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in a company Ideal Situation * Customers are satisfied * Workflow is free of bottlenecks * Resources are utilized for maximum profits * Labor problems are minimized * Breakdown losses are reduced Real Situation * High-level of rejections and cancellations due to faulty products * Over-use of raw material & scrap production due to faulty machinery * Labor force is dissatisfied and overworked
Factors responsible for different problems: Factors Problems Material & Equipment Over supply of raw materials and large inventory of substandard goods Machine Frequent breakdown, repairing and high maintenance costs Method Instructions for operating techniques missing, absence of inspection during process, and use of wrong techniques Labor Frequent strikes, careless attitude and over confidence Types of problems: Types Zero Problem Increase Problem Decrease Problem
Examples of problems As a floor manager in boiler area of a pesticide firm, you have to solve the problem of recurring accidents The production of sports goods in your firm has been augmented by 55% in order to meet the demand created by National Athletic Field You have to solve the problem of high inventory so that you can minimize inventory costs incurred by your firm
Quality Check Tools 7 in number 1. Check-Sheets: Used to gather and interpret data in form of a list 2. Graphs: Used to represent accurate status (Line / Bar / Pie) 3. Histogram: Used to represent graphically the variations in a process (e.g. time) 4. Scatter diagrams: Used to represent correlation between two variables (e.g. frequent accidents and tired workforce) 5. Stratification: Used to group data to identify influencing factor (e.g. stratification of absent labor in different groups like sick leave, dissatisfied worker, family issues, weather conditions, etc) <<<looks like an organization chart>>> 6. Ishikawa / Fishbone Diagram: Used to represent cause of a problem (root cause analysis). Also called cause-and-effect diagram 7. Pareto’s Analysis: Used to find most vital cause of a problem
Exercise 1.2: Possible causes of spoiled juices Tool Check-sheets Pareto’s Analysis Stratification Scatter Diagram Histogram To improve operational efficiency of a process / unit.1: Which tool is used to resolve which problem? Problem The functioning of bottling equipment and canning equipment has to be monitored The most important cause of accidents in the factory has to be determined Data on the level of water table has to be depicted with respect to different factors The relationship between wages and productivity of labors in the factory has to be determined The variation in flavor of canned juices of different batches during the year has to be monitored Exercise 1. the problem has to be found by defining gap between real situation and ideal situation. .
middle one for home wear.Chapter: 2 – Managing Resources Quality Circle (QC) Advantages of implementing QC • Enables staff to participate in key decisions (Staff feels empowered and the feeling of “us-versus-them” is removed effectively • Enables streamlining of processes by implementing the solutions proposed in Quality Circles 5-S technique for material / resource management: • Seiri: Generates space. The top drawer Seiso was reserved for school wear. induces pride in employees and confidence in customers • Seiketsu: Minimizes errors. reduces unnecessary maintenance of useless items and creates storage space • Seiton: Allows the materials to be retrieved easily. improves quality through zero defect. puts dirty clothes in laundry and arranges books and toys Pamela’s mom is very pleased with the way Pamela keeps her Shitsuke room now. she often shows her how to organize items in a room . clarifies items in stock. improves product quality. Although she doesn’t supervise Pamela’s daily cleaning. Efficiency and safety Exercise 2. She then Seiton categorized toys and books and decided where to place them Pamela arranged all her clothes in proper order. regular trainings to staff to maintain Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) Advantages of 5-S technique for material / resource management: • Focus on effective workplace management • Standardized work procedures • Simplification of work processes • Reduction of clutter and non-essential Activities • Improvement in Quality. prevents unnecessary buying. minimizes time taken to search and prevents unnecessary purchase • Seiso: Helps identify problem areas such as leaks and cracks. and the next for socks and handkerchiefs Pamela is so excited by how her room looks that she now Seiketsu regularly cleans her room.1: Which 5-S technique is used by Pamela in which step? Problem Tool Pamela sorted all her clothes and other items. discarded Seiri unnecessary items and returned the borrowed items Pamela Put the dirty clothes in laundry hamper. inculcates sense of pride among staff and ensures safe working conditions • Shitsuke: Sustenance of well-managed / well-organized work place. however.
.. Types of variations: • Variations due to Random Cause – e. Assignable Cause Identified in operating conditions and can be statistically controlled Few in number Economically inexpensive Large amount of variation per cause Examples: faulty jigs and fixtures.Chapter: 3 – Statistical Process Control Statistical Process Control (SPC) – The use of statistical analysis to improve quality by reducing unwanted variations in industrial and management processes and process capabilities.g. SPC is used to: • Decide exactly how much variation is allowed in a process • Ensuring defect-free manufacturing / processing by reducing variations • Measure the consistency of processes • Keep processes under control Tools for SPC: Control Charts: Used to graphically represent quantitative measurements of a process and minimize variations Two types of control charts: • Control charts by variables • Control charts by attributes Interpreting Charts: Used to graphically control the variation in the process . and is considered inherent part of process Examples: Poor lightening. etc A process is capable (or under statistical control) when Assignable Causes have been identified and removed. fluctuations. all documents in your computer are changed into bar codes due to a virus attack Random Cause Difficult to identify Large in number Economically expensive to rectify since they need fundamental process changes Insignificant variation per cause. defective raw material. someone bumps your elbow when you are singing • Variations due to Assignable Cause – e. bad maintenance. etc. poor machine conditions. bad workbench conditions.g. poorly trained staff.
biased measurement may also cause such a type of graph . A common reason may be wear and tear of machines. Apart from improper sampling. etc.In these charts there is a Center Line (CL) which represents the exact measurement of a variable required in a process. it is considered a major variation. There are two more lines representing Upper Control Limit (UCL) and Lower control Limit (LCL). Peaks and valleys outside the control limits indicate the poorly trained workers. If a particular variation falls beyond the area between UCL and LCL. A cyclic trend (peaks and valleys) indicate that the process faced variations due to random causes such as worker fatigue. The control lines are set at a distance of three-sigma above (UCL) and three-sigma below (LCL) the center line. Out-of-Control Processes: A continuous upward pattern indicates that the process is deteriorating with time. defective materials and frequent readjustments of the machines Another graph which is an outcome of wrong samples being picked up rather than wrong processes followed. shift change.
1: What can be concluded from appearance of the graph? This shows that the operators of the unit are not trained properly Zone Tests: Zone tests are used to enhance the ability of the control charts to detect / study small shifts in the process.Exercise 3. Nine points in Zone C or beyond: This pattern indicates that the process average has changed. The dividing line of each zone is exactly one third the distance between center line and the UCL or LCL. It is a useful test to alert the quality control engineer to potential shifts in the process Two out of three points in a row in Zone A or beyond: This pattern provides early warning of a process shift [False-positive error rate = 2%] Four out of five points in a row in Zone B or beyond: This is also an early warning indicator for a potential process shift [False-positive error rate = 2%] .
A process which is in statistical control need not necessarily produce product or services that meet the design specification of a product or service. (x. we need to measure the process capability by calculating two indices of process capability – CP and CPK CP calculates the capability of a process by measuring overall process performance considering both positive and negative deviations. CP = (USL – LSL) / 6 sigma Typical features of CP are: • These have no upper limits • This doesn’t take into account any non-centering of a process • Non-centering reduces margin of safety CPK calculates the capability of a process by measuring clustering effect on the Upper and Lower specification limits. To ensure that the process is meeting design specifications.15 points in a row in Zone C: A small variability than is expected based on the Control Limit points in the graph Eight points in a row in Zone A or B or beyond in either side of the centerline: This test indicates that different samples are affected by different factors. resulting in bimodal distribution of modes. CPK = MIN [USL – x.bar – LSL) / 3 sigma] .bar / 3 sigma.
bar – LSL) / 3 sigma] = MIN [(25.1689 Step 3: Is the process capable of meeting specifications? (Yes / No) No. because CP < 1 Variations are not only unproductive but also expensive.1689.01 – 24.02 LSL = 25 – 0. (x.01973)] = MIN [0.Exercise 3.01) / (3 * 0.337 Step 2: What is the CPK of the machine? CPK = MIN [USL – x.bar / 3 sigma.98) / (3 * 0. 0.98 Sigma = ? CP = (USL – LSL)/6 sigma = (25.02 – 25. because process variation exceeds specification limits when CP < 1 Step 4: Is the process correctly centered? (Yes / No) No.02 = 25. For an operation to be a success it is very important to eliminate or at least minimize the variations .02 = 24.2: Estimating Process Capability Step 1: What is the CP of the machine? USL = 25 + 0. (25.01973).02 – 24.5068] = 0.01973) = 0.98) / (6 * 0.
. where files are easily available • Short and to the point meetings • Optimum inventory available • Minimal and non-repetitive manual work Safety.g. Advantages of TPM: • TPM works with full support of management and cascades down to lowest level • TPM shows quick results but is not a quick one-time solution for all problems. but also for improving office administration. Replacement of unsatisfactory equipments. The TPM Standards for office include: • Uncluttered.5 times) OEE = Overall Equipment Effectiveness (e. improvements in design weaknesses were made to achieve zero defects and maximize MTBF (Meantime between failures) Quality Maintenance: Checklists were used to maintain quality and train workers on TPM Initial Equipment Control: Education & Training: Office TPM: TPM was used not just to maintain machines and upgrade skills of workers. improved morale and development of those involved • TPM increases equipment availability and quality and at the same time decreases production costs and industrial accidents. Pillars of Total Productive Maintenance: Jishu-Hozen: Begin by cleaning. suggest and implement the most effective solution. test it and display the results. gone up by 90%) . Hygiene & Environmental Control: TPM Standards for zero accidents. preventive and productive maintenance involved. paperless work desk • Automated office space. gone up by 1. as all employees are trained to anticipate problems that may arise. speed. done by finding route cause of the problem. setup. etc were removed] Planned Maintenance: Corrective. • TPM is proactive.Chapter: 4 – Total Productive Maintenance Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a continuous improvement strategy that involves an innovative approach to maintenance that improves and maximizes equipment effectiveness. instead of reporting only when there is a breakdown • TPM works well in small group of employees and allows greater participation / involvement. [Adv: Losses dealing with breakdown.g. inspecting. defects.. zero diseases and zero pollution include: • Preparation of safety manual • Audits on safety and hygienic conditions • Safety work permit system and upgrading the pollution control system • Safety award scheme • Campaign on awareness of safety and environmental issues • Regular monitoring of accidents • Environmental review • Eliminating spills and leakages • Tree plantation OPE = Overall Plant Efficiency (e. lubricating and performing corrective action on the machinery (daily chores) [Adv: System fell in place] Kobestu-Kaizen: Used to handle chronic problems.
2: .Exercise 4. monitoring implementation on continuous basis and raising its level. Total application of TPM. Initial Education and propaganda for TPM 3. Exercise 4. Implementing all TPM pillar activities 7. Announcement by Upper Management about implementation of TPM in the organization 2. Setting up TPM Committees for TPM Pillars 4. Establishing basic policy and target and master plan for TPM Implementation 5. TPM kick-off events 6.1: Steps for implementing TPM: 1.
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