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# ANTENNA

## 1. Antenna has an inductance of 2 uH and a capacitance of 15 pF. Determine (a) the

resonant frequency to which the antenna is tuned; (b) the new capacitance value needed to
tune the antenna at 50 MHz, and (c) the value of the required series capacitance.
GIVEN:
L = 2H
C =15pf
f = 50MHz

REQD:
a. fr

b. C

c. C

SOLN:
a.

fr =

b. fr =

c.

2 LC
1
2 LC

1
2 (2 H )(15 pf )
1
2
4 fr L

;C=

1 1
1
= +
C C ' 15 pF

= 29MHz

1
2
4 (50 MHz) 2 H
2

= 5.07 pf

; C = 7.66 Pf

## 2. A 300 antenna is operating with 5 A of current. Determine the radiated power.

GIVEN:
R = 300
I = 5A

REQD:

SOLN:

3. Determine the effective radiated power if the transmitter output power is 200 W,
transmission line loss is 20 W and antenna power gain is 5.
GIVEN:
Po = 200W
Loss = 20W
G=5

ERP

REQD:
SOLN:
ERP = PoG
ERP = (200-20)(5)
ERP = 900W

4. Determine the EIRP on an antenna with a power gain of 43 dB and radiated power of
200W.
GIVEN:
G(dB) = 43dB

REQD:
EIRP

SOLN:
EIRP = 10log (200W) + 43 dB
EIRP = 68.16dB
5. Determine the effective isotropic radiated power for an antenna with directivity = 33 dB,
efficiency = 82%, and input power = 100W.

GIVEN:
D = 33 dB
= 82 %
Pin = 100 W

REQD:
EIRP

SOLN:
=

pin

= 82 W
D=

103.3

= 1995.26
= (82 W)(1995.26)
EIRP = 163.611 kW
6. Determine the power density at a point 30 km from the antenna that has input power =
40 W, efficiency = 75%, and directivity = 16 dB.
GIVEN:
r = 30 km
Pin = 40 W
= 75%
D = 16 dB
REQD:
PD
SOLN:
PD =

PtGt
4 r 2

= (40 W)(0.75)(39.81)/4(30000m2)
PD = 105.599 nW/m2
7. Determine the directivity in dB of an antenna that produces power density of 2 uW/m 2 at a
point when the reference antenna produces 0.5 uW/m2 at the same point.
GIVEN:
PD = 2 uW/m2
Pref = 0.5 uW/m2
REQD:
D(dB)
SOLN:
D(dB) =

PD
Pref

## = 10log(2 uW/m2 / 0.5 uW/m2)

D(dB)= 6.02 dB

8. What is the ERP of a TV broadcast station if the output of the transmitter is 1000 W,
transmission line loss of 50 W and antenna power gain is 3?
GIVEN:
Pout = 1000 W
Loss = 50 W
G=3
REQD:
ERP
SOLN:
ERP = (Pin)(G)
= (1000-50)(3) W
ERP= 2850 W
9. Calculate the front-to-back ratio for an antenna with forward gain of 7 dB and a reverse
gain -3 dB.
GIVEN:
PF = 7 dB
PB = -3 dB
REQD:
AFB
SOLN:
AFB = 10log(

pF

pB

= 10log(10.02)
AFB = 10.009dB
10. A helical antenna is operated at twice its original frequency. So the new is the
previous . What is the change in gain?
GIVEN:
Fop =

1
2 F

op =
REQD:
Change in G
SOLN:
G=

15 NS(D )2
3
2

G2/G1 =

15 NS(D )
23

15 NS(D )
/
13

= 3/.5 3
G= 800
11. A helical antenna of 8 turns is to be constructed for a frequency of 1.2 GHz. Calculate the
optimum diameter and spacing for the antenna and find the total length of the antenna.
GIVEN:
N = 8 turns
S = 0.05m
fo = 500MHz

REQD:
D,
SOLN:
=

c
=
fo

S=

3 x 108 m/s
cycles
(1.2
)(10 9)
sec

0.25m
4

= 0.25 D =

0.25

D=7.96cm

## ; S = 6.25cm ; = NS; =0.5m

12. Determine the power gain and beamwidth for an end-fire helical antenna with the
following specifications: D = 0.1 m, N = 10, S = 0.05 m, F = 500 MHz.
GIVEN:
D = 0.1 m
N = 10
S = 0.05 m
f = 500 MHz
REQD:
G,
SOLN:
G=

15 NS(D )2
3

## = (15)(10)(0.05)(0.1)2 / (3x108m/s / 500x106)

= 3.42
G(dB) = 5.35 dB

52
NS
( D )

1 /2

( )

52(0.6 m)
(10)(0.05 m)
( ) (0.1 m)
(0.6 m)

1 /2

= 108.792o
13. What are the gain and beamwidth for a dish with D = 20?
GIVEN:
D = 20
REQD:
G

SOLN:
G = 6(D/ )2
= 6(20)2
= 2400 = 33.8 dB

= 70(/D) = 70(1/20)
= 3.5o
14. How large a dish diameter, in wavelengths and in meters, is needed for a 60 dB gain at
300 MHz?
GIVEN:
G = 60dB
f = 300MHz
REQD:
D
SOLN:

D
D
6

;=
G=(
; = 10 = 0.60(
2

2
D=

c
f

3 X 108
300 X 106

= 1m

106
2
0.60

D = 410.94m
15. For an antenna with input power of 100 W, RMS current = 2 A, and effective resistance =
2, determine (a) antennas radiation resistance, (b) antennas efficiency, and (c) power
GIVEN:
PIN = 100W
I = 2Arms
Rr = 2
REQD:
SOLN:

P
2
I

100 W
22
=

25
25+ 2

x 100; =92.59%

## Prad = PIN = (0.9259)(100W)

16. Determine the efficiency of an antenna with radiation resistance 18.8 , effective
resistance 0.4 , and directivity gain is 200.
GIVEN:
Rr = 18.8
Ro = 0.4
D = 200
REQD:

SOLN:

Rr
Rr + Ro

## = 18.8 / 18.8 + 0.4 *100

= 97.9 %
17. Two /2 dipole are separated by 50 km. They are aligned for optimum reception. The
transmitter fed its antenna with 10 W at 144 MHz. Calculate the power received.
GIVEN:
r = 50 km
Pt = 10 W
f = 144MHz
REQD:
Pr
SOLN:
Pr =

PtGtGr2
16( r )2

(10 W )(1.64)(1.64)(2.08)
16 2 (50 km)2

= Pr = 295.75pW

18. The ERP of a transmitting station is specified as 17 W in a given direction. Express this as
an EIRP in dBm.
GIVEN:
ERP = 17 W
REQD:
EIRP in dBm
SOLN:
EIRPdBm = 10log(

0.001 +10logDt

= ERP + 2.15 dB
= 10log(17/0.001) + 2.15
EIRPdBm = 44.45 dBm
19. Design a log periodic antenna to cover the frequency range from 100 to 300 MHz. Use
= 0.7 and = 30o.
GIVEN:
REQD:
f = 100-300MHz
LPA Design
= 0.7
= 30o
SOLN:
For the length of the 1st and last element:
=

1
2

(3 x 10 )/(100 MHz)
2

=1.5m
d1 = (0.1) (1 ) = (0.1)(3m)
d1 = 0.3m

2 = = (0.7)(1.5m)
2 = 1.05m
d2 = d1 = (0.7)(0.3)
d2 = 0.21m

3 =

3
2

==

(3 x 10 )/(300 MHz)
2

; 3 = 0.5m

20. What are the gain, in dB, and beam width of the helical antenna with diameter = /3, 10
turns at pitch of /4 used at 100 MHz (= 3 m)?
GIVEN:
D = /3
N = 10
S = /4
f = 100 MHz
= 3 m

REQD:
G

SOLN:
2

G=

15 NS(D )
3

## = (15)(10)(.75)( )2 / (3x108m/s / 100x106)

G = 41.12
G = 16.14 dB

52
NS
( D )

1 /2

( )

= 52(3) / ( )((10)(0.75))1/2
= 31.41o
21. Calculate the operating frequency for a helical antenna that consists of 10 turns with a
spacing of 10 cm and a diameter of 12.7 cm.
GIVEN:
N = 10 turns
S = 10cm
D = 12.7 cm
REQD:
fo
SOLN:
The circumference of the turns is about one , and the spacing is for this type if
antenna. First, calculating the wavelength:
= D = (12.7cm) = 39.89cm
The spacing between the coils is , and four times this value yields 40cm. The frequency
will be approximately:
fo =

3 x 108 m/ s

3 x 108 m/ s
39.38 cm ;

fo = 752MHz
22. An antenna has a beam width of 3 degrees. Estimate its gain.

GIVEN:
REQD:
= 3o
G
SOLN:
Assume a small dish operation:
fo = 28 GHz
=

c
fo

= 70(

D = 70(

3 x 108 m/ s
28 GHz

= 10.71mm

D
10.71 mm

= 25cm
= 70(

3O

## Assume a typical efficiency of 60%:

G=(
2

(25 cm)
= (0.6) ( 10.71 mm
2

G = 3226.65~35.08dB
23. Calculate the minimum diameter of a parabolic antenna with a beam width of 2 degrees
at a frequency of 12 GHz.
GIVEN:
B = 2o
f = 12GHz
REQD:
D
SOLN:
8

3 x 10 m/ s
12 GHz

B = 70(

= 2.5cm

2.5 cm
o
; 2 =(70)(
)
D
D

D = 8.75cm
24. A parabolic antenna has a diameter of 3 m, an efficiency of 60 % and operates at a
frequency of 4 GHz. Calculate its beam width and gain in dB.
GIVEN:
D = 3m
= 60%
fo = 4GHz
REQD:
, G(dB)
SOLN:

3 x 102 m/ s
4 GHz

= 75mm

75 mm

( )( 2 ) = (0.60)( ( 2)
G=

(3 m)

= 1005.31

G(dB) = 10logG
G(dB) = 30.02dB + 2.15dB
G(dBi) = 32.17dB
25. Calculate the effective area of a 3 m dish with an efficiency of 0.7 at 3 GHz and at 12
GHz.
GIVEN:
D = 3m
= 0.7
f1 = 3GHz, f2 = 12GHz
REQD:
Aeff @ f1 and f2
SOLN:

G = (
2

, Aeff = G(
4

@ f1:
@ f2:
= 0.1m
= 0.025m
G = 6217.850773 / 37.94Db
G = 99485.61236 / 49.98dB
Aef = 4.948m2
Aef = 4.948m2
26. A 64 mm diameter parabolic reflector fed by a non-directional antenna is used at 1430
MHz. Calculate the beam width between half power points and between nulls and the power
gain with respect to a half-wave dipole, assuming even illumination.
GIVEN:
D = 64mm
fo = 1430MHz

REQD:
3dB, O, G

SOLN:

## 3dB = 70( D , O = 23dB, G = 6(

=

3 x 108 m/ s
= 20.9790cm
1430 MHz

3dB = 70(

20.9790 cm
;
64 mm

O = 2(229.45o);

3dB = 229.45O

O = 458.9o ~ 98.92o

64 mm
G = 6( 20.9790 cm
2

= 0.5584; G = 0.5584

27. Find the gain of a pyramidal horn whose dimensions are 12 cm wide and 10 cm high. The
operating frequency is assumed to be 10 GHz.
GIVEN:

REQD:

d = 12cm 12cm

fo = 10GHz
SOLN:
G=

G=

7.5 d h d h

3 x 108 m/ s
10 GHz

= 3cm

## 7.5 (12cm)(10 cm)

2
(3 cm)

G = 3 ~ 4.77dB
28. A point-to-point system operates over a distance of 20 km at a frequency of 26 GHz. The
antenna is each of diameter 90 cm. Estimate the beam width of the antenna deployed and
the power received if the transmit power is 20 dBm.
GIVEN:
r = 20km
fo = 26GHz
D = 90cm
REQD:
3dB, PR
SOLN:
3dB = 70(

3 x 10 8
3dB = 70( 26 GHz ; 3dB = 0.897o
90 cm
PR =

16 2 r 2

D
90 cm
G = 6(
= 6( 1.15 cm
2

= 33073.724

20 dB m
1 mW

= 0.1W

33073.724

1.150 m

PR =

2
(0.1)

PR = 229.02nW ~ 36.4dBm
29. A transmitter with an output resistance of 72 W and an r.m.s. output of 100 V is
connected via a matched line to an antenna whose input resistance is 72 W. Its radiation
resistance is also 72 W. Assuming that the antenna is 100% efficient at the operating
frequency, how much power will be transmitted into free space?
GIVEN:
Ro = 72
Vo = 100V
Ri = 72
Re = 72
=1
SOLN:

I=

V O 100 V
=
=1.39 A
RO 72

Re =