ,


R EVIEW A NSWERS

11.7

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , E XPLORING S IMILAR S OLIDS , R EVIEW A N SWERS

11.8

140

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 11. Surface Area and Volume, Answer Key

11.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring


Solids, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

V =8
F =9
E = 30
F =6
E =6
V =6
F =9
V =6
Yes, hexagonal pyramid. F = 7,V = 7, E = 12
No, a cone has a curved face.
Yes, hexagonal prism. F = 8,V = 12, E = 18
No a hemisphere has a face.
Yes, trapezoidal prism. F = 6,V = 8, E = 12
Yes, concave decagonal prism. F = 10,V = 16, E = 24
Rectangle
Circle
Trapezoid

18.

19.

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Regular Icosahedron
Decagonal Pyramid
Trapezoidal Prism
All 11 nets
141

11.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Solids, Review Answers

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25. The truncated icosahedron has 60 vertices, by Eulers Theorem.


F +V = E + 2
32 +V = 90 + 2
V = 60
26. regular tetrahedron
27. Use the construction directions from problem 26 to make an equilateral triangle with midsegments. Using
one of the midpoints of the equilateral triangle as a vertex, construct another adjacent equilateral triangle with
midsegments. Your result should look like the picture below.

28. regular dodecahedron, 31


29. 19
30. 1 red face, 8 yellow faces, 7 blue faces and 4 green faces

142

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Chapter 11. Surface Area and Volume, Answer Key

11.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area


of Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

9 f t.2
10, 000 cm2
triangles, A = 6
The rectangles are 3 6, 4 6, and 6 5. Their areas are 18, 24, and 30.
72
84
Lateral surface area is the area of all the sides, total surface area includes the bases.
rectangle, 2rh
a. 96 in2
b. 192 in2

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

350 cm2
1606.4
390.2
486
182
34
2808
x=8
x = 40
x = 25
60 in2
4100 cm2
The height could be 1, 3, 5, or 15.
4060 f t 2
2940 f t 2
5320 f t 2
22 gal
$341
5 in by 4 + 1 in, 20 + 5 in2 67.83 in2
x2 16 in2 , x = 25 in
5 2
2 x , x = 8

143

11.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area of Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers

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11.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area


of Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

vertex
y
lateral edge
w
z
t

7.

8. 5 10 cm
9. 15 in
10. To find the slant
height, we need to find the distance from the center of the edge of the equilateral triangle.
This distance is 3.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
144

This is a picture of the base. The slant height is 62 +


671
135
64
1413.72
360
422.35
1847.26
896
1507.96
3, the
lateral faces
36 3
s2 3
576; 321.53
1159.25
1152.23
1473.76
100.8
7

3 = l 2 l = 39

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29.
30.
31.
32.
33.

Chapter 11. Surface Area and Volume, Answer Key

24
175
10 in
13 in
360 in2

145

11.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Volume of Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers

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11.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Volume of


Prisms and Cylinders, Review Answers
1. No, the volumes do not have to be the same. One cylinder could have a height of 8 and a radius of 4, while
another could have a height of 22 and a radius of 2. Both have a surface area of 96, but the volumes are not
the same.
2. 960 cubes, yes this is the same as the volume.
3. 280 in3
4. 4 in3
5. 6 in
6. r = 9
7. 5
8. 36 units3
9.
a. 64 in3
b. 128 in3
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

146

882 cm3
3960
902.54
4580.44
147
50.27
7776
x=7
x = 24
x = 32
294 in3
24000 cm3
75 m3
330, 000 f t.3
165, 000 f t.3
495, 000 f t.3
36891.56 cm3
15901.92 cm3
r = 3 cm, h = 12 cm
11 cm
300.44 in3

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Chapter 11. Surface Area and Volume, Answer Key

11.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Volume of


Pyramids and Cones, Review Answers
Unless otherwise specified, all units are units3 .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

9680
1280
778.71
3392.92
400
396.55
5277.88
128
1884.96
100.53
113.10
188.50
42
200
1066.67

9 3
2
6
18
2
1 3
s
2
12
Find
the volume of one square pyramid then multiply it by 2.
72 3
1 3
2
3s
h = 13.5 in
h = 3.6 cm
r = 3 cm
112 in3
190.87 cm3
471.24 cm3
h = 9 m, r = 6 m
15 ft

147

11.6. Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area and Volume of Spheres, Review Answers

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11.6 Geometry - Second Edition, Surface Area


and Volume of Spheres, Review Answers
1. No, all the cross sections must be circles because there are no edges.
2. SA = 256 in2
3
V = 2048
3 in
3. SA = 324 cm2
V = 972 cm3
4. SA = 1600 f t 2
3
V = 32000
3 ft
2
5. SA = 16 m
2
V = 32
3m
6. SA = 900 f t 2
V = 4500 f t 3
7. SA = 1024 in2
3
V = 16384
3 in
8. SA = 676 cm2
3
V = 8788
3 cm
9. SA = 2500 yd 2
3
V = 62500
3 yd
10. r = 5.5 in
11. r = 33 m
12. V = 43 f t 3
13. SA = 36 mi2
14. r = 4.31 cm
15. r = 7.5 f t.
16. 2025 cm2
17. 1900 units2
18. 4680 f t 2
19. 91.875 units2
20. 381703.51 cm3
21. 7120.94 units3
22. 191134.50 f t 3
23. 121.86 units3
350
2
24. h = 20
3 cm, SA = 3 cm
25. 21.21 in3
26. 12 cm3 , 19 minutes
27.
a.
b.
c.
d.

28.
148

SA = 2r2 + 2rh
SA = 4r2
SA = 4r2
They are the same. Think back to the explanation for the formula for the surface area of a sphere using
the baseball-it is really the sum of the area of four circles. For the cylinder, the SA is the sum of the areas
of the two circular bases and the lateral area. The lateral area is 2rh, when we replace h with r this part
of the formula becomes the area of two more circles. That makes the total surface area of the cylinder
equal to the area of four circles, just like the sphere.

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Chapter 11. Surface Area and Volume, Answer Key

a. 24429 in3
b. 732.87 lbs
c. 50 in
29. 25,132.74 miles
30. 201 million square miles
31. 268 billion cubic miles

149

11.7. Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Similar Solids, Review Answers

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11.7 Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Similar Solids, Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

150

42
No, 14
10 6= 35
Yes, the scale factor is 4:3.
Yes, the scale factor is 3:5.
No, the top base is not in the same proportion as the rest of the given lengths.
Yes, cubes have the same length for each side. So, comparing two cubes, the scale factor is just the ratio of
the sides.
1:16
8:343
125:729
8:11
5:12
87.48
The volume would be 43 or 64 times larger.
4:9
60 cm
91125 m3
2:3
4:9
y = 8, x= h = 12
w = 4 5, z = 6 5
Vs = 170.67,V
l = 576
LAs = 16 5, LAl = 36 5
Yes, just like the cubes spheres and hemispheres only have a radius to compare. So, all spheres and hemispheres are similar.
49:144, 343:1728
98, 288
The ratio of the lateral areas is 49:144, which is the same as the ratio of the total surface area.
9:25, about 2.78 times as strong
27:125
Animal A, Animal Bs weight is about 4.63 times the weight of animal A but his bones are only 2.78 times as
strong.
81 sq in
small $0.216, large $0.486
8:27
The larger can for $2.50 is a better deal. Using the cost of the canning material and the ratio of the volume of
beans, the equivalent cost of producing the larger can is $2.62. If we just use the volume of bean ratio (as a
consumer would) the cost should be $2.87. Both of these are higher than the $2.50 price.

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Chapter 11. Surface Area and Volume, Answer Key

11.8 Chapter Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

F
K
G
A
E
D
J
B
L
C
H
I
H
G
A
B
D
J
I
E
F
C

151

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C HAPTER

12

Rigid Transformations,
Answer Key

Chapter Outline
12.1

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , E XPLORING S YMMETRY, R EVIEW A NSWERS

12.2

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , T RANSLATIONS AND V ECTORS , R EVIEW A N SWERS

12.3

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , R EFLECTIONS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

12.4

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , R OTATIONS , R EVIEW A NSWERS

12.5

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , C OMPOSITION OF T RANSFORMATIONS , R E VIEW A NSWERS

12.6

G EOMETRY - S ECOND E DITION , E XTENSION : T ESSELLATIONS , R EVIEW A N SWERS

12.7

152

C HAPTER R EVIEW A NSWERS

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Chapter 12. Rigid Transformations, Answer Key

12.1 Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring


Symmetry, Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

sometimes
always
always
never
sometimes
never
never
always
always
sometimes
a kite that is not a rhombus
a circle
an isosceles trapezoid
n

15.

16.

17.
18. none

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

19.
H is the only one with rotational symmetry, 180 .
line symmetry
rotational symmetry
line symmetry
line symmetry (horizontal)
rotational symmetry
153

12.1. Geometry - Second Edition, Exploring Symmetry, Review Answers


26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.

154

2 lines
6 lines
4 lines
180
60 , 120 , 180 , 240 , 300
90 , 180 , 270
none
120 , 240
40 , 80 , 120 , 160 , 200 , 240 , 280 , 320
8 lines of symmetry; angles of rotation: 45 , 90 , 135 , 180 , 225 , 270 , and 315
3 line of symmetry; angles of rotation: 120 , 240
1 line of symmetry; no rotational symmetry

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Chapter 12. Rigid Transformations, Answer Key

12.2 Geometry - Second Edition, Translations


and Vectors , Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

A vector has direction and size, a ray is part of a line, so it has direction, but no size.
A0 (1, 6)
B0 (9, 1)
C(0, 6)
A00 (4, 15)
D(7, 16)
A000 (9, 24)
All four points are collinear.
A0 (8, 14), B0 (5, 17),C0 (7, 5)
A0 (5, 3), B0 (8, 6),C0 (6, 6)
A0 (6, 10), B0 (3, 13),C0 (5, 1)
A0 (11, 1), B0 (8, 2),C0 (10, 10)
(x, y) (x 6, y + 2)
(x, y) (x + 9, y 7)
(x, y) (x 3, y 5)
(x, y) (x + 8, y + 4)

Using the distance formula, AB = A0 B0 = 5, BC = B0C0 = 3 5, and AC = A0C0 = 5 2.


(x, y) (x 8, y 4)
*

19. GH= h6, 3i


*

20. KJ= h2, 4i


*

21. LM= h3, 1i

22.

23.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

24.
D0 (9, 9), E 0 (12, 7), F 0 (10, 14)
Q0 (9, 6),U 0 (6, 0), A0 (1, 9), D0 (2, 15)
h3, 8i
h9, 12i
h0, 7i
(x, y) (x 7, y + 2)
(x, y) (x + 11, y + 25)
(x, y) (x + 15, y 9)
155

12.3. Geometry - Second Edition, Reflections, Review Answers

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12.3 Geometry - Second Edition, Reflections,


Review Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

d
p
(-3, 2), (-8, 4), (-6, 7), (-4, 7)
(-6, 4), (-2, 6), (-8, 8)
(2, 2), (8, 3), (6, -3)
(2, 6), (-6, 2), (4, -2)
(2, -2), (8, -6)
(2, -4), (-4, 2), (-2, -6)
(2, 3), (4, 8), (7, 6), (7, 4)
(4, 6), (6, 2), (8, 8)
(2, 4), (-4, 3), (-2, 9)
(-4, -14), (4, -10), (-6, -6)
(-2, -2), (-6, -8)
(-4, 2), (2, -4), (-6, -2)
y = 2
yaxis
y=x

18-20.

21. It is the same as a translation of 8 units down.


22-24.

156

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Chapter 12. Rigid Transformations, Answer Key

25. It is the same as a translation of 12 units to the left.


26-28.

29. A rotation of 180 .

30.
31. Perpendicular Bisector

32.

157

12.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Rotations, Review Answers

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12.4 Geometry - Second Edition, Rotations, Review Answers

1.

2.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
158

3.
d
d, they are the same because the direction of the rotation does not matter.
270
90
Not rotating the figure at all; 0
(-6, -2)
(-6, -4)
(2, -2) and (6, 4)

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Chapter 12. Rigid Transformations, Answer Key

12.

13.

14.

15.

159

12.4. Geometry - Second Edition, Rotations, Review Answers

16.

17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

x=3
x = 4.5
x = 21
90
180
180

24-26.

27. A rotation of 180 .


28-30.
160

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Chapter 12. Rigid Transformations, Answer Key

31. Angle of rotation is double the angle between the lines.

161

12.5. Geometry - Second Edition, Composition of Transformations, Review Answers

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12.5 Geometry - Second Edition, Composition


of Transformations, Review Answers
1. Every isometry produces a congruent figure to the original. If you compose transformations, each image will
still be congruent to the original.
2. a translation
3. a rotation
4. (2, 2), (-2, -4), (0, -8), (4, -6)
5. (x, y) (x + 6, y)
6. (x, y) (x 6, y)
7. No, because order does not matter.
8. (-2, -3), (-4, 2), (-9, -3)
9. (x, y) (x, y 5)
10. (x, y) (x, y + 5)
11. (2, -10), (10, -6), (8, -4)
12. A translation of 12 units down.
13. (x, y) (x, y + 12)
14. This image is 12 units above the original.
15. #11 (x, y) (x, y 12), #14 (x, y) (x, y + 12), the 12s are in the opposite direction.
16. (-8, 2), (-6, 10), (-2, 8), (-3, 4)
17. A rotation of 270
18. A rotation of 90
19. It is in the 4th quadrant and are 180 apart.
20. #16 (x, y) (y, x), #19 (x, y) (y, x), the values have the opposite sign.
21. 14 units
22. 14 units
23. rotation, 180
24. the origin
25. 166
26. 122
27. 315
28. 31 units
29. 2(b a), right
30. 2(b a), left

162

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Chapter 12. Rigid Transformations, Answer Key

12.6 Geometry - Second Edition, Extension:


Tessellations, Review Answers
1-7. Yes, all quadrilaterals will tessellate.
8. Equilateral triangle, square, and regular hexagon.
9. Here is one possibility.

10. The figure is an equilateral concave hexagon.

11.

12.
13. Answers will vary.

163

12.7. Chapter Review Answers

12.7 Chapter Review Answers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

164

C
E
A
F
J
B
H
D
I
G

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