REVIEW.

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The temperature of spontaneous ignition of oib
is one of the fundamental physical pro ertlm

governing their application for power d u c t i o n

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internal combustion engines, nnd
Moore's
LIQUID FUELBFOR INTERNALCOMBUSTION in
work in this connection is well known through his
ENGINES.Bg HAROLD
MOORE,
M.&. Tech. recent
1917, 100).
contributionfto
the
Journal
Pp. xv. + 200. (Limdon: C w b y I ; o c l n o o o d The methods of Hotm, Constam a n i Schlii fer,
and Son.) Price: l2e.W. net.
The development of the internal combustion
engine working on liquid fuels has been a marked
feature of engineenng progress during recent
vears, but, as the author points out in his preface,
the scientiflc study of fuels for these engines is
still incomplete. Other factors than those
associated with the use of liquid fuel for steam
raisin and heating purposes naturally have to be
consifered. Owing to his connection with one
of the la est flrms of internal combustion engine
makers,
Moore has had exce tional opportunity for the examination of liquidl fuels and the
observance of their behaviour in practice.
The work is divided into thlwt pacts. Part I.
deals more or leas generally with the materials
which furnish and constitute fuels for internal
combustion engines-petroleum, shale oils, tars,
snd vegetable oils, and alcohol. Part II.,
compnsin three chapters, deals with fuels for
e y e s fifted with carburetters, with va oneem,
an with atomism, the latter including !he true
nes and the so-called semi-Diesel
"
3
1
hot bulb or similar ignition arran ement. Pnrt III., which, with a useful appenfix
of various d a b , corn rises nearly one half the
book, is concerned witK the examination of liquid
fuels, and will prove of considerable assistance to
chemista engaged in this work.
Petroleum products very considerably in their
suitability for use in Dim1 engines, largelv
accordin to whether they am constituted on 'R
p a r a n i n % w (Pennsylvanian and Ohio oils), or
an asphaltic .base (Californian and Mexican oils.
As haltum oils are more vkcous and 80 retain ash
an8 water in suspension : their higher viscosity
also is against emcient atomisation, thus causin
slower burning, with formation of coke a n t
smoky exhaust :the lower proportion of h drogen
eleo tends to ive rise ta Rmoke. AsphJtic oils
are generally figher in sulphur content, but the
author coneiders that the corrosive action of
sulphur hae been greatly exaggerated, arts maintaiied above condensation temperarure being
seldom affected.
Particular inh.rest naturally centres around
fuels which can substituta etrolcum derivative^,
the tars and tar oils. Raw
present difflculties
in me, the pnnci a1 one arming from free carbon,
psrticles of whic! are not completely consumed
during the workin stroke: Vertical retort tars
which are low in w & o n have been successfully used.
The taroils (obtained from the creowta and anthror
cene fractions) arc generally suitable for Diesel
engines, the main difliculty in their uae being their
high tamperatun! of ignition. The author enumerotes tho main inethode of ovorcoming this dilnculty
as :-Heating the oil, the in'ection air and suction
air ; mixing with a pro odion of petroleum oil :
using a separate jet o? petroleum ignition oil ;
and injection of R small tar oil charge prior to the
main cha e. An important point noted by the
author in %at on addin many kinds of petroleum
midiium to tar oil o sficky mass is recipitated,
which completely oscludes such mi!tures
from

%.

and the author are referred toatlength. A h . &On3
coneidera that it would be advisable to adopt
ition temperatures in oxy en as atandard aa
are more reUable and tffe determinatimn is
cleaner and more convenient. I n view of the
wide deviation in the ignition pointa in air and
oxygen shown in his own determinations. thin
yestionablc, for exam lo, whilst tur entine hpe
t e same ignition poinfin each gas, th? ignition
temperature in air was higher than that m ox
by the following averages :-Shale
oil,
petrole, 120' : lubricating oils, 137" ; crude and
residue petroleums, 148"; low temperature tar,

5s:

200" G .

An interesting r i n t was noticed by the author
in connextion wit the viscosity of oils end their
thermal efilciency, the latter being dependent
on the former, due to the more perfect atomisation
of the more fluid oils. IIe concludes that in
Diesel engines the thermal efilciency is constant
for fuela of various calorific power provided that
their viscosity does'not p r y widely.
In practice the net calorinc value of o h is
frequently required, and thie necessltatee the
troublesome and len hy determination of their
hydrogen mntent.
bloom notee the useful
meletionship that for heavy coal tar products and
paraffinoilsthe difference between the net and g r i m
caloritlc vsluea can be obtained with a sufficient
degree of accuracy from curves plotted against
8 ectflc
*
y y i t y . Curves are given for the two
c asses o oil, and for ten points on the coal tu
pmduct curve the results am reinarkably concordant.
Whilfit erhaps the arrangement of the first two
pmta of e!t book might have been improved, and
in one or two chaptom rofltably extended, i t will
be seen that the author fias roduced a very ractical book and one which wi8 prove of consicferable
service engineers and chemista.
J. 8. S . BRAME.'

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EDlTORlAL NOTICES.

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The Society as a body ia not responsible for
statements and opiniom appearing in the Review.
Hon. Secretaries of Sections are earnestly requested to forward announcements of forthcoming
meetings, and report8 of past meetings, at the
earlieat possible opportunity.
The Editor would be ploneed to consider
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a reply is wanted, a s t a m p e E a i
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Editor would also be l a d to accept mlevmt
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kind will be paid for, but in the event of du l h tion only the earliest received and publishJ will
UBO.
In connextion with alcohol BR a fuel, nrr. Moore be recognised.
states that with the use of an Ignition oil, alcohol has
To secure rompt attention. all communications
ven higher thermal emciencies in a Diesel en
concerning t i e contenta of the Revicw, and the
&an any other fuel teeted, but he concludea
CaleDJsr of Forthoomi
Events, .should be sent
ie little poesibllity of ita being applied in this way, diroct to : The Review Ydilpr, Soclet of C h b d
flrstly, b e c a p of expenm, and secondly, because Indwtw, Cenlral H o w , F m b u g $ w e , B,C.2.
i t cpn be eucceesfully employed in vapour enginefi [Telephone: Zondon Wall, No. 7 1. TelsqtclPlc(0
of muoh lower flrst coat.
Addre##: Induchem, Finquare, London.)

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