0 Up votes0 Down votes

4 views42 pagesunit 5mom

Nov 15, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

unit 5mom

© All Rights Reserved

4 views

unit 5mom

© All Rights Reserved

- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions

You are on page 1of 42

Dr P R Venkatesh

Associate Professor

Mechanical Dept

RVCE, Bangalore-560059

Bangalore

UNIT 5

Torsion

equation, Torsional rigidity and modulus of

& hollow circular shafts, Numerical problems

Bangalore

Introduction

Power

is

generally

transmitted

through

straight bar of circular cross section.

Torsion, which is nothing but two equal & opposite

If Torsion is not accompanied by other forces such

to Pure Torsion.

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Shafts

Bangalore

Bangalore

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The shaft material is perfectly elastic,

homogeneous & isotropic.

Normal cross sections of the shaft remain plane

& do not warp under the influence of torque.

Circular sections remain circular & hence the

radii are straight and perpendicular to axis of

shaft.

The twist along the length of the shaft is

uniform.

The material of the shaft obeys Hookes law.

Torsion Equation

T G

To derive = =

J R

L

J = Polar Moment of Inertia of cross section of shaft about the

longitudinal axis of the shaft =(Ixx +Iyy) = (pd4/64+ pd4/64)

Hence J =pd4/32 or pR4/2 (mm4) (Perpendicular axis theorem)

t = Shear Stress developed at any radius of the shaft section

(N/mm2)

R = Radius of the shaft

G = Rigidity Modulus or Shear modulus of the material of the

shaft (N/mm2)

q = Angle of twist in radians

L= Length of the shaft, mm

at one end & subjected to torque T at the free end of the

shaft.

Let a fiber AB gets twisted and occupy new position AB

such that Lf = Rq where q (in radians) is the included angle

between B & B at the center of the section.

B

B'

B

B'

B

B'

B'

Rq

Rq

As Lf = Rq , f =

Shear strain in the fiber = tanf f

L

L

t

t

Also, from Hooke's law, G =

f = where t = shear stress induced

f

G

Rq t

t Gq

Equating the RHS of above two equations,

or

=

L G

R

L

(i)

dr

r

If t is the shear stress at the outer radius R, shear stress at a distance r

r

is t r = t Tangential force on the elemental area dF = t r dA

R

But the area of elemental ring dA 2p r.dr

r

t

dF = t ( 2p r .dr 2p r 2 .dr

R

R

r

Torque at radius r due to force dF = dF r = t ( 2p r 3 .dr

R

Integrating the elemental torque over the area of the element, we get the

R

4

t

R

t

3

Total torque acting on the shaft T = 2p r .dr 2p

R 0

R 4

4

p R4

t pR

T

=J, polar moment of inertia of shaft.

But

2

R 2

T

T Gq

=

(ii) From (i) & (ii), = =

Torsion equation

J R

J R

L

Note:

1. Design of a shaft dimension considering the first two terms of the torsion

equation is known as strength based design, as it involves the shear stress

induced in the shaft.

2. Design of a shaft dimension considering the first & the last terms of the torsion

equation is known as rigidity based design as it involves the angular twist.

3. The diameter of the shaft may be determined using both the criteria, & the

higher of the two values is considered as the safe value of diameter.

Polar moment of inertia is defined as the moment of inertia about the

axis of the shaft & by perpendicular axis theorem, it is the sum of MOI

about X - X & Y -Y axis of the cross section.

Axis of shaft

pd4

pd4

d 4

J I xx I yy

64

64

32

Also as d 2 R, J

p (2 R) 4

32

R 4

p (d 04 di4 ) p d 04 (1 K 4 )

32

32

di

where K

(< 1) is the ratio of diameters

d0

di

do

Polar modulus

Polar modulus of a shaft is the ratio of polar moment

of inertia of the cross section of the beam about the

longitudinal axis to the radius of the shaft.

More the polar modulus, more will be the torque

J

For a solid shaft, Polar modulus Z P =

R

pd4

J

For a hollow shaft, Polar modulus Z P =

R

32

pd3

16

2

p (d o4 di4 )

do

mm3

3

4

32 p d o (1 K ) mm3

16

Torsional Strength

Torsional strength is defined as the torque per unit

maximum shear stress. Based on this, the maximum

shear stress (induced on the outer surface)should not

exceed the allowable value.

T t Gq

From Torsion equation,

J r

l

pd4

3

T J

p

d

32

Z p Polar modulus

d

t r

16

2

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Torsional Rigidity

Torsional strength is defined as the torque required to

produce unit angle of twist in a specified length of the

T

GJ

Torsional rigidity (TR) = =

q

L

G pd4

For a solid shaft TRsolid =

and

L 32

For a hollow shaft TRhollow

G p (d 04 di4 ) G p d 04 (1 K 4 )

=

L

32

L

32

Bangalore

Problem 1

The shaft must not twist more than 10 over a length

material is 80 KN/mm2, find the diameter of the

shaft and shear stress induced.

Bangalore

Data :

p

P 1 MW 1000 KW , N 240 rpm , q 1 1

rad

180

L 15d , G 80 103 N / mm 2 , d = ?, t = ?

0

60 106 P

The torque transmitted by a shaft ; T

= N - mm,

2p N

60 106 1000

6

T

39.79 10 N - mm

2 p 240

As only angle of twist is given, diameter of shaft

may be found using rigidity criterion.

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

T Gq

(i) Diameter based on rigidity : Torsion equation is ,

=

J

L

39.79 106 32 80 103 1 p

3

6

i.e.

4.357

10

4

p d

15 d 180

Diameter of the solid shaft d = 165 mm

(ii) Shear stress induced in the shaft :

T t

From Torsion equation,

J R

d

T

TR

16T

2

Shear stress t

4

pd

J

pd3

32

16 39.792106

i.e.t =

= 45.11 MPa

3

165

Bangalore

Problem 2

Max torque is 20% more than the mean torque.

65 Mpa and modulus of rigidity 81 GPa. Angle of

twist in the shaft should not exceed 10 per meter

shaft.

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Data :

p

P 30 KW , N 500 rpm , Tmax 1.2 Tmean , q 10 1

rad

180

L 1 m 1000 mm , G 81 103 N / mm 2 , t 65 MPa, d = ?

Solution : When P is in KW,

60 106 30

The torque transmitted by a shaft ; T

= 573 103 N - mm

2p 500

Tmax 1.2Tmean 1.2 573 103 687.6 10 3 N - mm

As both shear stress & the angle of twist are given, diameter of shaft

may be found using strength & rigidity criterion, & the higher value

is selected as the safe diameter.

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

T Gq

(i) Diameter based on rigidity : Torsion equation is ,

=

J

L

687.6 103 32 81 103 1 p

4

6

i.e.

4.954

10

4

p d

1000 180

Diameter of the solid shaft d = 47.2 48 mm

T t

(ii) Diameter based strength : From Torsion equation,

J R

d

T

TR

16T

16T

3

2

Shear stress t

or d

4

3

pd

J

pd

pt

32

16687.6.10 3

d =

= 37.77 38 mm

65

Dr P R Venkatesh,

RVCE,

Selecting the higher value

, dBangalore

=Mech

48Dept,mm

Problem 3

A hollow

shaft material as 45 Mpa & the limiting angle of

twist as 1.50 in 2 meters length of shaft, determine

G=81 KN/mm2.

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

p

Data : T 2500 Nm 2.5 10 N mm, q 1.5 1.5

rad

180

6

di

L 2 m 2000 mm, G 8110 N / mm , t 45 MPa, K

0.8

d0

3

T Gq

(i) Diameter based on rigidity : Torsion equation is ,

=

J

L

For a hollow shaft, J

p (d 04 di4 )

p d 04 (1 K 4 )

64

64

2.5 106 32

81103 1.5 p

4

6

i.e.

40.68

10

0

p d 04 (1 0.84 )

2000

180

Inner diameter of the hollow shaft d i = 0.8 d 0 0.8 80 64 mm

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

T t

(ii) Diameter based strength : From Torsion equation,

J R

d0

T

TR

16T

16T

3

2

Shear stress t

or d 0

4

4

3

4

p d 0 (1 K ) p d 0 (1 K )

J

pt (1 K 4 )

32

1

16 2.510 3

Outside dia of shaft d 0 =

= 78.25 80 mm

4

45 (1 0.8 )

6

Here,both the criteria have given almost same diameter values.

Hence, d 0 = 80 mm & d i = 64 mm.

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Problem 4

Determine the diameter of a solid circular shaft to

transmit 192 KW at 450 rpm. Allowable shear stress

my be taken as 70 MPa.

If the solid shaft is replaced by a hollow shaft of same

material & length, whose diameter ratio is 0.8, find the

percentage reduction in weight achieved and the ratio

of torsional stiffness of hollow & solid shafts.

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

di

k

0.8

do

Solution :

(i) Diameter of the Solid shaft : when P is in KW,

60 106 P

The torque transmitted by a shaft ; T

N - mm

N

60 106 192

T

4.074 10 6 N - mm

2 p 450

1

3

1

3

16

T

16

4.074

10

d = 66.7 68 mm

p 70

pt

Bangalore

1

3

1

3

16 4.074 106

16T

1

1

do

d o 80 mm

4

4

p 70

(1 0.8 )

pt (1 K )

d i = K d o = 0.8 80 = 64 mm

Ws Wh

(iii) % Saving in weight =

100, where

Ws

Ws Weight of solid shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight

Ws

d 2 l

4

Wh Weight of hollow shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight

Wh

p

4

d o2 (1 K 2 ) l

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

d 2 d o2 (1 K 2 )

% saving in weight

100

2

d

100 50%

2

68

T

GJ

Torsional rigidity (TR) = =

q

L

G pd4

For a solid shaft TRsolid =

&

L 32

for a hollow shaft TRhollow

G p (d 04 di4 ) G p d 04 (1 K 4 )

=

L

32

L

32

(TR ) hollow d 04 (1 K 4 ) 804 (1 0.84 )

1.13

4

4

(TR) solid

d

68

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Problem 5

stiffer than a solid shaft which is of same material,

Data :

Let 'd ' be the diameter of solid shaft

di

K

be the ratio of diameters for hollow shaft

do

G Rigidity modulus of the material (same for solid & hollow shafts)

L = Length of shaft (same for solid & hollow shafts)

Specific weight of shaft material (same for solid & hollow shafts)

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Ws Weight of solid shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight

Ws

d 2 L

4

Wh Weight of hollow shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight

Wh

d o2 (1 K 2 ) L

4

Given the weights are equal,i.e.W s = Wh

d 2 d o2 (1 K 2 ) d = d o 1 - K 2

Hence d 3 = d o3 (1 - K 2 ) 1 - K 2

(i)

(ii)

Bangalore

Torsional strength =

pd4

T t Gq

T J

J r

l

t r

32 p d Z

For a solid shaft,(TS) s

ps

d

t

16

2

p d o4 (1 K 4 )

p d o3 (1 K 4 )

T

32

For a hollow shaft, (TS) h

Z ph

d

t

16

0

2

where Z ps & Z ph are the Polar moduli of solid & hollow shafts.

T

(TS) h Z ph d o3 (1 K 4 )

(TS) s Z ps

d3

Putting (1 K 4 ) (1 K 2 )(1 K 2 ) & d 3 d o3 (1 K 2 ) 1 K 2 from eqn (ii),

(TS) h d o3 (1 K 2 )(1 K 2 ) (1 + K 2 )

> 1 (as K 1)

3

2

2

2

(TS) s d o (1 K ) 1 K

1- K

Hence a hollow shaft is stronger than a solid shaft of same

weight, material & length.

Bangalore

T

GJ

Torsional rigidity (TR) = =

q

L

G pd4

For a solid shaft TRsolid =

&

L 32

for a hollow shaft TRhollow

G p (d 04 di4 ) G p d 04 (1 K 4 )

=

L

32

L

32

(TR ) hollow d 04 (1 K 4 ) d 04 (1 K 2 )(1 K 2 )

4

(TR ) solid

d

d4

From Eqn (i ) ( same weight condition ), d d o 1- K 2 d 4 d 04 (1 K 2 ) 2

(TR ) hollow d 04 (1 K 2 )(1 k 2 ) (1 + K 2 )

4

2 2

2

(TR ) solid

d 0 (1 K )

(1 - K )

Hence a hollow shaft is stiffer than a solid shaft of same

weight, material & length.

Bangalore

Problem 6

Compare the weight, strength & stiffness a hollow shaft with

outside diameter. Take the diameter ratio for hollow shaft as

2.

Data :

Let 'd ' be the diameter of solid shaft

di

K

be the ratio of diameters for hollow shaft

do

G Rigidity modulus of the material (same for solid & hollow shafts)

L = Length of shaft (same for solid & hollow shafts)

Specific weight of shaft material (same for solid & hollow shafts)

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Ws Weight of solid shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight

Ws

d 2 L

4

Wh Weight of hollow shaft =(C / s area ) length specific weight

Wh

d o2 (1 K 2 ) L

4

Weight of hollow shaft Wh d o2 (1 K 2 )

d2

Wh

Given the outside dia are equal,i.e. d = d o ,

(1 K 2 )

Ws

1

As it is given that diameter ratio 2, K 0.5

2

Wh

(1 K 2 ) (1 0.52 ) = 0.75

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Ws

Bangalore

J

T pd3

Torsional strength . For a solid shaft,

Z ps

t r

t

16

T p d o3 (1 K 4 )

For a hollow shaft, (TS) h

Z ph

t

16

where Z ps & Z ph are the Polar moduli of solid & hollow shafts.

T

(TS) h Z ph d o3 (1 K 4 )

(TS) h

4

Given

d

d

,

(1

0.5

) 0.9375

o

3

(TS) s Z ps

d

(TS) s

T

GJ

Comparison of Torsional rigidity : Torsional rigidity (TR) = =

q

L

G pd4

For a solid shaft TRsolid =

&

L 32

for a hollow shaft TRhollow

G p d 04 (1 K 4 )

L

32

(TR) hollow d 04 (1 K 4 )

(TR ) hollow

4

Given

d

d

,

(1

0.5

) 0.9375

o

4

(TR ) solid

d

(TR ) solid

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Problem 7

at 210 rpm such that the maximum shear stress

external diameter is equal to 3/4, and the value of

rigidity modulus is 84 GPa, determine the

length of 3m.

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Data :

P 60 KW , N 210 rpm , Tmax

di 3

1.2 Tmean ,

= = 0.75

d0 4

Solution : When P is in KW, The torque transmitted by a shaft ;

60 106 60

T

= 2.73 106 N - mm

2p 210

As only shear stress diameter of shaft is given, the diameter may

be found using strength criterion, & the angle of twist be found

by using rigidity criterion.

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

T t

Diameter based on rigidity : Torsion equation is ,

=

J R

d0

T

TR

16T

16T

3

2

Shear stress t

or d 0

4

4

3

4

p d 0 (1 K ) p d 0 (1 K )

J

pt (1 K 4 )

32

1

16 2.7310 3

d0 =

= 70 mm & d i 0.75 70 52.5 mm

4

60 (1 0.75 )

6

T Gq

Angle of twist : Torsion equation is ,

=

J

L

2.73 106 32

84 103 q

, q 0.0605 rad

4

4

p 70 (1 0.75 )

3000

180

0

Angle of twist in degrees 0.0605

=

3

.47

p

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech

Dept,

RVCE,

Bangalore

Problem 8

hollow shaft and a solid shaft when both have

the solid shaft is 150 mm & the external diameter

of hollow shaft is 250 mm.

Bangalore

Equating the weights of solid & hollow shafts;

Ws Wh i.e.

d L

2

(d o2 d i2 ) L

4

4

As the material & length is same, d 2 ( d o2 di2 )

Ratio of power transmitted by solid & hollow shafts;

4

4

p

(

d

d

2

p

NT

0

i )

h

t

4

4

Ph 60 Th 16d 0

(

d

0

i )

3

3

Ps 2p NTs Ts

d d0

pd

60

16

Ph (2504 200 4 )

= 2.73

3

Ps

150 250 Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

Problem 9

hollow shaft having same length to transmit a

for shafts is same. The inside diameter of hollow

shaft is 0.6 times the outer diameter.

Bangalore

d o2 (1 K 2 ) L

Wh 4

d o2 (1 K 2 ) d o2 (1 0.6 2 ) 0.64d o2

2

2

2

p 2

Ws

d

d

d

d L

4

(a) Using torsional strength criterion :

(i)

i.e.

p d 3 t

16

p d o3 (1 K 4 ) t

16

Wh 0.64d o2

0.64d o2

0.64 d o2

Substituting in (i),

0.702

2

2

2

Ws

d

(0.955d 0 )

0.912d o

(b) Using torsional rigidity criterio n :

For same power & rpm, torque transmitted is same,i.e. Ts Th

G p d 4 G p d o4 (1 K 4 )

4

4

4

4

d

(1

0.6

)

0.87

d

o

o d = 0.966 d 0

L 32 L

32

Wh 0.64d o2

0.64d o2

0.64 d o2

Substituting in (i),

0.686

2

2

2

Ws

d

(0.966d 0 )

0.933d o

Dr P R Venkatesh, Mech Dept, RVCE,

Bangalore

- 1917 militaryaeroplan00loenialaUploaded byUlf Dunell
- 1st PU Physics November 2014.pdfUploaded byPrasad C M
- Torsional Vibrations and Torsion ModulusUploaded byJose Galvan
- 08 Rotatory Motion 119-143Uploaded byeamcetmaterials
- Rigid Body Dynamics - chap 17Uploaded byNa2ry
- Jee main solved paper 2019Uploaded byDhakad Ji Deepak
- SMAC LCR16 Linear Rotary Actuator BrochureUploaded byElectromate
- 01 Lecture Notes Torsion[1] AS 3600Uploaded byApril Ingram
- Geometric ErrorsUploaded byFlorin Rusitoru
- EP2703131A2Uploaded byseehari
- TorsionUploaded byMuhammad Adeel Tariq
- lec29Uploaded byJoØrsh Ênrique Tu Xikytø NînîØflow
- Force and MotionUploaded byKristine Artes Aguilar
- MIT2_003SCF11_pset5Sol.pdfUploaded bySergio Bernal Ortega
- DocumentUploaded byahan
- Mechanics of Rigid BodyUploaded byhenzel espina
- MechanicsUploaded byjacob
- shear centerUploaded byhbuyhbuy
- APhO2007 Theory Sol1Uploaded byPopovici Dragan
- PH1012 - Review of Mechanics; Electric FieldsUploaded byFahmy Muhd
- BiomechanicsUploaded byKoordinacijska Lestev Speed Ladder
- Baynes (Lessons of thermodynamics) (1878).pdfUploaded byMarcelo Silvano de Camargo
- TorqueUploaded byDineshkumar
- Screw ToolsUploaded byRafeek Shaikh
- njkdnbiuofshngoiUploaded bybashraa
- IAS Mains Physics 2014Uploaded byRanveer Singhaniya
- DSR_16_180_gbUploaded byabrap_d
- 10.1.1.75Uploaded byDenis Mata
- Rigid bodies.pdfUploaded byMirvat Shamseddine
- The Study of the Power Flow in the Planetary GearboxUploaded bytavi270782

- metal_latheUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- MoM June 2012Uploaded byPrasanth Kumar
- metal lathe_1420300745250Uploaded byDinesh Kumar
- ns2Uploaded byDinesh Kumar
- Course DescriptionUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- Gate Ece 2012Uploaded byVivek Kumar
- Install Ns 2Uploaded byDinesh Kumar
- LicenseUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- 2014_7_14_7_34_4_346Uploaded byDinesh Kumar
- ns2-tutorial-exerciseUploaded bya_benghida
- RFID Based At Tan Dance Cum Security SystemUploaded bynguleria
- 3384Uploaded byDinesh Kumar
- Building An Active RFID People _ Asset Tracking System With Mesh Networking - Nicholas Skinner’s BlogUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- College ListUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- Book ListUploaded byPriyankar Sukhbir Singh
- Automotive Engine Auxillary Systems LabUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- Automobile Workshop PracticeUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- 20110514074332_India Year Book 4 QUploaded byrrl5050
- 7thsem2003allUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- VivaUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- Ofc QuestionsUploaded byDinesh Kumar
- 63959584 7th Sem Power Electronics Lab ManualUploaded byRavi Hatti

- AutogiroUploaded byAdriana Jurado
- Laser Physics Chapter 1Uploaded byAlexander Mints
- Electrical Cheat SheetUploaded byM J Rhoades
- Structural Engineering and Construction Management 05CE 61XXUploaded bywhiteelephant93
- 1.6.1.1. Proracun rasveteUploaded byMilorad Nedeljkovic
- Tut._No.1__ME2121(July 2011)Uploaded byDivij Sood
- Dallas Proposed Reflectivity ChangeUploaded byEric Nicholson
- Exercise compUploaded byatulsemilo
- Thermodynamics.pdfUploaded byJaya
- worksheet_07.pdfUploaded byVijay Bhaskar
- 51e64ae0e4b08833fb23efa5-shkrina-1374061788922-sfbmdiagrams.pptUploaded byAiman Amir
- Chapter 5 s 2009Uploaded byMohd Khairul Anuar
- 01_2014_1712_Fleisinger_03.pdfUploaded byTalha Naeem Rao
- New 9 Static EquilibriumUploaded byyusuf efendi
- Lagrangian and Hamiltonian MechanicsUploaded byNirmaan Shanker
- TorsionUploaded bySnaider Yari S
- KS2 Science WorksheetUploaded byEzra Loganathan Muniandi
- Je 3416621668Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- ASP Chapter1&2 2010Uploaded byMinh Hoang
- 135702609 LabReport Gas Diffusion DocxUploaded byAmeerRashid
- Math 6 DLP 60 - Reading and Interpreting Reading From Electric MeterUploaded byAngelo Aniag Unay
- An Experimental System for Electrical and Mechanical Education Micro Hydro Power Plant Prototype 2012 Procedia Social and Behavioral SciencesUploaded bysebasfarsa
- PSC Girder 23.75Uploaded byras_deep
- Major and Important Role of Differential Rotation and Variable Oblateness in the Evolution of Continents and OceansUploaded byAnil Thanvi
- Merchant CircleUploaded byRaka-theredsdevilslovers CinthaCeiwectia Dont'likeplaygirls
- Ee ObjectivesUploaded byJaymar Agustin Agor
- Msc Chem SyllabusUploaded byfergared
- 117_labreport_#2 (Autosaved)Uploaded byGlaize Anne Gamelong
- MA_Ganba_2013Uploaded byanyany111111
- 9702_s11_qp_12Uploaded byApollo13

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.