QUESTION 1: Explain the main causes, features and consequences

of the Independence process of Argentina.
Introduction

The area that today are known as the republic of Argentina, has been
shaped in a process over the course of several centuries, involving many
conflicts and wars. The book “born in blood and fire” by J. Chasteen are
describing for the line of events that eventually created and shaped the
country. The Argentina we know today, was a part of the territory known
as the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata. This colonial territory was created
with the intention of being able to resist invasion by Spain’s enemies. But
were in fact one of the drivers that would lead the colony to independence
from Spain. The history of Argentina´s independence is strongly influenced
by the processes that were happening, and the introductions of new ideas
who arose at the time in the old continent.
Reforms
Until 1776, the Argentine territories was - in effect, under the control of
Peru, but with the Bourbon reforms Spain had the intensions of secure
their position in the new continent. The Bourbon kings was Felipe V,
Fernando VI and Carlos III. The establishment of the Viceroyalty of the river
plate, lead to a resurgence in trade between Argentine territories and
Spain. The new Virreinato de Rio de la Plata consisted of Bolivia, Argentina,
Paraguay and Uruguay. The reformist wanted to centralize power in the
region, and decrease the autonomy in trade and governance. This in order
to secure Spain´s hold.

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the British shattered much of the Spanish navy in the battle at Trafalgar. This lead to more development and ideas which came in the form of the Bourbon reforms. The reforms can also be seen as a driver to a divide between rich and poor.This was an effect of the “commercio libre” – the free and protected trade between Spain and its colonies. The Ideas of the reform. rather than restrict the supply of European goods. The reforms had it´s roots in the wave of Enlightenment in Europe. who was lead by “Crillos” with Spanish decent took over control again. and its influencers used the ideas from the emerging economies of Europe to speed up the development of the Viceroyalty. and Buenos Aires and its hinterlands trade with other colonies arose again. but at the same time control the British powers and illegal trade. The trans-Atlantic trade was boosted with the establishment of new harbors and the goal to maximize transactions. as well as improved contact and trade between the city and the territory’s hinterlands. the local militias. Contact between Spain and River plate was effectively disrupted with British navy blockades. In 1768. In June 1806. and Creoles and Spaniards. However. One of the main objectives of the reforms was to make the economies of the colony more diversified and self-sufficient. However. was received by all classes of the society in the colony. and took a part of the development. Also the Burgess classes adopted this new way of a more capitalistic approach. this was welcomed later by the British crown who sent out more ships to back the invaders. Buenos Aires was invaded by British forces in an unauthorized attack by Sir Home Popham. One of these objectives was the promotion of agriculture and import of slaves for increased labor needs in this sector. 2 . The new economic reforms can be seen as a major cause for the development and growth of the city Buenos Aires. The way to independence In the late part of 1805. this because of the demand for higher taxes with unrest and rebellion as a result. the areas saw an increase of Jesuits from Europe. after the British invaders had dissolved the local Spanish administration.

Since the Argentine territories was considered less attractive than the British colonies. after the victory over the British invaders. Therefore. It would be decades before some sort of feeling that the country had became and entity would take place in the people. the insurgents saw their chance to continue their path to independence. The Cabadilo. On July 9th 1816 finally left its dependence from Spain and was declared a nation. they where not as strategic for Bonaparte´s rule over Spain. a militia of 8000 men that had been established after the first British invasion. the country was nowhere near a united nation. the British colonies in what is now United States of America signed the independence act. and the citizens decided it was time to establish their first Junta. had been formed by Santiago Liniers had now became the viceroy and ruled Buenos Aires.With the Spanish losses in the old continent. the news of Napoleon´s invasion of Spain hit the streets of Buenos Aires. 2. The rebellion in Haiti of 1791 was also seen as an inspiration for independence. With the new feeling of national identity and the urge for independence amongst the people. with the result of the former slave colony became the first independent country in LatinAmerica. In May 1810. Explain the main causes of civil war in Argentina after independence Introduction After Argentine declared its independence from Spain in 1810. 3 . they encouraged the insurgents wish for independence. due to an uprising of what was seen by it population as an unfair tax burden by England. The road to independence was also influenced by the revolutions in the Americas. In 1776. because Spain did not have any king or effective government anymore. due to the invasion from Napoleon lead France in 1808. with mutual interests in the urban areas and the hinterlands.

While the Unitarians aimed for a capital that would be the economic power. and was seen as another attempt to sustain the hegemony of Buenos Aires. and a new civil war was threating. This did not fell in good hands in the provinces. After the independence from Spain. Buenos Aires had a monopoly of international commerce because of its harbors. The Federalist movement wanted the political power to be distributed amongst provinces with would consist of equal states. Buenos Aires had become a hub for trade and power. there were still not a national unity in the country. with strong bonds to the old continent. Causes of the civil wars. even though it was now independent. While 4 . and had Eurocentric ideas. village and city sparked many conflicts. In 1832 Rosas left office. and gained many members from the blacks. Rosas. The realization that the country. called the “Caligula of the River Plate. and soon after the provinces demanded a new constitution. and this would define the next century. Rosas.The gap between rich and poor. was from simple means and nothing more than a While he was in power. These was mainly the wealthy elite. but was not unified resulted in Bernardino Rivadavia was elected president in 1826. the different territories of the country were different both political and economical. He became governor in 1829. The Unitarians in the city had strong intensives to keep a grip of both economic and political influence in the country. Rosas was reelected and demanded dictatorial authority. Rivadavia was only president for a short period of time. things calmed down and the power was to been shared between the provinces and Buenos Aires. and this was a central cause of the conflicts. The federal party in the provinces and Unitarian party had large differences in the opinion how to rule the country. Urquiza The Argentine civil wars were a series of conflicts that took place between 1814 and 1880. before Juan Manuel de Rosas was elected as president for the federales. mullatos and urban poor in the city.

Rosas distributed land which was appropriated during his expedition.he was away. Much because of his conflicts with Brazil and Bolivia. those who resisted and spoke up against Rosas dictator-like way of governance would be the victim of his regime of terror. the country’s economy worsened day by day. This lead to Urquiza becoming the first constitutional president of the country. This gained him large respect amongst the people when he stepped back into the politics. when the army of Buenos Aires was defeated by Justo Jose de Urquiza. To tackle some of this. mainly to high ranking members of his military. and Rosas would flee Argentina. the military budget absorbed three-quarters of the budget of Buenos Aires. And blockades such as the British blockade of Buenos Aires 1845-1847 had great impacts on the economy. many of his opponents was killed or sent in exile. The external conflicts while Rosas was in command would be devastating for the economy. Under Rosas regime. he had lead expeditions to the south with the aim to open more land for agriculture and drive out the Indian settlements. In 1841 alone. In he´s second period. Rosas rule would end after the battle of Caseros. 5 .