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Title: The Impact of leadership on Employees performance

Name: Gurpreet Kaur


Student no: 201402893

A research project submitted to


Asia Pacific International College (APIC) in fulfilment of the requirements for
the degree of Master of Business and Project Management (MBPM)

2016

Supervisor: Dr Abeba Gebreselassie

CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Abstract...................................................................................................................4
1.2

Introduction.............................................................................................................5

1.3 Research Question....................................................................................................6


1.4 Purpose of research...................................................................................................7
1.5 Methodology..............................................................................................................7
CHAPTER 2
LITRATURE REVIEW
2. Leadership Styles...........................................................................................................8
2.1.1 Participative Leadership Styles.................................................................................9
2.1.2 Autocratic Leadership..............................................................................................10
2.1.3 Democratic Leadership.............................................................................................11
2.1.4 Transactional Leadership.........................................................................................11
2.1.5 Transformational Leadership...................................................................................12
2.1.6 Laissez-Faire Leadership..........................................................................................12
2.2 Employee Performance................................................................................................13
2.2.1 Achieving goals........................................................................................................13
2.2.2 Meeting deadlines.....................................................................................................14
2.2.3 Performing set duties ...............................................................................................14
2.2.4 Organizational Effectiveness.....................................................................................15

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2.2.5 Putting extra effort....................................................................................................16
2.2.6 Team work..................................................................................................................16

2.3 Relation between Leadership styles and employee performance...................................16


2.3.1 Conceptual framework................................................................................................18

CHAPTER 3
METHDOLOGY
3.1 Data Analysis...............................................................................................................19
3.2 Method.........................................................................................................................21

CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION
4.1 Discussion.....................................................................................................................27
4.2Findings.....27
4.3Analysis....28

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
5.1 Conclusion........................................................................................................................27
5.2Recommendations....27
5.3Limitations and future research directions.............29
5.4References............29

1.2 INTRODUCTION

This research work is designed to study the Impact of Leadership Style on Employees
Performance. For any organization to achieve its set objectives and goals there must be a
good relationship between the (management) leaders and employees. Productivity to be
reality in an organization there should be high employees performance which partly depends
on leadership style. Human being joins organizations voluntarily under normal circumstances
because of personal needs and aspiration, not necessarily because of organizational goal. So,
a leader tries to motivate the worker to work higher in an organization while helping to
realize their personal aspirations. It is stated in the literature that leadership styles affect
employees performance. However, no leader uses any of the styles exclusively. A leader may
use an autocratic style when necessary to serve a particular purpose and the democratic style
in vice-versa. All the- style develops the talent of employees if matched appropriately

RESEARCH QUESTION

Q.1 How can a leadership style affect employees performance?

1.4 PURPOSE OF RESEARCH


The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of leadership styles on the performance
of employees. This study thus aims to discover the relationship linking leadership styles
and employee performance the main purpose of this study is shown below.

1. To analyse the effect of the leadership styles on employees performance.


2. To find the difference between leadership styles and employee performance on the
organizations.

1.5 METHDOLOGY
The main purpose of this study is to find out how the different leadership styles affect
employees performance. In this study, there are two research methodologies used such as
Descriptive method and Comparative method. I am using Descriptive method and this
study is a Comparative study this research totally based on the secondary data in the next
chapter I am going to Discuss about how leadership style put effect on employees
performances in organizations.

Descriptive method
As this research is based on secondary data and findings done by other researchers, this
research will describe the results by applying descriptive research method. Descriptive

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research can be explained as a statement of affairs as they are at present with the researcher
having no control over variable. Moreover, descriptive research may be characterized as
simply the attempt to determine, describe or identify what is, while analytical research
attempts to establish why it is that way or how it came to be.
Descriptive research is aimed at casting light on current issues or problems through a
process of data collection that enables them to describe the situation more completely than
was possible without employing this method.

Comparative method

By applying comparative research method, this study will use the how the different
leadership styles are affecting Employees performance in different sectors and in
different countries. Comparative research, simply put, is the act of comparing two or more
things with a view to discovering something about one or all of the things being compared.
This technique often utilizes multiple disciplines in one study. When it comes to method, the
majority agreement is that there is no methodology peculiar to comparative research.

CHAPTER 2 LITRATURE REVIEW

2. INTRODUCTION
This research work will spotlight on analysis of related literature. Endeavor will be made
towards obtaining previous works on the topic of this study and related topic for review
purposes. Appropriate journals, periodicals, newspapers, dealing on the impact of leadership
styles on employees performance will be examined to answer the research question of this
study.

This research will also discuss leadership style and the relationship between the leadership
styles and employees performance.

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

The following section will discuss the essential terms and concepts for this research
such as leadership, leadership styles and employees performance:

a. Leadership

In the literature, leadership has been known as a vital subject in the field of organizational
behavior. According to Lawal, A.A. (1993), leadership is the process of influencing others to
work willingly toward an organizational goal with confidence. Leadership is generally
defined simply as the process of influencing people to direct their efforts towards
achievement of some particular goal or goals.

Lee and Chuang (2009), explain that an excellent leader not only inspires subordinates
potential to enhance efficiency but also meets their requirements in the process of achieving

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organizational goals. Stodgily (1957), defined leadership as the individual behavior to guide a
group to achieve the common target. Fry (2003) explains leadership as use of leading strategy
to offer inspiring motive and to improve the staffs potential for growth and development.

Several reasons indicate that there should be a relationship between leadership style and
organizational performance. The first is that todays intensive and dynamic markets feature
innovation-based competition, performance rivalry, decreasing returns, and the creative
damage of existing competencies (Santora et al., 1999; Venkataraman, 1997). Studies have
suggested that effective leadership behaviors can facilitate the improvement of performance
when organizations face these new challenges (McGrath and MacMillan, 2000; Teece, Pisano
and Shuen, 1997).

Nwachukwu, C.C. (2000), sees Leadership simply as an act that involves influencing others
to act toward the attainment of a goal. Ubeku, A.A. (1975) defines leadership as the act of
motivating or causing people to perform certain task intended to achieve specified objectives.
Leadership is the act of making things happen rather than letting things happen. This the
leader does by exerting both intrinsic and extrinsic influences on the group. The user, as the
striking feature of all suggests a relationship through which one person influences the
behavior of other people. Sikula, A.F. (1996).Leadership has different meanings to various
authors. Some have interpreted leaders in simple term such as the influence, the art or process
of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards
achievement of group goals (Koontz, et, al (1978).

B. Leadership Styles
1 PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE

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In participative leadership, the leader turns to the team for input, ideas and observations
instead of making all decision on his or her own. Thats not to say the leader doesnt have
the ultimate decision making task; instead, this is to say that the leader understands the
team may have skills and ideas that could benefit the organization Fombrun, C. J. (1996).
Participative leadership involves the entire team. This is a leadership style in which the
leader works closely with team members, focusing on building relationships and rapport.
On the flip side of this leadership coin you have the autocratic leadership style, in which the
leader tends to be more issue-focused and makes most decisions without input from the
team.
2 AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP

Adebakin and Gbadamosi (1996) described an autocratic leader as one who is very conscious
of his position and has little trust or faith in the subordinates, he feels that pay is a just reward
for work and it is only the reward that can motivate. The leader gives order and insists they
must he carried out. Koontz, et al (1982)) suggests that autocratic leadership many are useful
in:

i)
ii)
iii)

Situation of emergency
In case where homogenous work force are involve, and
Where the leader is wise, just and has considerable understanding of the followers.

3 DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP

The democratic leader allows for decision making to be shared by the leader and the group.
Criticism and praises are objectively given and a feeling of responsibility is developed within

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the group. Akpala (1990) argued that this form of leadership is claimed to be earliest amongst
all other leadership style. The managers discuss with the subordinates before he issues
general or broad orders from which subordinates. Bentler, P. M. (2000) feels free to act on.
The superior allows the subordinates opportunity to use their initiative and make
contributions. The leaders also offer supports to the subordinates in accomplishing task.

4 TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP

Transactional leaders generally use organizational bureaucracy, policy, power, and authority
to maintain control; this style of leadership is occasionally referred to as authoritative
(Bennet, 2009). Previous leadership scholars (e.g., Bass, 1985, Podsakoff, 1990) have
identified contingent reward, which involves leaders clarifying roles and task expectations
and providing contingent rewards on the fulfillment of contractual obligations, as the
principal behavior to represent transactional leadership because it captures the exchange
notion fundamental to transactional leader behavior (Podsakoff, 1990, p. 113). The
transactions or exchanges included in contingent reward may include real (e.g., pay
increases) or indefinable (e.g., recognition) supplies.

5 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Transformational leadership have been widely recognized by Vera and Crossan (2004), good
leaders know how to switch between a transformational and transactional leadership style in
accordance with the situation. Effective leaders can maximize their influence by employing
both leadership styles. Furthermore, some scholars (e.g., Avolio, 1999; Bass, 1998, 1999)
argued that transactions lay the foundation for transformations. Transformational leadership

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builds on the transactional base in contributing to the extra effort and performance of
followers, which is referred to as the argumentation effect. Therefore, a positive relationship
is expected between transformational and transactional leadership styles.

6 LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADERSHIP

Laissez-faire type of leadership is at the other end of the variety from the autocratic style.
With this type, leaders attempt to pass the responsibility of decision making process to the
group. The group is loosely structured, as the leader has no confidence in his leadership
ability. Decision making under this leadership is performed by whomever that is willing to
accept As a result, the task may not be undertaken and tile conditionally becomes chaotic
(Flippo et, al (I982) as quoted by Akpala (1990).

C. EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
Employee performance is defined as whether a person executes their job duties and
responsibilities well. Many companies Bentler, P. M. (2000) assess their employee's
performance on an annual or quarterly basis in order to define certain areas that need
improvement. Performance is a critical factor in organizational success.
2.2.1 ACHIEVING GOALS

An observable and measurable end result which can be one or more objectives to be achieved
within a more or less fixed timeframe can be considered as goals. To create effective goals
and objectives for your employees, you need to be both aggressive and realistic. The best
goals are those that motivate your team without discouraging them from trying to succeed.

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While existing examples of goals Arokiasamy, A. R. A. (2013) and objectives might inspire
you, you must still learn the best strategies for creating your own goals. This way, you can
always come up with new objectives for your Employees. For example: if organizations
wants to grow then they always set many goals and try to accomplish on time so, they can
improve their standard and set more hardest goals to achieve and try to fulfill whatever they
expected from their employees.

2.2.2 MEETING DEADLINES

Being able to meet your deadlines, and deliver on what you have promised is an integral part
of any job. It is so easy for a project to slide off the rails before it has even really started
properly. So it is really important to ensure that you are Adomi, E. E. (2006) able to deliver
on time, what you have promised to deliver. Mastering the art of meeting and managing
deadlines is possible, but you need to have a plan, and keep your finger on the pulse at all
times.

2.2.3 PERFORMING SET DUTIES

Good performance starts with employees having a clear understanding of goals and
expectations. This first critical step establishes the requirements for them to perform their
role. An employee needs to know:

their role, required capabilities, responsibilities and contribution within the team
and the organization

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what they are accountable for and expected to deliver to their team and
organizations mission and goals

expectations around ethics, values and behavior

How their performance will be measured and assessed.

We should discuss these expectations clearly and openly with each employee, making sure
that you both have a shared understanding of each others responsibilities and
accountabilities. Performance expectations should be based on the capabilities employees
need to carry out their role effectively. They should also be derived from the public sector
core values and directly relate to your agencys mission and goals. Performance expectations
must describe acceptable behaviors and actions expected and define work outputs required.
We should develop these expectations collaboratively with each employee (except for
legislated or mandatory corporate Conger, J. (1989) requirements or objectives) to ensure you
both understand what is required. Once you have established expectations, you should
continuously monitor your employees performance, provide feedback to reinforce their
performance and clarify expectations on an ongoing basis.
2.2.4 ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

Managers who recognize the needs of employees in a high-performance workplace can


achieve operational effectiveness. Stress factors in the environment can lead to conflicts and
frustrations. Management control can interfere with productivity and employee potential.
Instead, when management shows it recognizes employees' abilities and takes initiatives to

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support employees through advancements, personal development programs or other actions, a
stressful, high-performance environment can change to one of operational effectiveness.

2.2.5 PUTTING EXTRA EFFORT

If you want employees to care, you have to give them some responsibility and some
decision-making latitude. Employees have to believe that the decisions they make and the
work they perform has a direct impact on the product or service you provide. This may be
easier to achieve and demonstrate in a small business than it would be in a larger one.
Employee performance and motivation has always been a real problem for managers and
business owners. Unmotivated employees are likely to spend the minimum effort to do the
job and produce low quality work. On the other hand, motivated employees tend to be
creative and productive and go the extra mile which distinguishes their work from others.
While there are many studies and resources about motivating employees, it is important for
managers and business owners to pay extra attention to hire above-average employees.

2.2.7 TEAM WORK

Teamwork is an activity that many people try to avoid in the workplace; there are a number
of benefits of working in teams for both you personally and for your organization. Not only is
it a great opportunity for professional development, it is also a means of making your work
easier. There are several ways to define teamwork but for some colour why not think of it as
the French do. The French language has an excellent expression to describe it: esprit de corps.

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This means a sense of unity, of enthusiasm for common interests and responsibilities, as
developed among a group of persons closely associated in a task, cause, enterprise, etc.
Teamwork can be likened to two compounds, almost essential to modern life. Its the glue
which keeps a team together, a bond which promotes strength, unity, reliability and support
Teamwork:

1. Creates synergy where the sum is greater than the parts.

2. Supports a more empowered way of working, removing constraints which may


prevent someone doing their job properly.
3. Promotes flatter and leaner structures, with less hierarchy.
4. Encourages multi-disciplinary work where teams cut across organizational divides.
5. Fosters flexibility and responsiveness, especially the ability to respond to change.
6. Pleases customers who like working with good teams (sometimes the customer may
be part of the team).
7. Promotes the sense of achievement, equity and camaraderie, essential for a motivated
workplace.
8. When managed properly, teamwork is a better way to work!

2.3

RELATION

PERFORMANCE

BETWEEN

LEADERSHIP

STYLES

AND

EMPLOYEE

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Every organization is set up with the expectations of effective and efficient performance,
growth in terms of increase in productivity, revenue generation, profit maximization,
customers satisfaction and increase employees performance. The extent to which this
performance and growth objectives are achieved can be affected by the type of leadership
style used in the organization which accounts for its efficiency and effectiveness.

Recognizing workers needs is an essential step to motivate employees to perform the job and
achieve organizational goals.. Hence, every action taken by a leader stimulates a reaction in
the employees. Therefore, the attainment of the Adomi, E. E. (2006) objectives of most
business organization would be borne out of the fact that leadership recognizes the needs of
the workers, Bennett, T. M. (2009) employ appropriate motivational tool such as promotion
of staff based on merit and relevant skill. Also provision of suitable working environment and
employ an appropriate leadership style that will encourage free flow of information among
leaders and employees as this will lead to good organization and employee performance.

2.3.1 LEADERSHIP STYLE AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANE CONCEPTUAL


FRAMEWORK

There is a strong relationship between leadership style and employee performance the sole
definition of leadership assumes influencing a group of peoples towards achieving an
organizational goals. Thus, the behavior of a leader, the style that he chooses to adopt can
have an effect on work outcomes, Fiedlers (1964) on the way tasks are completed. In other
words, leadership style can have an effect on employee work performance. However, the
effect of the leadership style on employee job performance should not be overestimated.

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Some researchers that have studied the problem argue that people often tend to exaggerate
and put too much emphasis on the importance of leaders influence

The below diagram illustrates the conceptual framework for this study.

Conceptual
Framework
Leadership Styles

Employee Performance

Participative
Leadership

Autocratic
Leadership

Democratic
Leadership

Transactional
Leadership

Transformational
Leadership
Laizzes-Faire
Leadership

CHAPTER 3
METHDOLOGY

Achieving goals
Meeting
deadlines
Performing set
duties
Organizational
effectiveness/gro
wth
Putting extra
effort

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INTRODUCTION
This study is based on the Secondary data and by apply descriptive method this study shows
that how leadership style put effect on employee performance. In these case studies we can
know that how leaders pet affect on employee performance. And what is the relationship
between leadership style and employee performance. This chapter presented the different
methods that were adopted in collecting and interpreting data related to the study by
discussing choices related to: Research Design, sampling strategies data collection methods,
instruments, data analysis and procedure.

3.1 DATA ANALYSIS


In the following studies leaders choose following styles to improve the employee
performance.

CASE STUDY 1
This study is conducted in Iran country and city Tehran and the organization is Real estate
registered organization. In this study they choose Descriptive correlation method used in this
research. In this method they choose questionaries in this study the data collection
instruments included two questionaries. (Stone Et al. 2004) The leadership style questionaries
and another one is employee performance questionaries. The purpose of this study is to find
that how leadership style put effect on employee performance. Sample size of 277 employees
was calculated with a confidence level of 95%. Random sampling is also used. It is
conducted by Moghimi, in 2000.

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They choose following style to find out the relationship between Leadership style and
employee performance
1. Transformational Leadership style
2. Pragmatic Leadership Style
3. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style

CASE STUDY 2

In this case study this study is conducted in Uganda in Kampala District Council. In this
study they use Interpreting data. This survey research conducted by Amin 2005 this is
important in the city council helped the researcher attained systematic data on different
sample respondents at different times. In this the study adopted a survey research design. A
simple random sampling of respondents was used to ensure that those employees found their
workplace were the ones used for the study. They choose Quantitative method. The main
purpose of this study is to identify that how leadership style put effect on employee
performance. This study conducted between employees, casual workers, leaders, and
councillors of the council. In this study the total employee was 280 from the Rubega,
Makidya and Kampala divisions. This study was concerned with analyzing, interpreting and
presentation of data. The study aimed at analyzing the effect of leadership styles on employee
performance in Kampala District Council. This study was carried out along such objectives as
follows.

1. To establish the relationship between corporate leadership and employee performance in


Kampala District Council.

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2. To establish the relationship between laissez-faire leadership and employee performance
in Kampala District council.
3. To analyze the relationship between authoritative leadership styles on employee
performance.

They choose following style to find out the relationship between Leadership style and
employee performance

1. Corporate Leadership style


2. Authoritative Leadership style
3. Laissez-Faire Leadership style

CASE STUDY 3

This study is conducted in Pakistan the main purpose of this study to explore the problem and
it is published in July 28, 2015 in Indus International Institute DG Khan, Pakistan the author
name is Iqbal N, Anwar S, and Haider N. In this case study they use qualitative method. In

This case study they choose a Descriptive method the reason behind this study to identify the
how leadership style put effect on employee performance. In this case study Secondary
source will be integrated. In this they collect data from research reports, Journals, Articles.
Existing findings on journals and existing knowledge on books will be used as Secondary
research. The purpose of employing this method is to describe the nature of a situation, as it
exists at the time of the study and to explore the effects of particular phenomena on the
performance of employees and firm.

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The following methods are used to find out the effect on leadership style on employee
performance.
1. Democratic Leadership style
2. Autocratic Leadership style
3. Participative Leadership style

CASE STUDY 4
This Study is based on the Hotel industry that how A good relationship with the manager
helps the subordinate to work beyond his daily effort, to be oriented to improve continuously
his work performance. It is conducted by Andreia ISPAS, this study is conducted in Romania
and the published year is 2012. The methodology is based on quantitative method. It has been
distributed the same questionnaire for two types of sample: one for managers and one for the
employees. This research is a pilot study due to its sample limitation and representatives. It
was carried out to see what inconvenient can appear in the research process, which are the
retentions of the respondents and what improvements must be performed to use the study on
a sample more than 300 respondents. The collecting period was February-May 2012. The
sample was made up of all managers and employees without management position from 3
and 4 stars hotels from Timisoara and Arad, Romania. There were validated answers only
from 20 managers and 30 employees. The questionnaires were distributed using Google
Spread Sheet by emails and printed assisted by an operator. There were annulated 7
questionnaires because of their lack of information.

The following methods are used to find out the effect on leadership style on employee
performance.

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1.
2.
3.
4.

Autocratic leadership style


Transformational leadership style
Transactional leadership style
Participative leadership style

CASE STUDY 5
This study is conducted in Nigeria in 2014 the how organizations, agencies, parastatals,
industries, and countries can get effective this research is about the missing link in
Leadership styles, with impact on the performance of the follower or employee of an
organization with FOCUS on Nigeria organisation. Leadership style to achieve set goals. For
the purpose of data collection from the respondents, structured questionnaires have been used
in this study. Leadership behaviour and style is the way in which the functions of leadership
are carried out, the way in which managers typically behave towards members of the group,
Onosode, G.O. (1988). Further stated that there are many dimensions to leadership and many
possible ways of describing leadership style such as dictatorial, unitary, bureaucratic,
charismatic, consultative, participative and abdicatorial. However, the style of managerial
leadership towards subordinates staff and the focus of power are better classified within a
three-fold heading, namely:
i) Autocratic or authoritarian
ii) Democratic or participative
iii) Laissez-faire or free rain

CASE STUDY 6

This study is conducted in Tehmina Fiaz Qazi, Muhammad Shafique, Rashid Ahmad in 2014
the Target population of the study was young employees of telecom and banking companies

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In Lahore. For the purpose of data collection from the respondents, structured questionnaires
have been used in this study. Using convenient sampling method, 100 respondents were
initially approached. They were asked to respond about their perception regarding their
managers leadership style, job performance and their perceived level of emotional
intelligence. Questionnaire has been adopted from the studies of Bass and Avolio (1994) and
Goleman (1995). Sample consisted of 100 respondents. Out of 100 distributed questionnaires
77 were received back completely filled in all respect thus yielded 77% response rate for the
study. There exist various leadership styles that a manager can follow but the focus of the
present research is only Latif (2004, 2005) and Allen (1990, 1996, and 2001) on
Transactional and Transformational style of leadership.

The following methods are used to find out the effect on leadership style on employee
performance
1. Transactional leadership style
2. Transformational leadership style

CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSIONS, FINDINGS, DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 DISCUSSION, FINDINGS, DATA ANALYSIS

This section of the research will analyses the impact of leadership styles on employees
performance based on the different studies conducted by different researchers in different
countries and in different organizations. As it is mentioned in this research, the focus of the
study is on the leadership styles such as employee performance and hence how they
employee can improve their performance, the following part will analyze the impact of each
leadership styles on employees performance

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4.1.1. Autocratic
Autocratic leadership is.
a) Pakistan
Autocratic style clearly defines the division between leaders and workers. Autocratic leaders
make decision with little or no involvement from employees. These types of leaders are more
confident, more sure about and comfortable with the decision making responsibility for the
strategy plans and company operating. Although research indicates that autocratic leaders
display less creativity than more contemporary (new) styles.
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Kampala
Tehran
Nigeria
Lahore
Romania

The majority of managers consider that they have a autocratic leadership style Closed by it is
participative leadership style Although managers apply high standards and ask for employees
to respect them, they also involve employees in decision making process and ask their
opinions in different situation. In the hotel industry in Romania it is very important to respect
high standards of services that are why managers attitude to apply and keep this is justified.
Keeping employees closer in decision process proves that there is a high credibility in
employees ability to make good decisions which can influence their job quality and clients
satisfaction.

The above case studies showed us that the impact of Autocratic leadershipincrease
or decreaseor doesnt affect
4.1.2. Participative leadership style

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a) Pakistan
Waggoner said this is viewed as effective option. As compared to other typical styles,
delegate leaders rarely make decisions; leave this portion on the employees. Mostly, these
leaders delegate responsibility to their employees and offer guidance to trusted team
members.
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Kampala
Tehran
Nigeria
Lahore
Romania

The participative leadership style in Pakistan is high standards and asks for employees to
respect them, they also involve employees in decision making process and ask their opinions
in different situation

4.1.3. Democratic leadership style


a) Pakistan
Milgron and Ittner state that this style is usually considered a benefit for the most companies.
This style focuses the management that provides guidance and help to its team and
departments while accepting and receiving the inputs from individual team members.
These leaders not reserve to their activities and authority only but in actual they bother about
consultation of employees.
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

Kampala
Tehran
Nigeria
Lahore
Romania

4.1.4 Transactional leadership style

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a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Pakistan
Kampala
Tehran
Nigeria
Lahore

The results for regression run between the transactional style of leadership exhibited by a
manager and subordinates job performance at significance level of less Result suggests that
the transformational style of leadership exhibited by a manager is significantly associated
with the subordinates job performance.
f) Romania
Transactional leadership style registered that managers perceive them as being moderate
oriented to reward employees when they achieved their objectives and assignments at their
work place. They do not step in problems until them become more intensive (managementby-exception).

4.1.5 Transformational leadership style


a) Pakistan
b) Kampala
c) Tehran
There is significant relationship between transformational leadership and employee
Performance.

This relationship is significantly positive. The more managers Use

transformational leadership style in their leadership, the more employees' performance is


increased. Such research can be aligned with Bass and Bernard (2003),
d) Nigeria
e) Lahore
Result suggests that the transformational style of leadership exhibited by a manager is
significantly associated with the subordinates job performance.
f) Romania

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The lowest score was obtained by transformational leadership style. Managers are less
individualized consideration oriented and less inspirational motivation oriented.

4.1.6 Laissez-Faire leadership style


a) Pakistan
b) Kampala
c) Tehran
There is significant relationship between laissez-faire and employee performance. Also, given
that the correlation coefficient between these two variables is -0/460, it can be concluded that
this relationship is significantly negative. The more managers use laissez-faire style in their
leadership, the more employees' performance is reduced.
d) Nigeria
e) Lahore
f) Romania

The results of this study indicate that high relation-oriented leadership behavior was used as a
foundation by the leaders in the studied organizations which had successful outcomes
concerning effectiveness, quality work, health outcomes and subordinate perceptions of their
leaders. The common elements described in an earlier section can be seen as a starting point
when looking at the development of leadership practices in other organizations where leader
behavior can vary according to situational aspects such decision latitude, maturity of
subordinates, work content and industry.

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

LMITATIONS

AND

FUTURE

RESEARCH

5.1 CONCLUSION

Effective leadership and management are widely heralded as key priority for national and
regional development, yet the process by which they are enhanced by training and
development and how they impact upon performance remain poorly understood. There is lack
of reliable data to link management and leadership development with leadership capability
and individual and organizational performance and the evidence 'suggest a more complex
relationship between them' than often assumed.

Leadership exists on many levels; throughout all aspects of the society. The common purpose
that motivates leaders is the overall accomplishment of the organization or the system. After
recognizing leadership as a system, it becomes clear that an understanding of the relationship
between leaders and their constituents is essential. In addition, developing and maintaining
successful organizations require leaders to understand the culture of the organization to adapt
to the challenges of the environment and to respect the constituents that make up the
organization.

29
The responsibility of leadership extends from the executive officers and beyond the -local
levels of the public. The possibilities and limitations of leaders must be understood so that the
workers can intelligently strengthen and support good leadership. Many have described the
skills and the tasks necessary to be a leader and it is likely that these skills are widely
distributed throughout the society. An important question is how this reservoir can be tapped

You actually do not have a proper and relevant conclusion. This is because your study is on
the impact of leadership style on employees performance. However, your conclusion doesnt
tell us how each specific leadership style is affecting employees performance? By
mentioning some of the findings you get in the secondary data, you have to write a
conclusion. Conclusion has to be specifically based on the findings.

5.2RECOMMENDATIONS

When you write the recommendation, I suggest your focuse to be on the leadership styles and
impact on employees performance and not on the case studies as you did it here.

The corporate leadership style in Kampala District council would further empower their
employees by developing teams and according some measure of power and authority to these
teams. In this way, employees would ignite their potentials, feel part of the organization and
perform maximally for the organization. the District council would immediate reduce the
practice of authoritative leadership, hence the District council would advocate for better
leadership styles that suite different situations so as to reduce the dominance of authoritative
leadership unless in situations where it is necessary.
In Pakistan the democratic leadership style in Al-Ghazi tractor factory would further

30
empower their employees by developing teams and according some measure of power and
authority to their employees. In this way, employees would ignite their potentials, feel part of
an organization and perform maximally for the organization following the second conclusion,
the Al-Ghazi tractor factory would immediate reduces the autocratic leadership practices.
Hence, Al-Ghazi tractor factory would advocate for the better leadership styles that suites
different situations so as to reduce the dominance of autocratic leadership unless in situations
where it is necessary. The researcher further recommended that it was important for the AlGhazi Tractor to professional performance guidelines that create a sense of responsibility to
employees.

In light of the Ending and conclusion, for effective employee performance, organization
should make use of these recommendations: Adopt effective leadership style. This is a style
based upon a caring and nurturing approach, which will work in conjunction with
authoritative style. Democratic and pacesetting leadership style should be adopted as the
democratic-style give room for employee participation in decision-making while pacesetting
in situational leadership style.

Organization should also formulate polices, which will encourage leaders to empower
employees to be part owner of the organization. ` Leadership that encourages quality
principle should be put in place of authority. Visionary leaders who can delegate authority
with trust to employees are an answer to productivity problems. It should be known that
achievement of leadership goal is dependent on employees satisfaction. A leader should
perform in the frame of an environment and historical context. A leadership system that
create complete functioning process, which depends upon many pants to create results.

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5.3LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS

You have not included the limitation of your research here?


You can add points as limitations such as the fact that you used

Secondary data and findings done by other people as your research is based on

secondary data,
The fact that those people who conducted the research have used different
methodologies, different sample sizes, and different sectors, which may affect the

findings.
Further limitation may be time.

Future research is also suggested that:


1- In future research to evaluate the performance of staff in addition to questionnaires,
other tools such as (interviews and observations) is used until the evaluation of
managers teaching performance with more confidence reached a conclusion.
2- It is suggested that to accurate generalize the results, the studies corresponding this
research done in other cities.

3- Given that the present study was not examining the dimensions of transformational
leadership style, it is suggested that future researchers should examine each aspect
with the staff performance.

The researcher further recommended that it was important for the District council to reduce
laissez-faire leadership by designing performance procedures that promote professional
performance guidelines that create a sense of responsibility to employees.

32

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