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Introduction

1.1 General background of the study


Kamaiya, a form of bounded labor was wide spread in several part of
terai like Dang, Banke , Bardiya, Kailai and kanchanpur. Kamaya were and
are used to work hard. They work from birth to death in the field or in the
houses of their landlords along with their family but hardly they have
sufficient food, clothes and shelter for living. Swnki(debt) is the main cause
to bind them on this system those who were born on a slave family were
automatically enslaved for debt or fine. Under the system , male kamaiya
entered in labor contract with the landlords. Payments to kamaiya families
would be either a fixed amount of paddy and

some lentilsor in the

share(Tikur) of the total production of the main crops. A hard working


person were sold and bought between land lords during maghi . The large
landlords kept their kamaiya to work on the land in the same way they kept
oxen (INSEC, 1998).
It is generally held that all the social, political and economic all
powers were attached to the landlord. Poverty, illiteracy, poor health
condition, unemployment , landless, homelessness, lack of awareness,
ignorance, lack of means of subsistence and social facts like caste system are
the main factors for promoting kamaiaya.
In Nepal has mentioned that kamaiyas condition in very poor. They
do not have sufficient food and clothes so they have to pass very taught time
during winter season . the socio-economic condition of Ex- kamaiya is
miserable they face various types of problem in their life and to overcome
those problems they should depends upon others. They have high illiteracy
rate due to their poor economic condition and ignorance about education.
they are also facing social as well as various health related problems due to
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poor economic condition . so, additional policy option should be formulated


and implemented for the economic upliftment of Ex-

kamaiya.

Rathgaiya (2009)
The need to restrict and eradicate the most intolerable forms of child
labour in Nepal hasbecome an essential element of a national development
strategy to achieve sustainable growth and protect human rights. His
Majestys Government of Nepal has repeatedly expressed its
commitment to eliminating the worst forms of child labour, and is in the
process of ratifying the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention
182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor.
This rapid assessment investigation set out to fill the gaps in
knowledge of the incidence and nature of child bonded labor in Nepal. It has
attempted to view this worst form of child labor in the wider context of child
labor and debt-bondage among one of the largest ethnic groups of Nepal
the Kamaiya households in the far and mid western districts of the country.
Child labour is pervasive in Nepal, and it is estimated that 33,000 children
work under debt bondage to pay off parental debts (Sharma, 1999).
In typical wage labor, one can enter or withdraw from the labor
market at will, but in the case of bonded labor, a worker cannot control his
or her labor power. After the Kamaiyas were liberated in 2000, the Nepalese
government promised to provide them with land to build houses. Without
enough money for construction, many Ex-Kamaiyas are without housing
live in dilapidated conditions.(shrestha, 2006)
Kamaiya system is the bonded labor system that used to prevail in the
rural economy of western Tarai of Nepal. Kamaiya used to enter into
contract with landlord (Jamindar) verbally for one year, but usually gets
trapped in the debt called 'Saunki' to fulfill their family's basic needs, and
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become bonded laborer for generations. Kamaiya freedom was announced


on 17 July 2000, and was made illegal in the country by "Kamaiya Labour
(Prohibition) Act 2002". The rehabilitation of Mukta Kamaiya is still not
completed after more than one decade. They are one of the socioeconomically most disadvantaged people. This study assesses the socioeconomic status of freed-bonded laborer (Mukta Kamaiya) and also analyzes
the effect of Kamaiya freedom on farm management of landlords
(Jamindars). A survey was carried out in 120 households of Kohalpur
Village Development Committee (VDC) of Banke district and Kalika VDC
of Bardiya district (60 households in each district) and 30 Jamindars from tw
district from August till September 2010. The average family size of Mukta
Kamaiya was found higher (6.5) than the national (5.45) and district average
(5.74 in Banke), but in case of Bardiya, it is slightly lower (6.52). The
literacy rate was found to be 68% in Banke and 70% in Bardiya respectively,
and it is higher than the district as well as national average. It is largely due
to the contribution of informal education programme (28%). Formal
education and literacy rate is higher in younger population, but limited in
lower secondary level. Due to the extremely small size of land (0.088 ha),
many Mukta Kamaiyas are drawn into a daily laboring work. Wage laboring
is the basic livelihood strategy that employed 47% of households heads and
contributed 68% of total annual income. In spite of several skill
development trainings delivered to them, overwhelmingly large number of
household-heads (85%) are involved in unskilled wage laboring. It is due to
the less utilization of technical skill trainings learnt (44%). The second most
important source of income is farming that contributed 12% of the total
annual income. Average annual gross income (cash and non-cash) of a
household is NRs. 98,354 and annual expense is NRs. 91,751 (1 USD =
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NRS 72). Food security is an alarming issue among the Mukta Kamaiya.
Only 4% of the households have food self-sufficiency where as more than
33% have less than 1 month food self-sufficiency. Based on the minimum
calorie intake, a large fragment (36% of households) are in food insecure
condition and their average calorie intake is quite low (<1400 KCal/AE/day)
than the recommended (2,144 Kcal/AE/day) in Tarai region of Nepal.
Kamlahri form of child laboring is still prevailing in Mukta Kamaiya. It was
found that 11% of households are sending their children as Kamlahri.
Among the employed children, the larger proportion is working as Kamlahri
(65%) and the majority of them are girls (67%). Twenty percent Kamlahri
are not getting opportunity to go school from the employers' house. The
majority of the Kamlahris (70%) are working just for education and meal.
After the prohibition of Kamaiya system, Jamindars are managing their
farming basically through share cropping. The animal power based farming
is gradually substituted by farm machineries due to the decreased livestock
size and labor shortage. According to Jamindar, yield of major crops (rice,
wheat and maize) has not increased much due to inadequate management.
Physical infrastructure development, skill enhancement and educational
support should be continued. This study suggests the creation of awareness
by Mukta Kamaiya to deal with the root causes of this problem. Long term
educational programme is necessary for the returned and rescued Kamlahris.
(Chaudhary,2010)

1.2 Statement of the problem


The main objective of Ex-kamaya is to serve the poor and needy
people providing rehavitation and implementing upliftiment programme at
their doorsteps. After the successful efficient at that causes reduce their
poverty level, develop a life standard and create employment opportunities.
But the main problem is that only a classified society are involved in the Exkamaiyas programmes. A large number of Ex- kamaiyas of area are still out
of poor of such programmes.
In the country Ex-kamaiyas literacy rate is very low. They cannot
utilize their skilled power at that proper way. Therefore, The attention of
concerned authorities should go towards these issues. This research is to
measure the effectiveness of Ex- kamaiyas on income generation and
participation of economic activities. It also suggested for improvement in
our choosing economic and income-generating activities.
The main problems related to this study are listed below:
1. How Ex-kamaiyas of Geta Gaun are benefited from stakeholders
agencies programmes?
2. How developmental sectors has helped in empowering Exkamaiyas?
3. Are the related agencies able to disbursed is there necessary?
4. What action should be taken to get better result from Related
agencies programmers?
1.3 Objectives
The general objective of this study is to find out the effectiveness of Exkamaiyas in participation of in economic activities in Geta Gaun of kailali
Distric, The Functional objectives have been identified as follows:
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1. To analyze the problem of Ex-kamaiyas on income generation


programme of Geta gaun.
2. To examine the effectiveness of Ex- kamaiyas participating in
economics activities.
3. To suggest measures for more effective implementation of the Exkamaiyas programmed.
1.4 Significant of the study
This study will be a good guideline to the problem of Ex-kamaiyas
who have been endeavoring their whole effort for the progressive and
effective management. This study will also be helpful to other NGOs and
INGOs, Which are working to poverty alleviation for Ex- kamaiyas
programmers. The report of the study will be helpful to the government and
other stakeholder institutions.
1.5 Limitation of the study
All study have their own limitation, no study can be free from
constraints such as of resources, time, money etc. Thus, this study also has
the following limitations:
1. It is a micro level study, thus the study will not take the detail Exkamaiyas activities.
2. This study only covers the area of Geta VDC ward No. 4 kattha toal.
Thus the conclusion of this study may not be generalized to the whole
kailali District.
3. The indirect impacts resulting in the long-run from the implication of
Ex-kamaiyas programme Can't be studied due to time and budget
limitations.
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4. Due

to

the

difference

in

socio-economic

condition,

the

recommendations for this study will not be exactly applicable in other


areas of the country.

2. Review of Literature
Since very long researchers have been writing in the field of socioeconomic status of Ex-kamaiyas but few works have been accomplished in
the context of the problem faced by Ex-kamaiyas in participation of
Ex-kamaiyas in economic activities. Here, attempts have been made to
review all the available literature in this field so far as possible.
(Shrma,1999) In his Report Child labor is pervasive in Nepal. Of
about 4.7 million children from six to fourteen years. old1, 25.5 percent are
economically active, and about 4.4 percent are wage workers. It has
been tentatively estimated that 33,000 children work under debt-bondage to
pay off parental debts Yet, there are gaps in our knowledge of the incidence
and nature of child bonded labor in Nepal. Aspects of bonded labor and
debt-bondage in the Kamaiya system in Nepal cut across many forms of
child labor, and specific categorization is often complicated. This study
will document the extent to which situations of child labor and debt-bondage
among Kamaiya households in the far and mid western districts of Nepal can
be considered as childbonded labor and as a worst forms of child labor.
To date, no large-scale assessment of child bonded labor in a specific area or
among a specific segment of the population has been carried out. Unlike
other studies, which focus narrowly on bonded labor, this study will attempt
to view bonded child labor in the wider context of child labor and debtbondage among one of the largest ethnic groups of Nepal.
The working conditions of all Kamaiya children interviewed will thus be
discussed first, and special attention will in turn be given to the issue of
those in bonded labor in particular.

Chaudhary(2005) in his unpublished thesis found that most of the


Dangura Tharu believe that it was ignorance, illitarcy, lack of organization,
lack of unity and so called conspiracy that made Tharu people unable to
preserve valuable documents and forced to migrate from Dang to
Buhran(Term used by tharu to represent Banke, Bardia, Kailali,
Kanchanpur.) Through his finding he concluded that sixty seven and half
percent people are still engaged in traditionally dominated agricultural
sector. That land holding size per household is 1.5 katta and productivity is
too low i.e. about 35 muri per bigha.
(OHCHR, Dec.2007) has also been monitoring the situation of exKamaiyas (freed bonded laborers). On 25 July, the Government signed an
agreement which sets out a timetable for the allocation of land and other
support measures to ex-Kamaiyas after protests in the Far and Mid-Western
Regions and in Kathmandu. Although legislation was passed in 2002 which
banned the use of bonded laborers and freed them from debt, compensation
and rehabilitation measures have never been fully implemented. Some steps
have been taken to begin implementing the agreement. As of November,
according to reports, 700 out of 6,200 ex-Kamaiya families in the Kailali
district (Far Western Region) had been allocated land and other support and
local leaders expressed concerns about the slow pace of implementation,
which must be completed, in accordance with the agreement, by April 2008.
Chaudhary(2008) In his research article states that kamaiya got
freedom only in principle but not their actual real life situation. They are not
able to stand on their own and has not become self reliant. They have to
depends upon other even for bread and butter. There Socio-economic
condition is not have enough food for themselves and not have access to
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clean drinking water. Since, They have no land, their main source of income
is daily wage . Their low economic condition has affected all parts of their
life such as education, health status and social status and so on.
Shahi(2009) in his thesis states that Ex-kamaiyas has maintained that
economic condition of Ex-kamaiyas is very poor. They have not been
rehabilitated systematically and effectively. The programmers that have been
conducted to reduce the poverty of Ex-kamaiyas are not systematically
planned. Poverty, illiteracy and ignorance were behind the causes of
bondage, exploitation and victimization of Tharu kamaiya. He was found the
average income of respondent was Rs. 148 per day ranging Rs. 35 to Rs.
300. The monthly average income of the household is Rs. 5884. The average
expenditure on non-food item is Rs. 3317 per month and expenditure on
non-food item is Rs. 4300. He has also found that Tharu freed people were
more health conscious. During the study it was found these people are happy
from the government decision to abolish kamaiya system.
3. Methodology of the Study
3.1 Area Selected by the Study
The area selected for study is Geta VDC Ward No. 4 Kattha toal of
Kailali District. This village is about 8 km far from Dhangadhi bazaar.
Research

methodology

is

the

way

to

solve

Research

problems

systematically,
3.2 Research Design
This study is mainly based on the primary data collected from the
field survey and secondary data collected from, Governmental and NonGovernmental office and other published reports.
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3.3 Data Collection


The present study is based on primary as well as secondary data in
order to meet stated objective of the study.
Primary Data
Primary data will be collected by using major procedures of data
collection namely questionnaires and interviews. Structured and semistructured questionnaires will be used. The interviews will be conducted by
asking questions to The Ex-kamaiyas and other stakeholders.
Secondary Data
Secondary data will be collected from the report published by
Ministry of land Reform, INSEC, GEFONT, NLA, ILO, Journals,
Magazines, Newspapers, Central bureau of statistics(CBS), Different
concerned organizations and Websites.
3.4 Population and Sampling
The Population under this study will be taken the number of Exkamaiyas out of them only 60 members will be chosen as the sample
population for detailed study.
3.5 Method of Sampling
It will be not possible to take detailed survey of that shiver due
various problems like limitation of time, lack of manpower and resources.
So the list of the member of the study area will be obtained from Exkamaiyas. From that list 60 members will be chosen by applying simple
random sampling.

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3.6 Data Collection Technique


For the collection of primary data, The structured questionnaires and
as per the need of the study, The data will be collected by using the
techniques of interview schedule, observation and interview with the Exkamaiyas of the study area.
3.7 Data Processing and Analysis
In order to analyze data, different table, bar- graphs and pie-charts will
be presented on the basis of collection of primary data as well as available
secondary data from various sources. Statistical tools like percentage,
average, correlation, regression etc. will be used according to the study
desired

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References
Chaudhaary J.(2005). The Economic status of Dangura Tharu., A Case Study
of Tribhuvan Nagar Municipality, Dang. An Unpublished MA Thesis
Submitted to the Central Department of Economics, T.U. Kritipur
Kathmandu Nepal.
Chaudhary, Suresh(2008). The Plight of The Ex-kamaiya. An Article
Submitted to the social Inclusion Research fund(SIRF) SNV-Nepal.
Bhkhundre, Lalitpur
http://ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/mctadb/up/diss/H23m Chaudhary Tharu
BuddhiRam.pdf.
INSEC, (1998) Bonded Labor in Nepal

<nttp//www.gn.ca\partners

\insec\yb>.
Rathguiya, Dhan Bhadur(2009), Socio-economic condition of Ex-kamaiya,
A Case Study of Tikapur Municipulity Kailali District An unpublished
MA Thesis Submitted to the Central Department of Economics, T.U.
Kritipur Kathmandu, Nepal.
Shahi, Pawan Kumar(2009). Income and Consumption Pattern of Sherpa
Community, A Case of Kapan VDC Kathmandu. An Unpublished MA
Thesis Submitted to The Central Department of Economics, T.U.
Kritipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Sharma ,S., Thakurathi,M., and Sha,B.N., 1999. Domestic Child Labourers
in Urban Nepal, Case of Pokhara, Butwal and Siddarthanagar
Municipalities(A report

prepared

for

UNICEF),

NLA-Nepal,

Kathmandu
Sharma,s.,1999.Child bonded Labour: Nepal, draft paper for discussion in
Asian Regional meeting on the worst forms of Child Labour, phuket,

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Thailand(sept.8-10,19990). ILO, East asia multidisciplinary Advisory


Team, Bangkok.
Shresth, G.R., Rajkarnikar, D.G., and Thapa, S.(2006). Economic and
livelihood alternatives for Ex-kamaiyas and equally Vulerable
communities in Western Nepal. Geneva:ILO
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights (OHCHR), December 2007, Human Rights in Nepal one year
after the Comprehensive Peace Agreement

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A Research proposal
On
Problem Faced by Ex-Kamaiyas in Nepal:
A Case Study of Kattha Ex- KAmaiyas siver Geta VDC, Ward No. 4
Geta Kailali Nepal

A Proposal
Submitted to the Central Department of Economics
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of Degree of
Master of Arts in Economics

Submitted by:
Gyanendra Prasad Pandeya
Roll No.411/065

Central Department of Economics


Tribhuvan University
Kritipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
Februray,2012

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