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Ma Ka Moku Project

LECTIONARY YEAR A GOSPEL READINGS


REFLECTIONS

January 1, 2017
The Holy Name
Luke 2:15-21

1. Baibala Hawaiian Words:


a. Kahu Hipa - is used throughout the Gospels in the Baibala as the word-phrase for
shepherd. Kahu can mean keeper, caretaker, guardian, or priest. .When Kahu is combined
with hipa the word for sheep, the meaning given is the shepherd. The term Kahu as a title
for a minister or priest, most common in the Hawaiian Churches, means shepherd of the
sheep. It is incorrect to understand Kahu as a derivative of kahuna. Kahuna more
specifically refers to an expert, and literally means the keeper of the huna or things
hidden. Kahunapule is a term describing a priest or minister who is expert in prayers.
According to J. S. Emerson; 92:2, kahu implies the most intimate and confidential
relations between the god and its guardian or keeper, while the word kahuna suggests
more of the professional relation of the priest to the community. The shepherds in the text
is a foreshadow of the image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd - the Kahu Hipa Maikai.
b. Hoolaha - means that the shepherds made known what they had saw and heard. In the
definition of laha are the more descriptive meanings such as extended, spread out, broad,
published, circulated, distributed, disseminated, promulgated, advertised, broadcast,
widespread, increased. The communication chain from God to angels to shepherds to the
world gives the shepherds a special place in the historical record of the Christ-Child event.
c. mahalo - The meaning of mahalo is typically thanks, gratitude; to thank. Mahalo nui loa,
means thanks [you] very much. lelo mahalo is a compliment. Mahalo nui, thanks
very much.
But in the Baibala mahalo is used to express admiration, praise, esteem, regards, respects;
to admire, praise, appreciate. O wau n me ka mahalo, I am, [yours] respectfully. In the
reading the phrase mahalo ihola lkou is interpreted, and they were amazed.

Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

2. Cultural Traditions

a. Inoa - The tradition of he inoa giving a name to a child or adult is very common in
modern times. The naming of a child with a Hawaiian name that has an intended meaning
or is the name of a parent or relative is very special. In the giving of a name it is believed
that the name will help impart, inspire, or shape the life development of the child. The
name Kekai or literally the ocean or sea may be intended to connect that child to the
ocean. Likewise the name Kekoa meaning the warrior may inspire the child to be strong
and fearless. The angel gave Jesus his inoa-name when he was in the p or womb of his
mother Mary. It modern times it is not uncommon for Hawaiian children to have long
middle names that are like sentences containing 15-25 letters. The name Jesus was a very
common name, suggesting that Jesus identified with the common folk.

3. Social Justice Issue:

a. The orphaned child and the foster child are both at risk issues deemed related to in part to
economic and health disparities with the Hawaiian family or ohana. Domestic violence
in the home or drug addiction and substance abuse are major reasons children are
removed from homes and families. Along with high rates of unwanted pregnancies, and
unwed mothers, many Native Hawaiian babies and children are placed in the State of
Hawaii foster children programs. Eventually in many cases adoption becomes an option.
Mary and Joseph demonstrate unconditional compassion and commitment in the
parenting of Jesus.

Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

Ma Ka Moku Project
LECTIONARY YEAR A GOSPEL READINGS
REFLECTIONS
January 8, 2017
First Sunday After Epiphany
The Baptism of Our Lord
Matthew 3:13-17

1. Baibala Hawaiian Word:


a. pono - is the Baibala word used to express John the Baptists need to be baptized by
Jesus which is an exclamation of respect and gratitude. It is the understanding that the
right thing to do is always to serve others, or respect those who are in positions of
authority. Important are the many meanings and definitions of pono:
1. nvs. Goodness, uprightness, morality, moral qualities, correct or proper procedure,
excellence, well-being, prosperity, welfare, benefit, behalf, equity, sake, true condition or
nature, duty; moral, fitting, proper, righteous, right, upright, just, virtuous, fair, beneficial,
successful, in perfect order, accurate, correct, eased, relieved; should, ought, must,
necessary. Pono ole, unjust, unrighteous, dishonest, unprincipled, unfair, wrong. No kou
pono, in your behalf. Ka pono o ka lehulehu, public welfare. N pono lhui knaka,
human rights. N pono o n whine, women's rights. Ka pono kahiko, the old morality or
moral system. Pono i ke knwai, legal, legality. Pono ole ka manao, disturbed,
worried, upset. Me ka pono, respectfully [complimentary close in letters]. N mea e
maopopo ai kona pono, proofs in his own favor, his defense. Kkua no ka pono o ka
lehulehu, help for the public welfare. Ka noonoo e pono ai kia hana, the study
necessary for this work. Loaa ka pono i ka lhui mamuli o ke ahonui o ka elele, the
people were benefited by the patience of the delegate. E pono ioe ke hele, you should
go. Pono o oe ke hele, you should be the one to go. Pono i ke keiki e hele, the child
ought to go. Ke ui mai nei oe, aohe au pono, when you turn to me, I have no rights. E
eha n a e pono, no ka pinana n i ke kumulau, serves you right to be hurt, since you
climbed the tree. Aia ka pono, o ka pae aku, what is necessary is to reach shore. Pono e
pili paa loa, inalienable rights. hoo.pono Righteous, respectable, correct, upright; to
behave correctly. Hoopono ole, unjust, dishonest.
2. vs. Completely, properly, rightly, well, exactly, carefully, satisfactorily, much (an
intensifier). Pau pono, completely finished. Piha pono, completely filled; complete, as a
Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

thought; clear. Nn pono, look or examine carefully. Ao pono ia, well-taught. Ua loaa
pono o Lawa m e aihue ana, Lawa and others were caught in the act of stealing. I luna
pono o ka puu (For. 5:61), at the very top of the hill.

2. Cultural Traditions:
a. Hiu wai - is the practice of spiritual cleansing, prayer, and immersing oneself in the ocean in the
early morning before the sunrise. It is not Baptism, but it is a practice that acknowledges need for
regular spiritual cleansing and prayer. In Baptism the Holy Spirit is combined with water to
initiate a cleansing and consecration into the family of God in the name of the Father, Son and
Holy Spirit, or ma ka inoa o Ka Makua, a me Ke Keiki, a me Ka Uhane Hemolele Amen.
b. P kai - is another cleansing tradition. P kai means to sprinkle with sea water or salted fresh
water to purify or remove taboo, as formerly done after a death or after a boy's subincision.
(Na_na_ 17982.) P kai kea, to sprinkle with white sea [from waves, and not with salted fresh
water]. A Hawaiian Blessing ceremony for a house or a canoe, may include p kai with salted
water in a wooden calabash and sprinkling with Ki leaves dipped in the bowl. Sometimes limu
kala is added to the water with the sea salt.

3. Social Justice Issue:


a. Wai or water is a very precious resource in Hawaii. In fact the word waiwai means wealth or
value. During the era of sugar and pineapple, water was diverted by plantations from the major
valley rivers and streams and rerouted to plantation areas in the plains or hillsides. Many of the
valleys where kalo was cultivated on terraced lands lacking adequate water were unable to sustain
the kalo cultivation. Kalo was a major agricultural and staple food of the Hawaiians. Kalo was
grown in abundance in many of the valleys and required unrestricted access to river and streams.
The movement to return the water to the rivers, streams, and valleys is a long-standing effort by
Native Hawaiian Kalo farmers. Water is life - Ka Wai Ola. Jesus said I am the living water!

Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

Ma Ka Moku Project
LECTIONARY YEAR A GOSPEL READINGS
REFLECTIONS
January 15, 2017
Second Sunday After Epiphany
John 1:29-42
1. Baiabala Hawaiian Words:
a. uhane - in the Baibala refers to the Holy Spirit that is coming from heaven. This is a
Spirit that comes from above, not from below. In Hawaiian thought, the spirit of a
deceased person is said to leap into the other world. On many of the islands there is a
lena, or leaping off place, on Oahu this place is called Kaena Point, on Kauai it is
Polihale.
At Jesus baptism the heavens are opened a gate or door is created, and the Holy Spirit
which is of God, descends in the form of a dove - manu nn, and remains on Jesus. He
becomes the one who will baptize with the Holy Spirit. The dove in Hawaiian thought
can represents aumakua (ancestral gods).
au.makua - a re family or personal gods, deified ancestors who might assume the shape
of sharks (all islands except Kauai), owls (as at Mnoa, O'ahu and Ka and Puna,
Hawaii), hawks (Hawaii), elepaio, iwi, mudhens, octopuses, eels, mice, rats, dogs,
caterpillars, rocks, cowries, clouds, or plants. A symbiotic relationship existed; mortals
did not harm or eat aumkua (they fed sharks), and aumkua warned and reprimanded
mortals in dreams, visions, and calls. (Beckwith, 1970, pp. 12443, 559; Nn 38.) Fig..,
a trustworthy person. (Probably lit.., au 4, group, + makua, parent.) See pulapula 2.
h.au.makua To acquire or contact aumkua.
uhane - is soul, spirit, ghost; dirge or song of lamentation (rare); spiritual. Uhane ole,
without a soul; shameless, like a beast. Lele ka uhane, the soul leaves [death]. Kuu i ka
uhane (Kin. 35.29), to give up the ghost. Pili uhane, spiritual. Uhane olol, thin,
shriveled soul or ghost. (PEP ku(f,s)ane.)
Uhane Hemolele - is Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost. hemo.lele. - is perfect, faultless,
flawless, holy, immaculate, saintly, pure in heart; complete; perfection, virtue, goodness,
holiness; angel, person without fault. Maemae wale n o Kauai, hemolele wale i ka
mlie (song), perfectly beautiful is Kauai, flawless in the calm. K mua hemolele iho
(Oih. 3.12), our holiness. hoo.hemo.lele To make holy; to feign holiness. Ua
hoohemolele lkou i kou nani (Ezek. 27.4), they have perfected your beauty.

Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

2. Cultural Traditions:
a. Aumakua: The Hawaiian family will often have memory of aumakua or an ancestral
spirit or guardian angel. A family may have a shark who frequents a coastal area in the
ocean and comes to respect the shark and even bring food to feed it. Or a family may
have an aumakua who is a Pueo or owl, and when it is sighted or seen interprets the
meaning of that moment. Interpreting signs in nature such as appearances of aumakua, or
rainbows, rains, or winds is called -ailona or h.ai.lona - a sign, symbol,
representation, insignia, emblem, mark, badge, signal, omen, portent, target, credential,
token of recognition, a lot that is cast; title (legal); depth sounding; to mark; to take a
depth sounding; to draw lots. Cf. hailona, kila 2. Hailona helu, plural sign or marker,
algebra. Hailona mahele, measure signature in music. Hailona kauhau, hailona no
ke klana, family crest or coat of arms. Hailona m, badge or emblem of royalty,
sceptre. Hailona pai, printed stamp. Hailona manawa, time signature in music.
Hailona lanakila, emblem or trophy of victory, trophy. Ka pana ana aku i ka hailona
(1 Sam. 20.20), shooting at the mark.
3. Social Justice Issue
a. The protection of aumakua such as the man or shark has been an issue with Native
Hawaiians. Sharks are often sought after for their prized fins used as food or for
medicinal purposes in asian cultures. Hawaiians have often opposed the hunting or
killing of sharks. When certain natural habitats are threatened by development birds that
are endangered species, or aumakua such as the Owl or Pue, are often protected by
Hawaiians. Places that have significant historical meaning become sacred places to be
protected. The place where Jesus was baptised, and the river, would be in the mind of the
Hawaiian a very sacred place worthy of protection, preservation, and use.

Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

Ma Ka Moku Project
LECTIONARY YEAR A GOSPEL READINGS
REFLECTIONS
January 22, 2017
Third Sunday After Epiphany
Matthew 4:12-23

1. Baibala Hawaiian Words:

a. lawaia - is the Baibala word for Fisherman; fishing technique; to fish, to catch fish. O
ka h aku ka lawaia nui a Umi-a-Lloa (FS 173), casting for bonito was Umi-a-Lloa's
principal means of fishing. Jesus first disciples were lawaia fishermen. Hawaiians
would have great interest in Jesus and his lawaia disciples, as Hawaiians were great
fishermen and knew the fisheries and oceans very well. They utilized very sophisticated
methods and strategies of fishing.
b. moku - has been used to describe a district, island, islet, section, forest, grove, clump,
severed portion, fragment, cut, laceration, scene in a play. Cf. mokupuni, momoku. Moku
lehua, lehua forest. hoo.moku To place one over a moku, district. (For. 6:377.)
But moku can also refer to a ship, schooner, vessel, boat, said to be so called because the
first European ships suggested islands.
In Matthews Gospel the Baibala word moku appears 18 times in reference to district or
boat. Jesus spends his early days of ministry utilizing the moku boat to crisscross the sea
of Galilee in reaching out to a hurting world. There were no islands in the Sea of Galilee
but Jesus and his disciples were a floating island reaching out to the world with the Good
News of Gods love.

Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

2. Cultural Traditions:
a. Community or family fishing is a long practiced tradition. When the schools of Akule
would come into the bay the community would gather to help with the catch. Many
hundred pounds of fish would be brought ashore caught in gill nets. Many hands were
needed to remove the fish from the nets, repair the nets, and make everything ready for
the next day. Hawaiians say many hands make light the work. At the end of the day
everyone would have a bag or bucket of fish to take home for dinner. Other fish would
be taken to those elderly, shut-in, or sick.
3. Social l Justice Issues:
a. Fisheries management is very difficult in Hawaii today, with so many recreational,
commercial, and fishing companies like the long liners from foreign countries. The
coastal areas have been developed by mega resorts and other development impacting the
more traditional fishing grounds and access to the coastal areas. Fish are not as plentiful
as in the old days.

Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

Ma Ka Moku Project
LECTIONARY YEAR A GOSPEL READINGS
REFLECTIONS
January 29, 2017
Fourth Sunday After Epiphany
Matthew 5:1-12
1. Baibala Hawaiian Words:

a.

pii - can mean to go inland or overland (whether or not uphill), to go or walk up, climb,
ascend, advance, mount, rise; to grow up, as a child; to fall, as one shadow on another. See
ihu pi i. Pii kuahiwi, mountain climber; to climb mountains. Here Jesus goes up to the
mountain with his disciples. The word pii indicates a movement upward, pii is a word
associated with climbing a mountain or hill. In the Gospels we see Jesus involved with pii at
least 5 times in the Gospel of Matthew, but more than likely Jesus spent many more occasions
going up a mountain or hill to teach or pray.

b. mauna - is the Baibala word for mountain, mountainous region; mountainous. Mauna
Loa (name), Long Mountain. The mountain was a place where Jesus went to be alone
with God, to teach his disciples, and pray. Hawaiians believed the higher up the
mountain the more sacred each level. Mountains tops were considered very sacred, a
place of the gods and ancestors.

c. p.mai.kai - good fortune, blessedness, blessing, profit, prosperity; prosperous,


fortunate, beneficial, blessed, lucky; good luck, improvement (of property), welfare,
benefits. Cf. p ino. Pmaikai ole, unfortunate, unlucky. Pmaikai au, blessed am I. He
pmaikai ia mai ke Akua (Kel. 38), a blessing from God. E pili mau n pmaikai me
oe, may you always have good fortune [a way to say best wishes]. hoo.p.-mai.kai To
cause good fortune; to bless, improve, ask grace; blessing. The is the refrain is the
well-known himeni (hymn) E Kolu Mea Nui - The Three Greatest Things: Pmaikai n
mea a pau - And everything is blessed

Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

2. Cultural Traditions

a. Gathering traditional plants such as ferns, berries, or flowers, to weave into lei, create
ceremonial adornments, or make hookupu is an old tradition. The mountains with the old
forests and uplands would be entered with much preparation, respect, and prayers, to
gather these special plant leaves, vines, and flowers. Upon entering the uplands and
forests permission and honoring chants were offered. When picking leaves or flowers
another prayer would be offered. Before leaving prayers of gratitude would be given.

3.

Social; Justice Issue:

Hawaiian subsistence gathering rights and access to inland, upland, and coastal areas
have been controversial, but Native Hawaiian access and gathering have been recognized
and protected by State of Hawaii and U.S. Federal laws. But the natural resources are
very limited and proper management is needed to afford greater protections. These rights
relate to the recognized historic and cultural practices and traditions of Native Hawaiians
who are indigenous to Hawaii.

Reflections - Baibala.org
1.1.17 Ma Ka Moku Project KP

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