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A short problem set on Antenna Systems

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resonant frequency to which the antenna is tuned; (b) the new capacitance value needed to

tune the antenna at 50 MHz, and (c) the value of the required series capacitance.

GIVEN:

L = 2H

C =15pf

f = 50MHz

REQD:

a. fr

b. C

c. C

SOLN:

a.

fr =

b. fr =

c.

2 LC

1

2 LC

1

2 (2 H )(15 pf )

1

2

4 fr L

;C=

1 1

1

= +

C C ' 15 pF

= 29MHz

1

2

4 (50 MHz) 2 H

2

= 5.07 pf

; C = 7.66 Pf

GIVEN:

R = 300

I = 5A

Prad

REQD:

SOLN:

Prad = I2R

Prad = (5A)2(300 )

Prad = 7500W

3. Determine the effective radiated power if the transmitter output power is 200 W,

transmission line loss is 20 W and antenna power gain is 5.

GIVEN:

Po = 200W

Loss = 20W

G=5

ERP

REQD:

SOLN:

ERP = PoG

ERP = (200-20)(5)

ERP = 900W

4. Determine the EIRP on an antenna with a power gain of 43 dB and radiated power of

200W.

GIVEN:

G(dB) = 43dB

Prad = 200W

REQD:

EIRP

SOLN:

EIRP = 10log (200W) + 43 dB

EIRP = 68.16dB

5. Determine the effective isotropic radiated power for an antenna with directivity = 33 dB,

efficiency = 82%, and input power = 100W.

GIVEN:

D = 33 dB

= 82 %

Pin = 100 W

REQD:

EIRP

SOLN:

=

Prad

pin

Prad = (0.82)(100 W)

= 82 W

D=

103.3

= 1995.26

EIRP = PradD

= (82 W)(1995.26)

EIRP = 163.611 kW

6. Determine the power density at a point 30 km from the antenna that has input power =

40 W, efficiency = 75%, and directivity = 16 dB.

GIVEN:

r = 30 km

Pin = 40 W

= 75%

D = 16 dB

REQD:

PD

SOLN:

PD =

PtGt

4 r 2

= (40 W)(0.75)(39.81)/4(30000m2)

PD = 105.599 nW/m2

7. Determine the directivity in dB of an antenna that produces power density of 2 uW/m 2 at a

point when the reference antenna produces 0.5 uW/m2 at the same point.

GIVEN:

PD = 2 uW/m2

Pref = 0.5 uW/m2

REQD:

D(dB)

SOLN:

D(dB) =

PD

Pref

D(dB)= 6.02 dB

8. What is the ERP of a TV broadcast station if the output of the transmitter is 1000 W,

transmission line loss of 50 W and antenna power gain is 3?

GIVEN:

Pout = 1000 W

Loss = 50 W

G=3

REQD:

ERP

SOLN:

ERP = (Pin)(G)

= (1000-50)(3) W

ERP= 2850 W

9. Calculate the front-to-back ratio for an antenna with forward gain of 7 dB and a reverse

gain -3 dB.

GIVEN:

PF = 7 dB

PB = -3 dB

REQD:

AFB

SOLN:

AFB = 10log(

pF

pB

= 10log(10.02)

AFB = 10.009dB

10. A helical antenna is operated at twice its original frequency. So the new is the

previous . What is the change in gain?

GIVEN:

Fop =

1

2 F

op =

REQD:

Change in G

SOLN:

G=

15 NS(D )2

3

2

G2/G1 =

15 NS(D )

23

15 NS(D )

/

13

= 3/.5 3

G= 800

11. A helical antenna of 8 turns is to be constructed for a frequency of 1.2 GHz. Calculate the

optimum diameter and spacing for the antenna and find the total length of the antenna.

GIVEN:

N = 8 turns

S = 0.05m

fo = 500MHz

REQD:

D,

SOLN:

=

c

=

fo

S=

3 x 108 m/s

cycles

(1.2

)(10 9)

sec

0.25m

4

= 0.25 D =

0.25

D=7.96cm

12. Determine the power gain and beamwidth for an end-fire helical antenna with the

following specifications: D = 0.1 m, N = 10, S = 0.05 m, F = 500 MHz.

GIVEN:

D = 0.1 m

N = 10

S = 0.05 m

f = 500 MHz

REQD:

G,

SOLN:

G=

15 NS(D )2

3

= 3.42

G(dB) = 5.35 dB

52

NS

( D )

1 /2

( )

52(0.6 m)

(10)(0.05 m)

( ) (0.1 m)

(0.6 m)

1 /2

= 108.792o

13. What are the gain and beamwidth for a dish with D = 20?

GIVEN:

D = 20

REQD:

G

SOLN:

G = 6(D/ )2

= 6(20)2

= 2400 = 33.8 dB

= 70(/D) = 70(1/20)

= 3.5o

14. How large a dish diameter, in wavelengths and in meters, is needed for a 60 dB gain at

300 MHz?

GIVEN:

G = 60dB

f = 300MHz

REQD:

D

SOLN:

D

D

6

;=

G=(

; = 10 = 0.60(

2

2

D=

c

f

3 X 108

300 X 106

= 1m

106

2

0.60

D = 410.94m

15. For an antenna with input power of 100 W, RMS current = 2 A, and effective resistance =

2, determine (a) antennas radiation resistance, (b) antennas efficiency, and (c) power

radiated from the antenna.

GIVEN:

PIN = 100W

I = 2Arms

Rr = 2

REQD:

Rrad, , Prad

SOLN:

Rrad =

P

2

I

R rad

R rad + R r

100 W

; Rrad = 25

22

=

25

25+ 2

x 100; =92.59%

Prad = 92.59W

16. Determine the efficiency of an antenna with radiation resistance 18.8 , effective

resistance 0.4 , and directivity gain is 200.

GIVEN:

Rr = 18.8

Ro = 0.4

D = 200

REQD:

SOLN:

Rr

Rr + Ro

= 97.9 %

17. Two /2 dipole are separated by 50 km. They are aligned for optimum reception. The

transmitter fed its antenna with 10 W at 144 MHz. Calculate the power received.

GIVEN:

r = 50 km

Pt = 10 W

f = 144MHz

REQD:

Pr

SOLN:

Pr =

PtGtGr2

16( r )2

(10 W )(1.64)(1.64)(2.08)

16 2 (50 km)2

= Pr = 295.75pW

18. The ERP of a transmitting station is specified as 17 W in a given direction. Express this as

an EIRP in dBm.

GIVEN:

ERP = 17 W

REQD:

EIRP in dBm

SOLN:

EIRPdBm = 10log(

Prad

0.001 +10logDt

= ERP + 2.15 dB

= 10log(17/0.001) + 2.15

EIRPdBm = 44.45 dBm

19. Design a log periodic antenna to cover the frequency range from 100 to 300 MHz. Use

= 0.7 and = 30o.

GIVEN:

REQD:

f = 100-300MHz

LPA Design

= 0.7

= 30o

SOLN:

For the length of the 1st and last element:

=

1

2

(3 x 10 )/(100 MHz)

2

=1.5m

d1 = (0.1) (1 ) = (0.1)(3m)

d1 = 0.3m

2 = = (0.7)(1.5m)

2 = 1.05m

d2 = d1 = (0.7)(0.3)

d2 = 0.21m

3 =

3

2

==

(3 x 10 )/(300 MHz)

2

; 3 = 0.5m

20. What are the gain, in dB, and beam width of the helical antenna with diameter = /3, 10

turns at pitch of /4 used at 100 MHz (= 3 m)?

GIVEN:

D = /3

N = 10

S = /4

f = 100 MHz

= 3 m

REQD:

G

SOLN:

2

G=

15 NS(D )

3

G = 41.12

G = 16.14 dB

52

NS

( D )

1 /2

( )

= 52(3) / ( )((10)(0.75))1/2

= 31.41o

21. Calculate the operating frequency for a helical antenna that consists of 10 turns with a

spacing of 10 cm and a diameter of 12.7 cm.

GIVEN:

N = 10 turns

S = 10cm

D = 12.7 cm

REQD:

fo

SOLN:

The circumference of the turns is about one , and the spacing is for this type if

antenna. First, calculating the wavelength:

= D = (12.7cm) = 39.89cm

The spacing between the coils is , and four times this value yields 40cm. The frequency

will be approximately:

fo =

3 x 108 m/ s

3 x 108 m/ s

39.38 cm ;

fo = 752MHz

22. An antenna has a beam width of 3 degrees. Estimate its gain.

GIVEN:

REQD:

= 3o

G

SOLN:

Assume a small dish operation:

fo = 28 GHz

=

c

fo

= 70(

D = 70(

3 x 108 m/ s

28 GHz

= 10.71mm

D

10.71 mm

= 25cm

= 70(

3O

G=(

2

(25 cm)

= (0.6) ( 10.71 mm

2

G = 3226.65~35.08dB

23. Calculate the minimum diameter of a parabolic antenna with a beam width of 2 degrees

at a frequency of 12 GHz.

GIVEN:

B = 2o

f = 12GHz

REQD:

D

SOLN:

8

3 x 10 m/ s

12 GHz

B = 70(

= 2.5cm

2.5 cm

o

; 2 =(70)(

)

D

D

D = 8.75cm

24. A parabolic antenna has a diameter of 3 m, an efficiency of 60 % and operates at a

frequency of 4 GHz. Calculate its beam width and gain in dB.

GIVEN:

D = 3m

= 60%

fo = 4GHz

REQD:

, G(dB)

SOLN:

3 x 102 m/ s

4 GHz

= 75mm

75 mm

( )( 2 ) = (0.60)( ( 2)

G=

(3 m)

= 1005.31

G(dB) = 10logG

G(dB) = 30.02dB + 2.15dB

G(dBi) = 32.17dB

25. Calculate the effective area of a 3 m dish with an efficiency of 0.7 at 3 GHz and at 12

GHz.

GIVEN:

D = 3m

= 0.7

f1 = 3GHz, f2 = 12GHz

REQD:

Aeff @ f1 and f2

SOLN:

G = (

2

, Aeff = G(

4

@ f1:

@ f2:

= 0.1m

= 0.025m

G = 6217.850773 / 37.94Db

G = 99485.61236 / 49.98dB

Aef = 4.948m2

Aef = 4.948m2

26. A 64 mm diameter parabolic reflector fed by a non-directional antenna is used at 1430

MHz. Calculate the beam width between half power points and between nulls and the power

gain with respect to a half-wave dipole, assuming even illumination.

GIVEN:

D = 64mm

fo = 1430MHz

REQD:

3dB, O, G

SOLN:

=

3 x 108 m/ s

= 20.9790cm

1430 MHz

3dB = 70(

20.9790 cm

;

64 mm

O = 2(229.45o);

3dB = 229.45O

O = 458.9o ~ 98.92o

64 mm

G = 6( 20.9790 cm

2

= 0.5584; G = 0.5584

27. Find the gain of a pyramidal horn whose dimensions are 12 cm wide and 10 cm high. The

operating frequency is assumed to be 10 GHz.

GIVEN:

REQD:

d = 12cm 12cm

fo = 10GHz

SOLN:

G=

G=

7.5 d h d h

3 x 108 m/ s

10 GHz

= 3cm

2

(3 cm)

G = 3 ~ 4.77dB

28. A point-to-point system operates over a distance of 20 km at a frequency of 26 GHz. The

antenna is each of diameter 90 cm. Estimate the beam width of the antenna deployed and

the power received if the transmit power is 20 dBm.

GIVEN:

r = 20km

fo = 26GHz

D = 90cm

Prad = 20dBm

REQD:

3dB, PR

SOLN:

3dB = 70(

3 x 10 8

3dB = 70( 26 GHz ; 3dB = 0.897o

90 cm

PR =

Prad GT GR 2

16 2 r 2

D

90 cm

G = 6(

= 6( 1.15 cm

2

= 33073.724

Prad(dBm) = 10 log

20 dB m

1 mW

= 0.1W

33073.724

1.150 m

PR =

2

(0.1)

PR = 229.02nW ~ 36.4dBm

29. A transmitter with an output resistance of 72 W and an r.m.s. output of 100 V is

connected via a matched line to an antenna whose input resistance is 72 W. Its radiation

resistance is also 72 W. Assuming that the antenna is 100% efficient at the operating

frequency, how much power will be transmitted into free space?

GIVEN:

Ro = 72

Vo = 100V

Ri = 72

Re = 72

=1

SOLN:

I=

V O 100 V

=

=1.39 A

RO 72

Re =

P rad

I2

Prad =138.39 W

Prad

REQD:

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