U.S.

Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e
Soi 1 C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e
Engineering D i v i s i o n

SOIL MECHANICS NOTE NO. 7
THE MECHANICS OF SEEPAGE ANALYSES
October 1979

Table o f Contents
Page

No .
I.

Purposeandscope

I 1.

Introduction

I 1 1.

Required S i t e

I V.
V.

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Information . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1

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2

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3

C o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o seepage a n a l y s e s
Methods o f a n a l y s i s

1

A.

Flow n e t s

3

B.

Special

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cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

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6

1.

P h r e a t i c l i n e f o r an embankment

2.

Unconfined a q u i f e r w i t h v e r t i c a l o r
s t e e p l y s l o p i n g i n l e t and o u t l e t faces

3.

Confined a q u i f e r w i t h f i n i t e l e n g t h

4

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Blanket-Aquifer Situations

Appendix A . Examples

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s o i l structure. R e f e r t o S o i l Mechanics N o t e No. and f o r c e s . There a r e a p p r o x i m a t e s o l u t i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c boundary c o n d i t i o n s . and o t h e r i t e m s t h a t may a f f e c t downstream a r e a s and a d j a c e n t v a l l e y s . T h i s N o t e p r e p a r e d by James R . Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e S o i l Conservation Service Engineering D i v i s i o n S o i l Mechanics N o t e No. Purpose and scope Accepted methods f o r a n a l y s i s o f seepage and g r o u n d w a t e r f l o w a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n . p r e s s u r e s . T h i s i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r l o c a t i n g b o u n d a r i e s between m a t e r i a l s o f d i f f e r e n t permeability. Required s i t e information S i t e information s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t i n g t o permeability o f materials and seepage f l o w must be c o l l e c t e d f o r each s i t e . T o p o g r a p h i c maps o f t h e s i t e a r e a . continuity o f strata. 6 f o r definitions. Introduction The p r i n c i p l e s of w a t e r f l o w t h r o u g h s o i l s a r e used t o d e t e r m i n e seepage q u a n t i t i e s . Most o f t h e s e methods a r e g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a v a r i e t y o f s t r u c t u r e s and f o u n d a t i o n s . D e t a i l e d g e o l o g i c maps and s e c t i o n s o f t h e s i t e t h a t c o n t a i n c o r r e l a t i o n o f a1 1 s t r a t a o r zones between i n v e s t i g a t i o n p o i n t s . and making t h e a n a l y s i s i s a l o g i c a l approach f o r e v a l u a t i n g s t r u c t u r e and f o u n d a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e and f o r s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l measures. These a r e g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f one v a l u e .U. and m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t a r e important. u s u a l l y seepage q u a n t i t y . b e d r o c k p r o f i l e s . 111. the f o l l o w i n g items are required t o e v a l u a t e s i t e c o n d i t i o n s f o r making seepage a n a l y s i s : A. G e o l o g i c i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be i n t e r preted t o indicate uniformities. . stratification. I t e m s such as gradation. s e l e c t i n g permeab i l i t y v a l u e s . c h a n n e l s . etc. a n i s o t r o p y . a r t e s i a n p r e s s u r e . discontinuities. The p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g boundary c o n d i t i o n s .S. isotropy. Maps s h o u l d i n c l u d e f e a t u r e s such as r e s e r v o i r s . B. i n t e r v o i d permeabi 1 it y . N e l s o n w i t h a s s i s t a n c e o f S o i l Mechanics E n g i n e e r s f r o m o t h e r T e c h n i c a l S e r v i c e C e n t e r s . C. A n a l y t i c a l and g r a p h i c a l p r o c e d u r e s a r e g i v e n w i t h examples t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r use. 11. p o r o s o i ty. 7 : O c t o b e r 1979 The Mechanics o f Seepage Analyses I. T a l b o t and R o b e r t E. mass permeab i l i t y . D e t a i l e d l o g s and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a l l m a t e r i a l s i n t h e embankment f o u n d a t i o n and r e s e r v o i r abutments. Generally.

A n a l y s i s can be l i m i t e d t o t h e embankment c o r e and f o u n d a t i o n c u t o f f when t h e embankment s h e l l s and f o u n d a t i o n s o i l s have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h permeabi 1it y i n comparison t o t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e c o r e and c u t o f f (100 t o 1. g r a d i e n t . For s l o p e s t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s and checking p i p i n g p o t e n t i a l . I n checking water budgets f o r s t o r a g e r e s e r v o i r s . t h e seepage a n a l y s i s i s made o n l y on t h e permeable s t r a t a . F. P e r m e a b i l i t y o f a l l m a t e r i a l s i n t h e c o n d i t i o n under which t h e y w i l l e x i s t a f t e r t h e s t r u c t u r e has been c o n s t r u c t e d . n a t u r a l b l a n k e t m a t e r i a l s . Where permeable s t r a t a extend t h r o u g h o r under a r e l a t i v e l y imperv i o u s s t r u c t u r e . and e x t e n t o f w a t e r t a b l e s . H. Cross s e c t i o n s should be transformed when p r e v i o u s m a t e r i a l s a r e s t r a t i f i e d and/or a n i s o t r o p i c . ) G. and boundaries o f seepage p a r a l l e l t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f l o w . (Piezometric C o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o seepage a n a l y s i s Prepare c r o s s s e c t i o n s t o s c a l e showing t h e boundaries o f t h e s t r u c t u r e . Transformed s e c t i o n s can be used w i t h e i t h e r a n a l y t i c a l o r g r a p h i c a l methods. Sand g r a v e l l a y e r s . computed l o s s e s may be based on heads commensurate w i t h t h e permanent s t o r a g e l e v e l . e n t r a n c e and d i s c h a r g e faces. D. . and upstream and downstream w a t e r l e v e l s a r e o f prime importance and s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . Methods f o r making t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n S o i l Mechanics Note No. D i r e c t i o n o f ground w a t e r f l o w . depth.000 times o r g r e a t e r ) . Each c r o s s s e c t i o n should r e p r e s e n t a d e f i n i t e r e a c h o r area o f t h e s t r u c t u r e h a v i n g s i m i l a r head r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . Pressure g r a d i e n t s i n and f r o m c o n f i n e d l a y e r s . Geometry o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and t h e r e l a t e d upstream and downstream water l e v e l s d u r i n g t h e planned o p e r a t i o n . seepage pressures and g r a d i e n t s should be determined w i t h t h e r e s e r v o i r f i l l e d a t l e a s t t o t h e emergency spillway crest. E. broken o r t i g h t bedrock f o r m a t i o n s . l e v e l s a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s and depths. L o c a t i o n .IV. The v a r i o u s zones o f m a t e r i a l i n t h e f o u n d a t i o n and t h e s t r u c t u r e must be d e l i n e a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o p e r m e a b i l i t y and shown on t h e cross s e c t i o n s . 5.

p r o p e r t i e s . forces.E. e f f o r t should f i r s t be spent i n r e f i n i n g and c o l l e c t i n g d a t a b e f o r e a r e f i n e d a n a l y s i s i s made. Methods o f a n a l y s i s The methods used most f r e q u e n t l y i n SCS work a r e e x p l a i n e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . 5. I n a d d i t i o n . o u t l e t . pressures. V. f l o w nets can be c o n s t r u c t e d f o r any c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f i n l e t . Some methods a p p l y o n l y t o s p e c i f i c boundary c o n d i t i o n s . The seepage g r a d i e n t changes throughout t h e f l o w n e t . Other methods can be found i n t h e l i s t e d r e f e r e n c e s . and v e l o c i t i e s can be evaluated. T h i s i s done by d i v i d i n g t h e drop i n head between e q u i p o t e n t i a l l i n e s (ah) by t h e d i s t a n c e between these l i n e s ( A R ) measured a l o n g t h e f l o w path. Seepage g r a d i e n t s can be determined a t any p o i n t i n t h e f l o w n e t .A q u i f e r . F i g u r e 1 c o n t a i n s t h e nomenclature. Continuous and Discontinuous) A. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i s p r o v i d e d as a g u i d e t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be o b t a i n e d from each procedure: Seepage Method Gradi e n t s Pressures Q u a n t it y Flow Net Embankment P h r e a t i c L i n e Unconfined A q u i f e r (Dupui t ' s assumption) Confined A q u i f e r o f f i n i t e l e n g t h and u n i f o r m t h i c k n e s s B l a n k e t . I f a h i g h degree o f accuracy i s needed. A l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g seepage q u a n t i t i e s . and equations f o r making c a l c u l a t i o n s and d e t e r m i n a t i o n s f r o m f l o w n e t s . X X X X X X X X X Flow n e t s A d e t a i l e d explanation o f f l o w nets i n c l u d i n g t h e construction and use i n seepage a n a l y s i s i s g i v e n i n S o i l Mechanics Note No. The l o c a t i o n o f boundaries o f seepage f l o w has a marked e f f e c t on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s . and f l o w boundaries. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o r e c o g n i z e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f d a t a used. pressures. . The l a r g e s t g r a d i e n t occurs a l o n g t h e s h o r t e s t f l o w path. These boundaries a r e o f t e n t h e most d i f f i c u l t i t e m t o d e f i n e . A1 1 methods can be used t o o b t a i n seepage q u a n t i t i e s b u t may n o t g i v e seepage g r a d i e n t s . o r f o r c e s . g r a d i e n t s .

4 / Upper flow boundary( phreatic line) v Equipotent~al lines Lower flow boundary/ Square Flow net when k of embankment = k of foundation Symbols h : = head of water (upstream water surface minus downstream water surface) A h = head increment between equipotential lines = h/Nd k = permeability coefficient Nd = number of equipotential lines (drops) in flow net Nf = number of flow channels in flow net $ = shape factor' Nf/Nd L = total structure length normal to the section represented by the flow net cross section ak? = flow path length across square at discharge face (see sketch) Downstream toe Equations : Rate of discharge q= kh$ Discharge gradient id = a h /a1 Seepage pressure %= Total seepage quantity Q Fiqure I. Lid =qL Flow net properties and equations .

1/ - ASCE Journal o f t h e S o i l Mechanics and Foundations D i v i s i o n . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a f a c t o r o f s a f e t y o f a t l e a s t two may be needed when e v a l u a t i n g d i s c h a r g e g r a d i e n t s on t h e b a s i s o f c a l c u l a t e d c r i t i c a l gradients.8. The c r i t i c a l g r a d i e n t f o r p i p i n g . Seepage pressures may be determined a t any p o i n t by d e d u c t i n g t h e head l o s s accrued t o t h a t p o i n t from t h e n e t head across t h e s t r u c t u r e . B.0. Tests d u r i n g h i g h wa r a l o n g t h e levees i n t h e lower M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y i n 1950.8 and 1. s i l t y c l a y s o f low p l a s t i c i t y (CL) ( P I < l 5 ) .p r o n e s o i l s i s determined by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e g r a d i e n t t h a t w i l l produce a seepage f o r c e equal t o t h e buoyant w e i g h t of t h e s o i l . Estimates o f pressures and g r a d i e n t s can a l s o be made i n some cases. T u r n b u l l and C. 85. August 1959. Evidence o f p i p i n g (sand b o i l s ) has o c c u r r e d when measured g r a d i e n t s a r e below t h e c a l c u l a t e d c r i t i c a l g r a d i e n t . s i l t y f i n e sands (SM). W . The t o t a l seepage i s equal l y d i v i d e d between a1 1 f l o w channels. n a t u r a l p i p i n g . V o l .p r o n e s o i l s w i l l have c r i t i c a l g r a d i e n t s between a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0. Average seepage v e l o c i t i e s can be determined by d i v i d i n g t h e seepage d i s c h a r g e w i t h i n a f l o w channel by t h e area o f t h e f l o w channel ( d i s t a n c e between f l o w 1 i n e s times a u n i t l e n g t h of s t r u c t u r e ) . I .i n d i c a t e d a c t i v e sand b o i l s were e v i d e n t where g r a d i e n t s were measured a t values between 0. No. Special cases Methods have been developed f o r s p e c i a l boundary c o n d i t i o n s whereby t h e seepage r a t e ( q ) o r q u a n t i t y ( Q ) can be determined. M a t e r i a l s most l i k e l y t o experience p i p i n g i n c l u d e s i l t s o r sandy s i l t s o f low o r no p l a s t i c i t y (ML). SM4. and most p o o r l y graded f i n e sands (SP) .p r o n e m a t e r i a l s . Normally. C r i t i c a l g r a d i e n t s f o r low p l a s t i c i t y s o i l s can be c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t h e buoyant u n i t w e i g h t o f t h e s o i l by t h e u n i t w e i g h t o f w a t e r .5 and 0. Mansur . J. Uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r e s s u r e i s assumed between e q u i p o t e n t i a l l i n e s .p r o n e s o i l s w i t h f r e e d i s c h a r g e a t a h o r i z o n t a l f a c e ( f l o w upward). C o n t r o l l e d drainage i s g e n e r a l l y used t o p r e v e n t d i s c h a r g e o n t o slopes c o n s i s t i n g o f p i p i n g . !7 Methods f o r e v a l u a t i n g c r i t i c a l p i p i n g c o n d i t i o n s have n o t been developed u s i n g t h e f l o w n e t f o r seepage d i s c h a r g e on n a t u r a l o r embankment slopes. The l a r g e s t d i s c h a r g e g r a d i e n t i s compared t o t h e c r i t i c a l (a1 lowabl e) g r a d i e n t f o r t h a t m a t e r i a l .The p o t e n t i a l f o r p i p i n g can be e v a l u a t e d f o r p i p i n g .

The p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e s l o c a t i n g t h e l i n e o f s a t u r a t i o n ( p h r e a t i c 1 i n e ) t h r o u g h a n embankment when f u l l seepage e q u i l i b r i u m has developed. T h i s method i s used m a i n l y f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e seepage d i s c h a r g e w i t h i n a g i v e n r e a c h o f an embankment. I t can a l s o be a p p l i e d t o t r a n s formed s e c t i o n s as d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 6. . H a r r . pp. 4.1. Unconfined a q u i f e r w i t h v e r t i c a l o r s t e e p l y s l o p i n g i n l e t and o u t l e t f a c e s T h i s method i s based on D u p u i t ' s -31 assumption. E. To be a p p l i c a b l e . P h r e a t i c l i n e f o r an embankment T h i s method was developed by casagrandeL f o r embankments 1o c a t e d on r e 1 a t i v e l y i m p e r v i o u s f o u n d a t i o n s ( k e l o o k f ) . Seepage r a t e ( q ) can be c a l c u l a t e d f r o m c e r t a i n p o i n t s on t h e p h r e a t i c l i n e . Seepage t h r o u g h t h e embankment above t h e base can be d e t e r m i n e d by t h i s method. Few f i e l d s i t u a t i o n s f i t t h e i n l e t and o u t l e t c o n f i g u r a t i o n f o r an e x a c t s o l u t i o n . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t whenever t h e seepage d i s c h a r g e i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r a t r a n s f o r m e d s e c t i o n . McGraw H i l l . T h i s method can be a p p l i e d t o embankments w i t h v a r i o u s z o n i n g p a t t e r n s and d r a i n a g e c o n d i t i o n s as d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e s 2. 1925-1940. assumptions. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t r a n s f o r m e d s e c t i o n s i s a l s o c o v e r e d i n S o i l Mechanics Note 5. I t i s a l s o used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l i n e o f s a t u r a t i o n f o r s t a b i l i t y c a l c u l a t i o n s and may be used as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a f l o w n e t . I t i s an e x a c t s o l u t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d i s c h a r g e f o r t h e case shown i n F i g u r e 7 where t h e i n l e t and o u t l e t f a c e s a r e v e r t i c a l and t h e base i s impermeable. t h e c o e f f i c i e n t of p e r m e a b i l i t y t o be used i s 2. The method can be used on c o r e s e c t i o n s o f zoned e a r t h f i l l s and on t r a n s formed s e c t i o n s p r o v i d e d t h e r a t i o o f d/h i s g r e a t e r t h a n unity. 3. and methods o f s o l u t i o n a r e i n d i c a t e d i n the figures. 2/ - "Seepage t h r o u g h Dams" by A r t h u r Casagrande. Boston S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s . t h e s l o p e a n g l e s ( a ) o f t h e embankment and zones s h o u l d be w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f i g u r e s . D e f i n i t i o n s o f terms. and 5. C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o S o i l Mechanics. pp 295-336 Groundwater and Seepage by M.

of dam to scale OS shown VOIWS of Cyd and (01 values of (y) corresponding egress trons~tvan (between to vor~ous porabolo and values pant of (x) C I (q) From: "Seepage Through Dams" by A. . discharge between through boslc toe surkxe. Casaqrande.’ w 4 q= 2Yo kO sdo ’ Y’dGq PROCEDURE yg= m-d Oao< SOLUTION EO’JATIONS Co DETERMINATION o= vo 02 DAM phreollc hne mlersecls dechorge slope.Ordmate k GRAPHICAL Of ) porobolo. FOR C) 430’ (O-=c4<60”) / yo’ 2 a=~-~~ t. ios.Angle x. ANALYTICAL center ot A to ~nfersect 01 point (II 3.Stonce l-3 6 o=E SOLUTION onto onto o_F Jd’-h*cot*.x 01 toe ot dam of so$l dam per foot GRAPHICAL CONSTRUCTION SOLUTION E I Pass ox dlschorge 2 Pass o semi-ctrcle center on dtschorge o = m- through B. of dwhorge horeonlol Coordinates of any poant on the measured from toe of dam. 1925-1940.c plxObol0 face Itram of bow 0 Seepage Pomt 01 uhxh Fbmt ot which .Plain Cross Section .ect d. GRAPHICAL lenqfh OF point semi-circle dlschorge III and (A) the with 6. bow potobolo intersects dlschorge slope C ond f d L El. 275-336. of dom and verte. po~nls Extend horlZontol Me through dtschorge tow 01 po~nl 12) 4 Protect dlstonce 2-A 5 Pro.Distonre porobolo of permeability C C.yoo- dlstonce m bos.- *rote. Dtstonce along base hne between of bosx porobolo Coeffvxnt Md from toe of dam to pomt of dtschnge y. wth lace .%-d 3 . Phreatic Line Case I . to intersect (point face the 3) lpotnt OF (a) AND (ya).water Surbce ry 0os1c Porobolo Egress _ 03m GROSS-SECTION OF METHOD OF TERMS PI of Intersecllon a Slope a .ton Society of Civil Engineers. Contributions to Soil Mechanics. p.- A x 1 111 DEFINITION Tronsltlon I Draw 2 LocoIe cross-secho” 3 4 Colculo~ Calculate 5 6 Plot boslc parobolo Sketch Ingress tron~lt~on 7 Sketch 8 Colculote 0..kxtended) through face. Figure 2.

EQUATIONS -D~schorge Slope Drow cross-sectlon of dam to scale Delermme locot~on of Bo 0s shown.sotrop. (g) (b ) DISCHARGE FACE FOR 90'4 ENLARGED a lsoe ASSUMPTIONS I Homogeneous . Determine dtslonce ATo = 0 + A O . Co~culote value o f (YO). - Phreatic Line Case I1 E f f e c t o f Toe D r a i n - . Calculate volues of (y) correspond~ng to vorious values of (a) 3.on of phreohc 11ne 1s not delerm~ned. ~ 6 s t o nS o c i e t y o f C i v i 1 Engineers. (C).@ a ) TO b + ~ d "Seepaqe Through Dams. .c cross-sechon 2 Relol.) Plot baslc porobolo and locote polnt Co. Casaarande. F i g u r e 3.f l p u r e ( b ) Iransitlons.ve/y ~rnperv. I yo= m - d 2. 180' From: : Slope of O~schorge Face (C) R A T I O OF. hetghl of loe drom s h l d equal 0 3 k q h t o l dom Note 0 ( a ) CROSS-SECTION OF DAM r Basic Porobolo METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE. Drow Ingress and egress Colculote from . 1925-1940." by A .ous bose 3 6O0<o z. y = . De!ermme value of colculote d u e of Plot point Id Aa= c(o t =low ~d.If locot. c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o S o i l ~ e c h a n i c s . L9 wL q = kyo (approx.

E f f e c t o f B l a n k e t D r a i n a = 180° . B o s t o n S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s . Casagrande.dm. Phreatic Line Case I11 . F i g u r e 4. C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o S o i l Mechanics. 2 d GROSS ." by A . "Seepage Through Dams. 1925-1940. p 275-336.SECTION OF DAM METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE: EOUPTIONS: I yoz m - d Drow cross-sectlon Determme of dom lo scole locotton of Bo os shown Colculole yo Plot pomt C Calculate volues of (y) correspond~ng to vor~ous volues of (a) Plot boslc parabolo Sketch Colculote / Homogeneous ~solropic cross-secl~on 2 Relatively impervious bose From: rngess lronslf~on (q).

" by A . colculote yo and a. 3. Locote 4. shell)= klA krh'P. when k. F i q. ond IL).3m (a) CROSS-SECTION OF DAM METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION Egress EQUATIONS: PROCEDURE. q (d. Boston S o c i e t y o f C i v i l Engineers. y L1 4. Phreatic Line Case IV . C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o S o i l Mechanics.u r e 5. ($1. Draw cross-section of dom to scole. p 275-336.Composite S e c t i o n . Casagrande. colculote f ha) Where. 2I a = 1\=- \Id'-h'col'o (for a < 6 O 0 ) r. Note: Upstreom shell 1s considered so perwous 0s lo couse no effect on phreohc line through core ZY0 (for a < 6 0 ° ) 5. 1925-1940. Sketch ingress ond egress Ironsitions through core.Woter Surface o I r 1 0. q (core) = kyo (for a 760°) 6. of perrneob~l~tyof core k = coeff~c~ent 7 DOWNSTREAM SHELL Sketch shell trons~llon and seepage l ~ n e Lq: coeff~c~ent of perrneob~l~tyof shell I hydroullc gradlent of flow through shell h = ddference In elevot~on of seepage line lhrough d s shell. frrnes os lorge os k grovel shell Exomple IS sever01 hundred Cloy or srll core with smd ond From: "Seepage Through Dams. L = length of path of flow through d s shell A = overage oreo under seepage 11ne through d s shell ASSUMPTIONS I Homogeneous core sechon Note Thrs method produces saf/s/aclwy resdts on/. I.:=wz 3 y = 4 q (core) = kosm' a 2.s. Note. Plot baste parabolo. L (b) 5 Colculale (q) through core 6 Know~ng Iq). Where o >60. use Fig ( C ~ O S ~ .

Casagrande. ore sectlon Cose Ill IS ~llustroted In t h ~ s exornpte ( kh = lo k..I V . Des~gnotmg the rnorlmum and mlnlrnum coelllc~ents of p e r m e o b ~ l ~ l yof the sol1 ond km. the coelhc.I V I Homogeneous cross -section Relotwely ~nperv~ous base "Seepage Through Dams. Phreatic Line Case V ..Ingress TRUE Tronslt~on SECTION TRANSFORMED SECT ION METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION the kmol smns To conslruct the phreotlc lhne through o darn sect~on composed method of !he tronslorrned sectlon IS used of on on~sotroplc soll. C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o S o i l Mechanics.q = kIyo where d s h and&> 60° where d 4 h b.) Procedure kh > k. the entlre cross-sectlon IS tronslorrned In such o rnonner tho1 o l l tn Ihe d ~ r e c t ~ o no f kmo. Figure 6. ore reduced by the foctor ol or tho? O l l d~mens~onsIn the d ~ r e c t ~ o n kmln ore lncreosed by 0s d~men- For computmq d~schorge t h r q h the dm7.q = K' 2d From: shown In coses I . shown In coses I ." by A.ent a / p e r m e o b ~ l ~ t yequols Note - Ihe loctor The methods to the tronslorrned for constructing the phreottc hne.A n i s o t r o p i c S o i l .) oppltcoble I I 2 3 4 5 (Where 2 Drow the true cross-sect~on of dom to scole Drow the tronslormed secllon of dom to scole o Vert~col dimens~ons remoln the some 0s for true s e c l ~ o n b Hor~zonlOI d~menslons ore reduced by the factor kh methods Construct phreottc line through tronsformed section by Project phreot~c l ~ n e bock to true secllon o Verl~col d ~ m e n s ~ o n srernoln the some b Hortzonlol d~rnenslons ore ~ncreosed by the foctor Colculote d~schorge ( q ) a. p 275-336. B o s t o n S o c i e t y o f C i v i 1 E n g i n e e r s . 1925-1940.

Flow from one body of water to another through an unconfined aquifer with vertical inlet and outlet faces : Figure 7. Unconfined aquifer with vertical inlet and outlet foces .

4/ "The E f f e c t o f B l a n k e t s on Seepage t h r o u g h P e r v i o u s F o u n d a t i o n s " b y P . This s o l u t i o n i s considered t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o r r e c t f o r v e r t i c a l abutments and r e l a t i v e l y a c c u r a t e f o r s l o p i n g abutments. The seepage q u a n t i t y t h r o u g h a n a b u t m e n t can be e s t i m a t e d by c o n s t r u c t i n g d f l o w n e t i n a t y p i c a l h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e f o r e i t h e r confined o r unconfined f l o w conditions. T h i s i s done by a p p l y i n g D a r c y ' s l a w and D u p u i t ' s a s s u m p t i o n as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 11. and ( 3 ) d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f d i s c o n t i n u o u s b l a n k e t s o r c o n s t r u c t e d upstream b l a n k e t s . D u p u i t ' s a s s u m p t i o n has been a p p l i e d t o each f l o w l i n e and e q u a t i o n s w r i t t e n f o r c a l c u l a t i n g d i s c h a r g e through t h e abutment. 111. 3. V o l . as shown o n F i g u r e 8. T . The d i s c h a r g e r a t e can a l s o be c a l c u l a t e d when t h e t a i l w a t e r l e v e l i s b e l o w t h e t o p o f t h e permeable l a y e r . I t can be used f o r any permeable l a y e r w i t h a u n i f o r m t h i c k n e s s t h a t has a d i r e c t i n l e t i n t h e r e s e r v o i r and a d i r e c t o u t l e t downstream f r o m t h e s t r u c t u r e . . 215-252. a l s o f i t i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . F i g u r e 9 shows an example o f a h o r i z o n t a l f l o w n e t and i n d i c a t e s t h e a p p l i c a b l e e q u a t i o n s f o r c a l c u l a t i n g abutment seepage f o r b o t h v e r t i c a l and s t e e p l y s l o p i n g abutments. B e n n e t t . 4. D a r c y ' s l a w can be a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y when t h e downstream w a t e r l e v e l i s above t h e t o p o f t h e permeable l a y e r . T r a n s f o r m e d s e c t i o n s where d / h i s l e s s t h a n one.I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o use t h i s method o n t h i n c o r e s e c t i o n s i n e a r t h dams where t h e s l o p e s o f t h e c o r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y s t e e p . T h i s method a p p l i e s t o a dam. Blanket-aquifer situations T h i s method has been d e v e l o p e d f r o m B e n n e t t ' s / p r o c e d u r e s f o r c a l c u l a t i n g seepage r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h n a t u r a l o r c o n s t r u c t e d b l a n k e t s o f r e l a t i v e l y l o w permeable n i a t e r i a1 over pervious foundations. pp. The permeable l a y e r s a r e o f t e n l o c a t e d t h r o u g h abutments o r t h r o u g h t h e f o u n d a t i o n b e n e a t h t h e dam. ( 2 ) e s t i m a t e t h e f a c t o r o f safety against u p l i f t o f the blanket a t the downstream t o e . ASCE T r a n s a c t i o n s . 1946. C o n f i n e d a q u i f e r o f f i n i t e l e n g t h and u n i f o r m t h i c k n e s s T h i s method a p p l i e s t o a l a y e r o f permeable m a t e r i a l t h a t i s bounded b y a r e l a t i v e l y impermeable l a y e r o n t h e b o t t o m and by an impermeable s t r u c t u r e o r l a y e r o f g i v e n d i m e n s i o n ( d ) o n t h e t o p ( s e e F i g u r e 10). d i k e . The s o l u t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o t h e r a t e o f d i s c h a r g e f o r t h i s case. o r d i v e r s i o n s t r u c t u r e t h a t has no c u t o f f t r e n c h and i s c o n s t r u c t e d o v e r a permeable l a y e r . T h i s method i s used t o ( 1 ) e s t i w a t e seepage q u a n t i t i e s t h r o u g h a n a q u i f e r u n d e r a n e a r t h dam t h a t i s o v e r l a i n by a b l a n k e t .

I Level impervious base' Flow through a narrow core o r transformed section hF. Narrow core or transformed section where d/h< I . approximate q = k 2d Figure 8.h.

water surface ~n abutment . D S water surfoce? p 2 //'/ / / ... .Top of dam 3 US water surface D.. ' / / / / / Base of dam- Top of dam 7 ~rnperrneable boundary r = Z r I v surface hI D S woter surfoce B o s e of dam' one abutment 4 = shope foctor = Nf / Nd X q = d ~ s c h a r g eIn for each case Elevations of sloping abutment Figure 9... .S. .... . ..... . Cosogronde of Horvord University . . . water surface 1 .. . . .S. h.. : .h$ l 2 aqulfer In abutment 7 1 Base of dom' *q=+ k$ [ q t -:hj Flow net on horizontal plane at center of aquifer in abutment (pion v ~ e w ) Elevations of near vertical abutment Top of dom 1 2 U._.. . Base of dam- * q = q Top of dam h 2 . ... Abutment seepageusing horizontal flow net From: Course titled "~eepocjeand ground water f l o w " presented by A .I / /....

rlmpermeable structure 4- ~lmpermeablebase Compute seepage discharge per foot of length by ~ a r c ~ Law: 's Where : k = permeability coefficient of the aquifer h i= -= d hydraulic gradient A= t ( I ) =cross sectional area of aquifer for one foot length ( L = l ) Figure 10 Confined aquifer of finite length with submerged discharge face ( ~ a r c y ' s law) .

: / / / kh2 Level impermeable base Compute discharge per foot of length by the following equation Where / n : k = permeability coefficient of the aquifer Combined aquiter of finite length with partially submerged discharge face ( ~ a r c ~law b 8 ~ u ~ u i tassumption) h / U / ./ Impermeable structure v L aquifer hl / / V / t t / / / 4 / / / d / / / / / / Figure I I .

t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n i s u s u a l l y t o provide c o n t r o l l e d drainage a t o r under t h e downstream toe. . When unsafe u p l i f t c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t . A v a l u e o f 1. The q u a n t i t y o f seepage p e r f o o t o f a q u i f e r i s o b t a i n e d by a p p l y i n g D a r c y ' s law t o t h e p e r v i o u s a q u i f e r where t h e i n l e t i s a t t h e e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h o f t h e upstream b l a n k e t and o u t l e t i s a t t h e e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h on t h e downstream s i d e . E f f e c t i v e b l a n k e t l e n g t h s (L1 and L 3 ) a r e c a l c u l a t e d f r o m the equation : Pressure head ( h o ) under t h e b l a n k e t a t t h e downstream t o e c a l c u l a t e d from t h e e q u a t i o n : L? The c r i t i c a l head ( h c ) beneath t h e b l a n k e t a t t h e downstream t o e i s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e equation: The f a c t o r o f s a f e t y r e l a t i v e t o heaving o f t h e b l a n k e t (Fh) a t t h e downstream t o e i s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e e q u a t i o n : To be s a f e a g a i n s t u p l i f t o r blowout a s u i t a b l e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y i s needed. These f a c t o r s can have extremely adverse e f f e c t s on t h e performance o f t h e b l a n k e t t o c o n t r o l seepage t o a c c e p t a b l e amounts o r t o p r o v i d e adequate s t a b i l i t y . The seepage r a t e i s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e e q u a t i o n : B l a n k e t s and a q u i f e r s a r e o f t e n d i s c o n t i n u o u s o r h a v i n g been eroded away i n c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s .Symbols and terms used i n b l a n k e t .a q u i f e r c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e shown i n F i g u r e 12.5 t o 2 i s suggested w i t h t h e h i g h e r values t o be used on t h e more p i p i n g prone m a t e r i a l s .

A q u i f e r Systems . Symbols and Terms used i n B l a n k e t .4 p c f ) R a t e o f d i s c h a r g e t h r o u g h a q u i f e r w i t h u n i t l e n g t h normal t o the section.rl L3 <- blanket 7sub aquifer impervious NNfl / I N / / ( a ) Continuous b l m k e t and a q u i f e r 4 v blanket aquifer impervious ( b ) D i s c o n t i n u o u s upstream b l a n k e t L1 L2 L3 Lo = = = = /IN// /I N / / - continuous a q u i f e r E f f e c t i v e l e n g t h o f upstream n a t u r a l b l a n k e t L e n g t h o f embankment base E f f e c t i v e l e n g t h o f downstream n a t u r a l b l a n k e t L e n g t h o f d i s c o n t i n u o u s upstream b l a n k e t N e t head t o d i s s i p a t e Thickness o f n a t u r a l b l a n k e t Thickness o f a q u i f e r Permeabi 1 it y c o e f f i c i e n t o f b l a n k e t Pernieabil i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f a q u i f e r Submerged u n i t w e i g h t o f b l a n k e t P r e s s u r e head u n d e r b l a n k e t a t downstream t o e o f dam C r i t i c a l head u n d e r b l a n k e t a t downstream t o e o f dam F a c t o r o f s a f e t y r e l a t i v e t o h e a v i n g a t downstream t o e U n i t weight o f water (62. F i g u r e 12.

Constructed b l a n k e t s a r e u s u a l l y compacted. and c a r e repeated b e f o r e g o i n g t o s t e p d. I t should be noted t h a t i n most b l a n k e t . t h e b l a n k e t t h i c k n e s s may be increased o r t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e b l a n k e t may be decreased by compaction. steps a. The f o l l o w i n g procedure i s recommended f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l e n g t h t o which a b l a n k e t must be p r o v i d e d i n t h e upstream d i r e c t i o n from t h e t o e o f t h e dam. o r 100: Meaning t h a t t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e a q u i f e r i s 25. a r e d u c t i o n can be r e a l i z e d by adding t o t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e b l a n k e t o r by a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e b l a n k e t w i t h a d d i t i o n a l compaction o r o t h e r means. C a l c u l a t e t h e p r o d u c t ( Z ) ( d ) and t h e r a t i o k /kb. I f t h e seepage q u a n t i t y i s excessive.B l a n k e t s can be added upon o r be c o n s t r u c t e d c o m p l e t e l y from m a t e r i a l s t h a t have low p e r m e a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 50. A1 1 t h e area w i t h i n t h i s 1 i m i t must have a b l a n k e t and an a q u i f e r o f t h e t h i c k n e s s and p e r m e a b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t w i l l n o t exceed t h e assumed c o n d i t i o n s used i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s . t h e n determine L f o r a continuous b l a n k e t u s i n g f h e c o n s e r v a t i v e v a l u e o f kh/kb should be equation. ( k / k ) . such as 25. a d r a i n a g e system may be used. o r 100 times as g r e a t as t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e b l a n k e t . Compare t h e seepage q u a n t i t y w i t h t h e water budget and o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o seepage l o s s . .a q u i f e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e b l a n k e t and a q u i f e r a r e e n t e r e d as a r a t i o . e . 50. . When these methods a r e used. C a l c u l a t e h . b. The d i s t a n c e i n t o t h e r e s e r v o i r t o which b l a n k e t i n g i s needed can be determined. i . F i g u r e 13 provides a s o l u t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e l e n g t h o f discontinuous blankets. These values a r e u s u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o i n terms o f t h i s r a t i o . t h e h i g h e s t p r o b a b l e r a t i o . 7 6 C a l c u l a t e t h e q u a n t i t y o f seepage ( q f ) u s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e q u a t i o n . and F from t h e g i v e n equations. hc. used. The v a l u e o? F should e equal t o o r g r e a t e r than t h e minimum va ue e s t a b l i s h e d by c r i t e r i a . I f t h e v a l u e o f F h i s l e s s than t h e a l l o w a b l e .

Values of L . Actual length of discontinuous blanket ( b) f t F i g u r e 13. and L3for discontinuous natural blankets ..

The optimum l e n g t h o f a compacted upstream b l a n k e t f o r t h e purpose o f r e d u c i n g t h e seepage q u a n t i t y can be e s t i m a t e d t h e f o l l owing manner. P l o t qf vs. beyond which a n a t u r a l b l a n k e t borrowi ng o p e r a t i on. t h e v a l u e o f L3 i s zero. E n t e r F i g u r e 13 w i t h t h e assumed values o f Lo and t h e c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e o f c t o o b t a i n corresponding values of L1 f o r each assumed v a l u e o f Lo. c a l c u l a t e 1 factor c = J( kf/ e.) Calculate c = 1 f r o m t h e d e s i g n thicknesses J(kf/kb) ( Z ) ( d ) and p e r m e a b i l i t y r a t e s determined f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t e d b l a n k e t and t h e n a t u r a l a q u i f e r . Assume s e v e r a l values o f L ( t h e l e n g t h o f upstream b l a n k e t f o r m t h e upstream t o e o f t h e dam o r t h e c o r e s e c t i o n o f a zoned embankment. A d r a i n a g e system i s always recommended near t h e downstream t o e t o c o n t a i n t h e seepage and d i r e c t i t t o t h e stream channel. Lo. . C a l c u l a t e values o f qf f o r t h e values o f L1 (L3 = 0 w i t h no downstream b l a n k e t ) . T h i s method may be used f o r d e s i g n i n g a compacted b l a n k e t over a p e r v i o u s a q u i f e r t h a t has no n a t u r a l b l a n k e t . The c u r v e w i l l i n d i c a t e a r a p i d decrease i n qf f o r i n c r e a s i n g values o f L up t o a p o i n t where t h e c u r v e f l a t t e n s o u t i n d i c a ? i n g an optimum l e n g t h .d. I f t h e q u a n t i t y o f seepage i s acceptable. kb) ( Z ) ( d ) E n t e r F i g u r e 13 w i t h values o f which i s t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e a discontinuity i n the blanket t h e seepage o r u p l i f t values. c and L1 t o o b t a i n Lo upstream t o e t o where w i l l have no e f f e c t on This i s t h e p o i n t may be removed i n a I t should be noted t h a t i f d r a i n a g e i s p r o v i d e d a t t h e downstream t o e o r i f a c o n s t r u c t e d b l a n k e t extends o n l y i n t h e upstream d i r e c t i o n . The b l a n k e t can be t e r m i n a t e d a t any p o i n t where t h e d e s i r e d r e d u c t i o n i n seepage i s achieved.

The procedures explained above a r e f o r homogeneous and i s o t r o p i c c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e b l a n k e t and w i t h i n t h e a q u i f e r . .l a y e r e d ) a s t r a t i f i e d a q u i f e r o r both s t r a t i f i e d b l a n k e t and a q u i f e r . Transformations can be made f o r a s t r a t i f i e d b l a n k e t (mu1 t i .

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APPENDIX A Appendix A contains examples for the various methods of analysis discussed .

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- $ = 30 f p d ( 4 0 f t . Example 1 F l o w N e t - Embankment F o u n d a t i o n . Compare t h e c r i t i c a l g r a d i e n t w i t h t h e d i s c h a r g e g r a d i e n t t o check f o r p i p i n g p o t e n t i a l . C o n s t r u c t t h e f l o w n e t a c c o r d i n g t o p r o c e d u r e s i n S o i l Mechanics N o t e No. and c a l c u l a t e t h e shape f a c t o r $ = Nf/Nd = 3/20 = 0. 1. i d = Ah/Ak = 2/4 = 0. ) (.15 2. q = k h 3.Fme Sdty Sand k = 30 fpd 6=100pcf G. Calculate discharge gradient a t t h e toe: 4. 5. n h = h/ Fld 40/20 = 2.65 " / /' '' / / [ D e t e r m i n e t h e seepage d i s c h a r g e p e r f o o t o f s t r u c t u r e l e n g t h t h r o u g h t h e f o u n d a t i o n sand l a y e r and check t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r p i p i n g a t t h e downstream t o e .nl (measured) = 4 f t . Calculate c r i t i c a l gradient: 5.= 2. .15) = 180 c f s / f t .50 J = y w ic= v s u b .

Note: S i n c e t h e p e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n i s much more t h a n t h a t o f t h e embankment. After subdivision. o f dam ( t o t a l d i s c h a r g e p e r f t . ) About 9. o f dam l e n g t h .5 f l o w c h a n n e l s c o n t a c t t h e d r a i n . construct the flow net f o r the foundation only. Discharge t o t h e d r a i n = 1 Example 2. 12 = 100 x 40 x d = 1090 c f d / f t . 9 '2 5 x 1090 = 860 c f d / f t . Scale (feet 1 Estimate t h e discharge t o t h e foundation d r a i n . q = k h Nf = N 12 and Nd = 44. Discharge t o a d r a i n .

) D e t e r m i n e t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e p h r e a t i c l i n e and c a l c u l a t e t h e seepage r a t e f o r t h e i s o t r o p i c and a n i s o t r o p i c cases as i n d i c a t e d u s i n g a f l o w n e t . A Note: Horizontal transformation factor= \/? kh = \/k = 0. = k.004 fpd = 0 .25 Assume k. E f f e c t o f a n i s o t r o p h y o f embankment on t h e p h r e a t i c l i n e . 1 0 7 cfd per foot of structure ( b ) Transformed section (kh = 16kv) Example 3. Phreatic line for kh = 16kv (transposed back from Example 3 ( b ) below) 'Drain ( a ) True section ( isotropic case. kh = k.7112 = 0./ Partial flow channel Phreatic line for k.001 .016 = 0. = 0.001 x 40 x 3. F o r i s o t r o p i c c a s e q = k h Nf/Nd = 0.012 c f d p e r f o o t o f s t r u c t u r e . kh= 0..

Uplift pressure 1 Discharge gradient at toewall and transverse sill C o n c r e t e d r o p s p i l l w a y . of drops to point = 0 .Piezometric surface along upper flow boundary v Ground s u r f a c e 1 N. Ah =. 9 3 ft.b a s e u p l i f t and d i s c h a r g e g r a d i e n t : . = 13.8 "J d Point designation No. drops) ( f t. Head loss = (Ah x No.h Scale (feet) = 12" 13.8. 1 Example 4 .

0(22.3)(. 4. S c a l e t h e d i s t a n c e A C = a = 23 f t . . Determine a: t a n a = = 0.4472) = 4.5 a = 26. Graphical Solution: 1. Compute q = - 4d2-h2cot2a = 412564 = k a sin2a = 1 . B.60 c f d / f t . A. t h e discharge p o i n t o f t h e phreatic surface. l e n g t h . l e n g t h + Analytical Solution 1. Compute a 2.3 f t . and C f o l l o w i n g t h e s t e p s g i v e n o n F i g u r e 3. 2.0 (23)(.3 m f r o m p o i n t B.46 c f d / f t .0 fpd homogeneous and isotropic L m II c A 1: d=108' - w Scale (feet) D e t e r m i n e t h e d i s c h a r g e p o i n t o f t h e p h r e a t i c s u r f a c e o n t h e downstream f a c e o f t h e dam and t h e seepage q u a n t i t y u s i n g t h e g r a p h i c a l methods and a n a l y t i c a l s o l u t i o n o n F i g u r e 3. Phreatic Line - Graphical S o l u t i o n Point C i s . = 4. 2.Step I v -0 ----/ embankment k= 1.48064 = 22.447Z)2 Example 5. F i n d t h e l o c a t i o n s o f p o i n t s 1. 3.4472)(. 3. D e t e r m i n e m d i s t a n c e and p l o t Bo = 0. 5.56O C a l c u l a t e seepage d i s c h a r g e = k a s i n 2 a = 1.

Seepage i n c r e a s e s w i t h d r a i n a g e .70 c f d p e r f o o t o f s t r u c t u r e normal t o t h e 6. x = 6 3 . C a l c u l a t e yo = 3. 5.70 > 4. x = 0 ) . ( y = 12. P l o t p a r a b o l a and s k e t c h i n g r e s s t r a n s i t i o n .. 2. Example 6 .n embankment k = 1. 6.70 f t .3(66)=19. . Compare w i t h Example 5: . (y = 1 6 . C a l c u l a t e t h e seepage r a t e : cross section.3-35 = y2 = 7. x = 26. Determinem=2(33) = 6 6 f t . k y o = 1 .0746~2.0 f pd homogeneous and isotropic / k. 0 x 6.70 = 6.70.3'thick D e t e r m i n e t h e p h r e a t i c s u r f a c e and seepage r a t e p e r f o o t l e n g t h normal t o t h e s e c t i o n t h a t d i s c h a r g e s i n t o t h e b l a n k e t d r a i n and compare w i t h example 5 h a v i n g no d r a i n . Phreatic Line - Embankment w i t h D r a i n . Determine Parabolic Equation: 4.d 0.5). x = 39. J900 + 4070 x q = - d = 63. 7 ) .39). . ( 6 = 24. ( y = 30. 8 = 6. 1. 6 3 . C a l c u l a t e v a l u e s o f x and y : (y = 6. x (y = 20. / / / / / Pervious drain or filter . 7.8ft.8 f t .y o 2 = =2 ~ o 2 6.6).60.70 0. 8 ) . x = 1 5 .uo / / / .

5 ) 2 = 0 . From F i g u r e 7 q = k h12 . Pumping s t a t i o n s w i l l b e i n s t a l l e d a t 1000 f o o t i n t e r v a l s t o r e t u r n t h e s e e p a g e f l o w s t o t h e r i v e r . Pumping c a p a c i t y i n gpm a = 68.9 c f d (7. 9 c i d p e r f o o t of l e n g t h 100 2.48 g a l / c u f t ) 1440 min/day f o r 1000-foot l e n g t h : Q = 0 .( 2 .A d r a i n a g e d i t c h p a r a l l e l s a r i v e r t o i n t e r c e p t s e e p a g e and p r e v e n t r a i s i n g t h e g r o u n d water l e v e l i n t h e l o w e r f a r m l a n d . D e t e r m i n e t h e n e e d e d c a p a c i t y o f e a c h pumping s t a t i o n f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n shown.6 . 3 5 8 gpm p e r f o o t o f l e n g t h = qL = 0 . 1.h 2 q = 50 (12)2 .U n c o n f i n e d a q u i f e r w i t h v e r t i c a l i n l e t and o u t l e t f a c e s ( D u p u i t ' s Assumption) . 3 5 8 ( 1 0 0 0 ) = 358 gpm Example 7 . 5 0 (144 . 2 5 ) = 6 8 .

t o 1 2 f t . The e x c a v a t i o n w i l l e x t e n d i n t o t h e c l a y e y s i l t . S o i l s i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t a u n i f o r m d e p o s i t o f medium sand.01 fpd : 50' Section A-A C o n s t r u c t a f l o w n e t i n p l a n and combine w i t h t h e D u p u i t e q u a t i o n . The s t r e a m l e v e l i s n o r m a l l y b e l o w t h e c o n t a c t between t h e sands and t h e c l a y e y s i l t and groundwater l e v e l s were s l i g h t l y above t h e c o n t a c t . D u r i n g t h e w e t season. = 12' V r / Sands datum -jh2=0 Clayey silt v Clay k Scale = 5fpd k < 0. t o 5 f p d . w i d e e x c a v a t i o n i s t o b e made para1 1 e l t o a stream. Flow t o an E x c a v a t i o n . 10 f t . The c l a y e y s i l t i s r e l a t i v e l y i m p e r v i o u s . E s t i m a t e d i s c h a r g e i n t o t h e e x c a v a t i o n f o r t h e f u l l bank f l o w c o n d i t i o n s . above datum = t a i l w a t e r head. I n t h i s case. = coefficient o f permeability hl h2 = shape f a c t o r f r o m f l o w n e t = s o u r c e head. t h e D u p u i t a s s u m p t i o n i s v a l i d . t h e s t r e a m may f l o w h a l f f u l l f o r s e v e r a l weeks w i t h o c c a s i o n a l f u l l bank f l o w . Excavation Ground surface is nearly level Plan A- h. t h i c k . o v e r l i e s a c l a y e y s i l t .A 200 f t . l o n g by 50 f t . above datum Example 8. P e r m e a b i l i t y o f t h e sands ranges from 1 fpd.

=194 .5 x 2 = 19 Nd = 4 $ = N = . 7 5 d 4 Edge of stream Plan view I- Example 8.Horizontal Flow N e t Nf - = 9. 9 Flow to an excavation (cont'd) Scale : I"= 100' .

= 1. - 5 1 8 4 ( 1 ) = 151.94 c f d p e r f o o t o f l e n g t h q = k Example 9.3 f t . Dupui t s Assumption.1) ( 2)= 1. Seepage Through an I s o t r o p i c Embankment Core .97 c f d p e r f o o t o f l e n g t h Unconfined a q u i f e r .300 = (72)(0. Phreatic Line: $ $ = Nf/Nd = 3/10 = 0. Determine t h e seepage r a t e t h r o u g h t h e c o r e by: ( 1 ) f l o w n e t .707) 3.5 = 39. P e r m e a b i l i t y o f s h e l l m a t e r i a l i s 100 fpd).3)(.An embankment c o r e w i t h k = 0.8 .1)(. Flow Net.A - Comparative Methods.16 c f d p e r f o o t o f l e n g t h h2cot2a + 17849 .30) a = = 45184 - 4d2 - = 2.707)(. and ( 3 ) u n c o n f i n e d a q u i f e r . ( 2 ) p h r e a t i c l i n e . Shape f a c t o r q = h k 2.D u p u i t ' s Assumption: h 7 z2 = (0.112.1 f p d i s p l a c e d on an i m p e r v i o u s f o u n d a t i o n .417849 q = k a s i n 2 a = (0. 1.1)(39.

858 Nd = 1.0 f p d = 61.3 c f d p e r f o o t o f l e n g t h Example 9B - Comparative Methods. A l l h o r i z o n t a l d i s t a n c e s a r e reduced by a f a c t o r o f = 4113 i 3 = 0. and ( 3 ) unconfined a q u i f e r .33 C o e f f i c i e n t o f p e r m e a b i l i t y f o r computing d i s c h a r g e k' = d m ' = d FShape 1 O w N e ft a c t o r q = k' h 2.858) Phreatic Line - 1.15 = 0. Unconf i n e d a q u i f e r - Dupu i t ' s Assumpti on 58. Seepage Through an A n i s o t r o p i c Embankment Core .8 c f d per f o o t o f l e n g t h does n o t a p p l y s i n c e h > d. $ $ m = = Nf = 5.O(72)(.33 f d and k ~ = 3. ( 2 ) p h r e a t i c l i n e development does n o t a p p l y because d/h i s l e s s t h a n 1. 3.Same as Example 9A. except t h a t t h e c o r e m a t e r i a l i s a n i s o t r o p i c . Dupuits Assumption. kv = 0.0 fpd. Determine t h e seepage r a t e through t h e c o r e by: (!) f l o w n e t .0.

= (k/2d) (2 hlt . ft. q 2 + 4 = 62 ft.Tailwater level 5 Sandy gravel layer F Determine the total seepage quantity in cfs through the permeable layer of sandy gravel for a 400-foot long reach of dike having the conditions shown. t = 8 ft.400 sec per day = 3.t2 .see figure I I . q = k i A = (500) (0.)/86. hl = 98 . For tailwater level A : Use Darcy's Law A (8)(1) = = 7 see figure 10 8 sq.Finite length . length Q = q L = 692 (400 ft.5 cfs ft Example 10.2 cfs For tailwater level B: Use ~ a r c ~ 'Law s and Dupuit's Assumption .173) (8) = 692 cfd per foot of length for 400 it.. length: Q = q L = 760Cfd (400 ft.)/86. Confined aquifer .h22) = (5001600) D(62) (8) . Calculate the seepage for tailwater levels A and B.(812 - (4)g = 760 cfd per foot of length for400 ft.400 sec per day = 3.40 h = 4 ft.

-0 rr) II r t k.OOO h 30 d = l 882 L 1 + L2 + L3 L3 ~1 + ~ 2 + L~ = 30 1 20 62. 6 / 1 1 .8 f e e t = 10. D e t e r m i n e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y . C a l c u l a t e L 1 = L3 = J ( k f / k b ) ( d ) ( z ) 4. C a l c u l a t e hc = Z ysubly.4 346 346 f e e t 1 0 = 0.6 f e e t Example 11.0fpd /I /I/ I / /I// /I / I /I /I / I /I/I /I / I /I/I / I /I / I / I / // // / I / I D e t e r m i n e t h e q u a n t i t y o f seepage ( q f ) p e r f o o t o f embankment l e n g t h and t h e f a c t o r o f s a f e t y r e l a t i v e t o h e a v i n g a t t h e downstream t o e . = h = J ( 1 0 0 0 ) ( 1 0 ) ( 1 2 ) = J120. 1.89.392) = 11. 6. C a l c u l a t e k f / k b = 11. = = 346 = 30(0. Fh = h c / h o = 1 0 . p r o v i d e d r a i n a g e a t t o e and r e c a l c u l a t e Continuous B l a n k e t . 8 q f u s i n g L3 = 0.- / / / / / / / / / / / / / impervious // / ' k f = 1. u n s a f e . kf C a l c u l a t e qf = C a l c u l a t e h. = 0.001 fpd .34 c f d p e r f o o t o f s t r u c t u r e + 346 190 + 5. Ysub = 55 pcf k.=0.001 = 1000 2.

Then. must a s c e r t a i n (cfd/ft of dan.f r o m f i g u r e 1 4 . The optimum l e n g t h o f compacted upstream b l a n k e t appears t o be a b o u t 300 f e e t .3 - - )O Lo . 3 C o n s t r u c t e d Upstream B l a n k e t 1000 .&Y/L-~Y/LV/~// impervious //mZY{H/B// /~:Y/H/B/R// E s t i m a t e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e compacted b l a n k e t f o r optimum r e d u c t i o n o f q f . o b t a i n v a l u e s o f L1.9 19.0013 C a l c u l a t e values o f qf.6 6.001 fpd p = 3 # [ /.0013. w i t h c = 0. Assume v a l u e s o f Lo.OOO(3) ( 2 0 ) 1.1 13.8 11. whether o r n o t a w a t e r l o s s o f a b o u t 11 c f d / f t o f l e n g t h can be t o l e r a t e d . 4.1 9. P l o t qf v s .ft Example 12.7 8. Lo. . c 3.k. length) 30.=0.(ft) = J(kflkb)(Z)(d) (ft) 0 0 100 100 200 200 300 290 400 355 5 0 0 420 9 0 0 635 (ft) 162 262 362 452 517 582 797 = 0. 1 -- 1 J10 .