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The Diffusivity Equation

• Describes the flow of



a slightly compressible fluid
having constant viscosity
in a porous medium
at constant temperature

• Derived from basic relationships of
– continuity
– flow equation (Darcy’s law)
– equation-of-state

The Continuity Equation

(Av)1

(Av)2

  Av1  Av2
m

Flow Equation (Darcy’s Law)

kAp
q
L
or, in differential form,

kx p
ux  
 x

Equation of State for a Slightly
Compressible Liquid

   oe

c  p  po 

The Diffusivity Equation
One-dimensional, radial form:

1   p  ct p
r  
r r  r 
k t

Modeling Radial Flow

Radial Flow Reservoir Model

Bulk
formation

rw

h

r

Ei-Function Solution
to the Diffusivity Equation
2

qB  948ct r 
p  pi  70.6
Ei 


kh
kt

 Ei  x   


u
e

x

u

du

Ei-Function Graph
6

Log approximation

4

Ei-function
drops to zero

2

0
0.001

0.01

0.1

1

-x

10

100

Short-Time Approximation for
Ei-Function Solution

p  pi
948 ct r
 10
kt
2

Applies when

(large radius or small time)

Long-Time Approximation
to Ei-Function Solution
2

qB
1688


c
r
t

p  pi  162.6
log10 


kh
kt


948 ct r 2
 0.01
Applies when
kt
(small radius or large time)

Pressure Profile
During Drawdown
2000

ri

t=0

ri

ri

ri

t = 0.01 hrs
t = 1 hr

Pressure,
psi

t = 100 hrs
t = 10000 hrs

1000
1

10

100

1000

Distance from center of wellbore, ft

10000

Pressure Profile
During Buildup
2,000

ri

t = 10,000 hrs

1,800

ri

t = 100 hrs

1,600
1,400

ri

t = 1 hr

ri

1,200
t = 0.01 hrs

t=0

1,000
1

10

100

1,000

Distance from center of wellbore, ft

10,000

Radius of Investigation Equations
• Radius of investigation for a
given time t:
kt
ri 
948ct
• Time required to reach a given
radius of investigation ri:
t

2
948ct ri

k

Characterizing Damage
and Stimulation

Reservoir Model
Skin Effect
Altered
zone

ka
rw
ra

Bulk
formation

h

k

Reservoir Pressure Profile

Pressure, psi

2,000

1,500

1,000

ps

500
1

10

100

1,000

Distance from center of wellbore, ft

10,000

Skin and Pressure Drop

0.00708 k h
s
ps
qB

Skin and Pressure Drop

141.2qB
ps 
s
kh

Skin Factor and Properties
of the Altered Zone

 k
  ra 
s  
 1  ln 
 ka
  rw 
rw

rds
h
r

Skin Factor and Properties
of the Altered Zone

ka 

k
1

s

lnra rw 

Effective Wellbore Radius

rwa  rwe

s

 rwa 

s   ln
 rw 

Minimum Skin Factor

smin

 re 
  ln 
r
 w

Minimum Skin Factor
Example

smin

 re 
  ln 
 rw 
 745 
  ln
  7.3
 0.5 

Productivity Index

q
J
p  pwf

Flow Efficiency

J actual p  pwf  ps
Ef 

J ideal
p  pwf

Flow Efficiency and Rate

qnew  qold

E fnew
E fold

Semilog Analysis
For Oil Wells

Instructional Objectives
• Analyze a constant-rate drawdown
test using semilog analysis.
• Analyze a buildup test following a
constant-rate flow period using the
Horner method.

Ei-Function Solution
qB  948ct r
p  pi  70.6
Ei  
kh 
kt

2




6
4
2
0.001

-x

100

Reservoir Pressure Profile
2,000

Negative skin
(s = -2)
Pressure,
psi

Unsteady-state pressure
(s=0)
Positive (damage) skin (s = +5)

500
1

10
100
1,000
Distance from center of wellbore, ft

10,000

Incorporating Skin into the
Ei-Function Solution
• For r = rw
qB
p  pi  70.6
kh

  948   c t rw2 

  2 s 
 Ei  
kt
 


• For r > ra

 948   c t r 
q B

p  pi  70.6
Ei  
kh
kt


2

Log Approximation to the
Ei-Function
y = mx + b
pwf

qB Use |m| in computations
 pi  162.6
from this point forward
kh


 k 
  3.23  0.869 s
 log10 t   log10 
2


  ct rw 

Estimating Permeability
and Skin
162.6qB
k
mh

p  p



k
1hr  log 

s  1.151 i

3
.
23

10 
2

m

c
r


t w

Drawdown Test Graph
1,200

Usually several cycles apart
(t2, pwf2) p1hr is p at
1 hr on bestfit line

Pressure,
psi

Plot pressure vs. time

(t1, pwf1)

Powers of 10
700
0.1

1

10

Elapsed Test Time, hrs

100

1,000

Example



q = 250 STB/D
h = 46 ft
rw = 0.365 ft
ct = 17 x 10-6 psi-1

pi = 4,412 psia
 = 12%
B = 1.136 RB/STB
 = 0.8 cp

p  p



k
1hr  log 
  3.23
s  1.151 i
10 
2
m


 ct rw 

Example



q = 250 STB/D
h = 46 ft
rw = 0.365 ft
ct = 17 x 10-6 psi-1

pi = 4,412 psia
 = 12%
B = 1.136 RB/STB
 = 0.8 cp

162.6qB
k
mh

p  p



k
  3.23
s  1.151 i 1hr  log10 
 c r 2 
m


t w

Example
3,600

Extrapolate to get p1 hr

slope = p10 hr-p1 hr
 -100
m  100
p10hr  3,440 psi

p1hr  3,540 psi

One log cycle
Plot data points
from field data
3,300

1

10

Time, hrs

100

Example



q = 250 STB/D
h = 46 ft
rw = 0.365 ft
ct = 17 x 10-6 psi-1

pi = 4,412 psia
 = 12%
B = 1.136 RB/STB
 = 0.8 cp

p1hr  3,540 psi

162.6qB
k
mh

p  p



k
  3.23
s  1.151 i 1hr  log10 
 c r 2 
m
m  100 


t w

Problems with Drawdown Tests
• It is difficult to produce a well at
a strictly constant rate
• Even small variations in rate
distort the pressure response

Alternative to Drawdown Tests
• There is one rate that is easy to maintain –
a flow rate of zero.
• A buildup test is conducted by shutting in
a producing well and measuring the
resulting pressure response.

Buildup Test - Rate History
q

Rate during production of +q.
0

tp + t
t

0

Rate after shut-in of -q
-q
q
0

Sum after shut-in
of 0.
tp

t

Buildup Pressure Response
0

Pressure normally declines
during production...
tp + t

…but rises during the
‘injection’ (buildup) period...
0

0

t

…yielding a pressure curve that is the
sum of the two rate curves:

tp

t

Buildup Test - Superposition

 k 
qB 
  3.23  0.869 s
pws  pi  162.6
 log10 t p  t  log10 
2

kh 

c
r

t w


 k 
qB 
  3.23  0.869 s
 162.6
 log10 t   log10 
2

kh 

  ct rw 

 t p  t 
qB

pws  pi  162.6
log10 
kh
 t 

y = mx + b

Buildup Straight-Line Analogy

162.6qB
k
mh
Horner time ratio

pi  b @

t p  t
t

1

Buildup Test Graph
2,000

pi

1,400
10,000

1,000

100

Horner time ratio

10

1

Estimating Skin Factor
From a Buildup Test
 p1hr  pwf

 k 
  3.23
s  1.151
 log10 
2 
m


 ct rw 

Horner Pseudoproducing Time

tp 
pws

24 N p
qlast

 t p  t 
qlastB

 pi  162.6
log10 
kh
 t 

Semilog Analysis
For Gas Wells

Instructional Objectives
1. Identify range of validity of pressure,
pressure-squared, and adjusted
pressure analysis methods
2. Estimate pressure drop due to
non-Darcy flow

3. Analyze flow and buildup tests using
semilog analysis

Outline
• Flow Equations For Gas Wells



Pseudopressure
Pressure-Squared
Pressure
Adjusted Pressure

• Non-Darcy Flow
• Example

Diffusivity Equation - Liquids

1   p  ct p
r  
r r  r 
k t

• Continuity Equation
• Equation of State For Slightly
Compressible Liquids
• Darcy’s Law

Real Gas Law
absolute pressure, psi
real gas
ideal
deviation
gas constant,
factor, 10.72
dimensionless
(ft3)(lb)/(mole)(in2)(R)

pV=znRT
pV znRT
volume,

number of moles
temperature, R

ft3

Real Gas Pseudopressure
absolute pressure, psi

p p  p   2

p
p0

pdp
z

Gas Flow Equation
Real Gas Pseudopressure
1   p p  ct p p
 r
 
r r  r 
k t
• Continuity Equation
• Real Gas Law Equation of State
• Darcy’s Law

Gas Flow Equation
Pressure-Squared
2
2


ct p
1 
p
 r
 
r r  r 
k t




Continuity Equation
Real Gas Law Equation of State
Darcy’s Law
The term z Is Constant

Pressure-Squared Ranges
0.16

SG=1.2

Fairly constant at
rates <2,000 psi

SG=1.0

Tf = 200 °F

mu*z,
psi/cp

SG=0.8
SG=0.6

0
0

2,000

4,000

6,000

Pressure, psia

8,000

10,000

Gas Flow Equation: Pressure
• If p/z is constant,

1   p   ct p
r  
r r  r 
k t
• Continuity Equation
• Real Gas Law Equation of State
• Darcy’s Law

Pressure: Range Of
Application
250

Tf = 200°F

SG=0.6

SG=0.8
SG=1.0
SG=1.2

Fairly constant at rates >3,000 psi
0

0

2,000

4,000

6,000

Pressure, psia

8,000

10,000

Gas - Dependent Variables
• Pressure-Squared - Valid Only For
Low Pressures (< 2000 psi)
• Pressure - Valid Only For High
Pressures (> 3000 psi)
• Real Gas Pseudopressure - Valid For
All Pressure Ranges

Gas Flow Equation:
Real Gas Pseudopressure
1   p p   ct p p
 r
 
r r  r 
k t
Strong Variation
With Pressure

• Continuity Equation
• Real Gas Law Equation of State
• Darcy’s Law

Real Gas Pseudotime
tap 

t

0

dt
  p ct  p 

Adjusted Variables
 z 
pa  p    
 p i
ta  ct i

t

0

p

p0

pdp  z 
 p p  p 
 
z  2 p i

dt
 ct i tap
  p ct  p 

Using Horner Time Ratio
With Adjusted Time
HTR 

t p  ta
ta

Non-Darcy Flow
• Flow equations developed so far
assume Darcy flow
• For gas wells, velocity near
wellbore is high enough that
Darcy’s law fails
• Non-Darcy behavior can often be
modeled as rate-dependent skin

Apparent Skin Factor

s'  s  Dqg

Estimating Non-Darcy
Coefficient
From Multiple Tests
10

8

Apparent
skin factor

D = 5.1x104D/Mscf

6

4
s = 3.4
2

0
0

2,000

4,000

6,000

Flow rate, Mscf/D

8,000

10,000

Estimating Non-Darcy
Coefficient
From Turbulence Parameter
• Often, only one test is available
• If so, we can estimate D from

D

2.715 10

15

k g Mpsc

hrwTsc  g ,wf

Estimating Turbulence
Parameter
• If  is not known, it can be estimated
from

10 1.47 0.53

  1.88 10 k