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Exposure of Children and Teenagers to Internet Pornography in

Pakistan

Abstract
In this article we investigated the level of consumption of Internet
pornography among children and teenagers of secondary and higher secondary school
age in Pakistan. Research instruments questionnaires were used to get responses from
children and teens. Findings from the analysis of collected data using
correlation, regression, ANOVA, Coefficients and other descriptive measures showed
that teenagers are more exposed to Internet pornography than children. A positive
relationship exists between age, parental income and level of exposure to Internet
pornography, which implies that as children advance in age, the level of exposure will
definitely increase. Children of medium and high income earners also use Internet
pornography.
Recommendations were made based on our findings.

Introduction

The change in technology has changed the way of lifestyle of the people. Especially the
internet technology. It provides us a huge amount of information whatever we need. It
also helps us to share information world wide with others and a mean of communication
that enables us to communicate directly with our colleagues and friends.

Now, the internet has become an important part in the life of people in this
changing world, because of easy access of internet that is available at homes, offices,
schools, colleges, and universities. Children and teenagers are too much interesting in this
technology.

Obviously, it provides a bundle of benefits to the people, but unfortunately it also


spoiled our children and teenagers. This is almost a serious problem. There are several
factors that are responsible for harming our new generation. These are as:
1. The internet is used by the people, who are spoiling children and teenagers like
sexual sites, pornography, and bad pictures. Because children can not be
supervised all the time, due to this fact they try to use the internet in a wrong way.
These internet technologies make easy to children trackers to harm them.
2. There is no proper way to control these pornography, and sexual sites available on
internet, which makes it easy for children and teenagers to access sexual videos
pictures, stories, and sex chat rooms without any fear and interference that are
unsuitable and dangerous for them.
3. When parents are unaware from the activities of their children, and they have a
sufficient amount of money to go cyber caf or use internet at home.
There are several culprits that take advantage of innocence of children to make them busy
in bad activities. This painful use of internet impact on the attitudes of our children and
teenagers.
It is a great challenge for the parents to save their children from the wrong use of internet.
Unfortunately it becomes to know that 90 percent of 8 to 16 year olds children and
teenagers are interesting in viewing pornography material on internet.
The situation is not different in Pakistan. This new technology has also affect our
children and teenagers. The use of internet at cyber cafes exploited our youth. This is a
very serious matter, what measures should be taken to prevent our children from
unsuitable material or contents present on the internet.

Internet is a great innovation of this new technology, but the researchers has identified
some variables that has a positive relationship between age, parental income and level
of exposure to internet pornography, Which means that as the age of a children
increases by the passage of time the level of exposure will also increase.

Significance

The main objective of this research paper is to:


o Know the usage of internet pornography among children and teenagers
o Know the parents control or supervise over their children when they use internet
o Determine how pornography material influence on children and teenagers
attitudes when they are using internet
o How much time they spent on internet, when they have easy access on to the
internet
o How this pornography contents spoiled our youth.
o Aware children and teenagers from the bad affect of internet pornography.
o Understand the internet usage and behavior of the children and teenagers.

Literature survey

Age
In the United States 99% of public schools had access to the Internet, in which 64% of
children ages 5 to 17 had Internet access at home (National Center for Education
Statistics, 2002). Children ages 13 to 17 spent more time online than watching
television--3.5 hours versus 3.1 hours per day (Corporation for Public Broadcasting,
2002).
The usage of internet in homes is more than at schools or colleges. In which 20%, 8 to 16
olds children had a computer in their bedroom, of which 54% had Internet access
(Wartella et al., 2002).
Moreover, the easy access of the Internet makes it easier for internet sex hawkers to
approach children through online chatting. Those Children who spend hours in chat
rooms looking for friends or just passing time can be easily targeted and abused by
unknown adult sexual offenders (KidsHealth,2004).

In previous research on children and teenagers sexual abuse, Silent Sufferings Kathmandu
Valley together with save the children Norway(2003) and No more suffering Child
sexual abuse in Nepal: Childrens perspectives, managed in four districts with UNICEF
(2005), many teenagers being exposed to pornography contents after using the internet.
From the previous research, it comes to know that younger and better educated uses the
internet very much. Among 10-14-year-olds, 90 percent reported using the Internet,
(Census and Statistics Department, 2002).

In the previous research, CNN poll of teenagers found 82% had used the Internet; among
them, 44% had seen X-rated content (Okrent, 1999). In Taiwanese high school and
colleges, it shows that 88% had navigated the Internet and 44% had surfed pornographic
Web sites (Lo & Wei, 2002). Donnerstein and Smith (2001) argued, Internet pornography
may act as an even more influential socializing agent of sexuality to teen Internet users
than traditional media.
According to Finkelhor et al., 25% of the respondents (n = 1,501, ages 10-17) reported
receiving unwanted exposure to sexual materials while online, and 19% received a sexual
solicitation online.

Surprisingly, 38% of surveyed children ages 8 to 18 said that their parents do not enforce
any rules on watching television, 95% of older children watch television without their
parents, and 81% of children ages 2 to 7 watch television unsupervised (Roberts, Foehr,
Rideout, & Brodie, 1999).

Parental Income Level


The consumption of internet becomes more popular in homes rather than in primary
schools, colleges, or cyber cafes, in which 54% had internet access at homes (Wartella et
al., 2002).
It is because, the parents who had high level of income, can purchase a computer for their
children, and try to consume their money and time on internet pornography, whether, on
the other side lower level of income has no computer or internet access on their homes.

Level of Exposure to Pornography


In previous literature, it shows that children and teenagers are most popular internet users
in this new technology age. (Internet Advisory Boar (Internet Advisory Board, 2001;
Parent Link, 2004). d, 2001; Parent Link, 2004). A very dangerous situation in the social
development of children and teen- agers is an easy access of internet on which adult
materials are easily available. By watching these materials they children and teenagers
are destroying development. These children exposure comes up with many negative
outcomes such as, poor performance in school, low self-esteem, negative self perception,
and more (e.g., Donnerstein, Slaby, & Eron, 1994; Fleming & Rickwood, 2001; Funk &
Buchman, 1996; Strasburger & Donnerstein, 1999; Wartella, O'Keefe, &Scantlin,2000).

There are huge amount of internet pornographic sites available on the internet, which is
increasing very fast (Chen, 2000). Moreover, pornography on the Internet is thought to be
unique in form (Buzzel, 2005; Quin & Forsyth, 2004).Most of the students and teenagers
continuously watch these sites and helping the internet sex hawkers to develop unsuitable
sites (Dutch Newspaper in 2007).In Pakistan, it is shown that 80%of children access
pornographic contents.

Theoretical Framework
There are four variables in this article. The dependent variable is Activity Mostly
Engaged on the internet, which is the variable of primary interest, in which the variance
is attempted to be explained by the two independent variables:
1. Location of internet access, and
2. Level of exposure to pornography
When there is no or less supervision, while using internet at homes, schools, colleges, and
cyber cafes, this will incline children and teenagers to browse more internet pornography,
and make them engaged on internet. Suppose, if parents are not supervising his/her child
properly, when he/she is using internet, then they may feel easy to browse internet
pornography. Pornographic sites are easily accessible on internet. These are exposed
through ads, emails and different ways, which engaged children and teenagers on
internet. Easy access of internet at homes may also be a factor of engaging children on
the internet. There are 23 million children in U.S about 6 to 17 years old have access of
internet at home (MediaPost, 2003). No doubt internet provides us a lot of benefits,
especially help in research, but it has also negative effects like pornography, bad
materials, online gambling and many more (Media Awareness Network, 2003; National
School Boards Foundation, 2003). Parents ignore their children activities, when they are
using internet make them less threatened to view negative contents on internet.

Location of internet access


Activity mostly engaged on
Level of exposure to internet
pornography
Independent
Dependent

H1: If there is less supervision while using internet at will incline children to browse
more internet pornography.
Explanation:
From the above hypothesis we can be say that when parents, teachers, schools etc are not
supervising their children will incline more to browse pornographic contents among
children and teenagers.
H2: The responses from the different groups are not dependent on their age group.
Explanation:
In this hypothesis it means that there is not only age which influence children and
teenagers to view pornographic material available on internet but location, time and other
variables are also responsible.

Methodology

Research Question
This research question paper will provide you the answers of the following questions?
(1) What are the level of exposure of children and teenagers of Secondary and Higher
Secondary School age to Internet pornography in Pakistan?
(2) Are schools, parents, teachers, technology and the society moderating the level of
Exposure of children to Internet pornography?
Population
A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed to children and teenagers over across two
locations in Pakistan. 143 questionnaires were returned out of which 104 satisfied the
statistical stratification for age, gender and access to Internet facilities. The sampling
technique used is the stratified sampling method in combination with simple random
sampling. The simple random sampling technique is a method employed in selecting a
sample of considerate size from a given population of data used in the survey.
Design
The survey method employed in this research is the use of questionnaires to solicit
information from the selected population. Our focus population consists of children and
teenagers of Secondary and Higher Secondary school age partitioned into ages 14-15 and
1819. Confidentiality of personal information was guaranteed as respondents were
asked to specify only their age, gender, class, and parental income. The name and
location of schools name of respondents and other personal information were excluded.
The respondents were encouraged to provide honest answers.
Research instruments
The research instrument titled Children/Teenagers Internet Pornography in Pakistan was
self-constructed and administered to obtain information on usage and the role played by
schools, parents, guardians, technology and the society on addressing the issue of
pornography and its impact on children and teens.
Research instrument validation
Experts in the subject area verified the face-validity and content-validity of the self-
constructed instrument. The various suggestions made were used to modify the
instrument. The Alpha reliability measure for the instrument was 0.925 for the first.

Data Presentation

Frequencies

Statistics
Parental
age gender class income
N Valid 104 104 104 104
Missing 0 0 0 0
Table 1.1
Explanation of the table 1.1
The table 1.1 shows that number of questionnaire are N = 104 in which all results are
valid.
Frequency Table

age
Frequenc Valid Cumulative
y Percent Percent Percent
Valid 14-15 3 2.9 2.9 2.9
16-17 62 59.6 59.6 62.5
18-19 39 37.5 37.5 100.0
Total 104 100.0 100.0
Table 1.2
Explanation of the table 1.2
In this table the age wise percentage and their frequencies are shown.
Gender
Frequenc Valid Cumulative
y Percent Percent Percent
Valid male 100 96.2 96.2 96.2
female 4 3.8 3.8 100.0
Total 104 100.0 100.0
Table 1.3
Explanation of table 1.3
In this table we have found that our maximum questionnaire is filled by males. The
female % is very low in Pakistan.

class
Frequenc Valid Cumulative
y Percent Percent Percent
Valid middle 4 3.8 3.8 3.8
O/Level metric 18 17.3 17.3 21.2
A/level or
82 78.8 78.8 100.0
intermediate
Total 104 100.0 100.0
Table 1.4
Explanation of Table 1.4
In this table we have seen that our questionnaire is maximum filled by A/ Level and
Intermediate students

Parental income
Frequenc Valid Cumulative
y Percent Percent Percent
Valid <10000 14 13.5 13.5 13.5
10,000-20,000 24 23.1 23.1 36.5
20,000-30,000 22 21.2 21.2 57.7
>30,000 44 42.3 42.3 100.0
Total 104 100.0 100.0
Table 1.5
Explanation of Table 1.5
In this table we have seen that the higher parental income is also effected teenagers to
exposure of pornography.
Reliability
Scale: ALL VARIABLES
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.925 30
Table 1.6
Explanation of Table 1.6
The table 1.6 is shows that our data is reliable with Cronbachs Alpha is 0.925 which is
greater than 0.5
Location of internet access
Table 1.7
Tests of Normalityb,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j
Locati Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk
on of
interne
t
access Statistic Df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
Activity mostly engaged 1 .216 12 .127 .840 12 .028
on the internet 1.1 .314 3 . .893 3 .363
1.2 .236 5 .200* .870 5 .265
1.3 .238 7 .200* .881 7 .231
1.4 .131 11 .200* .936 11 .473
1.5 .260 2 .
1.6 .231 10 .138 .898 10 .210
1.7 .311 9 .012 .811 9 .027
1.8 .346 3 . .837 3 .206
1.9 .250 4 . .867 4 .288
2 .175 3 . 1.000 3 1.000
2.1 .292 3 . .923 3 .463
2.2 .261 4 . .955 4 .746
2.3 .364 5 .029 .757 5 .035
Tests of Normalityb,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j
2.6 .300 5 .161 .920 5 .530
2.7 .260 2 .
3 .260 2 .
3.2 .175 3 . 1.000 3 1.000
4.2 .260 2 .
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
b. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Location of internet access = 2.40.
c. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Location of internet access = 2.50.
d. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Location of internet access = 2.80.
e. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Location of internet access = 2.90.
f. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Location of internet access = 3.10.
g. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Location of internet access = 3.40.
h. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Location of internet access = 3.90.
i. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Location of internet access = 4.00.
j. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Location of internet access = 5.00.

Explanation of Table 1.7


In the above table our Kolmogorov-Smirnova test shows our significance test which is
less than 0.05 which means that our data is non-significant and the data is normal. Our
main dependent variable is Activity Mostly Engaged of the Internet so if we see the table
end we see that there is a different point of access of internet in which user can be able to
involve in internet pornography.
** Means that our data is 0.99% Significant
* means that our data is 0.95% significant.

Level of exposure to pornography


Table 1.8
Tests of Normalityb,c,d,e,f,g
Level Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk
of
exposu
re to
pornog
raphy Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
Activity mostly engaged 1 .312 14 .001 .642 14 .000
on the internet 1.2 .318 7 .031 .847 7 .116
1.3 .367 6 .011 .745 6 .018
1.4 .146 5 .200* .992 5 .985
1.5 .310 6 .073 .752 6 .021
1.6 .260 2 .
1.7 .269
3 . .949 3 .567

1.8 .291 5 .192 .886 5 .335


1.9 .244 5 .200* .943 5 .687
2 .260 2 .
2.1 .396 4 . .694 4 .010
2.3 .260 2 .
2.4 .348 4 . .838 4 .189
2.5 .314 3 . .893 3 .363

2.6 .385 3 . .750 3 .000


2.7 .202 6 .200* .905 6 .403
2.8 .219 3 . .987 3 .780
3 .213 3 . .990 3 .806
3.1 .366 5 .027 .733 5 .021
3.3 .231 4 . .924 4 .562
3.5 .385 3 . .750 3 .000
3.6 .219 3 . .987 3 .780
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
b. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Level of exposure to pornography =
1.10.
c. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Level of exposure to pornography =
2.20.
d. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Level of exposure to pornography =
Tests of Normalityb,c,d,e,f,g
Level Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk
of Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
exposu
Activity mostly engaged 1 .312 14 .001 .642 14 .000
on the internet 1.2 .318 7 .031 .847 7 .116
1.3 .367 6 .011 .745 6 .018
1.4 .146 5 .200* .992 5 .985
1.5 .310 6 .073 .752 6 .021
1.6 .260 2 .
1.7 .269
3 . .949 3 .567

1.8 .291 5 .192 .886 5 .335


1.9 .244 5 .200* .943 5 .687
2 .260 2 .
2.1 .396 4 . .694 4 .010
2.3 .260 2 .
2.4 .348 4 . .838 4 .189
2.5 .314 3 . .893 3 .363

2.6 .385 3 . .750 3 .000


2.7 .202 6 .200* .905 6 .403
2.8 .219 3 . .987 3 .780
3 .213 3 . .990 3 .806
3.1 .366 5 .027 .733 5 .021
3.3 .231 4 . .924 4 .562
3.5 .385 3 . .750 3 .000
3.6 .219 3 . .987 3 .780
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
b. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Level of exposure to pornography =
1.10.
c. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Level of exposure to pornography =
2.20.
d. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Level of exposure to pornography =
2.90.
e. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Level of exposure to pornography =
3.20.
g. Activity mostly engaged on the internet is constant when Level of exposure to pornography =
Explanation of table 1.8
In the table 1.8 the relationship between the main variable Activity mostly engaged on
the internet and the level of exposure to pornography is defined and in this table the
significance level of our data in Kolmogorov-Smirnova test shows that our some data is
significant which less than 0.05 and some of the data is is insignificant which is greater
than 0.05. In the end there is a same table of between Activity Mostly engaged of the
Internet and level of exposure to pornography is become constant with different means
value.

Regression

Variables Entered/Removed
Variables Variables
Model Entered Removed Method
1 Location of
internet
access, Level . Enter
of exposure to
pornography
a. All requested variables entered.
b. Dependent Variable: Activity mostly
engaged on the internet
Table 1.9
Explanation of table 1.9
In this table we run the regression analysis of our data. The main variable is Activity
Mostly Engaged on the Internet. The relationship between our main variable with 2
Independent variable (Location of Internet Access and Level of Exposure to
pornography).

Model Summary
Adjusted R Std. Error of
Model R R Square Square the Estimate
1 .805a .648 .641 .51208
a. Predictors: (Constant), Location of internet access,
Level of exposure to pornography
Table 1.10

Explanation of Table 1.10


In this table the regression analysis is run the result which we interpret are as follows.
Model 1 R .805 (which means that how much change in independent variable will affect
our dependent variable. So we say that 80% change is caused when we change our
independent variable. R Square shows that the combination of variation between
dependent and independent variable. Adjusted R shows that if the same test runs on
population rather than our sample then how much variation will be occurred. If we see
the Square table there is a very little variation between R Square and Adjusted R Square
which is very reliable and our result show same result on population.

ANOVA

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 48.794 2 24.397 93.040 .000a

Residual 26.484 101 .262

Total 75.278 103

a. Predictors: (Constant), Location of internet access, Level of exposure to pornography


b. Dependent Variable: Activity mostly engaged on the internet

Table 1.11
Explanation of Table 1.11
In the table 1.11 we run ANOVA test in which we have to only see the F column which
should be greater than 1 and our results are 93.040 which means that our model is fit. Our
questionnaires are very valid and show true results.
Coefficients

Standardized
Un standardized Coefficients Coefficients

Model B Std. Error Beta t Sig.

1 (Constant) .403 .141 2.864 .005

Level of exposure to
.641 .078 .648 8.224 .000
pornography

Location of internet access .224 .083 .213 2.710 .008

a. Dependent Variable: Activity mostly engaged on the internet

Table 1.12
Explanation of Table 1.12
The coefficient table shows that our significance level which is constant .005. Now our 2
independent variable results shows that our one variable Level of Exposure to
pornography is not true but our second variable hold true with result greater than .005
>.008.
Correlations

Correlations
Activity
mostly Level of
engaged on exposure to Location of
the internet pornography internet access
Activity mostly Pearson
1 .789** .642**
engaged on the internet Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed) .000 .000
N 104 104 104
Level of exposure to Pearson
.789** 1 .662**
pornography Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed) .000 .000
N 104 104 104
Location of internet Pearson
.642** .662** 1
access Correlation
Sig. (1-tailed) .000 .000
N 104 104 104
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).
Table 1.13
Explanation of Table 1.13
In this table we see the relationship between our independent and dependent variables.
The test run is Pearson Correlation because our data is normal and result are very
insignificant because there is ** with our data values which means that we in the End get
our result as our expectation.
Results and Discussion
The measures performance from Table 1.2 shows that the age group 16-17 (62) reveals an
alarming trend on the level of exposure of children in the research area to Internet pornography.
This simply means that as children advance in age to become teenagers, if proper control
measures are not adopted, they will also become addicted to and affected negatively by internet
pornography.
In table 1.3, which shows that male (100) are more interesting in viewing internet pornography
than female (4).
Table 1.4 showed that high class is more involved in internet pornography, which is 82.
As we can see from scale of reliability in table 1.5 showed that our Cronbach's Alpha is 0 .925
which is greater than 0.5. This means that our result is reliable.
In our table 1.7 showed that relation between Activity mostly engaged on the internet and Location
a
of internet access in Kolmogorov-Smirnov 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 have significance 0.200 which
means that this is a lower bound of the true significance. Our Kolmogorov-Smirnova test shows
our significance test which is less than 0.05 which means that our data is non-significant
and the data is normal. Our main dependent variable is Activity Mostly Engaged of the
Internet so if we see the table end we see that there is a different point of access of
internet in which user can be able to involve in internet pornography.
From the table 1.9 degree of regression showed that all requested variables is entered in which
Dependent Variable is Activity mostly engaged on the internet.
In table 1.10 our Model Summary shows that R is .805a inwhich R Square (.648) and Adjusted R
Square is (.641).
Our ANOVA table 1.11 showed that F column which should be greater than 1 and our
results are 93.040 which means that our model is fit. Our questionnaires are very valid
and show true results.
The coefficient table shows that our significance level which is constant .005. Now our 2
independent variable results shows that our one variable Level of Exposure to
pornography is not true but our second variable hold true with result greater than .005
>.008.
Table 1.4 showed a high degree of correlation ( .789) between Activity mostly engaged on the internet
and level of exposure to Internet pornography. This implies that children and teens mostly
consume their time on viewing Internet pornography.
In the same vein, there is a relatively high correlation between Location of internet access (.662) and
the Level of exposure to pornography. This trend substantiate the fact that teenagers and children
with easy access to the internet, especially, using Cybercafs and internet facilities at school are
likely to become more exposed to internet pornography.

Summary of Findings
Monitoring software and parental control software are not in use in the research area. Other
parental control software such as Cyber Patrol, Net Nanny and Specter can also be installed to
block pornographic sites and monitor Internet activities without the knowledge of the children
(Jeri & Beth, 2006). Some software titles are also provided at
http://web.chapel1.com/products/parental_control.htm. Using content channeling technologies,
we can set computers meant for childrens usage solely to be able to display only contents healthy
for that age groups consumption. The challenge against monitoring is that childrens right to
privacy may be violated thereby breaking the healthy bond of trust that exists in the child-parent
relationship.
Conclusion
How safe is the unsupervised access to pornographic material by children and teenagers in
Pakistan? Protecting children begins at home; parents are responsible for controlling and
watching their children when they have easy access of Internet. Parents are not only responsible
for this but cyber cafs, teachers, and other mediums are also responsible.
Existing literature opined that harm could come after repeated exposures, when a child may be
drawn to seek it out, and can quickly become addicted after that (Cheryl, 2007).
It is very critical to find out that hot to protect our generation especially teenagers from viewing
pornography material on internet. One good way to buy Internet filtering software to block
pornographic sites. Not 100% effective, the software will cut down the usage of pornographic
material.
Developing strategies against Internet pornography and its impact on children and teenagers
is a process that will require synergy among policy makers and technocrats.

Recommendations
In Pakistan, Cyber Cafs should be educated and motivated to take advantage of technologies so
that pornographic contents can be blocked. While children/teenagers usage can be enabled to
access contents that are purely healthy for children/teenagers age group. The responsibility of
monitoring Internet contents being consumed by children and teenagers at home rests with
parents and guardians.
In schools, students can be allocated user and password IDs. These passwords and IDs can then
be configured and usable only on systems that have been conditioned using filters and content
selection technology for web contents that are
Longe et al. 2007 JITI 2008
In the words of Dick and Herbert (2003), effective and vigorous law enforcement can help
deter Internet pornography and diminish the supply of inappropriate sexually explicit material
available to children. If government regulations are imposed on negative contents available on
internet can make it easy to avoid children and teenagers to use internet wrongly. Finally to
educate children properly about how harmful pornographic sites are will help children think
critically about all kinds of media messages, including those associated with hate, racism, and
violence. It will also help them conduct effective Internet searches for information and to make
ethical and responsible choices about Internet behavior--and about non-Internet behavior as well.
References
(Buzzel, 2005; Quin & Forsyth, 2004).Unique in form

(Corporation for Public Broadcasting, 2002). Spent more time online than watching
television usage of internet in homes are more than at schools or colleges (Wartella et al.,
2002).

(Census and Statistics Department, 2002). Younger and better educated uses the internet
very much.

(Chen, 2000).Internet pornographic sites available on the internet.

Donnerstein and Smith (2001).Taiwanese high school and colleges, it shows that 88%
had navigated the Internet and 44% had surfed pornographic Web sites (Lo & Wei,
2002).

(Dutch Newspaper in 2007).Teenagers helping the internet sex hawkers to develop


unsuitable sites.

(Internet Advisory Board, 2001; Parent Link, 2004). D, 2001; Parent Link, 2004).
children and teenagers are most popular internet users.

(Internet Advisory Boar Donnerstein, Slaby, & Eron, 1994; Fleming & Rickwood, 2001;
Funk & Buchman, 1996; Strasburger & Donnerstein, 1999; Wartella, O'Keefe,
&Scantlin,2000).

(KidsHealth, 2004). Easy access of the Internet makes it easier for internet sex hawkers to
approach children through online chatting Silent Sufferings Kathmandu Valley together
with save the children Norway(2003) and No more suffering Child sexual abuse in
Nepal: Childrens perspectives, managed in four districts with UNICEF (2005),

Media Awareness Network, 2003; National School Boards Foundation, 2003).

(National Center for Education Statistics, 2002). Public schools had access to the Internet
in the United States

(Okrent, 1999).CNN poll of teenagers found 82% had used the Internet; among them,
44% had seen X-rated content

(Roberts, Foehr, Rideout, & Brodie, 1999).Children ages 2 to 7 watch television


unsupervised.

(Wartella et al., 2002).consumption of internet becomes more popular in homes.

(
Exposure of Children and Teenagers to Internet Pornography in
Pakistan

By:
Javaid Ahmad
Raheel Naseem
And
Awis Masih
MBA-2-B

E-mail: jauherjee@yahoo.com

Submitted to: Miss Najam Us Sahar

Faculty of Business Management


Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science, and Technology Islamabad