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# Compiled by;

Dr P R Venkatesh
Associate Professor
Mechanical Dept
RVCE, Bangalore-560059

Bangalore

UNIT 5
Torsion

## Assumptions in theory of pure Torsion, Torsion

equation, Torsional rigidity and modulus of

## rupture, Power transmitted, Comparison of solid

& hollow circular shafts, Numerical problems

Bangalore

Introduction
Power

is

generally

transmitted

through

## mechanical component known as shaft, which is a

straight bar of circular cross section.

## A shaft, while transmitting power is subjected to

Torsion, which is nothing but two equal & opposite

## couples acting about its axis.

If Torsion is not accompanied by other forces such

## as bending or axial force, it is said to be subjected

to Pure Torsion.
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

Shafts

Bangalore

Bangalore

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

## Assumptions made in theory of pure Torsion

The shaft material is perfectly elastic,
homogeneous & isotropic.
Normal cross sections of the shaft remain plane
& do not warp under the influence of torque.
Circular sections remain circular & hence the
radii are straight and perpendicular to axis of
shaft.
The twist along the length of the shaft is
uniform.
The material of the shaft obeys Hookes law.

Torsion Equation
T G
To derive = =
J R
L

## T = Torsional moment or Torque applied (N mm)

J = Polar Moment of Inertia of cross section of shaft about the
longitudinal axis of the shaft =(Ixx +Iyy) = (pd4/64+ pd4/64)
Hence J =pd4/32 or pR4/2 (mm4) (Perpendicular axis theorem)
t = Shear Stress developed at any radius of the shaft section
(N/mm2)
R = Radius of the shaft
G = Rigidity Modulus or Shear modulus of the material of the
shaft (N/mm2)
q = Angle of twist in radians
L= Length of the shaft, mm

## Consider a circular shat of length L & diameter d fixed rigidly

at one end & subjected to torque T at the free end of the
shaft.
Let a fiber AB gets twisted and occupy new position AB
such that Lf = Rq where q (in radians) is the included angle
between B & B at the center of the section.

B
B'

B
B'

B
B'

B'

Rq
Rq
As Lf = Rq , f =
Shear strain in the fiber = tanf f
L
L

t
t
Also, from Hooke's law, G =
f = where t = shear stress induced
f
G

## & G = Rigidity modulus of the material of shaft.

Rq t
t Gq
Equating the RHS of above two equations,

or
=
L G
R
L

(i)

dr
r

## Consider an elemental area dA at a distance 'r' from center of shaft.

If t is the shear stress at the outer radius R, shear stress at a distance r
r
is t r = t Tangential force on the elemental area dF = t r dA
R
But the area of elemental ring dA 2p r.dr
r
t
dF = t ( 2p r .dr 2p r 2 .dr
R
R
r
Torque at radius r due to force dF = dF r = t ( 2p r 3 .dr
R

Integrating the elemental torque over the area of the element, we get the
R
4

t
R
t

3
Total torque acting on the shaft T = 2p r .dr 2p
R 0
R 4
4
p R4
t pR
T
=J, polar moment of inertia of shaft.
But
2
R 2
T
T Gq
=
(ii) From (i) & (ii), = =
Torsion equation
J R
J R
L

Note:
1. Design of a shaft dimension considering the first two terms of the torsion
equation is known as strength based design, as it involves the shear stress
induced in the shaft.
2. Design of a shaft dimension considering the first & the last terms of the torsion
equation is known as rigidity based design as it involves the angular twist.
3. The diameter of the shaft may be determined using both the criteria, & the
higher of the two values is considered as the safe value of diameter.

## Polar Moment of Inertia (J)

Polar moment of inertia is defined as the moment of inertia about the
axis of the shaft & by perpendicular axis theorem, it is the sum of MOI
about X - X & Y -Y axis of the cross section.
Axis of shaft

pd4

pd4

d 4
J I xx I yy

64
64
32
Also as d 2 R, J

p (2 R) 4
32

## For a hollow shaft, J

R 4

p (d 04 di4 ) p d 04 (1 K 4 )
32

32

di
where K
(< 1) is the ratio of diameters
d0

di
do

Polar modulus
Polar modulus of a shaft is the ratio of polar moment
of inertia of the cross section of the beam about the
longitudinal axis to the radius of the shaft.
More the polar modulus, more will be the torque

## carrying capacity of the shaft.

J
For a solid shaft, Polar modulus Z P =
R

pd4

J
For a hollow shaft, Polar modulus Z P =
R

32

pd3

16
2
p (d o4 di4 )
do

mm3

3
4
32 p d o (1 K ) mm3
16

Torsional Strength
Torsional strength is defined as the torque per unit
maximum shear stress. Based on this, the maximum
shear stress (induced on the outer surface)should not
exceed the allowable value.
T t Gq
From Torsion equation,
J r
l
pd4
3
T J
p
d
32

Z p Polar modulus
d
t r
16
2

## i.e torsional strength = Polar modulus of shaft

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

Torsional Rigidity
Torsional strength is defined as the torque required to
produce unit angle of twist in a specified length of the

## shaft. It is also known as Torsional stiffness.

T

GJ
Torsional rigidity (TR) = =
q
L
G pd4
For a solid shaft TRsolid =
and
L 32
For a hollow shaft TRhollow

G p (d 04 di4 ) G p d 04 (1 K 4 )
=

L
32
L
32

Bangalore

Problem 1

## A shaft is required to transmit 1 MW at 240 rpm.

The shaft must not twist more than 10 over a length

## of 15 diameters. If the modulus of rigidity of shaft

material is 80 KN/mm2, find the diameter of the
shaft and shear stress induced.

## Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Data :
p
P 1 MW 1000 KW , N 240 rpm , q 1 1
180
L 15d , G 80 103 N / mm 2 , d = ?, t = ?
0

## Solution : When P is in KW,

60 106 P
The torque transmitted by a shaft ; T
= N - mm,
2p N
60 106 1000
6
T
39.79 10 N - mm
2 p 240
As only angle of twist is given, diameter of shaft
may be found using rigidity criterion.
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

T Gq
(i) Diameter based on rigidity : Torsion equation is ,
=
J
L
39.79 106 32 80 103 1 p
3
6
i.e.

4.357

10

4
p d
15 d 180
Diameter of the solid shaft d = 165 mm
(ii) Shear stress induced in the shaft :
T t
From Torsion equation,
J R
d
T
TR
16T
2
Shear stress t

4
pd
J
pd3
32
16 39.792106
i.e.t =
= 45.11 MPa

3
165

Bangalore

Problem 2

## A solid shaft rotating at 500 rpm transmits 30 KW.

Max torque is 20% more than the mean torque.

## Material of the shaft has an allowable shear stress

65 Mpa and modulus of rigidity 81 GPa. Angle of
twist in the shaft should not exceed 10 per meter

## length of shaft. Determine the safe diameter of

shaft.
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

Data :
p
P 30 KW , N 500 rpm , Tmax 1.2 Tmean , q 10 1
180
L 1 m 1000 mm , G 81 103 N / mm 2 , t 65 MPa, d = ?
Solution : When P is in KW,
60 106 30
The torque transmitted by a shaft ; T
= 573 103 N - mm
2p 500
Tmax 1.2Tmean 1.2 573 103 687.6 10 3 N - mm
As both shear stress & the angle of twist are given, diameter of shaft
may be found using strength & rigidity criterion, & the higher value
is selected as the safe diameter.
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

T Gq
(i) Diameter based on rigidity : Torsion equation is ,
=
J
L
687.6 103 32 81 103 1 p
4
6
i.e.

4.954

10

4
p d
1000 180
Diameter of the solid shaft d = 47.2 48 mm
T t
(ii) Diameter based strength : From Torsion equation,
J R
d
T
TR
16T
16T
3
2
Shear stress t

or d
4
3
pd
J
pd
pt
32
16687.6.10 3
d =
= 37.77 38 mm

65

Dr P R Venkatesh,
RVCE,
Selecting the higher value
, dBangalore
=Mech
48Dept,mm

Problem 3

A hollow

## 2500 Nm. Taking the allowable shear stress in the

shaft material as 45 Mpa & the limiting angle of
twist as 1.50 in 2 meters length of shaft, determine

## the inner & outer diameters of the shaft. Take

G=81 KN/mm2.
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

p
Data : T 2500 Nm 2.5 10 N mm, q 1.5 1.5
180
6

di
L 2 m 2000 mm, G 8110 N / mm , t 45 MPa, K
0.8
d0
3

T Gq
(i) Diameter based on rigidity : Torsion equation is ,
=
J
L
For a hollow shaft, J

p (d 04 di4 )

p d 04 (1 K 4 )

64
64
2.5 106 32
81103 1.5 p
4
6
i.e.

40.68

10
0

p d 04 (1 0.84 )
2000
180

## Outer diameter of the hollow shaft d 0 = 79.68 80 mm

Inner diameter of the hollow shaft d i = 0.8 d 0 0.8 80 64 mm
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

T t
(ii) Diameter based strength : From Torsion equation,
J R
d0
T
TR
16T
16T
3
2
Shear stress t

or d 0
4
4
3
4
p d 0 (1 K ) p d 0 (1 K )
J
pt (1 K 4 )
32
1

16 2.510 3
Outside dia of shaft d 0 =
= 78.25 80 mm
4
45 (1 0.8 )
6

## Inside dia of shaft di 0.8 d 0 0.8 80 64 mm

Here,both the criteria have given almost same diameter values.
Hence, d 0 = 80 mm & d i = 64 mm.
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

Problem 4
Determine the diameter of a solid circular shaft to
transmit 192 KW at 450 rpm. Allowable shear stress

my be taken as 70 MPa.
If the solid shaft is replaced by a hollow shaft of same
material & length, whose diameter ratio is 0.8, find the
percentage reduction in weight achieved and the ratio
of torsional stiffness of hollow & solid shafts.
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

## Data : P 192 KW , N 450 rpm , t 70 MPa,

di
k
0.8
do
Solution :
(i) Diameter of the Solid shaft : when P is in KW,
60 106 P
The torque transmitted by a shaft ; T
N - mm
N
60 106 192
T
4.074 10 6 N - mm
2 p 450
1
3

1
3

16
T
16

4.074

10

d = 66.7 68 mm

p 70
pt

Bangalore

## (ii) Diameter of the hollow shaft :

1
3

1
3

16 4.074 106

16T
1
1
do

d o 80 mm
4
4
p 70
(1 0.8 )
pt (1 K )

d i = K d o = 0.8 80 = 64 mm
Ws Wh
(iii) % Saving in weight =
100, where
Ws
Ws Weight of solid shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight
Ws

d 2 l

4
Wh Weight of hollow shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight
Wh

p
4

d o2 (1 K 2 ) l
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

## As both are of same material & length,

d 2 d o2 (1 K 2 )
% saving in weight
100
2
d

100 50%
2
68

## (iv) Ratio of torsional stiffeness (rigidity) of the shafts :

T

GJ
Torsional rigidity (TR) = =
q
L
G pd4
For a solid shaft TRsolid =
&
L 32
for a hollow shaft TRhollow

G p (d 04 di4 ) G p d 04 (1 K 4 )
=

L
32
L
32

## For same material & length, G & L are same,

(TR ) hollow d 04 (1 K 4 ) 804 (1 0.84 )

1.13
4
4
(TR) solid
d
68
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

Problem 5

## Prove that a hollow shaft is always stronger &

stiffer than a solid shaft which is of same material,

## length & weight.

Data :
Let 'd ' be the diameter of solid shaft
di
K
be the ratio of diameters for hollow shaft
do
G Rigidity modulus of the material (same for solid & hollow shafts)
L = Length of shaft (same for solid & hollow shafts)

Specific weight of shaft material (same for solid & hollow shafts)
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

## Comparison of weights of solid & hollow shafts :

Ws Weight of solid shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight
Ws

d 2 L

4
Wh Weight of hollow shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight
Wh

d o2 (1 K 2 ) L

4
Given the weights are equal,i.e.W s = Wh
d 2 d o2 (1 K 2 ) d = d o 1 - K 2
Hence d 3 = d o3 (1 - K 2 ) 1 - K 2

(i)
(ii)

Bangalore

## Comparison of Torsional strengths :

Torsional strength =

## . From Torsion equation,

pd4

T t Gq
T J

J r
l
t r

32 p d Z
For a solid shaft,(TS) s

ps
d
t
16
2
p d o4 (1 K 4 )
p d o3 (1 K 4 )
T
32
For a hollow shaft, (TS) h

Z ph
d
t
16
0
2
where Z ps & Z ph are the Polar moduli of solid & hollow shafts.
T

(TS) h Z ph d o3 (1 K 4 )

(TS) s Z ps
d3
Putting (1 K 4 ) (1 K 2 )(1 K 2 ) & d 3 d o3 (1 K 2 ) 1 K 2 from eqn (ii),
(TS) h d o3 (1 K 2 )(1 K 2 ) (1 + K 2 )

> 1 (as K 1)
3
2
2
2
(TS) s d o (1 K ) 1 K
1- K
Hence a hollow shaft is stronger than a solid shaft of same
weight, material & length.

Bangalore

## Comparison of Torsional rigidity :

T

GJ
Torsional rigidity (TR) = =
q
L
G pd4
For a solid shaft TRsolid =
&
L 32
for a hollow shaft TRhollow

G p (d 04 di4 ) G p d 04 (1 K 4 )
=

L
32
L
32

## For same material & length, G & L are same,

(TR ) hollow d 04 (1 K 4 ) d 04 (1 K 2 )(1 K 2 )

4
(TR ) solid
d
d4
From Eqn (i ) ( same weight condition ), d d o 1- K 2 d 4 d 04 (1 K 2 ) 2
(TR ) hollow d 04 (1 K 2 )(1 k 2 ) (1 + K 2 )

## > 1 (as K < 1)

4
2 2
2
(TR ) solid
d 0 (1 K )
(1 - K )
Hence a hollow shaft is stiffer than a solid shaft of same
weight, material & length.

## Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Problem 6
Compare the weight, strength & stiffness a hollow shaft with

## those of a solid shaft which is of same material, length &

outside diameter. Take the diameter ratio for hollow shaft as

2.
Data :
Let 'd ' be the diameter of solid shaft
di
K
be the ratio of diameters for hollow shaft
do
G Rigidity modulus of the material (same for solid & hollow shafts)
L = Length of shaft (same for solid & hollow shafts)

Specific weight of shaft material (same for solid & hollow shafts)
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

## Comparison of weights of solid & hollow shafts :

Ws Weight of solid shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight
Ws

d 2 L

4
Wh Weight of hollow shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight
Wh

d o2 (1 K 2 ) L

4
Weight of hollow shaft Wh d o2 (1 K 2 )

## Weight of solid shaft Ws

d2
Wh
Given the outside dia are equal,i.e. d = d o ,
(1 K 2 )
Ws
1
As it is given that diameter ratio 2, K 0.5
2
Wh
(1 K 2 ) (1 0.52 ) = 0.75
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Ws
Bangalore

## Comparison of Torsional strengths :

J
T pd3
Torsional strength . For a solid shaft,
Z ps
t r
t
16
T p d o3 (1 K 4 )
For a hollow shaft, (TS) h

Z ph
t
16
where Z ps & Z ph are the Polar moduli of solid & hollow shafts.
T

(TS) h Z ph d o3 (1 K 4 )
(TS) h
4

Given
d

d
,

(1

0.5
) 0.9375
o
3
(TS) s Z ps
d
(TS) s
T

GJ
Comparison of Torsional rigidity : Torsional rigidity (TR) = =
q
L
G pd4
For a solid shaft TRsolid =
&
L 32
for a hollow shaft TRhollow

G p d 04 (1 K 4 )

L
32

(TR) hollow d 04 (1 K 4 )
(TR ) hollow
4

Given
d

d
,

(1

0.5
) 0.9375
o
4
(TR ) solid
d
(TR ) solid
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

Problem 7

## A hollow circular steel shaft has to transmit 60 KW

at 210 rpm such that the maximum shear stress

## does not 60 MN/m2. If the ratio of internal to

external diameter is equal to 3/4, and the value of
rigidity modulus is 84 GPa, determine the

## dimensions of the shaft & the angle of twist in a

length of 3m.
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

Data :
P 60 KW , N 210 rpm , Tmax

di 3
1.2 Tmean ,
= = 0.75
d0 4

## L 3 m 3000 mm , G 84 103 N / mm 2 , t 60 MPa, q ?

Solution : When P is in KW, The torque transmitted by a shaft ;
60 106 60
T
= 2.73 106 N - mm
2p 210
As only shear stress diameter of shaft is given, the diameter may
be found using strength criterion, & the angle of twist be found
by using rigidity criterion.
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

T t
Diameter based on rigidity : Torsion equation is ,
=
J R
d0
T
TR
16T
16T
3
2
Shear stress t

or d 0
4
4
3
4
p d 0 (1 K ) p d 0 (1 K )
J
pt (1 K 4 )
32
1

16 2.7310 3
d0 =
= 70 mm & d i 0.75 70 52.5 mm
4
60 (1 0.75 )
6

T Gq
Angle of twist : Torsion equation is ,
=
J
L
2.73 106 32
84 103 q

4
4
p 70 (1 0.75 )
3000
180
0
Angle of twist in degrees 0.0605
=
3
.47

p
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech
Dept,
RVCE,

Bangalore

Problem 8

## Determine the ratio of power transmitted by a

hollow shaft and a solid shaft when both have

## same weight, material & speed. The diameter of

the solid shaft is 150 mm & the external diameter
of hollow shaft is 250 mm.

Bangalore

## Given : d 150 mm, d 0 250 mm, Ws Wh , N s N h

Equating the weights of solid & hollow shafts;
Ws Wh i.e.

d L
2

(d o2 d i2 ) L

4
4
As the material & length is same, d 2 ( d o2 di2 )

## 1502 (250 2 di2 ) d i = 200 mm

Ratio of power transmitted by solid & hollow shafts;
4
4

p
(
d

d
2
p
NT

0
i )
h
t

4
4

Ph 60 Th 16d 0
(
d

0
i )

3
3
Ps 2p NTs Ts
d d0
pd

60
16

## Substituting d = 150 mm, d i =200 mm & d o 250 mm

Ph (2504 200 4 )

= 2.73
3
Ps
150 250 Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore

Problem 9

## Compare the weight of solid shaft with that of a

hollow shaft having same length to transmit a

## given power at a given speed if the material used

for shafts is same. The inside diameter of hollow
shaft is 0.6 times the outer diameter.

Bangalore

## Comparison of weights of solid & hollow shafts :

d o2 (1 K 2 ) L

Wh 4
d o2 (1 K 2 ) d o2 (1 0.6 2 ) 0.64d o2

2
2
2
p 2
Ws
d
d
d
d L
4
(a) Using torsional strength criterion :

(i)

## For same power & rpm, torque transmitted is same,i.e. Ts Th

i.e.

p d 3 t
16

p d o3 (1 K 4 ) t

## d 3 d o3 (1 0.6 4 ) 0.87 d o3 d = 0.955 d 0

16
Wh 0.64d o2
0.64d o2
0.64 d o2
Substituting in (i),

0.702
2
2
2
Ws
d
(0.955d 0 )
0.912d o
(b) Using torsional rigidity criterio n :
For same power & rpm, torque transmitted is same,i.e. Ts Th

G p d 4 G p d o4 (1 K 4 )
4
4
4
4

d
(1

0.6
)

0.87
d

o
o d = 0.966 d 0
L 32 L
32

Wh 0.64d o2
0.64d o2
0.64 d o2
Substituting in (i),

0.686
2
2
2
Ws
d
(0.966d 0 )
0.933d o
Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,
Bangalore