1.

Atwood machine: Consider two masses m1 and m2
tied by an inextensible string of length l across a
pulley of radius r. Constraint equations can be given
by:
i. x1 – xi1 = 0 (no movement of m1 in x)
ii. x2 – xi2 = 0 (no movement of m2 in x)
iii. z1 – zi1 = 0 (no movement of m1 in z)
iv. z2 – zi2 = 0 (no movement of m2 in z)
v. y1 + y2 + πr = l (length of string is constant)
holonomic and scleronomic
2. Simple pendulum: Consider a single simple
pendulum with string length l. Constraint equations
can be given by:
i. z – z0 = 0 (movement only in x-y plane)
ii. dl = 0 (length of string is constant)
holonomic and scleronomic
3. Double pendulum: Consider one bob with string
length l1 and another bob connected to it by a string
of length l2. Constraint equations can be given by:
i. z1 – z0 = 0 (movement of first bob in x-y plane)
ii. z2 – z0 = 0 (movement of second bob in x-y
plane)
iii. dl1 = 0 (String length of first bob constant)

iv. z – h0 = 0 (Height is constant) ii. u + v = 0 (No dissipation) ii. Assuming the ball is given no acceleration initially. y – y0 = 0 (no movement in y-direction) holonomic and scleronomic 5.y0. Constraint equations can be given by: i. dl2 = 0 (String length of second bob constant) holonomic and scleronomic 4. 0<=y<=h (height is constant) Non-holonomic and scleronomic . Ball bouncing on floor without dissipation: Suppose the velocity of ball before collision is u and after collision is v. the constraint equations are given by: i. Say the object is placed at the point (x0.h0). Object placed at h0: Let height be along z-axis. x – x0 = 0 (no movement in x-direction) iii.

y < R(1-cosθ)} (The mass stays on the surface till angle θ) nonholonomic and scleronomic 7. The constraint equations are given by: i. The constraint equations are given by: i. Cylinder rolling without slipping: Consider a cylinder of radius r rolling without slipping at ω. v = rω (There is no relative velocity of the point in contact with the surface) holonomic and scleronomic 8.6. x2 + y2 = R2 {x < Rsinθ. Object sliding on a curved surface: Consider the mass of the object to be m. Bead on a rotating hoop: . and the plane be x-y.

x2 + y2 = (Rsinθ)2 (The bead follows a circular path) ii.Consider the velocity of the bead to be v. dV/dt = const 4 d ( π r3 ) 3 dt = const r2dr/dt = const z2dz/dt = const . x2 + y2 + z2 = r2 (The mass stays on the balloon) ii. The constraint equations are given by: i. v = (Rsinθ)ω0 (Bead revolves with a uniform velocity) 9. Particle of mass m kept on a spherical balloon of radius r whose volume is increasing at a constant rate: The constraint equations are given by: i.

r´ ) m d d m d . y = r(1+sinωt) 12. Bead sliding on a wire: Consider the uniform velocity of the wire to be v´ and that of bead to be v´ . and always moves along the line joining the dog and the man: Consider the velocity of the man to be v´ and that of dog to be v´ . The constraint equations can be given by: v´ i. = k v´ (The direction of motion of the bead is always along the direction of motion of the wire) w b b w 11. The constraint equations can be given by: v´ i. y>0. A dog starts from x>0. x = vt + rcosωt ii. Man starts from origin and moves along y-axis with uniform velocity.10. = k ( r´ . Then the constraint equations can be given by: i. Mass m attached inside a hoop of radius r which is rolling without slipping with ω: Consider the linear velocity of the mass to be v.