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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF UKRAINE

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
[
CHAPTER .
I. Semantics, structure
and functions
of modal
verbs and
ways
.
of their rendering .
into Ukrainian . . . . . . . . . . .
.... 5
1.1.
Peculiarities
of modal verbs .
. . . . . . .
..... 5
.]
2

.......
1.1.1. Ways of expressing modality in 7
English and
Ukrainian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2. The semantics, structure and functions of
modal verbs in English and 12
Ukrainian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1. The semantics, structure and 15
functions of must in English and Ukrainian . . .
.............. 17
1.2.2. The semantics, structure and
functions of should in English and 20
Ukrainian . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.3. The semantics, structure and 20
functions of ought to in English and
Ukrainian . . . . . . . . . . 22
CHAPTER II. Practical peculiarities of usage of modal verbs and ways
of their rendering into Ukrainian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.1. Modal verb must and its rendering into 27
Ukrainian in practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
.......... 30
2.2. Modal verb should and its rendering into 32
Ukrainian in practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........
2.3. Modal verb ought to and its rendering into
Ukrainian in practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIST OF DATA SOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SUMMRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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INTRODUCTION

The debatable question in English was always a problem of Modality. There


exists even a point of view claiming that any utterance represented by a sentence is
modal. In the process of speech communication the participants of the speech acts
usually try to find out whether the information transmitted has been decoded and
whether it has been decoded in a right way. But there is also one question about
rendering modal verbs into Ukrainian.
The theme of this bachelor paper is Semantics, structure and functions of
modal verbs (must, should and ought to) and its rendering into Ukrainian because
of problem of modality and transferring modal verbs from English into Ukrainian.
The novelty of this investigation is determined by a complex and thorough
analysis of the main aspects of the modal verbs must, should, ought to
implementation into Ukrainian.
Practical and theoretical value of this bachelor paper is based on the
ability in practical courses of grammar.
The presumption of this bachelor paper is the meaning of modality in
English and Ukrainian languages. Modality is a logical category which is
represented by different modes.
As for example, E. A. Morokhovska maintains that there are certain
regularities in the specialization of mood-auxiliaries and different modal-
auxiliaries on rendering definite aspects of logical modality. To find out these
regularities linguists resort to scaling modalities:
First scale: volition and intention
Second scale: necessity and obligation
Third scale: certainty and probability
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Modal-auxiliaries are modal operators whose functional design is to form up


the predicate of the sentence in its relatedness to the logical modalities. The
semantics and the function of the modals has become of great concern with the
development of the pragmatics and the speech-act theory. English modal
auxiliaries can be functionally oriented on rendering modal meanings of pragmatic
and epistemic types within the definite modal scales, mainly those of necessity
obligation (must, should, need, ought to, etc.) and possibility probability (can,
may, must, would, etc.).
And I. V. Korunets adds that the lexical units belonging to this part of
speech are characterized in both languages by their meaning of modality. They
are used to express the speakers judgement concerning the action/event or object
in the utterance/sentence. The words/phrases in English and Ukrainian are as
follows: certainly, indeed, maybe, perhaps, possibly, of course, no doubt ,
, , , , , and others.
This kind of modality is realized in both languages via modal verbs/their
lexical equivalents plus the infinitive of the notional verb. These constructions
perform the function of the compound modal verbal predicate and express different
meanings predetermined by the modal verb in the main, which can be observed in
many citations and their Ukrainian translations on the forthcoming pages.
The aim of this study is a thorough analysis of the semantics, structure and
functions of modal verbs and its rendering into Ukrainian (must, should, ought to).
This subject was examined by researchers such as M. A. Blokh, E. V.
Gordon, I. B. Morozova, N. M. Rayevska, I. V. Korunets and others. For example,
E. Morokhovska and L. G. Verba studied the main peculiarities of modal verbs, E.
M. Gordon and I. B. Morozova denoted the semantics, N. M. Rayevska appointed
the main functions of modal verbs, I. V. Korunets studied ways and means of
expressing modality in English and Ukrainian.
In the practical part of bachelor paper the reasons for the theoretical
statements are given. The work is based on such sources as O. Wilde, G. B. Shaw,
J. K. Rowling.
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CHAPTER I
SEMANTICS, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF MODAL VERBS
AND WAYS OF THEIR RENDERING INTO UKRAINIAN

1.1. The peculiarities of modal verbs


E. G. Khomenko supposes that modal verbs are used to show the speakers
attitude toward the action or the state indicated by the infinitive.
Modal verbs denote neither actions nor states; they show that the action or
state denoted by the infinitive is considered as possible, obligatory, necessity,
desirable, probable, doubtful, allowed, etc [12, 251].
According to L. G. Verba modal verbs have certain peculiarities:
1. Modal verbs have no infinitive, no gerund and no participles;
accordingly they have no future tense, no continuous and perfect tenses.
2. Modal verbs (except ought) are followed by the infinitive without
particle to. After to be and to have used as modal verbs the infinitive has the
particle to.
3. Modal verbs have no ending (e) s in the third person singular of the
present tense.
4. The interrogative and negative form of the present and past tense of
modal verbs is formed without the auxiliary verb to do. In the interrogative form
modal verbs are placed before the subject. In the negative form the particle not is
used after the modal verb [1, 69].
I. P. Verkhovska supposes that modal verbs are also called modal auxiliaries
or modals. Modal verbs are sometimes called defective verbs, because they dont
have all the functions of main verbs or other auxiliary verbs. They cant be used
without a main verb, cant form gerunds or participles, and dont have any endings
6

to show person, number or tense. Modal verbs form questions without the help of
other auxiliary verbs [3, 15].
According to E. A. Morokhovska there are certain regularities in the
specialization of mood auxiliaries and different modal-auxiliaries on rendering
definite aspects of logical modality. To find out these regularities linguists resort to
scaling modalities:
First scale Second scale Third scale

volition intention necessity obligation certainty probability [10, 111].


Modal auxiliaries are, in fact, modal operators whose functional design is to
signify modality and to form up the predicate of the sentence in its relatedness to
the logical modalities. The semantics and function of the modals has become of
great concern with the development of pragmatics and the speech-act theory. It is
clear that English modal auxiliaries can be functionally oriented on rending and
meaning of pragmatic and epistemic types within the definite modal scales, mainly
those of necessity obligation (must, should , need, ought to, need, etc) and
possibility probability (can, may, must, would, etc). There are two groups of
modal-auxiliaries differ in their functional orientation on signifying modalities of
different modal scales:
1. Modal verbs: necessity obligation
possibility probability
2. Verbs with modal meanings: volition intention
certainty persistence [10, 112-113].
The use of auxiliary verbs is characteristic of analytical languages while in
inflected synthetical languages the inflectional forms function as the predicate-
operators forming it up in its finiteness. Consequently, it is the peculiarities of the
grammatical structure of the language that predetermine, to a certain extent, the
status and the nature of grammatical devices of operational design [10, 115-116].
7

M. A. Blokh supposes that semi-notional and functional verbs serve as


markets of predication in the proper sense, since they show the connection between
the nominative content of the sentence and reality in a strictly specialized way.
These predicators include auxiliary verbs, modal verbs, semi-notional verbs and
link-verbs.
Auxiliary verbs constitute grammatical elements of the categorical forms of
the verb. These are the verbs be, have, do, shall, will, should, would, may, might.
[2, 83].

1.1.1. Ways of expressing modality in English and Ukrainian


It is observed that modals are expressions associated with notions of
possibility and necessity. Modals have a wide variety of interpretations which
depend not only upon the particular modal used, but also upon where the modal
occurs in a sentence, the meaning of the sentence independent of the modal, the
conversational context, and a variety of other factors. For example, the
interpretation of an English sentence containing the modal 'must' can be that of a
statement of inference or knowledge (roughly, epistemic) or a statement of how
something ought to be (roughly, deontic). [23].
It is considered that modality is a facet of illocutionary force, signaled by
grammatical devices (that is, moods), that expresses:
1. The illocutionary point or general intent of a speaker, or
2. A speakers degree of commitment to the expressed proposition's
believability, obligatoriness, desirability, or reality [28].
I. V. Korunets supposes that modality as an extralingual category expressing
the relation of context to reality has in English and Ukrainian common means of
realization. These include:
1. Phonological means (stress and intonation);
2. Lexico-grammatical means (modal verbs);
3. Lexical means (modal words and modal expressions) conveying
subjective modality;
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4. Grammatical means (mood forms of the verb)


Modal verbs are used with the infinitive as predicative market expressing
relational meanings of the subject attitude type, i.e. ability, obligation, permition,
advisability, etc. By way of extension of meaning, they also express relational
probability, serving as probability predicators. These two types of functional
semantics can be tasted by means of correlating pure modal verb collocations with
the corresponding two sets of stative collocations of equivalent functions: on the
one hand, the groups be obliged, be permited, etc.; on the other hand, the groups be
likely, be probable, etc [7, 308].
I. V. Korunets also suppose that the lexical units belonging to this part of
speech are characterised in both languages by their meaning of "modality". They
are used to express the speaker's judgement concerning the action/event or object
in the utterance/ sentence. These words/phrases in English and Ukrainian are as
follows: certainly, indeed, maybe, perhaps, possibly, probably, of course, no doubt
- , , , , , , and
others.
Modals are traditionally classified into follows:
1. Modal words/phrases expressing various shades of certainty:
certainly, of course, surely, no doubt, assuredly, indeed, undoubtedly, really
(, , , , , , ,
);
2. Modal words expressing various degrees of probability: maybe,
perhaps, possibly, probably (, , , , ,
);
3. Modal words expressing various shades of desirability
(fortunately, unfortunately), which have a restricted number of semantic
equivalents in Ukrainian ( , , );
4. Modal words expressing doubt, uncertainty and coinciding in form
with the modal words denoting probability (may be, perhaps, probably - ,
, ); [6, 257].
9

I. V. Korunets suggest that the subjective and objective attitude of the


speaker towards an event/action may often be expressed by several other
parenthetic words and phrases which may point:
1. To the authorship of the idea/assertion expressed in the
sentence;
2. To words and phrases expressing an estimation of the expressed
idea in the sentence;
3. To words pointing to the order of succession of ideas expressed
in the sentence.
Modals like statives, originate from different parts of speech or phrases
which acquire some modal meaning in the sentence. These parts of speech are:
adverbs (really, probably, fortunately , , ); nouns with or
without prepositions (only in Ukrainian): in one's view, in one's opinion, to one's
judgment , , , ; verbal phrases and
sentences (it seems, you see - , , , ); statives
(in Ukrainian): , , etc. [6, 258].

1.2. The semantics, structure and functions of modal verbs in English


and Ukrainian
According to E. M. Gordon most of modal verbs have more than one
meaning. Each of their meaning is characterized by a specific usage:
1. Some of the meanings may be found in all kinds of sentences;
others occur only in affirmative or interrogative or negative sentences;
2. Different meanings may be associated with different forms of the
infinitive simple and perfect continuous;
3. If the modal verbs have more than one form (can-could, may-
might, will-would), their different meanings are not necessary found in all those
forms [5, 82].
I. V. Korunets suppose that the expression of modal meanings by
phonological means has often an identical realization in both languages, though in
10

Ukrainian the lexical means such as modal adverbs are mostly preferred here.
These means may also express the most subtle meanings of suggestion,
admonition, supposition, doubt, assuredness, etc. Among the most frequently used
particles, which create such and other meanings, are , , ,, , , ,-,
-, , , etc., and also adverbs , , , , ,
, , , , and some others. The choice of the particle or modal
adverb is predetermined by the content, though sometimes it rests only with the translator,
who may employ stronger or weaker means to convey the modal meaning in the sentence.
Thus, the modal meaning in the proverb sentence below may have two expressions a
weaker and a stronger one (more emphatic) in Ukrainian:
E.g.
After us the deluge
or [7, 308].
Since the phonologically expressed modality is always conveyed by
translators as they themselves subjectively perceive the relation of content to
reality, there may naturally be various ways of its individual realization in the
target language. This can be seen from some possible interpretations of the modal
meaning in the sentence where modality is expressed via the emphatic and logical
stress laid on the predicate centre and on the pronoun you. Hence, there may be at
least five different ways of expressing the modal meaning of the sentence in
Ukrainian.
E.g.
I do really wish we werent on that party.
, .
, .
, .
When under the emphatic or local stress happens to be the English modal
word, the expression of modality may coincide in both languages [7, 309].
It is supposed that modal verbs are used with infinitives without to with the
exception of ought to.
11

Affirmative: subject + modal + infinitive


Negative: subject + modal(nt) + infinitive
Interrogative: (Wh)Modal + subject + infinitive?
Modal verbs do not add s or -es to the third person singular. They are
invariable verbs. They dont need auxiliaries to form short answers or negative and
interrogative sentences. They dont have infinitives or -ing forms [26].
N. M. Rayevska supposes that there are nine modal verbs in modern
English: must, can/could, may/might, shall/should, will/would, dare, need, ought,
let. A large variety of their use is one of the most striking aspects of the present
day English grammar [11, 121].
On different linguistic occasions a modal verb may perform three different
functions:
1. It may be used in its original sense;
2. It may do duty of a purely auxiliary in analytical verbal forms
correlated with the corresponding simple ones within the limits of the given
grammatical category (the Future Tense and Subjunctive Mood);
3. It may weaken its lexical meaning when used in modal phrases
expressing supposition, certainty or uncertainty as to the action expressed by the
notional verb [11, 119].
The analysis of modal verbs is made rather difficult by the other factors. The
point is that their past tense-forms do not often refer to past time at all. Such are
the verbs can and may, shall and will, for instance, which are not easily defined in
formal terms of grammar learning. Moreover, to indicate pastime does not seem to
be their mark function [11, 121].
Modal verbs may function as:
1. fully lexical verbs expressing ability, possibility, permission, power,
admonition, duty, obligation, need, will or readiness to do something associated
with the activity of the subject;
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2. Modal auxiliaries of weakened predication: will/would, can/could,


may/might, must and ought. In this case they weaken their original meaning and
come with regard to the action expressed by the notional verb [11, 121].
According to I. V. Korunets the meaning of certainty (assuredness) may
equally be expressed in Ukrainian by means of the modal adverb /
and the particles , .
The meaning of uncertainty or doubt expressed in English through prosodic
means finds its realization in Ukrainian with the help of particles and the
corresponding intonation and stress as well.
Ukrainian particles and adverbs may also be used to render modality which
is expressed in English by some other lingual means [7, 309].

1.2.1. The semantics, structure and functions of modal verb must in English
and Ukrainian
E. M. Gordon supposes that the modal verb must has only one form. It is
used in present-time contexts with reference to the present or future and in
combination with the perfect infinitive it refers to the past. In past-time contexts
this form is used only in reported speech, i.e. the rules of the sequence of tenses
arent observed with must [5, 83].
According to I. B. Morozova must has the following meanings:
1. Obligation (from the speakers point of view). In different contexts
must may acquire additional shades of meaning, such as duty and necessity. In this
meaning must is found in affirmative and interrogative sentences and followed
only by the simple infinitive.
2. Prohibition. This meaning is expressed in negative sentences and must
is also followed by simple infinitive.
3. Emphatic advice. This meaning is found in affirmative and negative
sentences and it is closely connected with two above mentioned meanings.
4. Supposition implying strong probability. Must in this meaning is
found only in affirmative sentences. In English this meaning may be expressed by
13

means of the modal words probably. In this meaning must may be followed by
different forms of the infinitive. If reference is made by the present, the continuous
infinitive is used with dynamic verbs [9, 22].
According to I. V. Korunets the modal verb must has also some peculiar
features of its own. Borrowed by Ukrainian from German through Polish, this verb
in English and Ukrainian expresses strong obligation, duty, necessity. In these
meanings must has for its direct lexical equivalents the strongest Ukrainian modal
verb of this same meaning [7, 319].
E.g.
You must visit him this morning.
.
Not without the long influence of the Russian language, which was for some
centuries a dominant political factor in Ukraine, the modal verb has been
more often substituted by urban Ukrainians for its almost as strong semantically
Ukrainian synonym or for the modal stative . To convey the
meaning of necessity, duty, or obligation, expressed by the modal verb must,
whose direct Ukrainian equivalent is still often avoided on the modal adverb
o [7, 319].
The translator may sometimes choose the Ukrainian lexical equivalent of
must under the influence of the traditionally established usage of modal meaning in
his native tongue. Thus, the meaning of necessity, obligation following from a
prescription or rule, may often be expressed in Ukrainian through strict logical
word order via some other finite verbs with the intensifying adverb [7, 320].
It is considered that must is a modal auxiliary verb. It is followed by the
main verb. The structure is:
Subject + must + main verb
The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without to) [19].
Table 1.1.
Subject Auxiliary must Main verb
I must go home
You must visit us
14

We must stop now

N. M. Rayevska considers that in its primary function must is used to


express duty or obligation in various degrees. In this meaning it may refer to the
future. The idea of the past times known to be expressed periphrastically by has to
or was to, and negation by neednt [11, 121].
In its secondary function must is never used to express supposition with
reference to an action in the future, it is not used in negative sentences either.
When used to denote supposition must may be followed by both Infinitive I or
Infinitive II. In patterns with the Infinitive I the given action and the supposition
expressed about it coincides the time. Must followed by the Infinitive II will
denote:
a) Supposition at present with regard to an action performed in the past;
b) Supposition in the past with the reference to a prior past action.
It is to be observed that must used to its secondary function with Infinitive
II often denotes such a strong certainty with regard to the action performed in the
past that seems to approach the corresponding verbal form of the Indicative Mood
as a stylistic synonym denoting a real action in the past with special emphasis laid
upon its realization. The context will always be explicit enough to make a
meaning clear [11, 121-122].
According to I. V. Korunets the Ukrainian modal verb , is
to be used, however, when conveying the meaning of the English syntagmeme
have got (to)with the infinitive having the function of compound modal predicate
[7, 332].
The modal verb must when used with the Perfect Infinitive usually expresses
actions supposed to have taken or not taken place but of which the speaker is
mostly informed. The meaning of thus expressed action is usually rendered into
Ukrainian with help or the modal adverbs or particles , ,
, , .
15

Some probable action expressed by the modal verb must with the negative
particle not and the Perfect Infinitive shows that the action might have been carried
out. Though after interpretations, i.e., expressions of the meaning are not excluded
either [7, 322].

1.2.2. The semantics, structure and functions of modal verb should in


English and Ukrainian
I. B. Morozova supposes that should can be used with the reference to the
present or to the future. Should is considered to be the most emotionally coloured
modal verb.
Should has the following meanings:
1. Obligation (advised or desirable, coming from the external authority);
Should + perfect infinitive denotes the unfulfilled obligation and is used to express
a reprimand from a higher standing person.
2. Emotional colouring (after why);
a) In rhetorical questions;
b) In object clauses;
c) In attributive clauses;
d) In every kind of sentence to express an extra emotion.
3. Other uses in subordinate clauses:
a) In object clauses: to express regret, surprise, sorrow;
b) In object and subject clauses after introductory it. [9, 23].
M. Ganshyna supposes that in should the primary meaning of compultion or
obligation is weakened to express advise, admonition, recommendation.
Sometimes it becomes emphatic.
Sometimes should weakens its meaning to a great extent, thus approaching
its auxiliary function in forming the suppositional mood. Such instances are
intermediate between the function of should as modal verb and its function as
mood-auxiliary [4, 204].
16

According to I. V. Korunets the modal verb should expresses moral


obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and some other meanings. Its
meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close to that at of the stative or modal
verb , , which can be seen from the following sentence:
E.g.
I think you should take a few days off.
[7, 328].
It is considered that the structure of should is the same as the structure of
must:
Subject + should + main verb
Table 1.2.
Subject Auxiliary verb Main verb
+ He should go.
- He should/shouldnt go.
? Should he go?

The main verb is the base verb (infinitive without to) [14, 55].
Notice that:
1. Should is invariable. There is only one form of should.
2. The main verb is always the bare infinitive.
There is no short form for should. The negative should not can be shortened
to shouldn't [13, 87].
According to E. M. Gordon should may have a peculiar function it may be
used for emotional coloring. In this function or may be called the emotional
should.
The use of emotional should is structurally dependent. It is found in the
following cases:
1. In a special emphatic constructions, where a simple predicate is not
used
a. In questions beginning with why;
b. In object clauses beginning with why;
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c. In attribute clauses beginning with why after the noun reason.


2. In certain types of subordinate clauses where should + infinitive is
interchangeable with a simple predicate in the Indicative Mood:
a. In object clauses after expressions of regret, surprise, sometimes
pleasure or displeasure.
b. In object clauses following the principal clause with a formal it as
subject [5, 103-104].

1.2.3. The semantics, structure and functions of modal verb ought to in


English and Ukrainian
I. M. Koshevaya supposes that ought to has the following meanings:
1. Obligation ( advised, desirable, of moral character )
It is usually understood as , .
2. Advise of the permanent character,
Usually associated with the adverbs: always, never, usually. Ought to
+ perfect infinitive means that the action was not fulfilled in the past.
3. Supposition implying strong probability
To express supposition in the past must + perfect infinitive is preferable.
To express supposition at present ought to + continuous infinitive is used [8,
76].
According to I. V. Korunets the modal verb ought to like the modal verb
should expresses moral obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and
some other meanings. Its meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close to that of the
stative or modal verb , [7, 329].
The meaning of ought to may equally be expressed through the modal verb
.
E.g.
You ought to see the baby.
.
18

The content of the sentence may often display a still stronger meaning of the
modal verb ought to, which corresponds to that of the modal verbs ,
, .
E.g.
You ought to be ashamed of yourself.
.
Have I said anything I oughtnt?
, ?[7, 330].
It is considered that the structure of ought to is the same as the structure of
should, must.
The structure of these modal verbs in Ukrainian is mostly the close to
English:
Subject + , , + main verb [14, 56].
E. M. Gordon also supposes that the modal verb ought to has only one form
which is used with reference to the present or future. In reported speech it remains
unchanged. Ought is always followed by the infinitive with to.
In its primary function it is used to express obligation, that may acquire
advisability and desirability. Generally ought to refers an action to the future and is
followed by the simple infinitive. With reference to the present ought to is used
with the continuous infinitive or with the simple infinitive if the verb is stative [5,
100].
It is considered that in combination with the perfect infinitive ought to in the
affirmative form shows that a desirable action was not fulfilled.
In the negative form ought to in combination with the perfect infinitive
shows that an undesirable action was fulfilled.
In its secondary function of ought to is used to express supposition
implying strong probability. The use of ought to in this case is not very common as
this meaning is normally rendered by must [14, 89].
19

In this chapter the author examined the meaning, structure and functions of
modal verbs and their rendering into Ukrainian theoretically. Refering to the
sources the author researched in details three modal verbs: must, should, ought to.
The modal verbs may express ability, possibility, permition, power, duty,
obligation, need.
During the research general characteristics, meanings, and functions of the
modal verbs must, should, ought to have been determined; the semantics, structure,
useful related expressions and ways of their rendering into Ukrainian have been
distinguished. The theoretical part is followed by the practical one, which shows
the functions of the modal verbs must, should, ought to on concrete examples and
shows their meanings in the context.
The majority of researchers who defined this problem, M. A. Blokh, I. M.
Koshevaya, I. B. Morozova, N. M. Rayevska and others, suppose that modal verbs
denote neither action nor states; they show that the action or state denoted by the
infinitive is considered as possible, obligatory, necessity, desirable, probable, etc.
The meaning of the modal verbs depends on its usage in the sentence. The modal
verb is always followed by the main verb. It may be used in its original sense, it
may do duty of a purely auxiliary, and it may be weakened in its lexical meaning.
This kind of modality is realized in both languages via modal verbs/their lexical
equivalents plus the infinitive of the notional verb. These constructions perform the
function of the compound modal verb. These constructions perform the function of
the compound modal verbal predicate and express different meanings.
All these theoretical statements are argued in the second chapter.
20

CHAPTER II
THE PRACTICAL PECULIARITIES OF USAGE OF MODAL VERBS
AND WAYS OF THEIR RENDERING INTO UKRAINIAN

2.1. Rendering of modal verb must into Ukrainian in practice


According to I. V. Korunets, this kind of modality is realized in both
languages via modal verbs/their lexical equivalents plus the infinitive of the
notional verb. The construction perform the function of the compound modal
verbal predicate and express different meanings predetermined by the modal verb
in the main, which can be observed in many citations and their Ukrainian
translations [7, 310].
The modal verb must has also some peculiar features of its own. In English
and Ukrainian it expresses duty, necessity. And in Ukrainian it renders as ,
the strongest Ukrainian modal verb.
E.g.
Oh, Freddy, there must be one [21].
, , [16].
Excuse me, Higgins; but I really must interfere [21].
, , [16].
Ukrainian modal verb has been superseded for strong semantically
synonym or modal stative . They are used to render the meaning of
duty, necessity, obligation.
E.g.
You mustn't speak to the gentleman like that [21].
21

[16].
You must look ahead a little [21].
[16].
It may naturally not always be clear from an isolated sentence, which of the
possible meanings the modal verb must expresses: that of the strongest ()
or those of the somewhat weaker ones (, ).
The translator may sometimes choose the Ukrainian lexical equivalent of
must under the influence of the traditionally established usage of a modal meaning
in his native tongue. Thus, the meaning of necessity, obligation following from a
prescription rule, may often be expressed in Ukrainian through strict logical word
order or via some other finite verbs with the intensifying adverb.
E.g.
He must not use magic he would be risking expulsion again [22, 25].
...
[15, 31].
I suppose we must give him a fiver [21].
, [16].
When expressing assumption or supposition the modal verb must may have
for its lexical equivalent in Ukrainian a contextually fitting modal adverb or a
modal practice.
E.g.
You must have [21].
, [16].
You must have frightened her [21].
, [16].
Therefore, the usual meaning of must in some Ukrainian contexts may be
weaker than in the English language where it clearly expresses certainty, duty or
obligation. Consequently, it can not be substituted in Ukrainian for either the
modal verb or for its weaker variant . Then, some other
22

equivalents have to be chosen for such nationality predetermined meanings of


must.
E.g.
Well, I must say [27].
[18].
You must be reasonable, Mr. Higgins: really you must [21].
, ,
[16].
But she must not hear it from your lips [21].
[16].
The Ukrainian modal verb or is to be used, however, when
conveying the meaning of the English syntagmeme have got (to)with the indefinite
infinitive having the function of the compound modal verb predicate:
E.g.
They've got some good ideas [21].
[16].
The modal verb must when with the perfect infinitive usually expressed to
have taken or not taken place but of which the speaker is mostly informed. The
meaning of thus expressed action is usually rendered into Ukrainian with the help
of the modal adverbs or particles , , , :
E.g.
She must have been sleeping [22, 63].
[15, 71].

2.2. Rendering of modal verb should into Ukrainian in practice


According to I. V. Korunets the modal verb should expresses moral
obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and some other meanings. Its
meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close to that at of the stative or modal
verb , [7, 329].
E.g.
23

I should look all right with my hat on [21].


- [17].
The content of the sentence may often display a still stronger meaning of the
modal verb should which corresponds to that of the modal verbs , ,
:
E.g.
She should think of the future [21].
[16].
But I love travelling, and my wife, consequently, should love travelling
also [21].
A , ,
[16].
The modal verb should is also rendered into Ukrainian as :
E.g.
Perhaps one should never put one's worship into words [19].
, [17].
You shouldnt call him tomorrow [19].
[17].
When should expresses desire or affirmation, assumption, its modal meaning is
rendered into Ukrainian through the modal adverbs and modal words , ,
:
E.g.
You, I should fancy [19].
, ! [17].
If the action of the subordinate clause precedes that of the principal clause,
the Perfect Infinitive is used after should:
E.g.
Well, really,- said the Water-rat, in a very angry manner, - I think you
should have told me that before you began [27].
24

, , ,
[18].
You should have called her yesterday, today is her day off [19].
,
[17].
The meaning of the modal verb should may sometimes be rendered into
Ukrainian through peculiar word forms (mood forms) of the verbal predicate as in
the sentence below:
E.g.
Why we ever kept you in the first place, I don't know, Marge was right,
it should have been the orphanage [22, 28].
, ,
[15, 34].
In this sentence translator omitted the direct translation of the modal verb
should. There is even Perfect Infinitive form that wasnt rendered into Ukrainian.
We should probably get out into the garden so we're ready [22, 43].
M [15, 50].
Modal verb should express the permission here. Its unusual for should as it
express usually obligation, presupposition, desirability.
You don't call the like of them my friends now, I should hope [19].
, [17].
In this sentence should is omitted too. Whether the meaning of the sentence
isnt changed.

2.3. Rendering of modal verb ought to into Ukrainian in practice


I. V. Korunets suggest that the modal verb ought to like the modal verb
should expresses moral obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and
some other meanings. Its meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close to that stative
or modal verb , [7, 310].
E.g.
25

Harry Potters appearance did not endear him to the neighbours, who
were the sort of people who thought scruffiness ought to be punishable by law, but
as he had hidden himself behind a large hydrangea bush this evening he was quite
invisible to passers-by [22, 18].
, ,
,
, [15, 23].
We ought to ask him something only the real Potter would know [22,
20].
,
[15, 26].
The content of the sentence may often display a still stronger meaning of the
modal verb ought to, which corresponds to that of the modal verbs ,
, :
E.g.
But he ought to have got us a cab by this [21].
i [16].
I am analysing women at present, so I ought to know [19].
, [17].
He ought to, Eliza [21].
, [16].
The modal verb ought to may acquire the assumptive duty or obligation,
necessity, assumption, which is expressed in Ukrainian through the particles / ,
and the corresponding infinitive of the verbal predicate or subordinate clause:
E.g.
I think you ought to know, Doolittle, that Mr. Higgins's intentions are
entirely honorable [21].
, , ,
[16].
You ought to be ashamed of yourself [21].
26

[16].
When ought to expresses desire or affirmation, assumption, its modal meaning
is rendered into Ukrainian through the modal adverbs and modal words ,
, :
E.g.
You ought to be very happy [21].
[16].
As the modal verb should the meaning of ought to may sometimes be
rendered into Ukrainian through peculiar word forms of the verbal predicate in the
sentence below:
E.g.
You ought to be ashamed of yourself, you ought [21].
, [16].
In this sentence we may see that the translator omitted the translation of
modal verb ought to. He rendered it into the meaning of the sentence as
.
E.g.
It ought to matter everything to you, Mr. Gray [22].
, [17].
In this sentence we can observe that translator rendered the right meaning of
the original text. But he missed the direct translation of the modal verb ought to.
However it can be seen that in spite of direct translation of the modal verb
the translator rendered the right meaning of the original text.

In this practical chapter, consuming data sources, the author gave reasons for
the theoretical material. According to the task the author made thorough analysis
of the semantics, structure and functions of modal verbs must, should and ought to
and compared their rendering into Ukrainian. Helping to researches of scientists
the given subject was successfully examined.
27

CONCLUSIONS
In this bachelor paper the author defined the meaning of the modal verbs,
their peculiarities, structure and functions, gave reasons for all the theoretical
statements. and the most important appointed their rendering into Ukrainian. The
majority of researches who defined this problem, M. A. Blokh, E. M. Gordon, I.
M. Koshevaya, E. A. Morokhovska, E. G. Khomenko and others, suppose that the
modal verbs may express ability, possibility, permission, power, duty, obligation,
need. I. V. Korunets suggests that modal verbs are used with the infinitive as
predicative market expressing relational meanings of the subject attitude type, i.e.
ability, obligation, permition, probability, advisability, etc. And it is rendered into
Ukrainian by such words as , , , , , ,
etc.
The first chapter reveals the theoretical content of the bachelor paper. In the
course of the leading investigation we may say that semantics of the modal verbs
depends on its usage in the sentence, each of their meaning is characterized by a
specific usage. The modal verbs are always followed by the main verb, they cant
form gerunds or participles. The modal verbs may be used in its original sense, it
may do duty of a purely auxiliary, it may weaken its lexical meaning when it is
used in modal phrases expressing supposition, certainty and uncertainty as to the
action expressed by the notional verb. The kind of modality is realized in both
languages via modal verbs/their lexical equivalents plus the infinitive of the
notional verb. These constructions perform the function of the compound modal
verbal predicate and express different meanings predetermined by the modal verb
in the main, which can be observed in many citations and their Ukrainian
translations.
28

In the second chapter the author gave reasons for theoretical statements,
consuming data sources.
According to the tasks the author made a thorough analysis of the
peculiarities, meaning, structure and functions of the modal verbs and their
rendering into Ukrainian. Helping to researches of I. V. Korunets, M. A. Blokh,
E. M. Gordon, M. Ganshyna, I. B. Morozova and others the given subject was
successfully examined.
The received results of this work show that modal verbs are still the question
of urgent importance. And this research can be used in future investigations,
because the problem of Modality and its transference into Ukrainian will always be
the debatable question.
29

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. . ., . . .
. : , 2000 352 .
2. . . . . . :
, 2000. 381 .
3. . . .
. . : , 1987. 191 .
4. ., .
. ., 1958. 472 c.
5. . ., . .
. . : , 1980. 355 .
6. . .
. . : , 2003 464 .
7. . . (
) : . : , 2001. 448 .
8. . . .
. : , 1982. 336 .
9. . . The Use of Modal Verbs =
: . . . . . : ,
2004. 100 .
10. . . :
; . . . : , 1993. 472 .
11. . .
. ., 1967. 143.
30

12. . ., = A grammar of
English language : . : , 2007. 606 .
13. Palmer F. R. Mood and modality. London : Cambridge University
Press, 1986
14. The sentence and its parts. A grammar of contemporary English.,
Ralph B. Long, Chicago, 1961
LIST OF DATA SOURCES
15. . . a:
------; , 2003. 816c.
16. . [ ] :
: http://ae-lib.org.ua/texts/shaw__pygmalion__ua.htm
17. . [ ] :
: http://www.ukrlib.com/DorianGrey.html
18. . [ ] :
: http://www.ukrlib.com/124.html
19. Dorian Gray. The Picture of Dorian Gray [ ] :
: http://www.online-literature.com/wilde/dorian_gray/
20. English modal verbs [ ] : :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_modal_verb
21. George Bernard Shaw. Pygmalion [ ] :
: http://www.literaturepage.com/read/pygmalion.html
22. J. K. Roaling Harry Potter and the Order of Phoenics., Great Britain
by Clays Ltd, St Ives plc, 2003
23. Linguistic modality [ ] : :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_modality
24. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. UK: Pearson
Educated Limited, 2009
25. Modal verbs. Structure of modal verbs [ ] :
:
31

http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsMoodAndModali
ty.htm
26. Modal verbs (modal auxiliaries) [ ] :
: http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-modals.htm
27. Oskar Wilde. The Happy Prince [ ] :
: http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/2181/
28. What is mood and modality [ ] :
: http://www.slideshare.net/MRHERRERO/modal-verbs-3614697
32

SUMMARY

.
,
.
, ,
must, should, ought to
.
,
, , ,
, , , , , ,
. , ,
, , , , , ,
.
\, .

, ,
,
, ,
.
,
,
.
33

,
, .

,
.