Operant conditioning can be described as a process

Variables Affecting Performance
that attempts to modify behavior through the use of
positive and negative reinforcement.
Classical conditioning involves placing a neutral
signal before a reflex, focuses on involuntary and
automatic behaviors.
Social Media Marketing Framework
Monitor brand-related conversations
Identify influential individuals
Identify factors shared by influencers
Message Spread – re-shares
Influence – forwards to friends, etc.
Social Impact – likes, comments, etc.
Customer Influence Effect (CIE) metric
2. Personal Characteristics
4 characteristics of key individuals:
3. Skill Levels
a. Activeness – # times “see” & “share”
4. Role Perceptions
b. Clout – number of followers
5. Motivation
c. Talkativeness – retweets, hashtags
6. Organizational/Environmental
d. Likemindedness – common interests
Locate potential influencers
Stickiness index - measures the degree of WOM
Three Models of Advertising Effect:
generated by a particular user on a given topic
Product Quality
Recruit influencers
Incentivize (tangible – freebies,
1. Performance: Does what it needs to do well
intangible) influencers to start positive WOM about
2. Features: Requisite
the product or service
3. Reliability: probability that a product or
Reap the rewards (ROI) – track positive
service surviving for a given time period
WOM, develop more effective social media
4. Conformance: design and operating
campaigns, see enhanced financial performance,
more customer engagement and increased brand
5. Durability: amount of time or use before
product quality deteriorates
6. Serviceability: speed, courtesy, competence
Price Promotion Strategy
7. Aesthetics: subjective assessment of the
Profitability: function of the sensitivity of
8. Perceived Quality: brand name, image, indirect
sales to the price reduction
Couponing (price discrimination) – allows to

sharpen price based communication
&segregate customers according to price
Profitability: incremental sales generated
by the coupon and the number of coupons
The Critical Constraints Provided by The 5
1. Context (Advertising Regulations)
Company (Product
Competition (Other
Products and Societal Norms)
Consumers (Decision
Making Process of Balding Men)
5. Collaborators (Physician Decision
Making Process)
The value of a risky option decreases upon
addition of risky prospects of the same
Consumers can perceive normatively more
dangerous (beneficial) options to be less
dangerous (beneficial) when large risk is
clouded by several smaller risks.

New Product Development Process

New Product Strategy, Idea Generation,
Idea Screening, Business Analysis,
Development, Test Marketing,
Load it - to initially attract the most
customers and will therefore maximize
short-term, first-period profits, off load it if subsequent purchases matter more to
the lifetime value of the typical customer

Product Lifecycle show that they need to act Obsolescence enables firms to increase revenue through faster replacement. Customer acquisition vs. Current customers gain trust through consistent follow-up and communication with the sales representative. the long-existed price – take the price of the second best image of high end products with high price can be done away with. phone call. and servicing current customers. the sales force builds trust with customers.Interest – attention Establish a Personal Entertaining and memorable commercials Easy to read ads with illustrations Desire – Create desire for product Consider long-term customer equity and Infomercials. through activities that include building brand and product awareness through advertising customer education providing market coverage gathering market information . free gift. Warehouses. whilst retention is market and make “second hand” business market holding relationships. APP. Intermediaries efficiently create and satisfy demand. brand awareness and drive sales forward. limited promotion Website. Role of Sales team – A sales team must work together to increase presentation. customer retention – The difference between customer acquisition and retention is the disparity between reduce competition from used goods creating and keeping. New customers need interaction and opportunities to learn about the brand. Wholesalers. In the case of less attractive replacement as those goods Tweeter. consumers decision aids. acquisition strategy. Retailers. Acquiring customers is looking for new opportunities and targeting new interest. following the newly adopted strategy was dependent on whether is APP a retention strategy or an acquisition strategy. Tweeter can now target both. Thus it is safe to assume APP to be only an Sales Process: Prospect. Transportation vehicles. In addition to generating CHANNELS-Communication Channels: Used income. Personalization representatives engage customers at all stages of the relationship. negotiation. it can be copied and can be option plus the value of your advantages minus the value of your second best option’s advantages.g. But. competed on. It is also important for the members of the sales team to focus on organization goals and plan accordingly. E-mail. If the company requires high information flow. Shock factor. close. due to APP. qualify. the price segment as well as the quality segment (in which they are already present). Also.Show Givethey cannot live without the solution Action – Desire leads to action Special offer. E. With can cost more in the long run. Sales to deliver and receive messages from target buyers. then specific procedures need to be embedded in the system. Trade channels like Distributors. in the long-run. Surprise buyers Place ads in unexpected situations. E.g. not just customers’ initial choices.Link product to consumer problem. APP can not be easily best copied by the competitors as it would not be easy for them to Pricing Strategy – To calculate the change their product mix in the short-run. Retailers Selling Channels: Distributors. AIDA MODEl List of events when consumer engages with advertisement Attention – Existence of product / Service Visual stimuli. Toll free number Distribution Channels: Display and deliver physical product. There should be proper planning to ensure that the customers are more inclined and educated about the company rather than developing personal relationship with the sales team.

1996) The profitability of the price promotion strategy is a function of the sensitivity of sales to the price reduction. (2) that low-priced generic products have lower market shares if the brand-name manufacturers coupon heavily. The manufacturer decides between a coupon promotion and a price promotion strategy depending upon their relative profitability.providing breadth of assortment breaking bulk Order processing Customer support Studies have demonstrated (1) that coupon users have higher price elasticities of demand). and (3) that a larger percentage of consumers use coupons for brands with The profitability of the couponing operation is a function higher of both shelf theprices incremental sales generated by the coupon and the number of coupons redeemed (Leone and Srinivasan. Thus. this decision depends upon the relative sensitivity of sales to coupons and price reductions .