Topics Covered in this Section

:

Geometric Design of Highways
1. Sight Distances (Stopping Sight Distance,
Decision Sight Distance, Passing Sight
Distance)
2. Horizontal Curve Elements
3. Vertical Curve Element

Sight Distances

(1)

Topics Covered in this Lecture:

Sight Distances
1. Stopping Sight Distance
2. Passing Sight Distance
3. Decision Sight Distance

Sight Distances

(2)

Roadway Characteristics Affecting the Drivers Sight Distances (3) .

after an object is observed in the vehicle’s path.Sight Distance Sight distance: The length of the roadway a driver can see ahead at any particular time. adequate time is given. to make the necessary evasive maneuvers without colliding with the object. Sight distance is the most important road characteristic affecting highway geometric design Sight Distances (4) . The sight distance has to be long enough such that when a driver is traveling at the highway’s design speed.

Sight Distances (5) .

Sight Distances (6) .

Sight Distances (7) .

Sight Distances (8) .

2 ft/s2 and converting v (f/s) into V (miles/h): SSD= 1.278 V t + 2 V 254 ( f G) For g = 32.1. SSD= PRT distance + Braking Distance =v t + v 2 2g ( f G) For g = 9.47 V t + V 30 ( f 2 G) Sight Distances (9) . Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) Stopping Sight distance: The minimum sight distance required for a belowaverage driver to stop before hitting an unexpected object on the road ahead .81 m/s2 and converting v (m/s) into V (km/h): SSD= 0.

Stopping Distance in Feet Varying Grade 600 500 2 percent grade 400 0 percent grade 300 -2 percent grade 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 Miles per Hour Sight Distances (10 ) .

Stopping Distance in Feet Varying Friction 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Friction = 0.1 0 20 40 60 80 Miles per Hour Sight Distances (11 ) .5 Friction = 0.25 Friction = 0.

5 second reaction time 0.5 second reaction time 1.Varying Reaction Time Stopping Distance 800 2.6 second reaction time 600 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Miles per Hour Sight Distances (12 ) .

Sight Distances (13 ) .

Sight Distances (14 ) .

8 m Sight Distances (15 ) .278 V t + 110 V 254 ( f 2.4 = 270.5s + 2 G) 110 2 254 (0.4 + 194. SSD= 0.035) = 76.5% grade for a design speed of 110 km/h and coefficient of longitudinal friction = 0.Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) Example 1 Determine the minimum stopping sight distance on a –3.278 = 0.28 0.28.

t = 0. at t0 the driver realizes a vehicle is stopped in the road ahead and the driver brakes.8 sec. assume vf = 0. Should the police officer at the scene cite the driver for traveling over the 55 mph posted speed limit? Sight Distances (16 ) . The stopped vehicle is just struck. Assume f=0.A vehicle is traveling at uniform velocity. grade = + 1%. The braking vehicle leaves skid marks that are 405 feet long.35.

2. two-way highway to pullout. It will also allow the driver to successfully abort the passing maneuver if desired. Only single passes are considered. and return to the driving lane. pass. Sight Distances (17 ) . The PSD also permits a driver to complete a passing maneuver without colliding with an opposing vehicle and without cutting off the passed vehicle. Passing Sight Distance (PSD) Passing Sight distance: The distance required by an overtaking vehicle on a two-lane. Usually the case where a passenger car passes a passenger car is assumed.

Passing Sight Distance (PSD) PSD= d1 + d2 + d3 + d4 Distance traveled = during PRT & + initial acceleration The passing vehicle is in the left lane + Safety clearance Sight Distances The opposing + vehicle traveled during 2/3 of d2 (18 ) .2.

Sight Distances (19 ) .

Sight Distances (20 ) .

Sight Distances (21 ) .

the target passing speed is 40 mph) A suitable clearance exists between the passer and the opposing vehicle when the pass is completed. On arrival at a passing section. if traveling at 30 mph.2. Passing Sight Distance (PSD) Assumptions for Calculating PSD The impeder is traveling at a uniform speed. If the decision is made. the passer accelerates and the average passing speed is about 10 mph (17km/h) more than that of the impeder (e. Sight Distances (22 ) . The passer is traveling at the same speed as the impeder until he decides to pass.g. some time elapses to decide to pass.

65 km/h/sec d2= Distance traveled while passing vehicle is in the left lane = 0. and then accelerates to V •Time elapsed = t1 (time of initial maneuver) –t1 = 3. Passing Sight Distance (PSD) Calculating PSD d1= Distance traveled during PRT & initial acceleration d1 = 0.5 sec –a = average acceleration = 2.278 t1 (V m) a t1 2 •Impeder’s Speed = V m (m 17 km/h) •Passer’s speed = V m (initially) .2.5 .278 V t2 d3= Safety Clearance between passing and opposing vehicles at the end of the pass = 30 – 90 m d4= Distance traveled by opposing vehicle = 2/3 of d2 Sight Distances (23 ) .4.5 – 2.

5 km/h/sec •. Can the driver overtake the car in front of him? .Average acceleration = 2.Passing Sight Distance (PSD) Example A driver traveling on a two-lane highway behind another car traveling at 60 km/h observes on the opposing direction a vehicle at a distance about 300 m.Initial manoeuvring time = 4 sec •.Speed limit = 80 km/h •.Clearance distance = 50 m •.Overtaking time = 10 sec Sight Distances (24 ) .

3. select an appropriate speed and path. The distance depends on the type of maneuver taken. and initiate and complete the required safety maneuvers safely and efficiently. Decision Sight Distance (DSD) Decision Sight distance: Distance required for a driver to detect an unexpected or otherwise difficult-to-perceive information source or hazard in a roadway environment that may be visually cluttered. Sight Distances (25 ) . DSD is longer than SSD because of the reasons discussed above. recognize the hazard of its threat potential.