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August 1-6, 2004

Paper No. 1638

SIMULATION

Mettupalayam V. Sivaselvan1 and Andrei M. Reinhorn2

SUMMARY

Computer analysis of structures has traditionally been carried out using the displacement method

combined with an incremental iterative scheme for nonlinear problems. In this paper, a Lagrangian

approach is developed, which is a mixed method, where besides displacements, the stress-resultants and

other variables of state are primary unknowns. The method can potentially be used for the analysis of

structures to collapse as demonstrated by numerical examples. The evolution of the structural state in time

is provided a weak formulation using Hamilton's principle. It is shown that a certain class of structures,

known as reciprocal structures has a mixed Lagrangian formulation in terms of displacements and internal

forces. The form of the Lagrangian is invariant under finite displacements and can be used in geometric

nonlinear analysis. For numerical solution, a discrete variational integrator is derived starting from the

weak formulation. This integrator inherits the energy and momentum conservation characteristics for

conservative systems and the contractivity of dissipative systems. The integration of each step is a

constrained minimization problem and is solved using an Augmented Lagrangian algorithm. In contrast to

the displacement-based method, the Lagrangian method clearly separates the modeling of components

from the numerical solution. Phenomenological models of components essential to simulate collapse can

therefore be incorporated without having to implement model-specific incremental state determination

algorithms. The state determination is performed at the global level by the optimization method.

INTRODUCTION

Nonlinear analyses of structural response to hazardous loads such as earthquake and blast forces should

include (i) the effects of significant material and geometric nonlinearities (ii) various phenomenological

models of structural components and (iii) the energy and momentum transfer to different parts of the

structure when structural components fracture. Computer analysis of structures has traditionally been

carried out using the displacement method, wherein the displacements in the structure are treated as the

primary unknowns, combined with an incremental iterative scheme for nonlinear problems. In this paper,

1

Project Engineer, George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES), University

at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY 14260

2

Clifford C. Furnas Professor of Structural Engineering, Dept. of Civil, Structural and Environmental

Engineering, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY 14260. Phone: (716)645-2114 x2419. Email:

reinhorn@buffalo.edu

an alternative method is proposed for the analysis of structures considering both material and geometric

nonlinearities. The formulation attempts to solve problems using a force-based approach in which

momentum appears explicitly and can be potentially used to deal with structures where deterioration and

fracture occur before collapse. In conventional formulations, the response of the structure is considered as

the solution of a set of differential equations in time. Since the differential equations hold at a particular

instant of time, they provide a temporally local description of the response and are referred to as the strong

form. In contrast, in this paper, a time integral of functions of the response over the duration of the

response is considered. Such an approach presents a temporally global picture of the response and is

referred to as the weak form.

The kernel of the integral mentioned above consists of two functions the Lagrangian and the dissipation

functions of the response variables that describe the configuration of the structure and their rates. The

integral is called the action integral. In elastic systems, the configuration variables are typically

displacements. It is shown here, however, that in considering elastic-plastic systems it is natural to also

include the time integrals of internal forces in the structure as configuration variables. The Lagrangian

function is energy-like and describes the conservative characteristics of the system, while the dissipation

function is similar to a flow potential and describes the dissipative characteristics. In a conservative

system, the action integral is rendered stationary (maximum, minimum or saddle point) by the response. In

analytical mechanics, this is called Hamiltons principle or more generally the principle of least action.

For non-conservative systems such as elastic-plastic systems, such a variational statement is not possible,

and only a weak form which is not a total integral is possible. It is shown moreover that the form of the

Lagrangian is invariant under finite deformations. Such a weak formulation enables the construction of

numerical integration schemes that inherit the energy and momentum conservation characteristics for

conservative systems and the contractivity of dissipative systems.

An overview of variational methods that have been developed for plasticity is first presented in order to

place the present work in context. The concept of reciprocal structures and their Lagrangian formulation is

then explained using simple systems with springs, masses, dashpots and sliders. The Lagrangian

formulation for skeletal structures is subsequently developed and treatment of geometric nonlinearity is

shown. Some remarks are then made about the uniqueness of the solution and the extension of the

approach to continua. A discrete variational integrator is derived starting from the weak formulation. The

solution of each step is a constrained minimization problem and is solved using an Augmented Lagrangian

algorithm. Numerical examples are then presented.

VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLES FOR PLASTICITY

Variational formulations of plasticity are based on the principle of maximum dissipation and the

consequent normality rule Simo [1]. The local Gauss point level constitutive update has been ascribed a

variational structure based on the concept of closest point projection (Simo [2] and Armero [3]). Various

approaches have however been used for deriving global variational formulations for plasticity, each of

which when discretized in time, leads to a constrained minimization problem in every step. These are base

on (1) Complementarity and Mathematical Programming Approach (Maier [4]), (2) Variational Inequality

Approach (Duvaut [5]) and (3) Convex Analysis and Monotone Operator Approach (Romano [6]). The

most common procedure is to use the Backward Euler method to approximate the rate quantities in the

variational statement leading, to a constrained minimization problem in each time increment (see Simo [1]

for a detailed presentation). Variational formulation of dynamic plasticity was not extended beyond the

variational inequality formulation of Duvaut [5]. In this work, a weak formulation for dynamic plasticity is

attempted using Hamiltons principle. It can be shown that the Backward Euler method used for quasistatic plasticity is unsuitable for dynamic analysis because of its excessive numerical damping. A

numerical integrator well-suited for dynamic analysis is developed herein discretizing the variational

principle instead of the differential equations.

Reciprocal structures are those structures characterized by convex potential and dissipation functions. In

this section, the concept of reciprocal structures is explained using simple spring-mass-damper-slider

models shown in Figure 1. Mixed Lagrangian and Dissipation functions of such systems are derived for

various structural components.

Mass with Kelvin type Resisting System

Consider a spring-mass-damper system with the spring and the damper in parallel (Kelvin Model shown

in Figure 1(a)) subjected to a time-varying force input P(t). The equation of motion is given by:

mu&& + cu& + ku = P

(1)

where m is the mass, k is the modulus of the spring, c is the damping constant, u is the displacement of the

mass and a superscripted . denotes derivative with respect to time. The well known approach in

Analytical Mechanics is to multiply equation (1) by a virtual displacement function u, integrate over the

time interval [0,T] by parts to obtain the action integral, , in terms of the Lagrangian function, , and the

dissipation function, , as shown below (see for example, Jos [7]):

T

T

T

( u& )

I = L ( u , u& ) dt +

udt P udt = 0

(2)

0

u&

where denotes the variational operator, and the Lagrangian function, , and the dissipation function, ,

of this system are given by:

L ( u , u& ) =

1

1

1

mu& 2 ku 2 and ( u& ) = cu& 2

2

2

2

(3)

Notice that due to the presence of the dissipation function and because the force P(t) can in general be

non-conservative, equation (2) defines and not itself. Conversely, starting from (2), equation (1) can

be obtained as the Euler-Lagrange equations:

d L L

(4)

= P mu&& + cu& + ku = P

+

dt u& u

u&

Thus, the Lagrangian and dissipation functions and the action integral determine the equation of motion.

Mass with Maxwell type Resisting System

Consider on the other hand, a spring-mass-damper system with the spring and the damper in series

(Maxwell Model - shown in Figure 1(b)) subjected to a time varying base-velocity input, vin(t). The

formulation requires to obtain a Lagrangian function and a dissipation function for this system that

determine the equations of motion as above. Formulation of compatibility of deformations results in:

vin +

F& F

+ = u&

k c

(5)

where F is the force in the spring and damper. Writing the equation of equilibrium of the mass, mu&& + F = 0 ,

solving for the velocity u& and substituting in equation (5), we have:

t

1 & 1

1

F + F + Fd = vin v0

k

c

m0

t

(6)

where v0 is the initial velocity of the mass. Defining J = Fd (as suggested by El-Sayed [8]), the

0

impulse of the force in the spring and damper, equation (6) can be written as:

1 && 1 & 1

J + J + J = vin v0

k

c

m

(7)

From the correspondence between equations (7) and (1), we conclude that the Lagrangian function, , the

dissipation function, and the action integral, of this system are given by:

L ( J , J& ) =

T

T J&

( ) Jdt + T v t + v Jdt (8)

1 1 &2 1 1 2

1 1 &2

J

J , ( J& ) =

J and I = L ( J , J& ) dt +

0 in ( ) 0

J&

2k

2m

2c

0

0

Equation (7) can also be thought of as the equation of motion of the dual system shown in Figure 1(c). We

observe that while the Lagrangian and Dissipation functions involve the displacement and the velocity for

a parallel (Kelvin type) system, they involve the impulse and the force for a series (Maxwell type) system.

1/m

k

P

vin

1/c

system and velocity input

k1

system and velocity input

F1

u1

Fy

u

Fy

c1

P

m

k2

-vin

1/k

u1

m

k

c2

F2

(e)Elastic-viscoplastic system

Figure 1. Simple phenomenological models

Consider now the combined Kelvin-Maxwell system shown in Figure 1(d) subject to a Force Input. (Note

that the velocity input has been excluded for the sake of simplicity). The forces in the springs are denoted

by F1 and F2 respectively and their impulses by J1 and J2. If we define the flexibilities of the springs as a1

= 1/k1 and a2 = 1/k2, then the equations of equilibrium and compatibility become respectively:

1

mu&& + cu& + k1u + J&2 = P and a2 J&&2 + J&2 u& = 0

c2

(9)

It is found that elimination of either u or J2 results in a differential equation that does not have a weak

formulation that separates into a Lagrangian part and a dissipation part. Such a formulation would

therefore not lend itself to the derivation of the discrete variational integrators of the next section.

Moreover, when considering plasticity, the dissipative term in equation the compatibility equation is not

single valued and hence, elimination of J2 would not be possible. It is therefore necessary to devise mixed

Lagrangian and dissipation functions that contain u, J2 and their time derivatives. Consider the following

Lagrangian, dissipation functions and action integral:

1

1 1 &2

1

1

1

J2 ;

L ( u , J 2 , u&, J&2 ) = mu& 2 k1u 2 + a2 J 22 + J 2 u& ; ( u&, J&2 ) = c1u& 2 +

2

2 c2

2

2

2

T

T J&

( 2 ) J dt T P udt

( u& )

udt +

2

0

u&

J&2

0

0

I = L ( u , u&, J 2 , J&2 ) dt +

0

(10)

It can be easily verified that the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are the equilibrium equation of

the parallel subsystem and the compatibility equation of the series subsystem:

d L

dt u&

L

u

d L

&

&

+ & = P mu&& + cu& + k1u + J 2 = P ;

dt

u

J 2

L

J 2

1

+ & = 0 a2 J&&2 + J&2 u& = 0 (11)

J

c

2

It is found however, that it is more convenient for MDOF structural systems to use a Lagrangian function

of all the spring forces as shown below, even though it is not minimal.

1

1

1

L ( J 2 , u&, J&2 ) = mu& 2 + a1 J&12 + a2 J&22 + ( J1 + J 2 ) u&

2

2

2

(12)

or in matrix notation:

L ( J, u&, J& ) =

a

1

1

mu& 2 + J& T AJ& + J T B Tu&

2

2

(13)

, the flexibility matrix and B = [1 1], the equilibrium matrix. The

0 a2

equilibrium matrix operates on the vector of internal forces to produce the vector of nodal forces. The

compatibility matrix operates on the velocity vector to produce the rate of change of deformation. As a

consequence of the Principle of Virtual Work, the transpose of the compatibility matrix is the equilibrium

matrix. The dissipation function and the action integral are still given by equation (10). The EulerLagrange equations are:

d L L

d L L

T

&&

= P mu&& + cu& + BJ& = P ;

(14)

+

&

+ & = 0 AJ + & B u& = 0

dt u& u

u&

dt J J

The mixed Lagrangian of equation (13) and the Dissipation function of equation (10) form the basis of

further developments in this paper. Observe that the Lagrangian is not unique. For example, the

Lagrangian:

1

1

L ( u, J , u&, J& ) = mu& 2 + J& T AJ& J& T B Tu

2

2

(15)

would result in the same governing differential equations(14). In fact, any Lagrangian differing from that

in (13) by only a gauge transformation of the form:

L ( u, J , u&, J& ) = L ( J, u& , J& ) +

d

(u, J )

dt

(16)

where ( u,J) is any scalar function would result in identical Euler-Lagrange equations (see for example,

Scheck [9]). The form (15) is obtained from a Legendre transformation of the potential energy in spring 2.

However, we prefer the form (13) due to its following features: (1) It does not contain the displacement, u

L

is conserved (see for example, Scheck [9]). This leads to the

u

L

= mu& + J1 + J 2 . (2) It extends to geometric nonlinear problems

idea of the generalized momentum, pu =

u

Elastic-plastic Dynamic System

Consider the elastic-visco-plastic dynamic system of Figure 1(e). This is in fact a visco-plastic

regularization of the elastic-ideal-plastic system of Figure 1(f). Let the yield force of the slider be Fy, so

that that force Fslider in the slider is such that |Fslider| = Fy. If the force in the spring is F and its impulse,

t

0

u&1 =

F Fy sgn ( F ) =

(17)

where again, , <x> is the Mackaulay Bracket and sgn(x), the signum function. The above constitutive

equation can be obtained as follows from a convex dissipation function:

( J& ) =

1 &

J Fy

2

( J& ) 1

=

J& Fy sgn ( J& )

J&

u&1 =

(18)

mu&& + J& = P and aJ&& +

( J& )

u& = 0

J&

(19)

where a = 1/k, and it is verified without difficulty that the Lagrangian function, the dissipation function

and the action integral are respectively:

1

1

1 &

L ( J , u&, J& ) = mu& 2 + aJ& 2 ; ( J& ) =

J Fy

2

2

2

; I = L ( J , u&, J& ) dt +

T

( J& )

Jdt P udt

J&

(20)

Figure 1(f) shows an elastic-ideal plastic dynamic system. As noted above, this system is obtained from

the viscoplastic one in the limit of the regularizing viscous coefficient, , going to zero. The dissipation

function of equation (18) then becomes:

0 if J& Fy

&

if J > Fy

( J& ) =

(21)

i.e., ( J& ) = UC ( J& ) where C is the elastic domain, C = { x : x < Fy } and U C is the so called indicator

function of the set C. The Lagrangian formulation of the elastic-ideal plastic system is then the same as

that of the elastic viscoplastic system, i.e. equations (20), with the dissipation function suitably

interpreted.

Structures composed entirely of components whose potential as well as dissipation functions are convex

functions have a Lagrangian Formulation. The systems discussed in the previous sub-sections are of this

type. This class also includes a wider variety of other behavior such as hyperelasticity, rate-independent

plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity and tension- or compression-only resistance.

COMPATIBILITY EQUATIONS OF A FRAME ELEMENT

In order to obtain a Lagrangian formulation for a frame structure, the compatibility equations need to be

expressed in a form similar to Eq. (14). Consider the beam element with rigid plastic hinges at the two

ends. From Figure 2(b), the compatibility of deformations in the element gives:

{&

+ {&

hinge1

hinge 2

y

z

0 &hinge

&hinge

1

1

y

0 0 0 &hinge

2

} + {q&

} {q&

0 0

z

&hinge

2

1

beam

2

q&beam

q& 2

3

q&beam

q& 3

q& 4

4

q&beam

q& 5

5

q&beam

q& 6 } = 0

6

q&beam

}

(22)

End 2

Q1

Q6

Q2

Q5

Hinge 1

Hinge 1

Hinge 2

Q1

Q1

Q3

Q4

Elastic Beam

hzinge1

hyinge1

hinge1

Q3

Q4

Hinge 2

4

qbeam

3

qbeam

6

qbeam

5

qbeam

1

qbeam

hzinge 2

hyinge 2

2

qbeam

End 1

Hinge 1

Q2

Q1

Q3

Q4

(b) Deformations

Figure 2. Beam element with rigid-plastic hinges

Let Ae be the elastic flexibility matrix of the element. Then q& beam = A e Q& , where q is defined as

1

qbeam = {qbeam

2

qbeam

3

qbeam

4

qbeam

5

qbeam

6

qbeam

}

hinge1 and hinge2 be the dissipation functions of hinges 1 and 2 respectively. Then we have:

{&

hinge1

y

z

&hinge

&hinge

1

1} =

T

hinge1

F hinge1

y

z

and {&hinge 2 &hinge

&hinge

2

2} =

T

hinge 2

F hinge 2

(23)

where hinge1 and hinge1 are the stress-resultants in hinges 1 and 2 respectively. Note that the end forces

T

T

are: F hinge1 = {Q1 Q3 Q4 } and F hinge1 = {Q1 Q5 Q6 } . Define a dissipation function e = hinge1 + hinge 2 ;

Combining these results gives the element equation:

&+

A eQ

e

B Tu& e = 0

Q

(24)

The governing equations of the structure consist of the equilibrium equations, the compatibility equations

and the constitutive equations. The equilibrium equations are:

&& + Cu& + BJ& P = 0

Mu

(25)

where M, C and B are the mass, damping and equilibrium matrices respectively F is the vector of

(Q )

2 T

(Q ) }

Nelem

T T

0

external force vector. Let A be the block diagonal assembly of the element elastic flexibility matrices. The

the compatibility equation is:

&& +

AJ

( J& ) T

- B u& = 0

J&

(26)

Internal imposed displacements within elements, such as resulting from pre-stressing or thermal loads

have been neglected here for the sake of simplicity - no forcing term in equation (26). Pre-multiplying

equation (25) by a kinematically admissible virtual displacement u (satisfying compatibility), and

equation (26) by a statically admissible virtual impulse J (satisfying equilibrium), we have:

&& + J T

&& + u TCu& + u T BJ& u T P = 0 and J T AJ

u T Mu

( J& )

- J T B Tu& = 0

&

J

(27)

Equilibrium is considered in the undeformed configuration, so that the equilibrium matrix B is a constant.

Geometric nonlinearity, where B is a function of u, is considered in the next section. Adding equations

(27), integrating over the time interval [0,T] and making use of integration by parts, we obtain:

1

1

0

T

( J& )

dt u T P = 0

J&

(28)

With the Lagrangian and the dissipation function are then given by:

1

1

1

L ( J , u& , J& ) = u& T Mu& + J& T AJ& + J T B T u& and ( u& , J& ) = u& T Cu& + ( J& )

2

2

2

(29)

Conversely equations (25) and (26) can be obtained from the relation (28) as Euler-Lagrange equations.

EFFECT OF GEOMETRIC NONLINEARITY ON THE LAGRANGIAN FUNCTION

Having examined the structural dynamic problem under small deformations, it is now desired to consider

equilibrium in the deformed configuration. The effect of large structural displacements can be considered,

while that of large deformations within the corotational frames of elements can be ignored. This seems to

be justified for elastic-plastic frame elements where significant displacements occur after yielding when

hinges form, thus not accompanied by large deformations within the element corotational frame. The

effect of the change of length on the flexibility coefficients of beam-column members is also neglected

since this is a higher order effect. Large deformations may be included by proceeding from the Lagrangian

density and performing spatial discretization such as by the Finite Element Method. Some remarks on this

are made in the next section.

The difference in formulation from the previous case is only the fact that the equilibrium matrix, B, is a

function of displacement, B(u). However, the equilibrium equations (25) being in global coordinates and

the compatibility equations (26) being incremental (compatibility of deformation and displacement rates)

must both remain unchanged by this additional consideration. It is demonstrated (see Sivaselvan [10]) that

the spatially pre-discretized Lagrangian of equation (29) holds in the deformed configuration as well:

T

1

1

L ( u, J, u& , J& ) = u& T Mu& + J& T AJ& + J T B ( u ) u&

2

2

(30)

Since all other terms of the Euler-Lagrange equations remain unaffected, it is sufficient to examine: .

d L

dt u&

dB T T T

d T

T T

L

T&

&&

&

&&

=

+

=

+

+

Mu

B

J

u

B

J

Mu

B

J

(

)

(

)

( u& B ) J

dt

u

u

dt u

(31)

Let the structure have a total of N deformations (and hence N internal forces). The matrix B therefore has

N columns. Let Bi represent the ith column of B (Notice that the meaning of Bi here is different from that

in the last section, where it denoted the ith column-wise partition of B). Consider the ith column of the term

dB T

( u& B ) .

dt u

B1i

B1i u1

B2 i

dB i d B2i u1

=

=

dt

dt M M

BNu i BNui

u1

B1i

u2

B2 i

u2

M

BNu i

u2

B1i

u Nu

B

L u N2 i

u

u&

M

B

L uNNui

u

L

B T2 L B iT L B TNu

Therefore,

(32)

(33)

T

( u& B ) th

u

i column

B1i

u1

B1i

=

BiTu& ) = u2

(

u

M

uB1i

Nu

BNu i

B

L uN2ui

u&

M

B

L uNNui

u

B2 i

u1

B2 i

u2

M

B2 i

u Nu

u1

(34)

It is postulated that the ith deformation component, i(u), is a twice continuously differentiable function of

T

the deformed configuration. Then B i = i is the Jacobian of the deformation function, and

u

Bi B i

2

=

= 2i , the Hessian is symmetric. Hence the right hand sides of equations (32) and (34) are

u u

u

dB

equal, implying that ( u& T B ) = 0 . Having recognized the symmetry in B, the above result may also

dt u

T

dB T

&

( u& B ) = Bij Bij , p u& p = Bij , p u& p Bij , p u&i = B pj ,i u& p Bij , p u&i = 0

dt u

(35)

EXTENSION TO CONTINUUM FORMULATION

It is shown in Sivaselvan [10] that weak formulations analogous to equations (28) through (29) can be

obtained for continua. The final results are presented here. For a three dimensional continuum, the

Lagrangian formulation is given by:

1

1

1

1

*

L = u&k u&k + Aijkl J&ij J&kl +

J ij Bijk

u&k ; ( J& , u& ) = UC ( J& ) + cij u&i u& j ;

2

0

2

2

T

I = 0 L d dt + 0

uk d dt + 0 & J ij d dt 0 f k uk d dt k uk d dt

J ij

u&k

0

0

0

T

(36)

L =

1

1

1

0 u& Tu& + J& T aJ& + J T B*u& ; ( J& , u& ) = UC ( J& ) + u& T cu&

2

2

2

T L

T L

0 0

0 0

I = L dxdt +

u&

0 0 J

0 0

0

T L

T L

(37)

(38)

The analogy with equations (28) and (29) is seen easily. The integral over time can be discretized to

obtain action sums from which discrete variational integrators can be obtained as shown in the next

section. These can then be discretized in space using, for example, the finite element method.

The numerical integration of the Lagrangian equations by discrete variational integrators is developed

next for the time integration of the governing equations (39) and (40) of the structure. This development

consists of two stages:

1. Following Kane [11], the action integral of equation (41) is discretized in time to obtain an action sum.

Using discrete calculus of variations, finite difference equations are obtained, which are the discrete

counterpart s of the Euler-Lagrange equations. It is seen that the numerical method obtained in this

fashion conserves energy and momentum for a Lagrangian system and inherits the contractivity

(stability in the energy norm) of dissipative systems.

2. The task in each time step is shown to be the solution of a constrained minimization problem for which

an Augmented Lagrangian algorithm is developed.

The action integral of equation (42) is discretized using the midpoint rule and a time step h, using central

differences. It is assumed in this process, that the J and u are twice continuously differentiable functions

and P is a once continuously differentiable function of time, and that the dissipation function is

continuously differentiable with respect to J& . It is shown by Simo [12] using geometric arguments that

the O(h2) accuracy holds in the limiting case of rate-independent plasticity when the viscous coefficient

0 as well. The resulting action sum is given by:

1 u k +1 u k T

u k +1 u k

M

n 1

2

h

h

h

k=0

+ Jk

J

+ k +1

T

n 1

uk

u k +1 + u k

u

+ h

C k +1

2

h

k =0

n 1

k =0

n 1

k =0

J k +1 + J k

h

J&

2

u k +1 + u k

h

P k + 12

2

k+

1

2

Jk

J

A k +1

1 J k +1 J k

+ 2

T u k +1 u k

B

h

(43)

O (h 2

where nh = T and subscript k denotes the approximation at time t = kh. The time integration problem may

now be stated as: Given {u0, un} and {J0, Jn}, find the sequences {u1, u2, un-1} and {J1, J2, Jn-1} that

make the action sum of equation (43) stationary. This is the discrete variational problem (Cadzow [13]

and Marsden [14]). Using a procedure called summation by parts, analogous to integration by parts in the

continuous case, the flowing result can be obtained (Sivaselvan [10]):

u 2u k + u k 1

u u k 1

J Jk

M k +1

+ C k +1

+ B k +1

2

h

2h

2h

J 2J k + J k 1 1

A k +1

+ 2 J&

h2

k + 12

+

J&

Pk + 12 + Pk 12

=

2

u u k 1

B T k +1

=0

2h

1

k 2

(44)

By using Discrete Variational Calculus ensures that the resulting time-integration scheme possesses

energy and momentum conserving properties. A heuristic proof of this fact is given by Sivaselvan [10].

Kane [11] presents a discrete version of Noethers theorem (see for example, Jos [7]) by which it can be

shown that any numerical integrator derived using the discrete calculus of variations approach inherits

these conservation characteristics. Moreover, it is shown by Simo [12] that the midpoint rule inherits the

contractivity or B-stability of the dissipative system, i.e., systems with neighboring initial conditions

converge in the energy norm. This approach also provides a framework for consistently developing higher

order methods and error estimation methods that preserve conservation.

TIME-STEP SOLUTION

In troducing the notation, vn and Fn as the Central Difference approximations of the velocity and the

internal force respectively, Eq.(44) then becomes:

v vn

M n +1

h

v n +1 + v n

+ C

2

F Fn

A n +1

h

1

+

2 F

Fn +1 + Fn

+ B

2

+

n +1

T v n +1 + v n

B

2

F n

u n + 1 u n 1

J n+ 1 J n 1

2

2

2

2

and Fn =

h

h

Where n = k , v n =

Pn +1 + Pn

=

=0

(45)

(46)

dynamic analyses to use a lumped mass matrix and to ignore rotational inertia. Hence the mass matrix

could in general be singular. Similarly, the damping matrix could also be singular, for example when

using mass proportional damping. Thus, consistent with the convexity assumptions and without loss of

generality, equation (45) can be rearranged and partitioned as follows:

M

2 0

h 0

0 0 0 v1 C11

T

0 0 0 v 2 C12

3+

0 0 0 v 0

4

0 0 0

v 0

C12

C22

0

0

0 0 v1 B1T

P1

Mv1n

2

0 0 v 2 B 2T

P 2 0

F = 3+

+

0 0 v3 B3T

P h 0

4

4

T

0 0

v B 4

P

(47)

where the partitions 1 through 4 represent respectively (i) degrees of freedom with mass, (ii) those with

damping but no mass, (iii) those with prescribed forces and (iv) those with prescribed displacements (or

velocities). The symbols F, vi and Pi denote respectively ( Fn +1 + Fn ) 2 , ( v in +1 + v in ) 2 and ( Pni +1 + Pni ) 2 .

Eliminating for v1 and v2 using the first two parts of equation (47), we obtain the dynamic compatibility

equation:

h

AFn +1 +

2 F

T 3

b hB 3 v = 0

n +1

(48)

h

h2

A = A + B T2 C221B 2 + B1T M 1B1

2

4

(49)

h

h2

h2

h

1 2

b = A B T2 C221B 2 B1T M 1B1 Fn + B1T M 1 P1 + hB T2 C 22

P + hB1T M 1Mv1n +

2

4

2

2 F n

(50)

where:

h

T

1 2

M = M + C11 , C11 = C11 C12 C221C12

, B1 = B1 C12 C221 B 2 and P1 = P1 C12 C22

P . Observe that the structure

2

of A , the equivalent dynamic flexibility matrix, is dual to that of the equivalent dynamic stiffness matrix

of Newmarks method with = . The roles of the flexibility and mass matrices are interchanged. Premultiplying equation (48) by Fn+1 and integrating gives:

1

2

h

2

(51)

In obtaining equation (51), it has been noted that B 3 Fn +1 = P 3 = 0 , since P3 is prescribed. Since A, C22

and M are positive definite, from equation (49) we have A is positive definite. Hence the quantity in

brackets in equation (51) is minimized. If dissipation is limited to plasticity, then the function is the

regularized indicator function of the elastic domain. Hence, in the limit of rate-independent plasticity, the

problem of obtaining Fn+1 at each step may be stated as follows:

Minimize ( Fn +1 ) =

Subject to (i) B 3 Fn +1

and (ii)

1 T

Fn +1 AFn +1 FnT+1b

2

= P3

(52)

h

i ( Fn +1 ) 0 i = 1, 2,K , N y

2

This is the Principle of Minimum Incremental Complementary Potential Energy which can be stated

as: Of all the Fn+1 satisfying equilibrium with prescribed external forces at the un-damped quasi-static

degrees of freedom and satisfying the yield conditions, the one that minimizes the incremental

complementary potential energy is the one that satisfies equilibrium in the other degrees of freedom

and compatibility. It is to be noted that due to the nature of the velocity-dependent Lagrangian and

dissipation functions, it was possible to eliminate the velocities, leading to a minimum principle in forces

only. In general, however, the incremental potential would be a function of Fn+1 and vn+1 and would result

in a saddle-point problem at each time step. Equation (52) is similar to the rate variational principles of

plasticity.

Constrained Minimization by the Augmented Lagrangian Method

An Augmented Lagrangian algorithm is used for the solution of the minimization problem (52). For a

detailed treatment of the Augmented Lagrangian formulation, the reader is referred to Glowinski [15]. The

problem (52) is reduced to a sequence of linearly constrained sub-problems using the Augmented

Lagrangian regularization:

AL ( Fn +1 , ) =

2

1 T

h y

Fn +1 AFn +1 FnT+1b + ii ( Fn +1 ) + i ( Fn +1 )

2

2 i =1

2

(53)

where ={1, 2,, Ny}T is the vector of plastic multipliers, is a penalty parameter and <> denotes the

Mackaulay Bracket. The Augmented Lagrangian regularization is a combination of the usual Lagrangian

term, ii(Fn+1) and the penalty function /2<i(Fn+1)>2. The latter helps accelerate convergence while the

former eliminates the need for the penalty parameter to be large, which leads to numerical ill-conditioning.

Both terms vanish at a feasible point. A dense matrix is presented by Sivaselvan [10].

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

3600

W831

W831

Properties I-section

portal frame consisting of three element. The

Columns

d = 203.2 mm

connections are assumed rigid. The stress-strain

t = 7.2 mm

W1240

b = 203.1 mm

curve of the material is assumed bilinear with the

t = 11.1 mm

2

following properties: E = 199955 kN/mm and y =

Beam

d = 303.3 mm

248.2 kN/mm2. In order to verify the results

t = 7.5 mm

b = 203.3 mm

obtained the program DRAIN-2DX (Allahabadi

7200

t = 13.1 mm

[16]) is used here. Two analyses, one with and one

Figure 3. Example portal frame

without P effect, are performed.

Analysis without P effect

First, a dynamic analysis is performed without external axial load on the columns, hence no significant

geometric nonlinearity and P effects. Figure 4(a) shows the horizontal displacement history of node 2

(Fig. 3.4). The permanent displacements resulting from plastic deformation have close agreement when

calculated using the Lagrangian Approach or DRAIN-2DX. Figure 4(b) shows that there is significant

difference between the two analyses in predicting the vertical displacements. While the plastic material

f

w

f

model in DRAIN-2DX accounts for the reduction of bending moment capacity resulting from the axial

force interaction; it does not consider the development of centroidal axial plastic strain from plastification

caused by bending according to the normality rule. It is important to consider this effect when relying on

tension stiffening in beams for collapse prevention. Figure 4(c) shows the time history of the rotation of

node 2. The curve is flat when plastic rotations develop in the columns at constant joint rotations. Other

differences between the Lagrangian approach and DRAIN-2DX come from the additional joint rotations

caused by differential settlements of the columns resulting from permanent axial deformation. Figure 4(d)

shows a plot of the horizontal reaction at node 1 versus the horizontal displacement at node 2, showing

good agreement between the two approaches.

Analysis with P effect

A dynamic analysis is performed with an axial force of 731.05 kN on each column, corresponding 50% of

the yield force. In this case there is significant geometric nonlinearity. Figure 5(a) and Figure 5(b) show

that the horizontal and vertical displacements continue to grow. The point marked collapse in Figure

5(d) is the point beyond which an external horizontal force is required to pull the structure back to keep

displacements from growing autonomously under the vertical loads acting on it. During a dynamic

analysis, when this point is crossed, displacements continue to grow without reversal even when the input

reverses; the analysis is terminated at this point. It is also noticed that under load reversal, the yield force

in the opposite direction is higher than the original yield force since the moments resulting from P

effects need to be overcome in addition.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The evolution of the elastic-plastic structural state in time is provided a weak formulation using

Hamiltons principle. It is shown that a certain class of structures called reciprocal structures has a mixed

weak formulation in time involving Lagrangian and dissipation functions. The new form of the

Lagrangian developed in this work involves not only displacements and velocities but also internal forces

and their impulses leading to the concept of the generalized momentum for framed structures. This

Lagrangian has been shown to extend to continua. The derivative of the compatibility operator with

respect to displacements possesses a symmetry that renders the Lagrangian invariant under finite

displacements. The formulation can therefore be used in geometric nonlinear analysis. A discrete

variational integrator has been derived starting from a weak formulation.

0.6

150.0

0.4

0.5

100.0

50.0

0.0

-50.0

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

-0.1

-0.2

Lagrangian Method

Lagrangian Method

-0.3

DRAIN-2DX

DRAIN-2DX

-100.0

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

Time (s)

20.0

-0.4

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

Time (s)

18.0

20.0

0.008

80.0

0.006

60.0

0.004

40.0

Rotation (rad)

Lagrangian Method

0.002

0.000

-0.002

-0.004

Lagrangian Method

-0.006

DRAIN-2DX

20.0

0.0

-20.0

-40.0

-60.0

DRAIN-2DX

-80.0

-150.0

-0.008

0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

-100.0

-50.0

0.0

50.0

100.0

150.0

Time (s)

(d) Column shear force-displacement

Figure 4. Results with no external axial force

100.0

0.00

-5.00

0.0

-100.0

-200.0

-300.0

-400.0

-500.0

-10.00

-15.00

-20.00

Lagrangian Method

-600.0

Lagrangian Method

DRAIN-2DX

DRAIN-2DX

-700.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

-25.00

8.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

Time (s)

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

Time (s)

0.005

80.0

0.004

60.0

0.003

Rotation (rad)

0.002

0.001

0.000

-0.001

-0.002

40.0

Collapse

20.0

0.0

-20.0

-0.003

Lagrangian Method

-0.004

-40.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

Lagrangian Method

DRAIN-2DX

DRAIN-2DX

-0.005

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

-60.0

-250.0

-200.0

-150.0

-100.0

-50.0

0.0

50.0

Time (s)

(d) Column shear force-displacement

Figure 5. Results with external axial force

This integrator inherits the energy and momentum conservation characteristics for Lagrangian systems and

the contractivity in the energy norm of dissipative systems. The integration of each step has been shown to

be a constrained minimization problem the principle of incremental minimum complementary potential

energy. An Augmented Lagrangian algorithm and a dense matrix implementation have been derived for

the solution of this problem. Since the matrix A of the minimization problem (52) is positive definite, the

solution is globally convergent, allowing for larger time steps for computation. This is however not the

case in the conventional incremental iterative approach where the tangent matrix may not be positive

definite and the Newton iterations may not be globally convergent, limiting the time step. In the

continuum case, the minimization problem (52) would be over the function space of stresses rather than

over the vector space of internal forces as shown here.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research was sponsored by the Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research

(MCEER) which is supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) grant ECC 9701471 and by the

University at Buffalo / State of University of New York. The authors acknowledge the financial and team

support.

REFERENCES

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

Simo, J.C., Kennedy, J.G., and Taylor, R.L., Complementary mixed finite element formulations for

elastoplasticity. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering, 1989. 74(2): 177-206.

Simo, J.C. and Hughes, T.J.R. (1998). Computational inelasticity. Springer, New York.

Armero, F. and Perez-Foguet, A., On the formulation of closest-point projection algorithms in

elastoplasticity - Part I: The variational structure. International Journal for Numerical Methods in

Engineering, 2002. 53(2): 297-329.

Maier, G., A Matrix Structural Theory of Piecewise Linear Elastoplasticity with Interacting Yield

Planes. Meccanica, 1970. 5(1): 54.

Duvaut, G. and Lions, J.L. (1976). Inequalities in mechanics and physics. Springer-Verlag, New

York.

Romano, G., Rosati, L., and de Sciarra, F.M., Variational theory for finite-step elasto-plastic

problems. International Journal of Solids & Structures, 1993. 30(17): 2317-2334.

Jos, J.V. and Saletan, E.J. (1998). Classical dynamics : a contemporary approach. New York,

Cambridge England.

El-Sayed, M.E.M., Marjadi, D., and Sandgren, E., Force Method Formulations Based on Hamilton

Principle. Computers & Structures, 1991. 38(3): 301-316.

Scheck, F. (1994). Mechanics : from Newton's laws to deterministic chaos. New York, Berlin.

Sivaselvan, M.V. (2003). Nonlinear structural analysis towards collapse simulation - a dynamical

systems approach, Ph.D., University at Buffalo, Buffalo.

Kane, C., Marsden, J.E., Ortiz, M., and West, M., Variational integrators and the Newmark

algorithm for conservative and dissipative mechanical systems. International Journal for Numerical

Methods in Engineering, 2000. 49(10 Dec): 1295-1325.

Simo, J.C. and Govindjee, S., Non-linear B-stability and symmetry preserving return mapping

algorithms for plasticity and viscoplasticity. International Journal for Numerical Methods in

Engineering, 1991. 31(1): 151-176.

Cadzow, J.A., Discrete Calculus of Variations. International Journal of Control, 1970. 11(3): 393407.

Marsden, J.E. and West, M., Discrete mechanics and variational integrators. Acta Numerica, 2001.

10: 357-514.

Glowinski, R. and Le Tallec, P. (1989). Augmented Lagrangian and operator-splitting methods in

nonlinear mechanics. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia.

Allahabadi, R. and Powell, G.H., Drain-2DX user guide, in Report / Earthquake Engineering

Research Center ;; no. UCB/EERC-88/06; Variation: Report (University of California, Berkeley.

Earthquake Engineering Research Center) ;; no. . 1988, University of California at Berkeley:

Berkeley, Calif.

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