22 | CHAPTERl

q.*

.

1.6

are simply
@mpcraftrc har ds6rt Sovc or &lhn bcilsw $c limit tqnPcrltut€$.
prcsct
ocrtrin
reac$cs
limi8.
(or
Ampcranrrc
*lpn
thc
&c)
s1ritchci dcdgnod !o opca
v

:.'

uNlrs,s[AfiDARDs,AltlD DEm{moN$'

'

Arinrnyo&*rocln@icddr$linc,&cfddofprorcoolylt+rryf scrsofunltt
gindndr, rna ddinilriom C dcsctee esetdnr&ics. Sre of ecac are r rcsult of hb .
torird use re sc fc corim&noc, ud onrc rc$st ontirl*1p As tlrc dlscipline grcur,
drcrc wrccfiorts

o stdlita{ac fc.ue

ro

f.ri prlfcaddml

q,oftctl3 in prccss cootrrol oould

cecaivcfycomrnf,cdc rmfg &crcdttc3 rnd rath rpcialiets in olhcr di$iptfutca In &is
lo*on *crumnrriaa&cpcec*rraaof& rtladw b lhc oorimon uifts' st dad$

uddcfinitioc.

1.Al

Units

Ib1161c frccbc

roffcd oatefcdm rnry iodirifoaf cmelq,Ed

rn

eduoloticst

rcof uaic tf cstoe*.q 1qpry
eo 6f Uil erurfecs rg& omnnrfctioo rd b.c bcil rdoFtcd by ffi todnicat dsciplinc*lnpri:ccsonnnt,.ptttcrhrtdofrncticun'itsbttrcd$rhichyrs$rc@tV
StEilcm.(SL Sy:*fme ntcmationat
in lrodioo"t codcrwi crlhd rls Isrfu

OryAdt bcrreeitue:rrS{c$*d

'
'

D'Ihfi€3I

F1gS* ryucoof ur$ts b ttr b oommm usc, d&ottgb ttsc
oowtlng nsc o&n e b lnpona4 fo thc pom'onrd rp+
uaf,crnd to bc $lc o fcrfgnn oowersiom wiltfirtc Sl sylten.

ipmn6 &ilc*&

fe

bgileFnt
Ceti*otms &tttr
of S[ t61t

hcnrdonal SfEtcm of Uolts

Thcintcroalonalsys"mof unis is mdnta:ncd
ty ufocrllEonalrgrtccrcttrrrrlduddc *rnfudizrdon Thc qpcmbbascd on scrcn
rrtU3ceaee 65c ufo eld tr,o lspdcmcotrry, Omsiqtcss unirs Elccylhing clsc hlls
into rftc *ggry of ddnod mtts, rrhfi& rre dcfincd ln crms'of ihc Jtrco bosc snd tub $f

plmrtryunits-

Sf,nbd

Qrnatity
BASE

I-cog$

Maci

m

lvfrss

Ifitogrem

ks

'$ocmd

llmc

s

A
K

Soctricctrrtot

Ampcle

Amount of stthstancc

I(chin
Moh

I"rrmindrs inansity

Candcla

d

Radian
Steradian

rad
3r

tmfcr*ur

rnol

ST'PPLEMENXARY
PtEns

uglc

Solid rngle

It{IRODrrsrKrNTO PR(rcESS OONTROL | 23

All odrcr SI uniscan bc dcrivcd fttom tbccc ninc uoits, ilboug! in mriny cescs I Aodal
nanp is rsdg[d !o &c dcri!€d srrdy.Itns, e forccie'mnrrcd bt thc ncflton (N),
{,ecrc I N - t B-m/* cocqy is rurcd by rhc jqrlc O) or wra-ecmna 1W.r), gircn
by t t '. t kg-af/*rndeooo,s*cnninflpcnCx t.

rc sirnply
rct

limis.

Odwlftiltl fleoogblbcslslrhbo$di!&fo tcxt,ofucrdrcadtirmrm tochnicel rrtra Thc rcrdc{, ttcrtforc, $illdbc Slc b ilcoti$ rnd uoshe ba*cco thc S[ ryrtem rad othcr rf*ns fbc oectmacr-Cnctooad s]'rfico (GS)
mot stc in

lr of units!
[fr of his"

phegrcq
solcould
irs" In &is
,rffidardq

ltd iltc Eogli* qrtt.ra at dso giro

-

la nppenCx

l.Ihc

foltofling cramplcs illustrarc

ec)rc tlpicel urns}rtions of units"

;-.

ElltlPtG
ri,

'Erprcssrprcssrcofp =
Solrdfoa

fu

.

AppcoAx t, rrs

p

af X tdAlmcTcdinpascd$ lFa: tN/d.

fnd ldcra '= I o ud fdayrc :. I

:

(2.t

x

rda:rnelcrf,)

p. = 210N/mt
lEUl,;6145

'ill

Fiod thc numbc( of fca

:

'

:

rccftoo; tbui,

(t"*I(ld*)

2lSpascak

(fe)

i! 5J m"

&!ution
Rcfcrtne o rfic ablc of conncr$ons in Appcortix'l shotrs rh'r

I.

m

-

393? io-: Orcrifore,

Exprcss 6.00 ft in rnctc$.

Solution
Usine

3gslia/mand

thinf.I;,

'

(6:00 ft) (12 ia/ft)

Find thc mass in kilognmsbf aZ-tU

(#)

:

1s3i m

objcct

&tuion
ltccqrvcrsion frctorbctqrccn mass in kilograms and poturds
bc 0.454 kgtlb. Thcrcfons, we have

m:
m:

(2lbx0.454tqg/lb)
0.908 kg

is found from Appendix

I to

it14 I CHAPTER

1

Metrlc preftes Wfth tho widc vuirtion of variablc m.gniudcs lttat oqrs in in-="" au*ry,*creisrncodtoabbtcdatcverylrrycindsrallmmbcraScictttificnoadmdlarts
A*opr"ol* of ruch nunrbcrs riuougb pilsrqgA3-drtandad nctic Pltfixcsttas
'b.*itAr.d
.
by rficSI ocxpress rhcccporrccof tq,$ticb lecrr4*rytd ro rinqiify thc
*fr.eC& *iO' fngr c wry rnO mctr.fbcra grcfire ue girto h Appcodir l.
€XATVIPT.E

1"6

Erqrtss 0.0ffiI2t5 r and 3;?81,@000 W udog dodm't

Dcftc*

Sotution
y&firstcxprcsr rhcgrandtics in ecicotifrcnotldon tod&a find ttc apprppiarc docimat

Prc'xfiomePPcodirl'
0.flXXIllS: =215

x ra{l(rt=215tls
- tr E..r

end

-

3,?81,(Xx1,000\f,r

1.62

3.?81

x tdW -

L?81 GW

Anatog Data Representation

Fs' ncasurlnrcot rlrsteos coooUul 3:Ftco* Pan dtc fpcincadon-rr thc nnp of thc
t*ir$f35; mtf..A.itoS, n" ty*o, bb 6g.sul€tcmpcteqtrctE will bcerangeof,Un'
qrput r 3i8pcratpre 4cifiod, fccxmple 2D'C o f2[t'C Siurilerly, lf 6c controllcr is to
ffit doaod
hom
6slu8e
i.f rr1r cJuim6o; 6frtc dbdgt wt[tcdcftncd56fcf
bcnrccn
o ftrlly opcn, *ith dl fu nrioos rrlrc rcdngp h

if*irnlfggAafls ut hconmu$ls

rncrosofpprcscn!4lbetangeofvtdrblcs hcoocol rya*cau.nrclcctic.tst{ilce6'uauscannle of clccCicctrndntcuicd
tn wircs, Jrd frf ;ncrme ryrrcms wc usc enagc of grs pessnecrnicd in pipcs:ltcsc
*gplts ;rE g3cd trindty o-rrnsmit vuiN$c inf6jmtdil o1lgl' rorrc distrncc' sch rs O
lad ft'om &c oolnml ro; and lhc plant Egtitp l.l9 shm-r a dragfrm of a prcccsscooEot

I

+10

rA

-rd>

- --rl--.tlD(1.-rl

-----<Dtt(a-----Lr't{-r-

I-lt

, ,lrt

T

Codrol rooflr

pd

CIGURE 1.19

€lectic current and pneutrlittic pressures are the fiiost comlnon means of'information
tonsmission in the industrial environment.

fi'ImODUgnoNTO

PROOESS CONTROL

I 25
vari-

insallationinurtichcon€ntisuscdotnnsmitmcasr'cnrcntdataaboutthcoontrollcd
lnE in

in-

n rlloqn
&cshas
ryIlfy thc

rff, l.

,bffi;";mr*fr Hno"ffi;"tt***affuacr*snrtto
tvllrctodrange0otfl
Erncdsn
Sngt'd nc noctconio srcot
ffi;;lg}0tft
onsl
ffinlnc;-;tt*;tdezotudrtccftcscil
tn
e-pmportort
Tbus, "tt**
irb.r*.- ;;ffitd$
silb o *ffi
rhc

by zt EA

Fdccimal

ffi

=f-'ffin
Fe(€scd?

ffi'*Drdrrc'*"{{Tt*l?*ffiffi

thc
o rohpidr rid a Pcor;::;ff;
it ..*s trry
L rid w :tnory-6oorh's'
nn'*
un
t2dc
;nc*199439
c.ircc;i"r."d
rr fr i-:-rzo'cf-qfffitl
;.rre!
9#'o &c f .Ji
- zo r.fr,t-T
'g'-"a"datt6ilf
srcbavc
of

tI;

:
!-&-r.rrm*rnc:
quadoas- intqru unlcnoute

41aA=(20'C)tr+I3
.AlnA == (fm'C)ril + to

ec

ofre

r $g-

(todclnt

dscd

dvtri-

srlrd

so that rn

Thcs
13b

For65 mA$tGsohrcn*n

65ml\ - (0.16nlArclr + o'8mA

forq,hich

T d 35'dC

or**o*insnad-ofrottageYs.:::* Hffill;;*'l:
,.,.*ffiS#'l'#["'EE"@;ry-"irS#"ffii

ffi5ffii:'ffiil#,ffi*ffi"$
'r,P;;56;;;;t'.""**'**"u;'ffiI
ffffiffi;glffi
ffitrSffi ::,Hffi
iti:ffi-sdiiG

is
short aro'nd rcsisor R

c't

rna riliffi :. ""ffiroffiffigffiprum* iosaraion uE in in- .rffi *"*ffi ffi#'f#ff'trf.hi€h f + o'8mA 65 rnA '= (0.*surcrncnt I 25 rvdtctochan8eOou' srcat rnncd$n Sfisml xtc noct cmioozot undf tc rtfrGscd h rhc ffiorslns il.' *. h^.HH* ffffi?*.*tnA b.U.:: :l:.ffif"b. "tt** . 20 ffifJttxftfr ffi rc dccirnal scP(€SCst? Sr.ffi*ffi .n lc Thcsc nNch ts to For65 mA'srcsotrrcnf foru.* ruA/C'Itco qrc 6nd ($o.""Infiil.Hffi -ffitrSffi rcsistor R is - .l: ffi$ffi:ffi-ffi..c).16mArclr T d 35'dC .ryte ipmeceol ortcor' ttus. vatidata about tho contnollcd n" rignar e fccdback ffi d.****iamad-ofrotose. nFof trc rutroftsle qllfirsig- lilyecd ic"ofvariFt€snicd eqParioos in ttt'o -.ffitdry silb..*ffi c.CNONTO PROCESS o transmit in rvhich cnncnt is uscd nrltoqn fuhas !{Iify tlc rqr l./iufun :. :$=*r so tbat ra ffi qqadmb€fu'cc[tct& ----qr- rho nrst = O16 fron * udcnmrc 4oA = (20'Cln + Io 2osA '= (r2ot)n + 6 Aff.CONTAOL INTRODi.. .ffitH*ffiffifr.ort'ro. *.1{'isif:*#.t i'ffiI di' c.

rtr}.ttffiil. dcscribcs thc rc. (hcbloe& rqrcscos thc wtocul roorbcr rho eofiollcc end so go.d€{lite&cmovcro&cSlsrrilcnofuilits. lation$ipbcturc. f. flbEE rrpil &r r mllcd tr* b r ffiol iynco. thc satic part ard thc dynamic pan Thc satic hansfcr firncrion dcscribcs thc . Oc aamir of thc re nrrcrFd qtm Dl.hqraa* qpsdty b aoffid 3yffi b ths ciru. 0 in Fgurc l2l. car b tDc dffcnooe bcrra &e rctni rnhrc of e vdslc grll[.6{ . ftir model will bc uscd ln rhefollonf. Wbc! usod to rgrb ofrmrutocr.q.Thcoquivrgnt $I mgc tbc ritl srumr$y bs dopcd b 20 to lS l8L 1.I ln dry dc Tho plFe nay to ury lundrc4 of Ei. G srtndcrrirfll thl lccu3 and crgc$nlei. n*Ccrny o northn rsy lcA too O b Sout 10(X) fL rpcrkb* mm*mndcrr tbetSFb d urs! &rtnnsdsl breof tts qOtiny octlqgps of rcdsternhrftcEic.ltc msnfucrfo {cdglcd o rdu*mdtlml fu tlfs c.olhciryutrndotrputforthcblock lhctralsfcrfrurcdoniioftcndcsctiUcd in ttllo parts.rrq ifrGr r *w Gurur xrm rdlc no& *!d trffi h0orBopor$ml precreofgs h rpi1taTtcgrs b welly bomrcnod rnryp. oofiol systcne rrcofrcndcscribcd in rctmr of blocfs. !n ftt . PrromdcSlgn b h&oth&cd$dcq tbcmmmmced. qrr we4e) n &* thc csre* b hdd et*r*. rre of tbasomrms tcrnrr aryl crpresdols uscd lo dc- Brot flo-noc.ng gangnphs to dcfirc thodraractcristicc of drc bbqc ' Transfer Rrnctlon Thc trarsfcrfrrmioo.Definitions Thb tocdodpccm dfftiorc of rqibc pocc*oorel clcncue.hdcrdn dna !lhp' I! ti erc.iu i ctl. end en oqlut of {oecr vrdrblq f(0. bu es @ s thcrc b no lcak in trc i$rffi.bifqqscftCdrrescrtdcr of r Uock tgure f3l $onn rWlh*has an inpqt of lonc r#ie$e..oca bolrlr c fu peiHo cau. vduo of ec rndrftilc od thc dcCrd rrrlrr-.ts hng.d fcpmr b S fo Xt Bd. cau il rhc dlfcrtoc bc. f(. tbapFirrc Till bc podgrrcC dora lhc F&a Thii Engfsb ry*cm rraodad is rlillq.fu b' ihc rcfcrw cr r*tco.ft r dccelDcthn r€{oiltrhs Bloek ggftntfonc Asnotod in Scaioo l3r.AFrER 1 f:rRL HGnnEl20 One of lhcadramagresof ol Frorcsbre- curentas a frnsnrbsion sbrnal bthatitb neartyindependent rorhrl b rcw h &c c&'cdq rc &ngp h cnotd wil om. Ilor{ef |o W*c&c&{ b ooml re.lddyusodhthcthitcdStarcs.

drctcmpcraturc is in thc range of c.yrcprcecmcaWrslo-dtGsfutanocvclxts otryot vrrv' Ittc' etO"v @pcrr$rc.20}'= !09 FL 50pei rogcof ptcssre.* Tli* fc r Cadc wiog =3% of sprn e* I P g **r**i'-p.urRnlenpcrrrurcrcnsarrrsren."e*-"t"d o "l*uti -$1Sg1tY nluqs: Edlblc m L.005f. E$or = 1*OdiSlZSO .56" to 55.^. tt o tc.et Acvri*mof &c io'u'gn$s' rioo kibcst" 5. :[I hdependent *mtlesofrcSst- Srdfa1loeu.CThus. :rretedablc bgrsbHnltt hGh nolcekh |*usodsdfo F. Ermr = (*o.*f* * onca rtfrcscmoA by ffii Thc dy-.t of 2r-25oceA |ncrsufcocd lt ristts in I valuc of 55oc ilrc aqolncv sdi-ffi-r il" possiblc in cach case? @ f-i9*P:9"**% k .Thccguiv! A=neS16 Houlcw.fry?"tt*t' euc. lJW! 2L ba' v$) uprrtltutpnradioo*hwtcolb.4)T-: is indlctarngc of 53JI15" to56'Zl5'C. r* t"t . a systep Uo* otttpt t variabl€ varies ln response to an lnp{Jt variase.L^ g1'?25oCThus'thcactualtsnperatur€ b. dm rdGilr" tnb soaion ^lPPcr Tbcnuecdm dcrcr&et are prcscatod in ccs . tp. Enor = 1t0.440c- . riaan cqtratioo scbrs Lrie dcsigncd o rlret Pracdcatry It{xn{L In ihn* fc e s2S {ferdiqs wulotarcrni''gngycgob4vfofrGefingof2v.6' €oc'non cxarplcs e .o bc cxpoacd is uscd o ryNiS ec rnexim srcrelt Accuf&ry as thc fuaccxpcesscd Amacy b rrsratty tom e &vicc or.ioPdisdchrngilginrim. r&dr *ilbc gn lpan--6at ir pcrccslagc I raocogr. C'tanlrs .n 6 iffito"c of atzriatr" in ecvcril fqrc orr"q rrrA trscd to dG- rrfrw.Thcdynmbtnostcrfiuc..2sle1hus'dlclconlanrfcranrcisindrc nngcof 5!it5oto5695t' .):iii5.lt-id.rhcaarracy vottmacq' wc d6c Gfr. $/c find e..-^p.*4" i: valid oly ov€fr ocrtaio t3qSe of e dficrcuiet cquafm in ttuna g.y. Ap' in pel.ilig-iiitl = lorle.t* rn *concy Fcccntqgs.*f*ffiJ6i"nip of c+ntions' 6tcs' c SSc t.t-.rbcacarncyis=2cCinsomctctttpcratrtFmcaslr€mmL Thostthc*#tfi[*-**"lriyUt2"Cinaryvatrrof:nrncrarcmca$rcd' of tnq^n+rg.}ffiil'*t'".be6. .Mcasucdvqdablc." n""r gg...6X50 . for thc tcnrpcnnna Solution iliig-at" gi"* ' ' of spa' dcfinitions. Fcroc@ee. 54.250'C) = tl.irr. rntrg bc (g0.ttd lilt{tttt s !Gr' tc iiuccurry t05% FS in a $v frrll-ecalc nnge mcr rould'mcrn V 301tr5 is tainty i! gty urcaswcacr* of tbc-nngc of instrumcnt 4.o .lNTROtlUCTlOltl To PROCESS COr{TROL HGURE 127 $tt A trarufer ft6ction sfroars ho$.* i"u. 8s a function of bofft static inPut rralue ard tims.inr*t*.esfcf mcttolrs my bc pcscntod b &c foru A h g"tlt* p* nnnm' to r 0mcncoti"t'pccsFor cramplc.F-.*. 'J' l.c ifu ffii" d:t"".lri Acaetannc rcrdilg.

strypo*r rcrfing of?S nv pcnarc thrt codd prot idE ttfu rcs &omrbc rta&.en find thc ouput unccrtainty to be AV : lGC AK. is4. Tbus.+ KC AG.6s rclrs pcr bit t 196. r&is-ncans sat a bit 3 bs rct fa rn r4pd vdraee qhroge of 0.t Ar A@ (I ..63j g oo66 v c o.figuG t 12. qillclfu ofdgitd pr@ tre $oestf!${d ln 1csutclr delinition cr rqud.641 v.in$ (+G0tXj aV/C) = ro.Sto5.ssdc (o5. rurny. easrusod in Exrrrelc t. _ I \ urc 1o * SFt m ammcy Oftca.0f mv/C."e(58#c) :s.c mstconsidcrttc osrll . Flfll lp* urc &G &ltttion r Bcmc I' ucr I ttt tha nngc of tansfct froctic k4gj b srxt nv/€.c ooty rturhcrcupenme isbctws i.rclirse XrG = nminddcrfuncdom- : C: AKaC uocttrintfos in tnrnsfcrfuocrions d]'nanicvsieblc From Equation (13).Soo of lto rn&g vrietilc pcr bir of rhc digitrl sigml Asan cxro A/D-ocwtcr nry bc *cdEod er o. -Tl! patibb Tithdigltd dgr+tr. &c tgrracy is quotd rs ParyTtryc dctti.ast rd 5J6'c.@ !o 0. *c rrp moetensnod sirb ttc csor innol h frc &itrl ryTscnqnion of rn hg hfoondc. Le ** iry do thir b lo crycsr ec rmrct dcr. wc cu dcscibc dic anpc rs rblc to pro&rc rn whcrc ' V - 44Y : v tAV = (t( s AKXG g Ac)c (r ouEnvoltrgc qsr-hy b oqr.t6 I CHAPTER 1 has r tnnsfcr frncdoo of 5 mV/C wirh an aocuracy of lhcpoesblcrrngpof thc'trrnsfcrfrocdon E:r(AillPl-E A tcrrpcrdrc ecnsa 1. wc.9 t $dtttlon thoadcrinaioureaepu.{f.6nv/ic.oflns d gary d Tc'l! hrpmocrr+oenl loop ortDcacil rprcesr vrrid&.L edm in csnc of ftc rrnsfcrfumims. mus.9. rinld bcrenod fton e r@ ofZlS ny ls 'tr\ Thu* rrc crn bcstda t r1775^v1( -' '95 ^vre) pcmr t mperatuc . &rc* roph' rypc re hrrc i proecs rit trotrirsfcrfraaioos rb* lct on &cdlmmic yari c4c rroergc er 6riwn ln.

idics bf cacn transfcr funaion..22 C. (151 t Softrtion of LV *:' v =[*:f] AI/ v --LV -:v a fidalos_ditioning sl^tcm-transfcr ftrnsion ls O.02 + o.o' HGUR€1. t ". tUus. oncy rbo wc likcty r cflcA {ro *aral rcsponeathis ffi11:y Ooffi r dcfinitiloo cmr intrsfcrfunaiors $lc can bcst intctpct Eqgatio 1r$ !s staling $m of thc utlccr.iti*t' it is morc realistic c'ilt gtvc a trrci of tc inCivlC'A chocot lso"cy' 1hi.a rn b quotcd rs *tt ro fysilcm b fouod r*a*-[[o-.INTRODUCTTONTO PROCESSmNTROL | 2s Y*AY rcy of t |To.AG V -K -G -:----- b@tut- *hctc LV # : fracdooatuaocrtrbtYrnY Al( A? := fractiooalunocointics T'Z lhd'ttc wor$'casc lsuracy would .O5%- Herc we havc a dircct application a rs =to$15 10. Find ' Si3Ed oCfcbg 8d. t ncenatrties h blocktransfer funaions hdd tpas rnore Hoda ale tnrohrcd in the transformatftxu Eqpaion(t*)canbcfr'dh€rsirnglifiodbynotirrg{l8t&€nomiaslouQut.tr ptro*ss if &c trabsdrs mnsfs funaion llonv/(dft) t 15% and e" 2m^fr/arV dJrrudc &co4Ar bc thc to cxprcss tbc ovcrall systcnr ac1iom a staisicalp"fi.icasc!nr ftdrthcrclatioa [f]*: 6at a bit *nlolry frc bcst ilf iffis"Fr Find &c qrsilcm mtrac'Y of a flo. sso'c.sV:KGC rnd by ignodng rccondadcr ctrorl: AV AK. Findthctcn. thc rangs ! l^9.(nsJ = 12% .

ffs ctract €llcd tyrrerag5q. r&ccthcoqutof en imunrcnr bas bocn doood agdnst in[rrrt Wc i. such as &ran{Cy $ouqC birya lraqts. this . ffiivity ffi bc qnlu$od tqgcdrcr *i& othcr puanrctcrs.If wc usc thc morc statisticalty wrmcy crould bc= $o ec to.! a.Thisnaiationisandoo ftom wc'r'cot b mrrcEcud and is not pcdicrabtc. rod asruclr. ln *iecue. Sctdtluttf Scotrftyb rmrcof&cclraryc ia orrqnofln insngncnr fca chtqspbilgc.CcocrrttyecrtCag. decres€s. tb vthc of rtrc scuiriviry it gFo€Gdly i"dbrd by thc ffia. If 6c46pannacrb dmaiag. . bcauseb5Eccds rill mtcasc ncsunemcil crtocs.higb rcadrivity b dcsirablc in an insuumcnt b"-.rs" rlqs*rqE hoqr frreran[chango tr inpu irnplhs thce nrcrsncmcnt msy h alco cedly.norOtrton lfrcrce ir Ery tnctilrocd dcybs nioinrnn fo 1 trlue ofrbc irlrnrrrlablc.rcpducibilityoftbc&vioe. Sudr eqiincaCo" RGUREI.S r$ffisls ba predctaHe €norresutting ftom differpnces h tB tnansferfunaion as th€ frput EriaHe lrcreases or .30 I CHAPTER 1 80 that dre oct transfcr ftnaim oorrcct rms apprcedt thc sy*cm is 20 nrA/(ms/sl 2Vc. AdldlactrGct is rcbd to thc history of a pardarlar rrcdnrrcmcnt trkcn witr an inrtnmc*. is Aprc*tcl !c ry$c $mr! itrfiggrG frX. ftn* rfica e t mpcrarurc rrarrduccr odputs 5 nrV pcr Oogrc Cct siu+ thc rcosirivity b 5 mV/C tlitftclgdr rnd ncpmduceffity liGquetr$."gfFQupcrrcb vlrdod lhoelow tohightrrrcis"o valucs of lhcqrtqI.Irctccqgcof frrtt scde mrimum dcdadon bctnrcclr itp turocureqs.f lnsruncr* will not travc rhc sercodpl!3uluc for r gi$cr iryr fut Epcarcd dals.6%.otsg effimy h ebout g 1. Such nrdation can bc duc to inhcrcmunoqhiuiccthiryIyrtimitcntlrc. rfu &t&tg rcsshs fora rpccifiC Aneq acpcodir€ on udrcthcr 3 &oo Hgbcrorbnrcr lntues. /:_ l) . Ib ceat b pcrfiaela ifnAsrcmcot trtucs rrc rlwala approadrod ftom mc dircaion. is nclsurebb Anbd &e rclla[utan &rhc dcvie. crrvc I rclatcs inprt to orgot tl5rs*crcsis is mr rlly qlcctrd$.

" I.INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS CONTnOL natistically | 31 A good cxample is a wirc€fumctcristic of thc instrument can bc c{ranged only by rdesign.rity B indicatcd rdcgrcc Cel- lS lravc thc #pto inhcrfillon islartryitr eilcd dotirg bcttq -"did*i"i..t"ngrlt "o* aa-urosaycratthcporcntiornctcrrcsolution L dcl e.tatt"oily niprl4ioo uniquqvdrc ofthcout'utvtri16 Lforcrctvetrrcbf rbcioprrnriabte toJofst oo inprt rnc ortpu4is t*$r $[e..lftoFsottilifiof-rhct!&misusnally rystcm' In drg$ lys. corrditiming.6) .i-Jirr*tmp msued f- variablc and measurernent outptlt C^:''nC * Cg (1. w havc a rcsolution forca nffich is 6c srnallest rrrcastrrablc clrangcin .rocasorcmcot . 0-2t witl rcsult in a Yoltage changc of inpurWc dthc otlt- O:t ' tor'"t : 1. ds rcfascotod Uy.qn dtd of dtc rer$rOle ctrnge h dl'nnfo Ytdchngc tio.6c i"t-JG ry "tnr-tt-c"*o"a u.*""s "ct*t c{tnot prod thc winding rcPr€scllts a clangc of AR ohms' thcn thc Potcntiornetcf Ed u *brrcsisane. is *radgc of @ (€) is is llsutto cllrvcs- Tbrs" tlp voltagc dircction. rt rcasc has voltagc rcsotution of *rc sigrransfcrfunaion of 5 mv/c Fird {.. or rdding mrc bie to dte infoimanoq tc l6frcvcd cfy ty idfC* tCug of ru inafog g'+J nntcr ln scaion iqd. windings to vary rqsistancc" If onc potcnfiomctcf in wfridr thc slidcr .itrt c"r.i]i a*A" i" Uirgnrrt yord qtp.dy-t relnion is.bc used to rclatc thc rirrbla whcn elincar rcla6onshipcxitts" a straigfrt-tine "quation .cttmaybc br lturrr.-Cm.xgrcssad as i pcrentage of thc frrll-scalc ranga is a&'This Fs' FindthcsmdlAfucprcnsorncasur€slfangcofoto t50Nwitharcsolutionof0'l% cs cfrmgc in ilwntfora ngl becausc So*rtion of (o'CIlxlsoN) = ol5N.iffi. Fo6imptcity. *. rl|c rceolution of a mcasurerncnt Wb* this oe{rns' drc rcsolurion can bc imprond by crn- h sonr A 'crzslr.t% F1S.g rceuired J sigrr"l a csrAitioning if a tcmpcranre rcsolution of Salution an in- on wlrcthcr systcm is limitcd by thc *nsifivity of crscs. sysd is required. tuOonarrcfationsrrip-tio" i"p. Dccce drc rcaolution b o.nea*tytnbolhscosorrnittiF'loodifioning:$gTisregescntcdinymc - is tttattis rcttrionshipbcunique.gdffio| q'n dity 6tt t $solutioncrn cascs.0 mV must bc rbtc to resolvc l-0 tnv- dctcrnrrincdwthcemllcst Inrnalogrystccs.

r. b. r partioilar oat*il 6l' c"tt*.I4 ftoB l(n b lsl o s tcmpccetrc o l4qC Hnd uncarceu{m rdaifug. rc will bc Croul lt Cbtgtcr d E(AMPLE T. One can "itti. +8{ ory b &c d€rEG o rYldc[ h tr ry sqisryto A urcrslrc of cmor lincarity ()oc of rhc rpocilidm of rcosc owr rtdcb 69d3glrd vrriettb-and 6c q|[ db osc.tu.traight fii t:+-inaicatcs Oo6f..t& n re c* +e.32 I CHAPTER 1 c: m: variablc to bc tmsured slc?cof $saightlinc co'= aff3ct c intctccpt of$rafight lirp c. .Olfl/C firtt cquadon. rte fnd &om$ttoft r.m+&) lryO -(l2XlqCrn+&) Suirwing thc first oquatioo ftom lbc ccood givcs 8OO Theo.eore de6ncercqgtdntb of rhcce esnns.(fqf(Nrn c 'r 1 l .ffi-d* *lina& cqiiccodspcmdF$ r rcnsor6at or{Puts I rotQgg 13 r frnaioo of prc$up ftom O to lO0 Psi virh r ttncuity d 5% I{t.O s r lb 8nd rhc t*u gsrdc.A. for a givcn voltage. thcre is a deviation . cmc poinl oa 9lc curvc of voltagc !.*to '* '() \:_/ / nt (acx'snfci + rt &-&0O thc cqulioa reldqg rcdsbm end a tcqcrac b lf=e8. A.gu$$taf nggrrcmcnt mnlincer crecs" I'to dryna reradoagfp roe c Eryadoo(to crn unnnybc foed fclhc 1q potdooc Stotl rrc n*utc atto.t 1lr€ssur rnd limrly idicrtcd prcssurc for a givcn .it61 nonlinear scnsor ctrvc.* fu t-tot ot4ut iom r bcst-6t rtraigltr lirc ovcra ceight littc ftom dcvinim rdnun *rhc db-Acaumon.."""pci' or 5 psrd"ltirto by S%of lfl} -Frgrgc "oftagc linc has bocn fircd to thc slightly grapbicatty. Son ttc /:-- . coM6' rrt * wum rc orthc rorm ffiTT Jrdrncrc fca tcro ogioos rra tlm uoknowns &om &c frclsgivc!: r0OO =(M.ird..fi.t tp*ify thaf.nrq 6"-&. ltis EGls that.a*'1f.rtdstrnc rnd tcmpcrue A sror rcsirerncc csuspa tforgary changcs ftom zr 1 6riluiion ttdhs--ap-e" $.

tNTRoDUcnoN To PRocEss collTgoi I 33 r€scsr pilEons E -o =e 6 . This includ6 Pil opcratiog programmable and computc*' clcmcnts. ryrcns.r" rpy.d Occ 1o ruAcrrhc rApUncO procotrof " more cbmof thc somc *fog.ptant ane asinciatca control and urcast'cmcnt lincs.4 Process€ontrol Drawings Ar dccticd *tcoadc b e drawing rhat cnproye a *adard ea of symbols-irnd *6iogl*m of thc citcoit' tb.odrttd coriuot . i. bctnrcco acnral endtincarly q3l gcdictodprcssrccdrat' foragivcn'prcsslte'tbcreis adcvi- sod lincartY Pcdictcd voltaga 1.Ttc:tandad l&nliticrtion' rnd SytrDds dcd AN$.Csi.ISA Ss.. contnol Essentiat Elements Thc P&ID dcpicts tbc cntfuc. ."lr4r rlto tnours &a. in uscd dcfinfu drhc*ndrrd rnd hot'' lhsy rrc 6.tandards car uoOcrsasl $9 rd &fnitioos of sydd.ryfoyt I drndud h Fr ec a. *ntoot dgn l lin9s.6.iyra"r* indAutomatton (ISA) rocicty.p*t *t fry qq"qfl l51 -t{a1d hstitutc (ANSD Sandards Nlionat "pr"n. 6"t. Atrc includca ue htticr and numbcrdesignations .ii-tts Ancticu tbc bctweco r"cOfrtorarlm ty is dcsigof O" for*t r*"fo".4 *ift dte iw is to pcrtiolar isht line m 100 Pct YCrsus a given dighOY Ceviation d. deviation of an achd crrve and'rts best-tit straighi line' uftere the maximum b596 FS. hom?ff_ I frorn &e EGURET24 L-.oO-i*uur"orrn*ai&n AeOl Appcodl:51xxcns eP&lD. ffi' "*tnof qrsaos'T-tit ts."on*Uo* noi to identify the Gi" *nt frcrs <pf. r"o*o. ra .. flow proatrct units.t-lfoi Gt992) Instnrncmtiqo to ooostruct ltis sgndard is uscd fof &c carty AnSn Fhascs of I plamcontol systsm dcsign as a plant dctaild fntl .!pafi*.'- .a.

l. b nd . This socrion c.$hb catcdindro6drdrooo. rta gn lr l Bo& figsrcsdrowenorifieplatc ucodto mcasurcflorr drough a pipaThc vztvcacolator tlutvn iF liglrt 116 rrith thc Pt C indicatcs it is qting-loadod and doct*}dly acnratdAppcndx 5 shows morc P&ID tttltbols dcfncd by tbc S5. horrvr Gotuoroutpirt vsri6 ptJt a step changnl.Thcotgrofdlironprrbsrcsceolr*ofthcftonrloop. to efinal vatuc.If tfoc ecosc wcecpcrfcct.. : n. ctranp hstafitarwu*y h tinn S.2s. YlCf22j.Anctcrrratdobre rtimcdcpcndcne tt*S*iflcs htr &cootrc@cr fo limcqrhca tbc iryutfo cbr'rgtrrg h tina It is indcpcndart ftom &c Thc ldcd statistransfcrfugiolThisdynamictrandcrftndioo.cmo.isgivcn u. For cxamplq thc cormol trlrcs oflco idcnrifiod ln tcnnc of lhcy oorilsoL h ltgurc t.:4I -.ZE ls rhc oupur changc io timc fol@ng r rscp iaprn ec h Figwr l-gt Tbb is afled grrt odcrbocrusc. ilsou$tttc.fil *onr r reosor tha lro&rccc ra oryuq XrL rs r firnaioo of tbc hpq c(t). r4 rcrras cxbibit mm leg bctcrccn{bc oupot rnd thc infl* arrd :orc dhamctcri$c nutrdon in tincbcfaE sccling m thc fn l v.1 First-Order Response Tbc dnple.IXi22Op(ot/id6inputtoaoonrputer.ottHberlctrminodbythc$aricuurfcrfrrnaionioUcAr*forcl = 0ud&l rftcrr = O ltrorrcrrcri.tua 1J. drown crfiamond wi&in abox.C.O &c inFtr to thc rcnsor is suAdcalychangpdftrou rninitirl vrtrqq. trc vahrc b hbclcdilR0 to itrdicatc dxt ir k for tcmpcratrc ooffird crca &oogh ft is t€$ally oontrolling stcam flour.h@ &t lapts eitffits r rtcp drango r sbo*a l.can opcn orelosc &c tankdrain vrlvc.ZI The q/namic transfer fisrctkrn spedfies uilHt$s llt.whi.V sENsoR T|ME REspoNsE sic t$ansf€rfirn& of a prorc. u.c.b€n ec.hictr is indepcndcnt ftom&c stadc transferfimaion.iI discr$s &c tclo mcr courrntn t1pcs of tcosof tirnc rcsponsc* Fgsc l.loc that rtl .E drc rcrpoasc b lbffir i! FSrnG l. fxher$ynsd ligtscs ltS ud l.isoftcncimplycallcdllGdare rrsponseltispadicularlyimpocantfcscnscs bogus thcy ac thc pimry clcma* fa providing hodage of thc controllcd tariablc valuc. Ttc *aic mnsfcr ftrrfu dacmirc ttc ouEst c.ngilg in limaTo spodryth 6rrcrpspooscrtbc ntrcof thctisre vzriariooinqftpril.inprf.r(t). for dl rcnss of HGURE 1.€.SdsoCrory drc aymbob forscrrcrat odrcretcorcnts rssoci*ed wilh dtc ron8ol Ertcos rnd ph!6. i CHAPTER 1 talqFV/22OAlcvrltnnsmincq..Fin*lly.l standad and sonre cxpadcd infomat&n abou its applicadoa : "t.ft. ..onaof hop dcnrnt spqdfics lw dr ouput is rclotcftTc trthohFil booeil.

the retd td€ Espon$ gcncnlly c8ils thc charye with a zcp dope. at the : gual & rtcpre &rt G O. I 37 f{GURE 128 Chanacte&tb frrst'order eleonential tirne response of a sensor to a step cfiange of irput b Hnally.cr funcrion and initial iryut bf * finat.INTRODUCnONTO PROCCSSCOMTROL rich is :. rincc fiom Equation (1.6ci'eirua Agcnctel cqudtoocrnbc wrioca for&lsrcqosefuIcpeodcotofltc rHc bdng rmtrc{ or &c ranic rnndcr finaioaAhc cqrndo! girc &c otgr as r functim of timc fctlorring lbc ltcp &r[ G.br -.9e3(er'.$t . &c rgruc&rckctod tcrm in pquanc tisl b thc &acdon of btrl dingp rs r fiffiftn dting Suppocc wc rvi$ o find 6cdu4ge that has occnscd u atime numaically cqual to t. rd Egntion (t.Dr)[l . D ThTilOr Hd- eis tlpc' thc timc rcsponsc is ffifCCX- W.O rs follocn '0rndDl i$"tand D(0 . ft raccs tfrc currc of Ftggc 128 in tirc): D(r) f1rfr is te- scn- taiable EL ffu input.frmga Thc tirne ooosantt is somaimcs rcfcncd to as trc 63% tirnc.4) . trying in n ki givcn )fu sensor pcffcct. rt:lrrc. thc rcsponsb timq or ttrc o-folding tima For a dungc.D initial ecasor orgn ftom **ic rrrnsf.4) b thc ml cbaage +it qrill ow.ltus. r.6321(br-DJ D(r) * c (lJ) tioc ooosornt reprcccnts tftc tftrc wtridr drc ouqut valuc has *e t$at draogod by epprcximars dl% of thc totrl .0.casoroogrt ftroqn static transfcrfimioa end final tnPr t rft'om thc r trc static sd *br+(4-trXt -Gnhl rrrtrcrc 6r = nryccifics lfor dacmincd by thc solution of e first oeder diffcrcntial cqutioru T : scrlsbrtimcmstant Tbc scosororryutis iacduduing 6c aaositim timc of 6c otrput &rom Di to by. b putof&cryocificadmof thc scnsoa rigdficanecaa bcrccoby writiqgEqualioo (l. Eryation (1J) dcecribcs ransd$acroutpr$ rrry *cllcxccp during tfic initial tirc pcriod--drat rs.8) we find Tbuq c€ *4 D(sr) .In pstidq.c. Arc onput responsc has approximately uchcci tts final valuc aftcr fivc time @ostants.lhc vadablc vahc uas changad instantancocly to a ncw raluc at't Q.rrhl Ic (ls) qnaofty oa thc tcfr fu dE draage h oog re r firnakrn of time rfrcrcls l4 .'tbc dme fol- sof -bt-(br-4Xl-c*J USI-br-O. idrcrclrsrrcofrwr30t im flow.bt. Thcn wc sct t : T in E$alion (lS) and find I! lbb oquatioo. $.?) prcdcts e 6nia rmthg slopa ast d Time Conslent ltcrirnconstant.

Instcad. rrcucsoold be rHo tocrck eny clrangcs h frcfhldcrl dymlc trdlblc h r dnrclcsr thn onc rimooostrnl L7 2 Second-Order Response In romc rcosors.CHAPTER 1 EXAfrllPl. Sue oebittatlon (dftcdocryoftlpcdffi ilretr) b rfunclion dilp w. wc simply'dcscribc thc b*svior. tbo Err&songx tnry be invcnsc$rctancd to tho iatrfi.l rrql4rg*hmcoss&ngeroorrre$.c'{?51t5} e(e?s) ' :93u1nv Tlrils@tortrir&tcdW* .Fr:- 932J . It is not possible to dcvclop a univcrsal solutioq as it is for the fint-ordcr timc rcsponse. at.E Accnecmmrctolpc{atrrclirqtywi&r*ukmnsfcrfinctionof3l}mYlCmCtr13 1"15 . Thb b allcd t sccond-odenesponEe bccause.l{nd drccercinrymrcthisrcPrescats Solnfion Tlb first find fu inidat sl*d fi$al talts of fu sctrlorousue b1 '* t33mY/rc)(ffi) bi -.Fhdt[coryrtG?5r&{rehpilcfrangcenourdCo4t'C.- - OrXl cnhl ete. + (4.660mV bl br Nour.Thho$t reffi gcf cnncd'by dr trasdus b rn crror and must bc rocotrntd fc in qny.660Xf .33mVfC t T :2fi]'c fo 4I'C. : : (33mV/oCX4tf) 1353m\l t{t} = S.'tlmc Effoctt Thconccptof rbcerponcnthl t* rq*r" end rscociltcd dnecoom b t $d on l. .? sdll dcscdbcs tbc tlrc rcsponsc of dtc clcmcnt urlrcrc $c nnd ootrut is lcss lhan tlrc fnilietorryt Real.measuremcnt involving e tranedtrccrwith &is . Eqwton (1. Tdocth$s. a rrcp drengp dlimc bc$rr rctdiqg ddrn h rhc lrprltrc tbe ouput o oedtlarc fq a short p6iod b. gcncral naturc ofthe rcsponsc.?$l ll* 660 + {t353 . cotls cusrie tlsgbcc*usc ec r€ent@ b my*.oddc! dsodnns ctryc d t$c hp valua h &c tc. thc timc bchavlor is dcscribod by a sccondorderdifrcrcntial cguation. for this typc of scnsor.gcdiloffi.ifeea endthnr rchrc€prcsemcde woctc$cdtdo h &clbccqlmlr h gcocrd.r€sport& !o thc acr inpu.

firc rnpttdc of &c oedltuioc *oold bcdfln o c{' oc rpprofuiy t7%. :. wc must bc carcfut not to aftach morc significance to a vaiiablr valuc than the instnrnient ean suppot This is particulaily truc with the growing usc o . rc ecc rh{ io r time of (Ua}. Eguation Is than the / I rssociatcd pf &c rcal !tsdeworst- ItY changcs rbtrt Pcrid mcillation ic*t gcginvolv- &c tirne bem develoP a fucribe the 1 .finO 3e nr+otu ffi characteflstb | o$dllatory time response of a seffioc r tJtpEcat q4Ptrcurrc rtrr nigb bc crgodod ftrom r trrrcdus hntlngr roodordcrrcqogc fcedso&nous caugs u frc tag.to hdp hrcrpnr thc rignificrreof rorcarcns" 1.8 srcNfficANcE AND sTAnsilcs hoass coaEot ts vially owucdrirb rbc vrtrr of nri$lcs. n ir imposde o dcecftctttfu bcbntictr riqih.1 SignificantFigures In ury measu(tment.&f.arettaqactcricticsoirtcmnsdtrsitt ffanA**t bc cooddcrtd h urqry rppEcaim.*!o.. It b ttcrdole rcry irnpcant tret tlc trrc sig[ificuoc of sornc msurcd vatue bc rmderstoo<t Wc hate alr""iy scco rhat intrereat cnors may hnd un€rtrinty !o rhc vrlrr indicmod by a msuenrcrt ln dris icction wc nocd tc oonsidcr enoCrcr fcaruc of msucmcnt ttr* rrry bo nidcedng $qtr &G rcoral valuc ot l trirblc ls *rll rs r mc&od. re tbc sarcd oblcoitc is to rcguhne thc vrlrc of cclcocd vadabhs.naturrtftoqtrcocy.Il spncrrl.ort iaspoaca tlmtctrcq thc gffid bceilirs bc dcscribod in tioc ts Hgulp 129 rhowr R(rla whctc &f.INTRODUCnON TO PROCESS COTUTROL ftcuRE l.sch rtrandus-lrn be lid o trlr &ec hpot gh.R(r)' . .o &c ioprr changcs in.ru bc clH $oc &ccdbcc *t-nu. Tbc damping constsil.f thc &vicc. .oftdccrpr&.Jl. g : oryr&qfqg€nsrant .poa'cdffaion orrytr o.8.= thotrrndnsotryut . .oanrnlicErcacyoftfrccci[ruion &r : amplitu& This cqrurioa sbo{vs &c bssicaa.f.t frogcy end aanpfqg i! ec teaaircof $cinc trusduec that cxhilrit'rtis bchevic.e.iia{2ql}} - (Llo) .zs ndhas C. " -fl4- coa*radcfpcs thc tinp ooc mrstrnl rftcredsubrrca dt ofc &suusauocr-or*" Ftttlo bs r &rc tifdcrdon of &c tnordosinput Thrs.rer. re t f riA6c nr*.

m tnn *c cann*draw 6gues' thc *gnmca* 6rtc ts.Eltulsqp6ssfhcumcra'intyro'tbat our cteniticert€ b mt chugpd. wru b rftc tccrpcrtuc? Aarmd|ls mt Solution Using thc values given' wc find T lhis - (4l2mv)/( 2zAmvfc) : 18. $s.urcgiw&..ffin iney o oscdirg fucr.s. Tt. our reJur.6ettdgitd i[strooctrttr|eMcsertsirumrs t2sldl is 125'(n0O Rrrlcr' it *lt doct nd t-n ettt {rc rcsisane irstuncd a to l26'(XX) {L Wc l2l'000 "m?"y...{"h6.^e.i.. mt. .witft 8 to l2digit digtat reading illsftumcnts tnd calculators g1gI" forcx- *pryr Elca if sc ign@ &c rmph. 1 .Avis ** er" uni lu*cr*+* d or knocta ftom r ilc$ucmcot or &.. lesoncc lr doccr to t25$00 $rtr I b P &rr drc ' ffia -'cen conclusioos sxoq6-l*r."trtlt' '" . instmn*$ts' thcq*ofro4og taofdbif1acfiCs*b foidicedatLryrrraninty'inncobc oodtsod with s*ct' b t tor. €xAtwP$..id6dt* ltcc ry roc rMtrq{rcrrcgilto roltagc as &c frnd Obn'r 11om iOOa-. Thc foilowing c*anplc iuusCIltcs t|sr Ttde . t"t? q *6o' mcasurc' tas e qrcdficd tnnsfcr nlrcdon of 2?-a nrv/qc for tcmpcratrc 1bc mrtla ronrgp i: *t2 mv.dgd1a1r.t fiffi re thc rzt H! aunbcf u calolatiott. thus.a36 11d sst re trtarcd b &c re prcblcm' s7-!t'rln'r" udng dtc *crwtr thc ffi ry! 141!! fdry tcntss drc rcsistor lonA rcrtc.fbcoorylae-r"t*ltff t O3V'bocrrrscc.i ' ( a'.'t'ir h."*r.L"mO iorca.0VThcaconacymeans-thc o! tO5 Vt crrn6 std vuy ftrr eit.\ CHI\PTER -{v I . i"sffi.r*c.isr*Y=tl."e qtico. SigniEcancc &r Gdcuhions Incelccltdm'mc mrstc+-t 1ottao{i ' cndqeC in &c calcdadon' The an. *|cnotctbdcacotb givcn todncorfrgeiEcax figuls'eo rc result $'c findcrn be bcoontcs tn utt- rsary *o t. aglts tpfaact .r. .tLo1.c. ho ncd*niihrr* calculuion" 611o ftc 16 of &c-rutrSc6'sd in dp rrcr crn hrrc ry * *6i6g[j1.y b toi% Fs.g561ilAipi I p.392857"C sigriificant to only natucs was found using an Sdigitcalorlator' but thc two givan 3rc thrcc placcs. i8 .. Find trc volagp Ade$d mffin a$d 8b uoccftainqy in &e value obtaincd- Solution First.f ccrufmy in rhc .egt cty. Slgntficanoc ln Measurent tent{lhcorningamcdriogiostruncnqdrcnum.3 iZel mA)(l25kID *u|frtS\ '' iriiffi H B[tislcrnsofrigdfscfgll€s. [i * "tt"rtt"*t t t"tt ** ot*t M .o ur umtainty ltss.

e nni y imns in Pmccil oontnol wttcn $ch an *cragc vatuc is of int rtst For cxarnpk* onc may rtis!*oceqhol rtc rvccagc t€opcrafirc in I proecs" Ttc tcmpcnonc might bc mcrsurcd io l0locations and rvcrngcd to grvc acoatrrdlcd vrriablc valuc forrsc in thc .l r1. rrhc dccigs 4lodfi6 a l. lhc rrtragc gilrs hfaoslioo rboti &c aansfcr nrnctoo. Ttrc nrtrncnt or dtc nu[lhrstrulrpnts..Tbc' erithmaic mcan of e ea of I tzlucg ginca b. it t rssnsrod {lat thc trlrle i: cxrcdy 4. :ttcd iad Eq for GX- $TTRODUCnONTOPROCESSCONTROT Statistics Often eoofidcoa in rhc tzluc of a tad$l. . b rftris 6e rc rcport &c calcuhtod crrrent or*s mA bo.p 3r1 t ULcC Uy rhc cqtrarion :r=_ rt * rr * rr *..tr31 . rstnatcs how Eu- ffi 41 -significance fi8erl3 essod*od rvitb tr 1./ oonaolhop... : nxi n syrnbol for a sum of the valucs xyx21 (1.individual valucs Wc @l use ttrc r. bmrc&c Rilh€r.l{d} sdsilq.r2. ln digitrl or omPrilcrpro6 ooffiol.. ft b oftcncesforo uec thcrvcqge rabcofpom vui$b.l Adcdg! b r gpo6aicat dcncroprtrcnt dra g{r1hfscit rnoilpdons sm rdood rdrca tu &c d€dp.82 n &c resistor I ln Deeign'Ihcreadcrrhotrldbcrwarcof [thcditrcreneinsignifret.arithmaicmean n : numbr of valucs to bc averaged xyx2. causc rs trc de. Tthcnc*rr e lmblco or c*rrylc hrolvrcs dcsigll pcfcct v. 4?utrxl o).krca rc esglmod. * lhgrracy.7 ldl G. Thcrc e. If r po&lcm qccmce-O* tc rorlohrq b jI[ ft k rssumcd tftr ft b tmrm lo ooty t*o rlgniflcuc frgsrGs.nd oodrldotrs draumfirom weocnt ed *grillcdGgecc ecsodatcd sith dcdgr. Thisis parOcuhrty rnc rvfue random cnqs in measunem€nt causc a dstibutirro of readiags of tbc taluc of some vafublo f rcfidcanbc mmcs an utl- rs Ey rncans thc yof3025v -mintYsothat Atithmetic Mean If maqr rcucma of r partiarlar variabh arc takcn. wlrcoctq m€$rcod b ruggesro4 &c figucs 3hrca ac mod o be thc *nifia figurc3.e can bc inproraod by elcmcotary statistical $alysis of mcasuremcats..12) ' . Anothcrommon rgilicalim b &c calibrarioo of ransdnars rnd olbcr pmcss insmmnts h srct cascs. Hcrc wc would unita ttrc cqtrarirn as -f=lificant to on'ly is 18-4"C' wherc Xr.?-ld) rce. tc rryrrycgs b &ra I b c*rcrty rrcoa rr ru ocsigncr speirrcs ttcro lc{? Y sw the rc*icq tc! &caeae cxrrty4. In tho cltqlcs md ptoblco8 in tlrb boolc. fhu+ if r dc$gn spocificc r 4. x. rrc ey b mintaio rhodcirctioo bcrws ded3n veluce rnd ncasurmt rnhrcs.? Vrd thcerrrp*can bc caloM u ltlittttl nrl" lihc' qpe *c imnp ttc rcfistor rftca &o dcdgn is built rd find ft to b Lr ko sso cgnffiflot 6grcs) and wc 6c rdqgp rad cod ir o bc at v (tqp dgnifim 6gures).lhg sitb t*o dgni6c$t figsr€s.c.*r" H nctoobtein Jri@Thclh- b - calcrrlation hnrrc Incasura- &rD whcrc i . it m{LWc mlusions Eucs.istoq.dol X o reprw e rum of aunbcre srch rs &s uscd in Equerion (t:l t1..1. rhe irilhmcdc m b crhlaod o obtdl m rruagc vatus troc vd$lc. .

rt to &rcs ronc*lry rbou hon &c fofivklrnl trhrcl lc ftreiU oC itont Oc of rhc *r €q {0.?". 11d &c qrttrcs obtahcd ffic lJ8 2ll!.(F.i . In . . 3q ?0}'a *rS uc oc nro" or ru n t . tnaao.lg. oor. rtor.vb ".040c tnterpretatlon of Standard Deviation A morc quantitativc sprcading ixn bc madc if wc make ccrtain cvatuation of assumptions about thc set of data vatues uscd.42 I CHAPTER 1 Standard Deviatron Oftcn it is iasuffcicnt to kno$ thc valucof thc arithmctic mcln of r tct of mrsurmts. drtryb &c (s ryq2!. - i - so. goqlcr ee hrylf &c it is catcrtatcd. 14' b.t birhfossry farnoc.ttgoi. rb $rdrgd dcrfuior b l rorc of && qred $ru .lt5"zll'.nd thc denaic ncan of rbc rahrcc..:-- t85 + 2?t + tg:t + Tl.H ec hdiffi ?!h6.C..pr.im. !$.Ztt".14) ct Oro aumbcrs ftrom whicl E0illPl-E nsrycrurg*as mersrrcd in dgttt locarioas in troom.13): g == 3. i"Tbc dcrifu tc m ' lhctffiodgryd@r dt=4-i drErl-i d. To intcrprct lbc rersurcorcolt gropcrln it may bc n. c.fro4?. usitrg &c summation slmbol.:rr-3 lbtctof&clc I dptiirrimfo rw Gqude uecd lo defuc rec mdrd &nirrim rmrding o fu orE or. ll" l 6 ed{d (t tw s::Vr-t dcviatioa.' " Irdlg Egldoo (f...Zi'f.ct of o vrtrro 4''z'. the nac sprcad 13) (1.U).t + lg + 20 f :2L6"C Tbc standard &viuion is found finom Equation (I.l9. sllp it gm Octrc r rct tf&viadmr fy thcbmcreec bctx.cl.:! ". Hrd thc rfifuncric mean of rhc icopersrtand&cstaidard&viatlon -.

iltfu tlc of thc tncrn.6S$ tic fioal4l b a? rfrcaas in fu P6i- s* of pcsErc1patrrye A€mtl[rl6eo rru iellcd &bttc (1. and gct '< beof l\) V{t: 0. [c d&. ggtth cfdl rcadagn tia qd&itr 33<r of the mn f a rprcad vilscs he**nt Thfo gittc us thr ddod ffsy o n& gdire$amts $outbm. Subscqucntc*npters wilt cxamine tlrcsc topics in morc dctail and provide a more quantiativc uhdersanding.2li. 189. s bcllccnE If ltis is finc' ecn thstcric p | . Process control itsclf has. 1991 2Oe Now thc rrcan and standard dcviatiou ' ans foud for&c aftcrcasc: Wi= l99g {.It{IRoDUcmoN.bocn d€scdbcd as suitable for application to any situation in which a variable is rcgulated to some desired value or range of values. ?jLl' W2. cial crrre cr$od fu rutnrrrt p&ffit anl.ricwof prooesscontnol.i& lhc conuoil qn*cq p9* of ec 4t {dgbod h tbc nnge of 199 ! 15 g.' M. CAvcr n@of alrie rum tbc 6dol rldcc *s iosaltc4 rhc rrfitnrctic nan rndo@dcviec Samphs bcfoc ?4ll. lhc data arc spcad men of 44 pi with a srandad dc$orn &o m.. ?dr. r97 rcn eod ctandad dcvi- 2ffLg g cb": ll qrcre tF $3.lhuq if oe pl wc know thc of 3 ernoMdcvinioo d t4 pd rnd rrothcru mof4lpirft "idi6 &c scood casc h rcadingt lbs pealcd ddl !n &cr. 179. Sotuian I! a FEhFd 195.f4) o fird drc 201.1.er.To PRocass CoNTRoL be ll€c- bffi ftc t'ftc tct r .wt lg}2lqfr| thc bcforc crsq wc rryg Eguatioos O. I Tb. 8. Figurc 1. 200. rp rac SUMffi$TY cnrn$ruarion of uscd. 20c1. Ths following list witt hctp thc rvadcr mastcr drc kcy points of the c*upter. t95.Z&.trn This chaptcrprescris aa o. l9t. 1. 43 partiarlar.5 . 68% of dl rcadiags lie s. uro resum that thc cnors are tnrly randon and {rat wc havc takcn a largo sampb of rcadi4s Wc tha can chim t$tbc $udad&vidion llrd data arc rclatcd to a spc. 955S of rtt regings rcr.i&b :i2o of thc @n 3.ilD !o hr e rqd& tbc vrightcf potuoceiPs dumpcd into bags in e &oa ttaopdgc bcforc rld rftcr Ut b*t Do ttris by coopadng of tbc crnktc thc bcforcrod sftcc Thc bagF shot{d bc S0 g. 68S rbortr&c ma tancrls mrt nse !o 58 &'om 30 pd. lS5.195 saTetcs (1J4) n&on qtt&dt a&r ln.d!$ fntcr*. 202. lyl.nd its clcmcnB. furl Fdq8h8 ofcrdhn. 201. =e 5g &d tbcoodol syernh6ti€ugh tbc rrrcrqe@ wdgh &scr to thc i&al of 2ffl g andrh*ithas anaceprcaabyrfiaorofil!ntlrcbcforccesc'9yr dtrcbags u'Eidtd 2@ * 33 g hs q.t2) rod arion.

. Thc '3.connof tooe ecftiltrno* of {rt* &o rcrrri'tg {ma pcak aroq ur *rnrnim *" . rtcffoo.md*gn t ttrc+-roa.a" ttc atlrngFrhcot of 't0P rnd. mostiaficadvcoflory@ uhg rnd 4litrt ?rcesdlg ue d b pmccsearot rpplicidoffi.Thc basic ticttri$rc of digidl co. lhco. Of yon do not-know tlr comporrcnq look thcm up in S&ioa l^4 u cocyclopodia. ccrtail quanrity of rhc mcasrrcrl vrftbl.d. WItd b tbc antdbd rryidblc? trhat is rhc mnipulatd varislc? Is rtre 12 - rylrtcs@ te drining i r[ nnomobib bcst dcscribod rs e ecrvomcdranism or a prooess-conrrol rytcn?Why? Sccdon 13 Cosruuct 13 r bloct dhsnn of e rtftigcnlr conrrol slntce" Dc6nc cacft block in tcms of blc reftigcratoroompmcnts. A tnalrsicnt causcs thc response shown in Figurc 130. oocrtclu. thc rirnc consant boconrcs part of &c dlmanric prcpcrdca of a ensduoee cf$ary rd & Thcusof. Bo& 4 cutlcc rcad is to r. of rerlemene fuoutb &o rrsc sf tlp rirh1O Pt$b-drmdngs urd s}mbols rrc 6c tlpical rcprcscnanion uscd ro display p6occss- coo8ol s)4sctns.mdiiiuring qle.iliqrrtorrrqgc qce* G thodffi b &c rpan bf wmts of ec dymmlc ofrmrct. PROBl.. . Speei$ the maximurn error and settling time.snrndtcgn&ddcrdnioo.) ll . efior detccto(. codiog dlorr: crcb bL of e bioay $osd !o cotrcqegod ro.EMS Sactbn t2 Ll Bd& [w &e ry {try of €otrd b c@o5rod in r roora air.&c rndos rcNsurc&coils of &c offioilcd trrirt{e digid?. . 9..do. S*icrm t4l hcrpr* ttc trllfity .& I CHAPTER 1 " i 3- $orys r tilock diryran in uftk$ lhc dcmcnb of rrcasurerncnt.idc tbcrcgirodrqgutatioo. $turc cfictil h$a ba ecrssod &d-dhs trc wehrdon * prooccc. ft b nitl ncwry to undcsstarxl aorncdffi toortcrryrco+ nosty &c F'8ts! gyen Gcc Appcodir( t).ij satcc in the wod trctr s"r*cs astbccnoding" ?hc S[ ry& of ro0E f{G thc b*fs of oopr*aione in rtb book rs wcll rs in rhc pos-ooffil foey in gpocrtl tlourercq. cpntolhq udoonnnd clccM rrcooaoctod topmv. rd ndebh. $_ Aru&rtdoriedfa6dogpro*.rncnts. ''fto cmocpt of casdus tirc nsponsc was inro&rocd. uic.A proocss-oonuol toop has a scpoint of l?5eC ard an altowablc deviarion of t5"C. rnd $c I dgfrt oontollcr fG Glrlu. eod b poccss oncrd arc ncc- ae dmilabto fu ln rclatcd ficlds" ?.rignifi€ntfigcrcsbiupodanttopropcrlyintcrpc andcon- ctnsiooe dracn &rom nrcaorrc.

d).nnnsonrndofi.l3'3rpp6e tbat tbc relays cJrc * llS V enAopcirtl. Sqpocc rtc .t wcr.ra e6e i1Ej o0€A €d! rm(ilecrbltrgedrcpeo Lf VGa" tlrcrc is rdcidb.tinarc {.3 An rnalog rcosor oascrts flow lincady ro th* florr &om 0 to 300 m?h bccomes r cunccErea O o 50 srA. mditioning d*ilc? Is thc .cootrolloop rcsuh h fu 6"stt"t Fcgontlcs showrt in Fgurc t Si.1hc rnplificr hs i grA of lQ rhc refcrcncc t i V eo'd rb" $qTr ql$ry f50 mv/f. ffi-control G of +5oCeffor and FTGURE 1.? m? b. g. Tttc E O figitizc Utal Gttfy of thc .5. wtat csor sholld bc thc &itd pcak valuc? Docs trc Gporn of Figure l3)'saCsfy fu quartcr-amplitu& critcrioo? s€Aond clrctic Saction L5 l. Th f w ry{rangc . hiccomcs rs andcon- f &c arith- fy proccss- erea critcrie.UVnrisrert*esrhcrctlapctc{U9*cs g l5 Vitdccs' r.bich rroold bc ?1tfcrcd to satisfy $c minimum nl arc[cc- l-f. Wbar sould &c 4 Ha bc forr lcrvcl of l.hangc ie r 4-bitADC rcptescrrs r lcvcl of 0'15 m' e.t bits rrcrs rcoq& Whr is ttc nrgc of eofiblc lcvds? nor ru-pmccssonrot $amcm |l1 nsrc t. l[ I F t?5 lo t6 scrvcs rs in dtc lmd cotl!-5 Turo dificrcnt tunfinp of eproccee. continucd? Ll0 Stipp* cact bit e. .INTRODUCTKINTO PROCESS CONTROL | 45 Fq @n- lffiuol 6rs t- lrt|e&c e 3 ! ms. qlcrrlrcrftc Estpcrffi€s Grfti&tpt eums o ]rdotrrodetltrich lhcooolcf uf (.For thc quartcr-nmSilitnec crircria.31 . qure for Problem 1. trusicnt cnor pcak of e r:sponsc t st nc'asun:s 1A1h. CrfcUus tc curcat fc r flonr of nS d lL L' whar binary urord soold rcpcacot rtc docirnal nuirtcr 16 if Trble l.

Find an cquation such as Equation (l. u. . 1grgram of rrr lrrlofiie 6dcm rs folto*x Ttc dcdlcd *rtcr tcmpcraturc.cy of 305% FS rnd mei$rcs resistancc ftrom O 6. b.? b/irr.9nV/'CTh output voltagc is mcasupd at 8.td Tith $eolutc cctrinty $oqt thc ongutt'oltegc? lr0 is uscd with ra emplifrcr rirh r grin of 15 * 025 rnd dsplrfcd m r mecr ?i& r rurge of 0 ro 2 V n g t 5% Ht Wher ls rhc worst casc etrd rms uncertainty forttrc total ffit? t22 Uring the nornin l trusfcrfurrc'tion valucs.mtlL Ltt Sqper$qdd lad rrnging ft.23 rcnsortnndcrfunctioo b{F. ' rd timq r. Dcrtrc lrl is lmwr ro of0. pcrlupc byr knob rndI"CD rcadou. Erpc$ &is acoelcearion io n/f.24 1. What is the pressure for rhc lcvel of 92 r Draw Figure 1. ffrhc tcmbc 6(FC. what is tlrc maximum mcasurablc rcmpcnnnc of ftc rJrsram io Pnoblcrns I20 rnd Itl? 'Alcmpcraqurc " 1.omss o &6 m ls limrlyconvtrtcd 1.6 in the standard P&lD symbols.12 . find thc in m/s a drc cnd of thc qirart€r mitc using thc rclation t . Dcssibe whatclcrncots sould bc ncccssary to do this using (e) analog ontrol ard (b) computcE oontrol Sealoa 1.Onc hend vrlve turns oa thccold w{cr. & Usiqgr : adl?-bt:Jr^Edsrnoc* relcmdon. Find rhc crr ryec4 ra l=tax.6 wonld bc modificd to usc (a) supcrvisofy cbmpotcr oontrrol rnd (b) DDc or oaryutcr cootrol 1.l(lsilWb* b rtk prcssure in pascrts? iq Flqgrarc?Wbat byourlrdgbt in esno*tcr*c prcsnrrc 13 1J6 Aeraodemffi lrucodomcrscthcoosrurelcntionof erucrrthatcovcrr r qu$tarmilc in ?2 s.86Von a 3digit roltrnacr.n 3 to 15 p4f. S/hatcanyotr say ebouttlrc v*uc of ttrctcmThc rcmor in Probkm pcraturc? 1.Thc tot unlcrvatrc isrtffomati€lty sa to kccp dtc rcnpcraturc I thc rclcacd nluc.to 2G'mAcignd rhat &ivcs r rnlw to concol flow.f tdl Sdlhitr? Al insrtrnsrt has ur rcctr.o.'''.25 A lcvel sensor in1ruts r range ftom 450 to 10.6 ft and outputs a prcssurc range from 3 to 15 psi. Wbat pscssur€ will resrrlt &ronr a lcvrl of ?2 m? What lcrcl does a gessurc of 4J pci rcprescot? Aongotlcroutput b r {. is *locrcd by thclscq.tt d.6 Lt4 Lls Wbt byourtnass naes? rtout t4.5 mVfCrrd rn rornqrof 9t96. fhe rclarloo bctsen currcnt llow b Cl 46lI 2 mAltA gnUmin.I CHAPTER 1 1.O bctween tevcl and prcssure. Show hov rhc control tyscm ir Figurc 1. r*fui cu bc a. c. Wtrat is tbc flo* fa t2 mA? Whrrcrrnqtr prcducca e ltow o.e. 150 {L Wh b thc unqgruinty h ra indcrrcd Gr$ccot of 3yt O? rd : - lJ9 1r0 Awbsrrnnsfcrftrncdoo . relcratioo ilR{*.hcrcthckrc€/W . ft? .13 ltink rbout lrow you rdjust thc rntcr rcmpcretuc coming from I singlc nozzlc udng thc hoa rnd cold bind nlwe ia r litcfrcr furcct Oonstnrcc Ore 6toc*. Find thc car cncrgy in jortcs rt trc cad of thc quartcr milc if it weighs 2000 lb.f8 to pnsm*c prcsslre rrngiry li.

ec from O to- F It If ths tcrl- Hy sbotlt tle l5g OJj snd worst'casc v loR :. If e rt 05 r. Tbc presSqrc $ns(r ouqPuts 2O mV/kPa and has a timc Gonstant of 4..7 yI6 [pcffl- Aterrpcranrcscnsorhasertatistramfcrfunctionof0.INTRODUCnON To PROCESS CONTROL | 47 Section 1. 122.& ll. 8. What is thc rangc of scnsor voltagc ouputs initially and finally? b. a0 . lb. 93.Ov? U et *tat rlprcacs drc outPut Att'= O.Wtrat ' mt[bsttcccEoctodorrrot?ltcd$ilhis built. Dctannirrc .rl .of 72m? .-thc *cnsor nssnrrcs 52 pd at: rinrc 45 s aftcr drcdrangc.4 129. oondrirt't'of drc *nson d flow. Itnd drd mcan rnd thc et{dard &viation for ttrcsc data Arunufrcrurcrryocfnoeoo$pct lbrltcuusfcrfimcliooofrprcssutcscosores 45 g 5% mVntFa witr a time constant of 4 t l0% t.! Wbdb &c curcot lfuough thc rcsistor? f33 Florp ratc was rnooitorcd for a seelc. At td soupus*ttigp gvc$by trccxpcsqion t/ = 1O.? \.2 3J| '42 *alql8.omZ:ttri rOO'Cttc senThc scnsor tinrc consant is fSO ms. Wtratis ihc voltagc ouqut at 05 s? What is ihc indicatcd prcssur€ at this timc? 5. nozzlc Dct din- t 33 * erd 9 * Y{llo. endlhe rceistare is mcasurcd at l5(X} O rd drc tottagert 4. .-ll5' io3' 93. What is thc scnsor tirnc onsann A photoetl wirh e 3Snc dnrc oonsant is uscd !o m€sutt light Oastrcc.'is fu' htMJ tcillp€$afirc et tlrcsc tirncs? rcnmrmcrsce*{ peijurtbcforc aelddcnchaagc to?0pci.OO v/C) [f . What rangc of voltagcs would bc cxpected to be measurpd 2 s after the step changb is applied? . t32. A higlrly accurate tcst system ' applics r ucp ctrarEc of presstrc ftom 20 kPs to 100 lrPaa.l. Aprwc rcl*tcd l8 &ccold r &c fcl(r) slla- teluc? gocs ON wtpn a prcssrllc tcnsor voltage riscs abovc 4. 105.. How tong tftcr r grdcn dart-to-light flash bcforc fic ccll ooput is 80% of thc finat l^9.il.istoroharc4.116vds : t Q thc prcssure c*rangcs suddenly from 40 pci to 150 psr a..7. rd lhc follouring valucs w€sc recordcd as prsurable tGrll-- lntuge is $tcaIoe of tttc tcm- r(scmcds) thc avcragc time l34 gdrmin: lo. 7 J. How lgog ficr 1[c ppssnrt riscs suddcnly ftom t00 kPa to 4(n kPr docs thc light 1^2t An rtqrm light ' goON? 130 A prcswc Fcrts? p r&at@g- * resistane 6* drangcs wi& pressure aocording to 25kIL nris rcsistarcc b $en onvcrtod to a udtagc .eampcrmre*usawas nrddcntychangdft.9 s.l5 mV/tandetinreonsant drstSs of 223C to sfiC k rpdkd a r = Q fittd fic ooqil totteges of 33 s.The Wh4t is *P b r with thc trrnsfcr firnction *etion /a-- eemor has {O. ' . lo.20t]Thcfot- lor&g ablc gitcs thc vdtges arisrred ard thc timcs. 9.l5k0/p*}p + lec n 2000 q - :lue rangc fiom H and Pressure' 0t Y(vdc) It o. 131 f. Adnuft&sigpcrltsfctts-tdlrcs. Lo2lOO.?Vnrossistcrmioals..00 V. rnd tl3.

attcntioobas bccogivcn tothc most ommon rccfrniqu& Aftcryou havc rcad this cbaptcr. L Oennc tc ldog chractcrisicr of &c coomoo qanp circuiteoofiguredoos. : . some 'tncof analogiordtioning is usualtyrquirodbcftrrcanalag:todigitalconvi:rsion is r. r Dcfinc thc opcndoa of o instnrmtuirn uplificr in oooluocliu'silh a llrlrcatmac '. 51 . Spccifics of digial dgnal conditioning are oonsidcrcd in Chapter 3.5rou sboutd bc ablc to .Signel nditiorcing llcharntrmbcr- r UCTIONAL OBJECilVES Thc. r Derv *be"mics of fdrr of &c bcic gp enp dgnat condidmisg circnits. dgmlronddo&g s!4rlc6 lhrt mwra iryrr liorldorrcqu&Edotreutrotagietrftlioo. tofasiliririzc trc r€adcr with tbc basic tcchnigucs of signal ondtioingia prosontoL ln ricwof &isgel.tng rcfcrs !o operarions perfonnC on signals !o oonvst .f'mbg dglnl ooAffioniry I Dedgnrnepplic*iooof&cWhcat*onctridgetooonvcilrceistanccbangcstovoltagc cheages" r And:rac&copcrrtionof I higlryass XCfiltcr o &tcrmiac is cdfcct on a sigpal. r hidgc. we rrc oosncd ooly wie.purpoec of &is cfraptcr is lorn'thc . trcm to a form rui$tc fiir fumctfrcfug uith & clsncrrts in thc proocss-oontol loop. r Ddae tic ptrrtrr* lne t*lqrrca o.ulog oomrdoo+ rilrcre the udticlrcd ou4ot fo edll en am' tog rcercsenadon of thc vadabla Even ln appticafons invoking digital proessing. and provide thrirtnnsfcrftgioos. Dcdgn rn uelog e givcn relage varia- INTRODUCTION Stgnat orulitioa.aJc. In this chapcr.rilu Iog.

Vlcvill oorr finc drr eucolioo lo dcctricel trrnsforndioas {l t il Wc oftcddcssibc thc cfioa of thc sngpal coodidonhg by fu um nansfatuadot By dhb crnrp mn ttccffcctof &c dgnal onddooing oo &c inpn cignal. For cxample srmcsffiaoqurclpgpmyvaryfrom{l2oo.'qgut i) r t8\ *=turVtn+r :t r/il vt *oo=<t vol6gc gincs thc oqxn voftagc.Tbu* r rinplcy'ottryorrylifXrbrsrtnnsfcrfucriooofsorcoonstantdrat. .52 | CHAPTER2 2.To dcuclop $& transduacrq rc takc rdnntlgs dfrrudtoos cnrcunctrrc in nanre whcrc e dylan&c vudablc furflum romc cbasreis8cdemrlcrid.ttrcreis ticlechoiocof thc tJpcorcxlcstof suctr pmpgrdoUity. tl il t t t f w t fr ft .I$-$a?s"d a nd Bias cha n ses Oncoftsmo6tcomnmtypcsofsignal@nditiooinginvolrcsadjustingtbclcvcl(magriudc) lrrd bias (zcro vnlrc) of comc rcluge rcpcscntng . tf.2 t PRINCNPlES OFANALOG SIGNAL coNDITIoNING :lt Arctscmncs. rycmrcrting infornration $out that vadabl€ into adcpcoda* rignel of ri&cr cloctical c pamatic nanre. In dcdgnfug birr &oArcrcy rcspoosc. Te pcrfamtbcrcquiiod ligal enditioning by 6rst cbanging thc zcro o occrnwbcn &c ecosaoqot b 0.thcproccss.occrphavcrcscarchodnanneardfouadthatcadmiumsilfidcresistarevadcs invccdyandnonlincarly with lightintcnsityr we mustficnlcmto ccrgloy thisdcricc forlightsrcastucrFntwithinthcconfincs of ttntdcpcttdcncc. aryll@t d ud rrytifu cir€Eit$ ur€ must bc oooccrncd with issrrcs sdr or4rs iryod. Itb poedblc bcatcgpri?r fgadgcndtdo"i"g intoscvcral gencral Qryres. wtich b crllcd anrrallrdol-Ycnsbould mtc that6c cirtttit 6d &ir cithcr ctdrc b crlld m a${uc$lc disingui$ tctwo rfiplifrcanon .Analog dgnatoonOtooingpoidc &c opcratioos ncocssary !otransforrn ascosorouSxnino a fcnrcccssrryto&rtcrfrccsitholbcrelmrts of Qc proccss"contr.:f V.L.ftis can bcdom by einpty n$tracing 02 &om thc scirstr oNltpr4 which is crllid e au cfrdt or a bhs dju*mcot $ow tc bvc e vduge tta vrrfu3 G'om O !o 0. pros vadable.cs r ro@e tb udca ft'on 0 to 5 Y fq fu sne variation of the pmacss vadablc. In roqe cascq wc nccd o na&s r rcoscounr sndlcq.4 V co wc nccd to makc the voluge tr3ea. 2-?.If *e nddply thc yoltrgc by la5. Horrcrcq cqdpmcd o n&ich {ric scnsorou9t* mustbcconnoctcd pqttee rtqd.. il .Conscqrrcotfy.onroldcsigncrhasEtlcchoibc of tbcclaractcristics dascosorougut v€rsus a1xoss variabla Oftcru thc dcpcndcttoc th* cxists bctws input lnd ousut is nonlincar. thc rcw ougut will vary ftom O to 5 Y rs rcg&€d.6VasrFoccsvariablcchangcsovcr r Ecrseffi rogc.whco multipticdby lhe iryr tf$=ngy[ln I f: fiStd$rn $hllt\ sl . Bvco thocc &viccs that arc approximately lincarmay prcscntproblcmswtrcn pecisc me-asuremcnsof thc variablc arc rcquircd.2 rs thc ljnearization Aspointodottatthcbcginningofthissccrion. ?2.ot loop.Forcxemplc.nd atlcnudoabynodry *bdbcrthc gri! of &c roglifcib grcatcr tbaa a lcss'lban unity.noc end inpn in@ne.tridrfr . Te b aW 125 b calkd ttc gc&r.

Sudr cirtnitsrredifficulttodcsign and usudly opcrac only *ithla nanory limits. fractional rcsistancechange is smdl and/orby amplifiers whose gainvaries with resistance. Forcxamvadabtq rs thown in FQurc plc. dgul oooffidtrg b uscd tr ootrtrrt rEulechoibc I dcpcndence pproximatetY rcquired- onc tnc of clocdicd trdttion ino ano6cr. rsdras tltc Histbicatly.ANALOG SIGI{AL@NDTnOMNG I 59 FIdURE A1 Ths prrrpooe of lineadzation b to prodde an orryJt Srat uarie firrearlywift some variable err€n if the sEnsor drtprrt does !cpr. 223 Convercions Oftco. r some f $rctt sul- ln lcarn to Analog tinba fifi corr inaion h rsim.\fium t (Eagnicxrrnple' itccs Eges ovcr ' Emscctd (c) tc proccss rcErr whcn i&strout&c voltagc l5Yrsrc' rt Dccd to. Thc moCcrn ryploach ro 6is problcm is to providc thc nontincar signal as input to acomput€r and pcrfum thc liocarization using so{trrare" Virttrally any noalinearity can bc hatrdlcd in thb manncran4 wilft$c spcadof nodcro oomputcnsr in ncarly real rimc. a targc. *ouH tdcally be onc pros traoodtionodtrc'ecnsorouqutrcthatrrcltagcwaspmduadrfri*rnslincarwiththc gme vrdrblcras drorn in Figruc2tc. . it is ncccssary gencrally aocomplishcd by bridgcs whcn the is This thcr to a voltagc or a currcnt signal.n- p Ulcc. . indcod qmbotically in Figurc 2. not.fb. Sby the YtrTnX tc 1ffis'0nnn s. specializcd analog cimdts wcrcdwiscd to lincarizc signals.la A fiocarialioo drtcslt. $rypoec r rcosor orprn vruicd oootincady with a 2. t&c cirqft rim and atn unity.class of rcnsors circuit to convcrt this reeisiancc change ciprovide a to rblq In ttresc i:as6. resistane withcfiangcs inadynamic variof cxlribitctangcs Ttrus.

s ctrein cotrld bc e dsor i eitrc oO"r part of thc signal-conditioning to thc ottt' .Gtalfo. e.*" . itnego Ct on c rdflifica Apa drcutt ncroe tlat nothg is cornccrcd snd fte output. f Us rOt4c rcg.& tt iryc I signal that wdcc prot i&s\ll aens6 ec tut iaa : O nood e vddp ed ud.cscots todp prcacss variablc' $cn we.f.lG+TAPTERz with the Signal Trarsrnission An important typc of o^nversion is associated This wirein lcvcls ..to-lolugecoil.t"t dnrotoondittons dut rnay wtago"to. Difrcrcnt loads Orc of lhonoeti4atrntffiE tn fcrcotdtoPs.Tbevqdn's tlrcorcm tclls us ourput tcrn*rati of any two rcrminal elqncns ean bc dcfined as dc a voltagc rcurce in sc' .€rt€rs.stlne arc vofta8pls{/€ls '.currentrndcrrrcrrt.i"on*ft.oit ty eoo&ce nfu tomdnccs"glccttalntt h rtc tryUtrl(h of r voltagc as { is-nasscl plooc*. uin8'gli! and fccdba. -*td.ffi 61 s**"" b lsod bcca$c ndr adraw o6...rs bctq'cca tlr otrFut tr thc intcrfiac o gpl bc dcrclopod crn cimis *"t LV. t-il t" *"*t h*r ueuioty i! thc vrbc of tb vtiebla Qtrrriu*cry. eQnat is indepadent of h.ri-.*S[S. c adi'E fittcrs.irtoctioinasunwantodsignalsfrmthcl'oop'So€hfilaiij-iU .d *a ci-.Goncept o{'toldins fd[$'.'fucd cxanrplc' thc ADc tmv For rloc.e" fnpodaru r"riid 6 .fcdcircnitderr'rccsca[cd o adjus trc analog mcar'6rr€18 GDCit A..6-"rdd.d 3019 fr rcq&adADCtotrii ?2.cuddonilglcqufu€mcots ue prescnt in thc industial cnvironslrrcngdr On C Wf*r-tfgt l" of condecraOtc mcd'snchasah"@8r-tl*fcqucocycG"-tqMotorgarttnnsknsmayalsocausceulscs anCot run*anoa*gnalsintcFdrss€oofiotlooplnnranycascgitisncccssa4ttottsc Ua[rfn5rtnres. mn1c: q:rrenl Thtts' varidoos.q typot*t At""s' rsiog only resfunors' capacitds' and indw' tcki.**o]u4ondard ortrroslt itrogdgnrb s {.o1 onuro rcd fdconrtrtfurg tbc corcntback to ralage * thc rectiving ..c i*-nt"nrg resf.te 4 < V.inportar clcnrent of signat @nditioning whcn tottdocgr vuiirntcrn* iopeancc c filc-ifipodao€ ca! c$13c Gtrgcs in reasnrcmcat of e dmamic Jl* goO iofo end pcsirc-rctnrcfu rre cmplqrcd to ptovidc stdt matchittg' ry . qqaitamay. of Digital lntefface rbc usc ofcocrputcrs inproccs conrol rcquircs convcsion aonanalog*odigital *"tog6fufto.b eloa4 fPs &c in difrcsult ilF.rcoftenreqpircd.ray%whcothcctcncntiaputissonctnriablcofvaluc':' circtrit' su€h Ttrf.# "** Sittedng and lmpedance lllatching are filrcring and mat$iqg inpcda$ce' ftlgorhcrmmodgltl. Dd. . or rc rcqutucms snffi d..Lofdi4go€ut3r6in rcdoc'lcct $rnctln..fu dgtd dry€doo is usua11y-re'.to 2ornActncnt oan rympiatccttrcnt givE ftco d". suppoecthcopcn'circuitotltP$t ofroocacncottlrvon"E.\ryi[ S}d0mr huh[0h rntog d8ldcortdtioning is thc balhg of oac cir. wican cnlualc loadhg rc as foltoqts..natb!'intcgr.roadbgcrnbcdcscribcd rs follo*s. p.lt[e of rc clcmcnt dmpelo comc *tt.

rrtcirqdt roa"i urics :uffi*rr- tbttc n Figgrc 2.This iscallcdruTher"ononqoivaf. Tb be givcri by Equation (2. rotagc dlt sd .Nw (2. ion of *tF {snB "t n& ffia- of thcclcrmru C may t an output impcaanca Lct's assurnc this is arcsistarc(rhcorputrcsistlrce) to thcdcsaiptioo casicrto folloqr.1) envitonDs erceisarrcc Ri.0 ko+ r0 m) .L-u ff. fid rtc arnplificroqQur tnndcrfrrncrion of dorcctft b Passcd ...tlus bcdvcnby Soluion -. thc objocrivc -.E ["fr U\} a' lg.-> n-rr. [€sit output of valuc r sircuit' such il to the outS. Here wc $qpod.tue{H\r*Jl'srnlfihhl*g A|UTALOG SIGIUALCONDITK}NING I s5 FIGURE22 t the The ThArenin equlmlent circr. of toading! Figurc 23b shows tbccorroct enalysis. This ncnt iving rbad Thus. This Gquadm'tto. ry Tttc Yoltlgc that appcars srcss the load is rcdu€cd by thc voltagc dropped across thc inarnal rcsistane Puls€s to uss slrch fitrd induc- s to* t" €trocts of loadhg cao be rc&re4 Ctcarly. ltis casy ocatcutrtc a"t d ua"arrgnvoftage wil "d. fcempb.Butftbiswnong.Tv/c)soc mc-tmdlficrappcastobc16' by Figure 23a Thc unloadcd orput of drc rcnsor is sim- ro v.r.irJnes rhoqm i.lit of a serrcor allows easy visualizatitm of how foading occtns.. rrnsduccr f"it vari- ffiAfttrI.and the rcsult in dif- tclls us that seI lotlfcg in n arplifrcr onlpllts a rclagc &at G cn rirncs rhc volage on its inpr* taninatsr{ fn 1. g.^*\r\ rrt" *i"fsofo&on is regcscntod nll!::!.2 dioqr srcb rn clcnrcrt modclcd ls eroltrgc t{ud pdancc.t how thc cfrccts of loadng can compromlsc our measurcflrqrts..0 ko 5.1). ni.tngii"-prJJ"*.1$* rD. 1ryf thc orryrn nsiaane of rhc ecnsor. R.0 v = l0 v.uooo.rprirro iopr.. ggrld bc 6c iryu ni't're of aa rsi6cq.ii"oc thc arnpriricr has a gain of ro thc ouput of = l0v5: (10)1.ill Rr-{bar is. inpc rcsistaoe of lo ldl_{scnstr ousrrs a voltagc ptopo. ttlc$ we.-bc to m"l<c Ra much largcr fun c. tsonaocteduoec &corgrrorrhc. vn:t (t 5. Asrcot viu &q fu rgeritt bc drcppod uoss R .o*"fb l"mpcraturc with a 2Xl mv/qC ftc scosor rras en ouput resstare of 5o k(L If drc tcmpqa$rc b 50qC. sd trat rtrcrc will be a voltage ." roil.

lQ(Ofl V) = 6. Lding is important rmly wtrn .If rlc clgbal sigdempliurdcsrrcinaortant .56 | CHAPTER 2 fiGUNE23 ignored. so &at vr = 0. quadity of intcrcst b &e$csrcy c r digiul signal rhco loading is not rnch I prirtrilco. €rrors can occrr in loadlng is gnins of and of cilctt'its er. il&crc b cootrgh dgnat hft rftcr boding to msurc thc ftoqbcncy orto Osinguistroncs ftrora zcrcc' &c{c will bc no cnq.rrected ouQtfis gf arnfilifpis.7anV. (r) o) wtcrc Yr = lI) v. o.6? v xhur thg outptrt of thc amplifrcr is actually t6c --.9. tbcp'rrc sdl nmy 4ptications wtrcrc thclr pqticular advanagcs makc thcm uscfut Bridgc circgits arc uscd pimarily as an accuratc mcans of mcasuring changcs in ir*' padancc.important rclc ia analog signal conditioning and is rcfcrrcd to 111i ooocctrptays many limcs ir ttis tnd latcrdtaptcrs. 2. . TtS b.. Suctr circtits arc particulirly uscful when thc fractional changes in impedance are very .! small. PAssruE ' ctFcuns Bddgeuddvidcrcircirits fre two pssiru tcdrniqrrcs tlutharc bccgt cxtcnsivcly uscd for rign ogodfubg for ury persAleqh modcrn rclivc drcoits oftco ttplre tlrcsc tcdqhtrcs.

trnccvadcslincarlywiththcrncasured vuiablcthcdividcrrcttagcwitl notvary fincarfy.3. ds ttrcsc' nake thern rnges in irnpcdance ars .rnd lovr-fuErey noisc qttmcba"d"g r uncs' horlcrrcqt[crc of thc -t thc dcsfued siguat informarioo.pr€cot 1q pqf{rcr nry bcr dirHz aoisc rolt€c lnprcsscdo rhc orryt t"toarix aalanhfu lrynne Cmcrrt ep*re ArcuAr oasisdng ofr rcsistorrnd capcdtaofteocrnbcd toelimioatc bolt high. 2.1 DividerCirctrits suallY Tbc clcmotary lrofta8s dividcr showa ia Frgurc 24 oftca can bc uscd o povi& oovcrsion of resisane into a voltagc variarion Tbc voltagc of arch e.1lris may not ncwrily bc high. . r hncduq nay oorca tcogcretrc idcn&a imo r dc @gc' Dtopodtmtl b tcop€dstr.dviicrrcsfotdrs Eiftcf'Rr or 82cnn bc thc rcnsorcfrosc resisane varics with somc mcasrrcd tadabla & b impottlnt !o oosidcr thc fottowing issucs ufrca using a dividcr fc oonvcrsion of rcsistarcc to voltagentiation: ' *y uscd for If 8r.Rr or R2 is nontiocac ttrat iq cvcn if thc resis. wt € i Anotbcr mooa tlpc of passitc drcrdt involvcd ir riSoat €odidoqing b fc filtcrtha ersur€dcf.t rigpll tt t quia omain ln &c in&s- inemnatod to+rcoccr ft. In a divi&rcirnrig cun€ot fioua Cuougtr both csLor-u that iq"pow€r nill bc dissipatcd by bottr. Thc powg radng of boththc resistor and sensor must bc considcred.Ihc cfroairc ougr inpoUare of thc dividcr b ttc penllal ooobinrrioo of 81" and 82.ilividcr is given by thc wcU-@glytarioosnip fcrrcd to vo:#l -''hqucrrcY dy srhsn whcrc . irrcluding thc scnsor. f. ?. m hading cffccc mutneconSAereA.AI{ALOG grcrUArCONDmONtNc fTGURE L4 the slrele wltry dlvidercanoften be I 57 -'-t tlsed to cotrtlert resbtanco vadation into wltagewriation d voltqr-&'vrdortt*o^O Aa. Bsucc of ltc crcr. For cnryla. 3.arpplywluge .06 tirlcavirmmofinddgnrbttrtpccsshrigb-ud/c riecsrrllls tc dcrfcd meffi du.& (u. Thc vuirlion of yo wftt citt&r.

43 V Vo- is givca by r0ko+4ko For Rz : 12 kfl &c toltags b Yoo (5 v)(12 ko) loko + 12 r$ :af. asstroe thc &tcctor impcdancc is inlinitc-that is.of u Bridgc circuis aduutagcs of thc bddgp iqpcdaoca _s\il* WreGtonlg*n" ntpt tt0ttt {Ebilr^ h}hil bridgc circuit is ftc & nct{ro* b trcd in rignal-ooditioning rf pEciilims qfrcc r reosa cfiasges rcsistana with poess vriablc changes.iopot im@nocdifrcttrttal t@ffice In com ca*s.r If-c.i"ltrt\ llrr*srr I A Rrfortbcnininumendmaxinumof8lSimplcparatlclrcdsancc -rpoariooshoqrltltlhiswittbcft. between po. purcrdissipatcd varics ftom O5l to0. an opcr circuir In this casq thc potential differencg AV.45 ld}..lb€ofnd(eltbcnininumandmniraumof I.lv bThu*lbctoltagpvaicafionf/BbZZlY . EXAMPLE Thc divfokrof 22 Figutc a4 h. Thc solution E+raion(2r).Ttc inerc or q*c Woerre b fcod Aoo rtc pamllcl oombiratioo of R1 aid $[Sn'pft[\Sg$6q 16

0t$) .ints a and 4 is simply Wtc8orchidgcr Tbc dnptcst ud nost ooonn rs rho*n ln Figure Zs.Vo (23i . fu objcct tabcbd D b rralugc &uor dlo omperc thc pccadrts of pofints a ard D of.tb lcnro*. ForR2 = 4 kO wc havc (5 vxt4 kn) : 1.fris ncens tlurnrylifidon can bc usod to incrcasc tbc voltage lcvd fc iscascd raddvity lo vtiatioo of iry&re. ths dcactc ir r vcry high. In G nodsn qp$crt'rons.y reosidve galrranorucrrfih r rclarively low irnpc& : ane mly bc taca cspccially forcalibration prrpoccs and spot mca$r€ment instruments For our initial rnalysis.b Olecrangcofotputlmpc0ancr. This AV : V" . Ttc ponrlrAirsigatoC W trc ransorcaa bc dctccniood moct casily&rom as tbc voltage lcross R2 has bccr calculatcd.Thc V2 I &.5S I GHAPTER 2 and YJ = Sm V. lvlany nodifr catrc of me badc brldgc uc coplo5lod fc alrcr spocific ryticetions In Figruc 15.'range.om286o5. 2:32 Bridge Circuits ticuscaoomvcrtim@ncc variations inovottage variations Oncof rbe forttis Oisk is drat it can be dcsigncd so thc voltagc Fodu€d vadca rround zcro.s &r = lOO kO rrhoec r€sfucancc yilb &om 4. A&rppEcrtioo of ffigp cilcuia b i! tlrc prcdsc static ncasurcncnt. rtrgH.62oW.00 b and (c) thc rangcof powcrdissipatodby Rr i Solttfon a.. Supposc & is a scurcr f2O kO es @ dynamb vuiablc varics ovcc a .

Rt + R3 rhc suppry voltagc. It does .r *..&Rr .ANALOG StcNALmNDfftONtNG I 5e f{GURE 2. (2.. n""a* il.5 Ths basic dc tA/heatstone brklge..tttc bcediffcrenb low iloPcdlnstrurnents.=potcadelofpointcwilhrcspoctoc V1 r puhl of pold} rilh rcqo*'o c isj'st Thc vrlucs of varnd v1. rd (zj).r t &) (L7) Equsdon (2"?) choss lrow thc diffcrene ia potcntiat acrross &c dctcctq is a function of thc supply_volagcand the ralucsof thc rcsistoi. willrcsultinzcrodiffcrcoeanazcrcvottagcacmssthcdctcaor-ttrat tor of Eqrlntioc (2?} it is clcr rtat a parriarlar oombimtion this ccnbinadon. of Rr ahc "' 1 nVzlRo ' tP p produccd nkage g di- (L4) In a similar fashion..f. an opcn iimplY (2'3) A .. bs is. qrecrc I/.rnutlciu*""rrv.9) Equation (2-8) indicatcs ttrat whenevcr a whcatstone bridge is assembled and rcsistors are adjusted for a detector null.iriil g1"il. .. av-ft-#t e"6) using algcbr4 tbc readcr can sh6ri' that rhi< oquatioo reduccs to rfr is thc dc &iottingrP rtrnY modifi- bsrc25'thc r td b of. Itclunr i ovcr a daltrr. nr).. from examination of eojration (2.D ls b..(Re. the resistor values must satisfy the indicated equality. vidod bctrrcca Rt end R!.Rr& (R. .. v& *ft . % is a dividcd rott4ge given by rrhcs" '--lr LOseof u:=rryl'.V?- (2s) kidgesupptytoltage I^Try**ym*eqgd'6s eacaabcwrinca lty"t Ercnt'of an (L3r (e4).pw cen bc found by nod'g 6ar t.tc volagcdifrcrcnccocvolagc ofr.: "air***.

l ctrangcs.oV. in rc ncans rliat V5 is largcr tban V- "ii.ThcTfiAmincircuit' Butis wait! thc D of and a pii C-opct***f.:.616g"f Equation (2-?) is thcopcn'citcttit voltage. so RrRr l4r:V (R.-.l$c null is upintahcd' Equations (2'7) of whcatstonc brifscs to eroccss'contnot applications us- not rnrttcr if thc supply vottage&ifts CZSift". rcftigc dificrene bctrrcen'po'ints .uoi ry Ua lorr udbocanse rc rnust dctcnninc ttr bridgc ofrsa rs cuncnt ofrscL wncn au[c4Eryrrloo(28)sritl dclincs thc rclationshipbctqrccnthcr€sistors in ttE of ctrrcnt dnwn by difi-fu gqo"ti*'12"A -o. nulls with fi r Rr .9'.tnptt the GelvanOmcter DCtcctOr Thc use of e galvanomtcr rs e nutl daector in tu bcalsc bridge dtEdt htro&rcce rmc crrcrcns in ourcatcutations lc|3t6ff .& rtcni nfuf ooO Uon ir not pornts a tcttren ca.ntit fr e* rc noO drclhcvenirequflvntcnt ad ? of &"#.figrnc2.r."C?r.(l2ooxlzt L \ -'LV: IOV'@o)-(l2oo+ l2to) AV'= -2ojl EV h Exrryle 2.R. Rt: l2ootnd& = l2t(LIf the Solution wc find thc offsa from essunrins &c dctc*orimpcdanc to bc vcry higb' ..5'asgivcnbyEquatkm-(23)'Sothcfact0tat ldodoe thd lh3 Gsutt aV A *p*r.nerc. rF .+&)-(Rr+&) RrRr fII .t to modificd to allow dctcrmination way to dctcrmine casicst thc Falragc prcsart G ."-[.ll"-#rfoif"d" c "rA ing higFinptrt irnpadancc dac*ors E:T[MPLE 23 trffi ua"" rs stromm in Figurc 2i.60 ICHAPTER2 . {l2ooxl2oo} .. & using Equation Rr&'= RrRe Bcca'sc ftc bridgc is nullc4 find 1000 o.ffi. " .+Rr)(Rr+&) R. (5oo o) fi1.il: 'z - (&42 o) fftr=€1 O E111MPI. Rz = 842 o and (2-8): R.uo. Rc6embcr'that Ay is simply trcdificrrnet.f b r ncl3rivc voltagc.l' nnd $G lrrluc of &' Soltrtion.h.E lbcrxfslorchebridgeareiwntyRt: Rr= supptybt0.fitdftc$olttSeo'Cct' L1 . siqr volagc tptrlOf i* O'r"t n ngr*ZS *it m aaccmrenrowd).500 f.Rr& (n.Ru (2.

drcpfisc voltagcis qrt _ -:./ I AI{ALOG SIGNAL CONDmONING I 61 l I I HGUREL6 tL?) When a gah/anometer b usd for a null d€toctor. " finddrcofrsctcrtncnL Sotution From Equation (2-9). t*a TtcTh6rmin cdstrnoc ir foud ty reptrdng &c $pply vohrytr by iE fui$l rcsistan€ enrtcdcrrlering tc asistrocbcnccl ictnrinb a rnd D dtltc GunrL wc my lssumc rl* rhc fouad rcdre of &c $PPly ir netigiltb ooBrcd'O Sc bddp tm rcsis' t!ncc3.*I. tt b tcfrl encrcrdrcforrbo rcafuo *mrdrathc1tArcuiartrfuteffb Jecn tt pdns a end D of thc btidgp b 4 L If the .0 lko (2 rdr)(2. a gaharclutr A ffigc cilqft has rcsistare of Rt : Re i & : 2'00k(r and &'= 2'05 ko and a SOOV-inpgty. thc oftctcunent is ^R4r as shown in Figure 26.-E]RrRr .8) dctines lhc lilbcarstonc bnidge rc- I .10): (2 (2. ticular.-(2 5Y aF Vn ko)(2ko) ' I/rr: -3{lJnY - (2 kJl)(2.Whcn itton in the n drrwn bY Pdcrcrrnine Eaandbof trgeis sirn- It (2"11) But wait! El[tPtE Al .05 kn) .AO iotcrott rcsistarc is uscd for a Celector. Etrtfi rcsis- Fcf.9' nult dacctor is uscd.rposc rrtcncvct ---* tb simply p fact that Etor in th. kox2 ko) Rm: (2ko + zko) Rm: 2. If r gatrnnonrctcr *A SO.os ko) (2 ko + 2. In par- ic: ilf vrt R" -Ur{ng 66is cquaim io oonjtncrion witt Eryafor C2.05 ko) . lt b conwn'lent to use fte l$ llS- Th€ver*n equirrabnt circtrflt of tto hidge. Rr& ta10) -*. We nixt find the bridge Th€vcnin resistancc from Equation (2..4 Thc Th€llqain cquivralce circuit fc ttcbridgc coatilcs rs to casily dctcrmhc 6c curfi11 rcnt rhro_trgh ury galnanomacrqriOi intcraA rcsisancc.

Sohttion On e ZX!-6V 5calc.9 mV so ttrc smallest moasur- rccd to fitd out trow much iQ has dhangcd from ft drangcd to somc unknown valuc rc that 100 .ftom po'ir*&topo'intc intlrocireuitof Figurc25). 31q51nc r&rngc of f0Ofil. *c rmy usc BEntion (2D tofind h geactd.9952fi= O.62 | CHAPTER 2 Finally. oe gim thc @rrcsolu- rhc drange in rcsistane drat causcs this ofrsct EXAMP1E A hidgp cir.r20o + lmn .G0 ristsances and a tg. but cvcnnrally wc find .GV s'pply.1l}: Io: Ic : -30.tV t6ults: l001lv (rzooxtov) &(lov) .rrlf*mntrtldaccta.Itfotlows thatabridgc offsctof -l(ArrV sro$ld bc catrscd by an inscasc of &. because itcan also bc said that AR r"prescnts the unccrtainty in any determination of resistance using thc given bridge and detec(or.scafc.Sr4pccaglaneitp\A4qna20GmV a6 -. or l00ftV.i crn bc rncasrcd is l"T^that A& = lZt(Ftt9. rhc DVM msles toal abtc chang b Ol mV.before the dctcctor indicates a change in offsct voltageOnc may atso tierr this as an overall accnracl.0048 O must occur. gal- BddgB Resolqtion Thc rcsohxioo of thc bridgg circuit is a firnCIion of thc resolu' rionof thcdacctornscd todctcrmine6c tridgcofiscaThus.120.0(X8O Ahidgeoffsaof +l00pViscauscdbyrrcducrion of &. O. So.lrit hs & = 132: 13r = &:.Findrhcrcsis*anccrcsolutionforrncasrcrncntsof&.0 o 199.dt"hldg"isnqlic46Equatioo(2S)Srou/s. " . .imUc. rcf€rdng tothc casc whsc a $hgpofisaows.l2oo+ & This oquafion is a bitof an atgtUraic Aratlcngc to solvc.of the instrument.05 ko Itrc ncggiru sign on thc ctrrent rimply r*ans that drc c{rrlnt flows through fic vanomJcrfiorn-rightb lcftGc. So drc smallcs ctrangc &- 119-9952O . this rcr e finit oa &c minftnum tncastrablc lf r d6crn rcCmce*m*tn rhi@e rrdng tlon.rry.9mV aot ko + -15S pL 0..rrcdcfnctbcrcsoltdoninrcsi*anocasthatrcsisfinccclrangc inonc rtn *Oc t i4e &* catrscs rn oGarroltrgp that is cqnl o &c rcsoluioo of thc dcrccror. rtrfo dctocla. *e o crcete rhis much off null volaga Wc riarpty rrsc pquario (Z6L wi& 120 O 000. a In Examplc ZG vrc scc that a minimum rcsistance change of 0. tttc cun€nt is girrcn by Equation {2.

whcrc thc rpsolution is limitcd by tlrc minimum mcasurablc currcnt lead Compensrtion ta mmy proccss-oontrd epplkatiors. t* ta t f* v I rnychugesinlcadnnisrrcscinmdtmdoquallyintotwo(bottr)unsofthchidgecircuit. this compensation system is used to avoid errors from lead resistance.lcgof thcbridgaWirc (l)iscxpscd toilrcsanrc cavironmcnr and chiltScs bt ttrc sanre emount.wlrir:h lsasnrmod !obcthcsansoGhas bccnrernoved toeEmoie ldnllilh lcadu'tEs(t}(2).uscd 3odrivcamcrstscduftaltcrcdanariabteresistortorenult thcbridgaSrrch asptemdoes ttot sttit thc modan &drooloe5/ of cl€ctronic pmocsing bccausc it is not ver5l fast.ardgmelcsdoctonicnobaAtcctrniqwttatprwidccfcanctccbonb nullingof &c hidgc and &a rscs only fircd rcsistors (cxccpt as may be rquircd for catibrarion) calr be ttccd oobtein r- Hd 7 T d'wc n shrr Bg mE FIGURE 2.itiatoducdrbdnngclntodre tr!. .In rucbcilcs.Wirc (3) isdtc porvcrleadandhas no influenccon thc hidgc balane ooditioa If wirc @) clrangcs in resistancc bccalrsc of spurious influcttocs. tnd dtcmical t4ors. many proocsssrtol epplicatiomuscdafcodbackgrsaninwhidrthckidgeofrsavoltagcwasamplificdad.7 For rernote sensor applications.trclcmrining fixd hidgcresistorscan bcchoscnloa€ount forthcrcsistane of lcads rtquired tr onrrca thc hidgc to thc sensor. but is in thc 8l tcg of ttrc hidgc" Efrcctivcly. a bridgc cirurit rnay etoonnidcrablcdsrneftom thcrcnsorwlrosc rcslsanocdranges areto bc mcasured.t$d€).\ I - ANALOG STGNAL CONDmONTNG I Gt Thc sarnc argumqlts can bc applicd to a galvanomcter nrcasunemsnt.a -'-. bo& R!ad&arei<lcnticallyclrangc4andrhusQuation (28) showsthat noctrangcinthc bddgc nutl ocannThis tlpcof orirpcnsarion is often cmployed whcrc bridgc circuia must bc us€d widt toqg lcads !o dre rctivc clcment of rtrcbridga QmelrtBalatp Bddge rm M Oocdisadrailageofttrcsimpl.cWrcasonc hidgcis rhc r mll bynriation of rcsisnors in kidgp anns. tcrnpcranrrcr $rcs. Sdr drangcs witl show up as a tridgc ofta urd bc intcrprcad rs dnngcs in drc *osc orilpnt This problcm k rcduocd tdng lcd conpenutioti c/hcr€ bc locatcd I I . is subjcct toulctr. Andter Pmbhm cxitls th* is not :o casity handlo4 howerca Tlrcrc arc many cfrccts that can drange thc ttlsisane of tre loog lctd stcs ql r trutsient basis. Rrrdrcnnorq arty mcasrrr€snent of resisrtrecan bcdjusnod forlcad rtsistanoc todctcrmirp tlrc rcanl resistance.ftusclrcingmcfioaivedrangcinhidgcotrsctr iadcompcnsatftnisshowninFigurc 2-Zllctc urcsethaSl. $rdr as frroqucncy. In trc past.

babne brirlge. and Re A ctrncot.€vd:. R.l plovidcs &c hidgc sith t sc{aulltngabiliy. If one of the bridge . + Rr) Rz*&+R5 ]E' I .t &>>Rs Oftcn. ltrc lcast rcgicrirc ls to requirra - (Lu. t Vclhc y(& + Rs) 8r*&+R5 + tRs t (el4) voltrgc of po'int a ic ain grv€n by Equation (2. Thus. the bidgc ofrsct voltagc givcnbyAV=V-Vt. The srandard Wbcar$oae hidgp'is modifiod by tpliuiag onc arm rcsisnor into tun.a1t CHAPTER 2 tlGURE2s The cunent.r"at to nirll thc ffiga Aclocc&loop sjstcm can Glrcsbcorsrrrctat tftf.R3 This can beporidod for by rny of .I k : (2.q Lv: VRt Rr+R3 Y(R.15) This e4uation shows that a null is rcached by adjusting thc magnitude and polarity of thc curent / until IR5 cquals the voltage difference of the first two terms. Thc baaic pdnd& of the cuncm balrrcc txidgc is shom ln ligurc 28.t . uscd wilh 0rc trlCgi ff* nrcCroA uscs r cu. b th{ &) >> R5 (u13) cittrcroonditions of Equdioos fal2) or (2t3) arc satMrc4 thc voltagc u dividd supply rctt€c dus rhe volt4gc droepod acrocs & ftom thc anm of thc thc currsnt. t k fcd irrc &€ hidg€ thrqgb &c junaion of & and R5 rs shown Stc now siputatc Orat lbc afoc of &c bidgc rcsistas b such ft* thc cuficnt flws ercdonrilrantly 'riuough . if a higbimpodene null dctocta is usc4 drc rcstiction of Equation (?-12) bccoru (Rr + Assnoing point.4).

thc bridge can bc rcnullcd by dranging cuncnt L In this manner.In this case". Soluttoit Frst. The voltage appearing acr.thchidgcisataoullwithf (to vxr ko) : Qbocausc l0ldl. as shown in Figutc 2.0008 Vc 0. l60pA .:0.t6) wherc V.+lk(} %=0909tv wi& f s 0[ E[uation (Zl4) givcs {lo vxesoo + s0o} Vt: t0 ko + 950(} + glo Vc:0'909[ V WhenR3increascsby. the hidgcisclcctonically nullcdft. This can be pmryidcd by r cunec.8 mV to rcnull thc bridgc. This tlpc of mcasuremcnt is pcrformcd by plachg the porcndal to bc mcasurcd io scrics sith rlrc dctcctor.: l0 k(###BOT_TEXT###amp; = 9500.thc tEidgs is nulbd at rorp nocnfurat e*of rcsiSarc with zcmcuncnt Changcc of a bridgc rcsistc. ftrc null detectorresponds to ttrcpoantid bcturcco po'ins cand D. Find tH thc crnrent rcquired to nutl thc hidge if 8s drangcs by I {L Thc supply nolagc is l0 V.ANALOG SIGNALCONDmONING | 6s rcsistocs changcs.ss thc null detecloris AV=U-Ub:V*V-Vt .fcthcnoninalresisanccvrlrcsgilca.fZ)bccom (rlgl fre voltagc rt ryss Rrfrom (L1O t mct voltagc b (L1s) tr I potariry of rre of the bridgF Potental MeasuremenG Uslng Bridges A bridge circuit is also riscftrl to mcasunr smatlpotcntialsetevcryhigb lrpodsnoe. &rom Equation (Zl5) and AV : O found from 50f = O. V5 is given by Equation (2.9.unanyooorrn&:$curcntsourca In nrostqpplicatiotts.8 mV. lqdre (arl) | :. is givcnby Equation(24).&r = I ld!'& = 50O and e hig!-impodancc null dctoctor.9099 V {r- hs snndard r A currttrt ripnlarc ttcr rgb RyTbis *bich shoss &a thc wl6ge$ & must lncrcasoby 0.E A qres belrae hidgcr ts ehoml io tgurc 2& lus rcsislors Rr = &r. usingcittreracoovcntionalWbeatstone btidgc or a ctrrrnt balanoc ffigp. and Vris thc potential to be measured.14) and %bt' U:V+V p.l Oto 1001 systc"rn carl ft%M tlo vxrool) lo Kt + r00l l.ae daaod as abrldgeoffsadgral &db rrscd opovi& ttr renulling cun€RL Tbc:c{ion iscrplaid in ExampbZT EliFl.

tbc nullingonreac t' El(AltrlPLE 2A A hidSe rnd &- Ur-I8s-g fcpoauid msrmr ry{ 500 {} wirb e lGVrypS.+##-i(rox5ool-:o U+ 3x69 .t- nuXr vbco'Rs rhc Solutton *c si@y Hcrc (ale) .3-333 : t o .e thcn tlrc two *da9f* in Equatioo @tgl csnoel.owhca y. V* Sincc Vrnumerically submust be *inoi"a itpoint a in Figure 2.$c ecc that ie positivctecurinal . rmhrinn pdrnd.66 I CHAPTER 2 F|GUBEa"g Usirg $e basic Wtreatstone hidge for potential meaSurernent Anulloondlion bcetrbli$odwhco Ay = Q firdcarorc.irh I . knml potdl rfrcc rucL e mtl b hund.in.mcrrrcnt floucthmrgh thc u*. fu potcatial is ptaccd in sc-.and Ay b defnad cxacltyesbeforc.E cal dsobc uscdforpotcorial mcasrrsncntwith rycryryat tryugn 6c porco&l to be mcasrrrcd Hcre ag.9. caa bc mred Uy il" hidg ". ricssiththcdctocloa.. . so thc nult coodirioa bcoosncs us+# v(&+ ^Rs) &rs) Rr*&+Rs -IRs-0 rthq firtcd rcsistors rrc choscn to null fu hies u. U = {ll|3lV Tlrencgativcstgntclls tracts ft'om us thepolatityofthcunknown voltagc. Nour-howcvcg V5 is givcn by Equarion (2.R2 (ZlZ) lo rotrE fo-Vn v.ryl"g rc*toc o provide r mll rilh v. h rhc dtc& ril lotvtE for % uslng-oc iuu-oooocoi' {ara Tbccttut*bolaoehidgcofli$rc2. Find usc Eguerio * t kfl Rt = 605 (1. Tho+ V.14). I/. lcavingl rcry simpte relationihip tL% .

hft irnpcdanccs rqlacc rcsistanccs"Tlr hidgc offsa volage thcn is rcprcscatcd as natchicg of itrrpodanccs in genctal. i= 3s offsct toltage Q20) . urc cNr nsc Eryation (2.66'? V 5k+990+10 = fir+&*Rr Thtts.endRr = l0Owitha tGVnrpply. & : 9900. lt+fr=1567V and EIE- tifrF h i y(&+n) r0(ee0+l0) 1.4r(4+ z) & *"no ll{.llY sn$l'.b tcmbry {Ltsl ac Bddges fiie bddgc concept dcsctibcd in this ecaion cen bc applied to tbc qrcll rs to rcsistanes In this casq lhc bridgc is rcprescotod s il Figurc 2-l0. 44+. . Fir*.\ ANALOG SIGNAL CONOmOMNG rffifli{il@LE .and crngloys an ac cxriadon.ffi nil:e.rnd LE {LIe} .19): 12mV-lOJ:O f = I.vnr _ f- 0 and lo(t kl Rr+R.FgurcL9" as f{GURE ElO A general ac brirlge circuit. ao cnmioarioo of thc rcsistane shows tut drc bridgc is nullod whcn % = O bccartsc ftom Eqution (Zl8). usually a sirc warc rcltagc signal.Findthc qrn€nt naocssary u null trc tridge if thc potcndat is 12 mV Solution . . Ttre anstylis of hidgp behvior is basically thc samc as in thc prcvious tneatmcnt. AE-E (2.Thc fixcd resistors arc &r = ftr * 5 kfl'' Rr = I k[l. ZrZ.&str I 6? A crrrcnt balane bddgc is uscd for potartial mcasurcmcnt.2mA eln rri& .

(.IGUBE L77 Th€ ac bddge circuit and components for Example L1O.} . 21 = sinc wavc cxcitation voltage bridgc impcdanccs .68 | CHAPTER 2 whcr€ Zr 4. h hidgcil. E= 74. From fruatim * ZlZa e'J|i.R. A{Pccial notc is ncccssary comrning the achicvcsrcntof a null in ac hidgcs.Findrtrctarucof &rd q Solution Bccausitbcbridgc is at nu(urchavc Z&t .E 410 Ao *F$e_coetqc lnpodaaocs as sboun xrt€o Ge hidgc is nulled. ru io1lh.-*) &zRr -it:Rr&-# \t Thc I€aI and imaginary parts must bc indcpendenrly cqual so that &_#:=Q R. Thiscordition is analogous to Equation (2-8) forres.it is ressary ro providca null orufu raturc (90'out of-phasc) rignds bcforc (2Al) applics ' Bq*iir E}(AMPI. &is bcfore by a zcro offset volagc aE -1 oonditioc is ma if drc impcdanccs satisfy thc rctation Z2/2 = 0.e2"[.rcffi[J inFlgu.1ry| ?-trditi* is &ancd (220).istivcbridgcs. = (2 k'sl(l k'?l tko &:zlrf. I Zt' t fn . somccqscs'lhcoull daocrionftctcm is pluscacositivc withrcspoct to tbc don signat In tbcsc iostanccs. or Rr(a-*) -R.ZrZ.

oaml dgnU mdiOoning is o eotttt rndetim of rcsistrre into wiatioos of rcltrga ltb rolagc vrridoo b thca firrrtcr ondtioood fa hfics&F o ro ADC c othcr iptcm.Thcsrrcnonlincadty is pescnt in rc bddge oftc es gircnby Eqrndoo (2r0I ThqB.E &t= & = |!ltQ1gd-V :: ll0 V-lfioh-thamnllncrftV dAV rffi-4113.rb trd*lc tdryncrflrGA -. 6l Horr*elrer. if e wbrs en inpcdare &. sincc it b ccntercd *orzcro. for srnafi ranges of resistarioe' cfrange. It b rftul tngortra &r notc'thrt lhc vrirtio of triQe oBa s girro by F4urdoa GO is noofincrr'il nryoct o royof thc rrrdstors. fio off<rufi wltage is neafly.l2r shorvs how Ayudcs wi& Xa foretddge tih& . thcn the nontincarirty of rduge rerus r€sistare is sinttl ligurc 2.t huatim ibes" In I Brldgc Appncadons Tbc piirury qpplicrtioo of tridge drcu[ts in rnodctn prccsc.5* Ineaf. is rclairctylineacAmplifiss can bc uscd to amplify lhis tolagc variaion. to ! uscf.ul raogeFGURE z12 bl Bridge off<rull r€ttage b dearty rpnlir ear for hrge€cale cfiar€res in resistanqe.20 p cxcita. thcn &c vuiation of Ay witft Rs on m cpardcd rcalc.:.lt trd6&o0Obglt(L If ihc ruge of rcdstancc vuiatioo is soal rnd ccntcrcd about thc null vahrc. t b-t ur Ir & . dqua& tqdq 6s c.1 ttacdty b lost ryhco rbidgc is trsd to qvrrt 6is o r vdtrgetrffoa Figurc2.t b Uocar 'rffi rcryoct o.ANALOG SIGNALCONDmONING and C.={trrF}*# Q = 05pF (2.12b shows ftat if thc rangc of vtirtioo of & b sE ll (90 to ltQ O).

pnaaical filE* @ fil$#y $qlc romc critir:l "ilil. "r" uah ec$r* -.s and passcs lor 6q[: ciec" n rdd tc nocl dcdrdc fner trra.cal ftequcncy is givcn by I *: {(2*Rc)l I It lt lr&il rt L It L It r: an a flr.BL. XCfilicc ebcrllod hnr-pas:bocausc it bloelairi$ e.!fteeuen*This ctiticrl ftoqucncy is rtat ftcqucocy for wrribr *rc ra6o of*r" *pur ltrPttr bkaga b rppoxinnrcly OJiOT.o ". rhc variaion of rcllckn wirh ftcqrcncy is ' tbow! i! I{gprc Zt4.70 | CHAPTER 2 FIGURE 2"13 Circuit forthe lowfass RCfiltec 233 ECFilterc Tb climhate uawantod noisc signals from mcasurcnrents.cdwith6utctr&*rcn it is vcry snall azcro.whGnthisrarioisorie.qgcrrd..n m rl-*in"r f r lon-p vatuc arc sirnply rcjeacd.W9AEHW. ir i i I ' FIGUREz-l4 Response of the frrwfass Ecfilter as a function of the frequenqy ratio. irroaolsdeir. 613 *tP9 i.**.$* iWil. tbis traph.oft!n fg:rlOotreerolophlsc..thcsignal ispa.+. . (?J2) . fro signal is cfrccrivcty blockcd: Thc hqizonoal b rgfrty$c logadrhm ofthc ratio of the inpur signal frequcncy rb a crttl@.Io tcrrrl of oe resistor and capacitor.pro.rhc ircrricrl b 6c rario of orr-put roltagc r" iriprt. it is often neccssary to usc €ircuits dtat bloct{ or ban& of ftoquencicc lbcsc circtits i"f f"uffir ArirnplcFltcrgrq bcosrruCcd fiom I sipglc rcsisnorand a singlc capaciror.ch thd idcd rie tuying dqgces of $ess b tlrc cr* of the hw-pse nC fltcr.

G[f- rucrE" risror vrluc is oocrpntcd ftrom Eqution ofrcrcd on dris poocss: Yna$t t.ccornponcril trluc3 endmprnc &co6caoftco 6ccrpacitcis:aoctoa aod &c r"q.ri.!f dcsign ttcxiUtity elloqr.Necan oftco just eclccr one *rf."d. f.:ny from Figurc al4 or can bc computcd by H: lr f... dgml hs ! &cetrcncf <f kIIz. t* Sclcct Wn.If it is bdot I k{l or rbovc r }rfl try a ' &loler dtrcrcatraluc of cepatrro rbatrhe requirod reslstancc falls widrin{. This must bc comidcred in your designoftcn. sti& wilt $trid noisc rnd heding pmblcms" rcyb 3.' crrnoe in indicatcd vatucs. (ml (f/f)'I'^ filcdtods AtJtpicrl fitt€rdefgn is. t3rr rhc rcqglrcd rtsisrana ntuc. urebavc tbc rclationstrip or0l - froqucncy witt givc tl + (l MHzlf").ign e lw-pass filtcithat rrcouarcs rbc noisc to l%.. capacitqs havc a tolcranoc as high as +2OVo.isffi. 2- b+k j vglt- sy tiD calcutatcd. ard6cocrtculatc thc nahrc of rtrc rcquircd Esistance-Thcn a trimns (variable) rcsistor con 5c uscd to oUtain thc reguired valtrc- r cfit- tcJ') illffilwt-E {iltrr6p lll I. thqre.Atrraysrcmcnbcrtratomponcotssuchesresistorsandcapacitorshaveatol-.eeunplishcd Deeign B + by finding trc cdricNl frcqtlerrc!/' fu: Titt sdsfy ftc dca&[ cdtsie. 5" If cxrc trlucs rr€ nccew1 it is usnlly casicst-to sclect a capacitor.)t : 9999 or fc : t0 kHz (uJV): o.0l at .Ttc r arndad cryacita vahc h rhc . whal l" dr".. osc rtcacarest Sandsd naluc of resistanoc to that lwhcn 4.ANALOG StcNAL CONDmoNtNG | 71 Thc ouPut-to:input voltage rado sigrral frcqrrcngf can bc dctcrmincd graphicatty {o(.f following practicat gCajfirro "* ro pF eangc. Bocausc t*o unknonrc (n rod C) htr oolyoocoEntioo.r e. ffir orsfi rc qJ. nrc re*sr* and capacitor . nrczlsuse itsvatue.yn which givcs us (ltvlllz/!.* oaominod o podde ttc rc$tircd critictl ftoqucocy iom Equation <zizl. ln€aaurc{ncqtsignd ttits E ximutirof I fHz? Soltit'ton usc Eqtrarion " ' (u$rto &tcrminc cftar crirical I MIlzTo do this.. but rtsc is unnrantcd noisc at about l-qrytq"* t Mrtz De..tr.

ee6 Thus.Of pi. R- :339O (zttXtdnzx04? x tO{r1 This-|s a vcry rmalt rtristarrce' c/hich oouH tead to cxrcivc qnrcnt and loading So u/€ try e sstrltcrvalocof. Thcn Equation(LL2) can be usedto solvc for the required rcsisanoc.ataJ-G.7. This will gire ra rcunt cdtic.f - I MI{z would = I =o.ooeeges instead of O. = OJg. Norc that Oc rnagnin de cqut to ttr cdtical tpgcncy.h* ttrc frequincy is is Sovm in tgtue 2.0l as epccificd To ctreck thc cffect of our fitrcron thc signal at l%l lfll = bc down by I I ry wc have :0.t frcqucocy o. FIGURE A15 Circuit for the highfass Rcfiltec : I . thc data havebca rcdusd by about o.- :6=l59lo 8:# is ru6 nce practicaL Nov srypce wc ty r staadad valrc of rcsistancc of l. G *otm io ec rchcrrdic of n6'nc itS: Similar o &e low-pase filtcr.cqgcosy&definodbyrhca'''.f Aq $o fi* (zr)(lsotloftfF) s 10610 IIz q/hich is a 6% diffccpnce.rF. ". . So thc noisc at :=' Itrl lu.nAfrtrsillrestrft inehgcrvatucofrtsisrc.oyaluG-qgafon(2r2)-ssrotool&-p"i.Sldl.utttautiuntca over r *nd '"ng" Thiscriticalft.72 | CHAPTER2 Lct's try acapacitorof 0.cryadty.4. rhc rcjo1ti*-l trct *arP in fircqucncy. Lct'slyO.4jh- Highfass 8G tlter A hiSh{ass frltcr passcs high ftroqucncics (no reigion) and bloclci (rcica$) bw eogcodca e nrcr or us tlec can tc consiuoca rsing ahsisrc end r crpocitoq.16.n"y filtcc ThcgnPh ofdcf *qoto inprn vcrss bgnrirhm of ftcqucncy tocrirical frcquency & UJU.

o iqpc.f == 2klIz1hecfrocton6GIlzno'rscis Yur pmqiny raw rlra omiog: tbund rsing Equation (224r./ Solution La ustrrs nnd q''"t vdesc T.rcltagc fiq*T:Tgg}.wfih ftn.Thuc.tntrlscasc. it has been reducrAby 97%.l frcqrrcact b &at frequcugr for rrtlch the ou{rutbettcnuatcdby3dB. . that is.t lr + (flf"l'l't' (224).-g h*t a-a at tt an I nf flt f..pass WTNilPIE td rd tFP ffisfrs$ trmr ery'b . . we see that only 3% of thc 6GHz noisc remains.ANALOG SIGNALCONDmONTNG I 73 l2 Lr I It It }lnlo$ a? V.|6 : Re+onse of the higfrfass fiCfitter ."r": -3.Gt RE2.Jrtfr u Wi^ tt {" . fr r s4ping noior arc bciog lransnitod rt 2000 Ha Design a filtcr to rcduae 6&IIz noisc but rcdue tbc pulscs by no rncn€ &an 3 dB.ifl.*_ lvJYul +'' d : as a frrnaion of thc Ae- (flf. e a funaion An cqudoo for 6e ruioof orqut rbltagg qucoqy fc thc bigh. Puls . (UJU): lf3/to - c'at wc :ncnb* so'down by 3 dB' mcans rhrt P 0JO/' ltc crllic.'ry.. t- 'd"r ' -- 60[Iz [t (@l?4eo)' + (60/zno]2lt/' vJV" = o'03 Thus.'4rQr t*r*'dL ftequ€ncy ntio.Thcreforc..-**.

Thcn Equaion (222) sbows that the resistor shorld ldl.74 I CHAPTER 2 Lct's ry I capacitor of 0$l .21).ndtoa b tbcfiF'c lcss rangcb Oftco.R and ccan bc cmploycd that 6bcriricateeqpcoctoqodocAn&bcofprlcrical issts linitrhc rdocdon. to thlfxod rc.istors aol cqadoc of qprcrirn*cly &c oomput{ valu can be qnplo:rcd. 51d5jy Apart&onloading.96 Sr-ld} resist*.ng esptcmvbichvillrsc0rhig!4assclw-possf.ould dlow nsc of cithcr a ?Sk(l or haw a yaluc of ?. Thccfiocriw ingul tnbcAane rnd output irycdancc of thc RC filtcr may havc u cftc on rbc cftqft in u. tn prircipk. It is posdble o mdc-8C filtcc in sctics.If cxdvahrcs trc nc6a0f itisusrallycasierto scl€ctsnd trcasutt e capacitoq.) ' $olution An attcnuation of 60 dB meaftr that the output-to-input voltage ratio at 60 Hz will be 20logs o(U"nlV.r/V^ - -60 = l0-3 . 3.€co trc filtcr ou@ut and thc rcxt staga Similuln if drc o4ut impcdancc of thc ftcding sagc lo &c fihcr is bieh you m8y *a!atoisolatc thc input of thc filtcrwith a voltage follourcr. ho*urce Sw of the rrtc . Hmlctec.2.' rftr . un ry to kccp ttc tcsistancc in &c fO rnd rbovc re4c nd ca.rF.to obtainimpmvod drarpocss of thc filtcrcutotr&qucocf.") V*. bccauso&cec trcstadard talucs- ffi Coneldcrrfionr ltccrrcrrunbcrofts$ca&ddst*ficadcsignf.hicb it b rsod bausc of losding cficcs.crscdiqg6ltc$rafucsthcfihcrcquationbyrlnwcrofthcnum- bertucadod.CfiltctsCoocidcrthcfdl.&€crrctcflicrl ecgrcy is aot imporunt. r 1&ry srna[ ulucc of refstrnse re !o bc rwridcd bccau$ trcy can lcad to ll{Bg crfllcc.'.t*ohigb-p filt€rsd6csamccritical&equqrcyvould E$rfon (2r4)3qu!Fd. uy trhrcs of. it is impatant to onsidcrlhc toadfutg of onc RCr*rgc ty rnotbca Ttc orrpt bpcden€ of dre first-*agc filtcr must bc mrch lcsg ilnn rhc tec t@ancc of thc mt *agp 3o avoid loadrg.6cocomputc adobtain tr approgiarc rcsistanir using a tinmcrrcsistane" . Whatcfroctdocs cach havc on lhc data signd? (tercrc lo.ovingitcrns:. l.If 0rc tnput irnpedane of dtc dfttrit b*€ fcd by fte filtcr is l oq you may want to placc a roluge follwrr (ecc Sccrion 25) bct{.ding. rcspondby 'EXAIVIPIE A 2-kllz data rignd b Gontamtmtcd by 60 llz of noisa Comporc a ringlc*tagc and r twoa13 Sgchigh-pc&Cfilerforrcducing the noiscby 60 dB.fhus. ud lftgr lqe todry cffcct& Sinilafy' vcry tergc cryadmoe Oould bc rr€idcA h Sencrel. After &c €riticrt eoqgcocy is dacrminc4 tbc valucs of R and C arc sclcctcd to 3Nd4' Equado (2. Fcrttapc dcsiSn cdtcdr u.

$.n(E Afllrsquared Ttrcrcforq to get reducrion.". [(2rr) (1896Hz) (0.r$r:--l. op"e*rffi6i[. trrcse sanr ver'cs arc used for thc scc- Howmudrfinths"a*u"rioio""-.Ig96 tlz Tlrc cfroct on thc dan cignal is rq*ti* eiai{. we have _ .* bae A slcs.AIUALOG SIGIUATCONTXTK}NING FIGURE ZI7 Cascaded higtr"ass ffCfilter for Example 2.*:**:*3Yjr*i.r2 Solvittg lhis for tlre criricat eoquency a rou4pyqnhadqs E.o sourocroi. R: ^tR (2nl. (6A/f.. r + (601f.r*"y.Ft'. .00f :& vr *ffi#*ffirffirtr'' lL= ftat will give this + (601il2 .lg.r b Thus.a".ffi1lffiffi ruB Equadon o-oot C a (.cuit rage of Examprc 2r3.E][pp*" * .ixt*a*q I 75 O.ort"rfili*. . <.e f.i*i. ..c usc Equation @2*) to find rrrcairicat ftoqueocy ffi.r.to *ro". r $out gi . c.1.iiat2 kttz beca"r""floociqgrwhatotrput fil*.22).dr vidr ffil. ux Wll8e6rrz)t uh l+ (z*Jlzlt3ffiH"r: :0J3 -- 53% of drc dia sigul is retaioc4 Et tbr ovtrall ancnuatioo of &e data signal rlnmupu supposc re rcqurr€ nna ru approftaa fl fO- ril ond staga q fi": ndZ. rrcr1r sraarl inpcdanccdocs thc scrics Solution Tne value of f is fo'und.C1-t = 93.""d?z ut*ft u* *'a_r-ruq.rZ shoq6 ee cfo.rbrervhcnoanis Ql{{rlakI&) rL + (2*J{zl&krtzF vt rbu*_only rbott'3 s%of drc dara rigrrat iileftl on rhe no o.9 &O - &tu{tiorr(2.001rp)f.(x}3 nignrc nCfleri Mi.""AA*il* dr v.froro dreequaticn forcriticat freguengr.

orJSvr . 13. which has an input im@ancc of 83. = 0. ulc sas that thc first stagc dorc hsd anoQotrt2ldlzof l/. FScr€ zr8b $ffis oc croccrc circnit ror'oc car& fi ltcn o dcterniclo. wc find 2L : 515 to 4-46f. by its mAvcoin cquivalcot circrrit uftcre thc firdvcnin voltagc is simply 0.76 I CHAPTEfT 2 "4.&&Thc lotdcd iapu !o tbc aosnd ftltff rt po'ina at ig thcTh6vcnin rclags dvidC bctrrccn fu tm ingoaarc.65 ko 4-435'.14. Tosordy ttrc loading cffeg w€computc thc reac{ancc of thecapacitor at2kHz.9 ko-t795 ko : t15.00trF)f' X = 79.. et 2 kIIz In Exaarglc 2.73 l/j libw scwitl calculatcbow mrrctr this firsr-*age oltlput votttge will bc loadcd by thc sccond filtcr.18 Anatysis of loading for a highpass Bc firter in Example 2. FIGURE 2. Y*€ {115.I Zt& strcrye 8rc liltcr drawa with thc clemcnts replaccd by tlrcir complex imb polar foen.?3 V1 and thc fhAteqin inpoAarc it ths pcralld combinatftn of tbc capacitor and rcsistor (sogrce inpodrre b vcry suil). b (b) . Tlp first fittcr and sourc.&t 1555Kl zj-435'} 1!49l. ' I{gurc X =(2tfCl-t: [(2r)(2000r{zx0.5 &f. Thu$ wc usc rhc ac dividcr anatysis tofind. udlg &c prrll'el rule for impcdanocs.e can bc rcplaced podrnocc.

"F"t is rfienuarcd for rll Equaioa (225) gis ttc rario of thc Eegninr& of ouput voltagc t9 input voltagc for &is6llctesiiiriuioo-oferoErcncy.?3 of drc input roltlga Ttrcrcfoc.i.d.ru+." bcod"ass trlt* .A.49lal rur tlrc volagc amplitudc rlat is prescntcd to ttc !o6nd filtcrarge. &rcqncrcics arc roo turocote $osc logc6cr. Tho ro*-."t is 0.lg The response of a bandfass filter shows that high and low frequencies are rejected- .*y.73(O49 Vr) . Notioc 6at it is siaply a low-pass filtcrfo[ocrcd by a big!+ass filtcr. (?."a i Ptritors' hr mc cffitlcnt lrcrtfuns u* ileirctan rulo. fre e. nssru uacaaiFssng rrr*s cu uc daignod Tirh *lrno* . Band'Pass low e low linrit A-CfiltT stil far b.A . wc find thc magnitqdcs of rhe voltagc so thc result is [%l = p.rcspoccrtorn iE ngu* erg. Carc must bc takcn dru o.r"*y 1ry6 b* .*d". thc pas$and Ggion ncrcr Eact ft.-.25' FIGURE2.. rf ru r*Li Hgh. thc ovctatt fiitcr ougut vottagtis t at@ ra ta rc- rd rgc !of 16r [ct fiod ncrs priu qyrif 0. b.. yog shoutd refcr to ryodrlircdboe oa fltcriqg lo kare rhcsedrcuir.gb-eragc fitter. fd ry e.. t = RslR6 -. r"*oa rUto docs not load ote 6rst Tbc lff.. thc hieh criri. or O?UL ftc Hgbct ctfticd ftqttctrcy. Of ootrrso rhis is ardnn r :ir.n"* &" n"qrrcG-ebouc nrtich thc rrrio of ioql ydry^1" dtrgc ar aonm tya kest3 dB.ili.tr*d 6c linits Tlrcsc tc crtlcd ladgas6tlcr:.ticb-F git' ororryot rcrtagc r" i"p.clffi. &ispossibletoooostuctsfiltcrrtatblockr froqucncics bc- od ibovc I high linat rtib t"q.ss filtcrresisanetodrc lowaass filtcrresistane..r of ttc m'dnrcr. cs usity G. orb.Ar{Aroc stcNAt-ooNDmONlNc | 7? Sincc wc arc only intcrwcd in thc amptiudcof thc voltagcs. wc havc al.. Thtts' l'ocding has nduod ttc datr dgnal I'om 53% to 36*.XU' . m" ruq. t g.TbisoquadoaircruoairccrJsof loading byaoonsanqj vhieis d$zltioof rhc higt{..oqucocics)..Grctiti€l ftoqucocy is that-of tbc higb-pass irltcr' t-tu*.rt *leg. *rgi ho n rert c. *'tricrr rc& oory 33% of rtc signal. down by at lcast 3 dB. andtr is callod &c pssfud .A.t" d. cat ftqbcocy is e. Tbc hrdaass xCfiltcr is stroum ia Frgur€ 220.at 2 kHz Fed lec = i.. dctuca thc a eogcocy tdow q.

Ib pick oomponat velucs.--:-+ dihers.l l0O kIIz Equ*ioo (22t) lus bcen plo6€d in Figrnc 221 fx trc two Gr:iqs r-= or and r = 0.t lZ) t{z by a facror of 1200 I{z llrcn *c esk rvhacridcel l.$rcurcotforfanrfion. on thi desircd pas$and -" ftoqudries? Solution Fir* lle lrk *trat criricrt liStFpass ftcqtrcncy witl rcdue Ol usingEErarlon e24r. ec rtsfufic ruio bc tapt good Slc drdts dgnryliaioo.ndq= t33pF.851. so if *c pic* Rs = lfi) kft. tci alS% rpduction.orr-pass frcrycngy will rcducc t+. Oftcn such a filter is uscd to rcject a particular frcquencl or a small rahge of frcquencics that arc interfering with a data signd.1 : tnlft signsls which grvcs ft - .01. Band-Rejea Filter Anothcr kind of filter of some importancc is one that bloclcs a spccific rangc of frcqucncies. You crn *c th* l[tc owrrll Fssbmd rccporce b roduood (boceuso of lo6ding] sith tbc luSpr vrluc'of r I}e cficct m dtc stgnd cu bc fornd by cvrluaring Equarion Q. bccseaial ACgnd-qdtimiryrlrscmlsasrnegclvrriafioofton6tllzo60*I{ztocarrynu--'::CP[E ._s.5. tnd thc voltagp rado at 60 kHz is O.t kIL Ttrc capacitor talucs ac thcn found ftrom Equrdon (2rO to bc Cr= l59pF.ln general. bdos OOI. urtre$e1f..ltcrciseonddcrablcm&cl lZll{zaodat I MI{zDcsignitaoa?-t-5 pass filar to rcdrre thc nofoc by 90%.r fu fioquarcy in lrcrta arrd 6c cddcrl ftcqucncies arc dcfnod in tcrms of thc circuit @mponcnts as follows: .kIIz is 0.) a. rcspoctivcty.l = t *{tich givcs fn - a factor of O.-E reqb 215 itlusrrarcs I typical dc.fit2 signab by usingQuatioo (2Z2\ O.--*.969. itrcn Rr * rRa . tfr" a"f" .21t) lhil&ccdd(d fugarciabc al farqnc ls po*._ - {*:ffi lbptotd&r pdanAil I I cft= 2rr. 0. 6 kllz rnd 60kllz.01. Thc rcsuls are as follo*rs: Tlrd voltagc ratio at 6."tr€.RnCn (?..to I CI{APTER 2 FIGURE?2O A bardfass RCfitter can be rnade frmr cascaded high*ass and loaruass 8C *---. ve rntrst harc r = 0. fora 3% rcrlocrion. Whd ts thc.

-qt qqacclat band{cioct fittcq. ob0dnd using rctirc drcuite.ornotctr. or rbcno?u.{ 0t:l s o lr lo to(I rrd . re d a l#t rd . ftis circqit. eallda'rctdtfiltcrbocausc lt bloctcs a ycry nam)w rangc of frrcqucncics. niliorof$chrfiltcrbgiwrirF€urct.ANALOG STGNAL CONDTnoNlNc rN t2 i I ot Hor I ?s OOt o.zl. Lb Ilh --fl> Hnds wmqy hc dcff'.?:7' .rfrcrcas frr is rcriticel fiogcocy bctow vtti* rlgmr ere mcrrt atod by 3 dB. b rrd fhofcy$I"J rrd rrd trto? filruRE2. : l/(hRC\ (2.Itcdcfiniriocrrcnuchthcramaasthcbadry* {51! 6nfs lnt crirlrt mepcocy. is -.{iO ud !.Tf.renciesare f s. It is possiblc to oPTruT ta*'cioa ftoqucmica using inductcr ard c.bon€ "Am ru Ogn f is rou*rC by 3 dB. c$oc.ina.r- n*ected. : ap. ' It b dfficuk to rcdize such filtcc wilh pasfrc iCombinarioos. o. hrt thc mogn * i.ion of n. fu fu pardcutar conb.nesporseqfadfr<et ct. calied t minrfrIuq. wherc f.. = l qc/r.o't l&' t$l r ffrh h..pocirors. EGURE"'. ..filterstprrcthatanrkldlebandoffreqr.$.:t Sandfass r€spffie for ttre fitter kr Ercanrple zls. which can bc rcalizrd with RC oombinations.O.785f. is $osm h Figrc 2:B-ThE c*rancteristics * oris filtcr arc dcrcnninod stongly by ttrc valrrc of thc grounding resisoriurA cappltor labcled Rr and C1 in Figurc 223. fi ltcr-rcsponsc d vcrsus ftoqucncy is staown in Figue zzi-tt**ticar -*ldr' n qo*"y occunl at a frequesygivcnby fn: O. you dpurd rook ttrcso rp in a rcfctene on filtcrs.

. onplaa bandaregim.785Jl ' ..{(n = o. FTGURE?3.lotc that ar &c ootctr froqucncy. PiG.} fru . l2 I tE lv"l ot 0. then thc rcsistance is gir.A'RE2:2tr The truftrT reiection rotdi is rrcry sharp for one set of components. Dcsign a twin T n@ fittcr !o rcdG lhc {O{fz d€ntt Wba ctrcct suld this herc or nolce signds et t0 to g0O H"f At *.002.3 One forrn of a bancl-reject Ecfitter is the .. (2.l8flfc 3Id fn - -f5?f. 0 t o.5l0Hz O.cn by R: 2Tr(510)(0. l.?02) from thc pass. sogrc rcjcction is ncl Thc ftoqucncics for'f.80 | CHAFTER 2 .6 {I4 42.If wc pick C - so 1!: b* .0l pF.$r ft = O.gridf.206 f.hidl rhc ouput is docrn 3 dB (about 0.0t x l0*) 3t.2S)t EI(AMPLE A 8crymy$1P IIz Prc'udts rbosrd rn eircraft. thc ouput computcs to about O.ti at6 hlgbcrftcgpcoct b Op ouput ddm by 3 dB? Sotutlon If *r rrc f 9* Eqrntion€27): a notch fro$csrcy of 4O0 Ha rhc crirical frcqucncy can be found .ol ttf .

traruistors.l4{0fJ-_ - can be csrimatod o. howcvcr.10 = . FlqF drc It mlst bc uotod izcd using 2"4 ion b sffi &eF" €.tt".ioii"" op*rn is ustrally shown in a larger ckcuit rsing ia own schcmatic symbol as irt Figurc Z.99 ard O-03' rqocdtcty.0t 6t a:#:o'o3t' cffa irun F[gurc U4 by noring dtat tOll0O = 0@S and snpl\ trls rncarc tc otreutnnprt ratios are about 0.$ l{ey *ccid circuis lnd gcncralflsposc ampli6as ac now conaincd h iArrrcd drcuit0C) pack4cs. bcfocecy& beqscdo trpocificprslcno. Apdt fon &Gseerrzoc lOq thqg b rtso tl.theyrtt-tra1p"i*t*rrCrrra"tobdcs ofongldoo.pe oi rmi-te'eoor i. passivc cinuiS tltat.ATUALOG Now thc valucs of thc gounding componcnts are forrnd StcNALOONOmoMNG | 81 "s @l:98ooo p. thc divi&G bridgc. @cr(openpltrsba lftca ftom dffi tecf*m.{€jca and noict filt€rs can be rcal- tcivcclrcuit* plCctrfAy useng op tn ps.ardothcrqpcrations wcrcrequircd. diode..rhat canbc crrptoJrcd Ubast Oaigrs rciain! o aoy g"t rt *tp.zS. urd eC frltcrs Uistoricattn tte dctcctocs u$d ia hidgc circuis corsistcd of urbc and transistor cfucuits. \ hdfr@ drt-. oPERAnoNAtAMPuFIERs ArdsossodhSccdoo2r.?5. tt *o fiorn n t". prodpciag aquickbturioo to lignat-onorioring p19b lcms ogctlrcrwitt &all eb+ low pourerocrsrurptoq rnd low oit h Senctll lhc tFllicdm dIC rc$foes farrl[aity nit an avanaOf linc of such dcvi€srndlffi qocnc{lc ua nlnCms.4. tc nrd morc irnpmtrcd band.ra"a 2.€ @osidcrGd common.li*t ti SroundWhcnconsidcrcdas a funcrional clcnrcntofsonrctargcrdrcuit. and capacitors. hcd$ca€ fornanl'pas... ttigh* f*gttcac*ls villbedoryn'3 dB for&roqrcncics bdow lflfoorrbout23gg tgzThc 3F/J.".rdiloqing apetiirAoos ftis dqioc calhd m opcratmar dit-d. ttcbi8b€r low froqucoc*s rc ercauarod rignificantba. rnd aow rs im4rarcC CrcuncAilhougb msny lincs of op arnps rtittdrcfsc4ocifiaimscxistftromnraryman*ctrrcc. So.tcreqofuqncntro implcncnt&sigos fton di$tEtc ompancG has drco crry !o casicrand-morc rcliabl.id" 1 s fu hfildngtfo* of dgnLcoo. Noacc that the power supply connections are not shown-<nly two input terminals and an ouFut terminal. .mer of drgml €odiaig.-. boft tlpically +Vafi'-u^ito *.t pror:a" $rc of 6c rcqttircd signal opcrarions..1 "e Op Ainp Gharasteristics An op amp is a $urit composcd of resisors.. all wc are concerhcd wi6 are its input and ouput signats. It uluircs connccrion of bip<ttargnwa sqpplics--sat is.3fiil ffi r?At*I.thcrcarcmaaydivcrsc rcquircmcns fordgqot coadirioning in PloG omAot In Scdioo 23 c. . ln many other cascsrfrccimpcdanetnnsfornlions.e r.d l0(0. with thc remartabtcrdnnsindoaooicsandinlegratodcircuis(ICs).t. lciurfitrras dcsigncdlttdcpco&doo dscrctcclectonicoomponcars.ampliflcation. no.

-aY rl Opcntloorl. ' Ottcr chamaaisica of thc op anp rrc that &c inpn Anpcaanca .[ fccdbackpctnis implcrncntation of many. thc ottcr b hb"H eirt.special rclationships botcrq tnPut end onputvolagc.tbcdevice is dways uscd with fccdbdd ouQut!o inprt Su.tpts (+1 sigr ud b cattcd 6G ttottttrct*S inprnfhcdgdlabcls ercpartof tbcqmbol and inus al*ays bc ircludca In ttc and fo Tr:ansfer Rrnction . I CHAPTER2 l. Thcre i3 r lnur rugc of dtrercnht in1lrn vdtgc. typica[y crooeng I l{tl tftcreac tbc ouqc forycrhre { rtry low.For lryutTolilgerage b lccrthrn e dtfivolg r&crces thc rmrndoo vulugec arc typtcatli c lhc ordcdof t0 V.crrod).rtqdy. Ingurc 2r5b shoors rhc rclariochip bctweco voltagcs applicd tcrurinals rnd thc rtsldng ouryn wlg$Thc orry* volt4g Y*. lct us considcr thc cir' cuit in figulre22ll. to this samc point.(n0 Vrll.6ir " 'aaufu'. L pod8rrq rhc c4c e to ltc trro &st tc - - wad r re . to tbc invcdisg anniryt Itc intcqqUm dEgurc 22!tb b madc rs fonslri Whca l/2 b much lagcr rhan V1. Ttb b u'tltcffilr rccdlcdhtrcttilg ud mfnncrtfog.". 6c dgn is isl.re vcry big!. is plotlcdtrrsus6cdftcnebcurccn&ctso inpdrclt€ca. noet op rmp6.&. (Uz n egdirc rottage.'lltbol U| bt Re&afiocstrp befrrcen hptfiand odprrt wltag€ ndifionstXpb€ffilflgulltdotneutvoltaos I{GU8E225 Thesclrermticsymbol and response of an op arp cctcmh sJdol dHgsc2. connocts thc input voltage V. -lL. &c dopc of ttc tusitioo bcturcco sanr{ioo lcrcls is rcry la4s tyt'ca[y creoding 100. tbis inprt is cdtcd rtrc dtlbafral U4aruecga Fgprc 2r:h 6ols thd &cre ls rc gnund ennccrioo dirccrly to thc qp rry. R€sistor & is uscd to fccd back thc ouQut to ttre inverting input of op amp. +V-.in lignrc 2JIft. onc inpr is labclcd sftb3lninus (-] sie! cilbd thc &nuilhg inpril. wtca % b uch hcr 6. tbvd$€3 lhorn rc wir& rcspcct !o gtourld. fiorrGrrcq. rc*cc8t Gty. labclod Ay. and R.Oc. ldeal lnverting Amplifier fr scc how tbe op amp is uscd.rr yD thc q46 b sorrnod t m poeirive tnlage. fhns.25r.. Noticc re havc ap Dliod I/r to thc nooinvatiry ingrn rnd V. typicrly hss tban f 00 & Afur cbrngimicr dldcat op rnF ue (l) an iofinltc inpodanoc bctwcco inplr and(2)azero ooQutirnpcdanoa In praaicc.mefificrtdrcm. nrilthtrfdcL ecooq'otctogca froo+ wfut r. The common co . (Il Vr). Ce U. Whea ttd wfrgem6c (-) u&d b nsc podivq theoqd b no8drc Gr.

as shown in has infinite open-roop gain. wG can si16 ftc circ*it rcqronse as Vm . 2.Nocuncnt fiows trcqgh drcop unp urput tc"mfutG.in"". > o raa'rrcs drc ouput ncgatirrc t't yh < '.Thco.-Y*@ E&rgF whetc /.' aiftrcncc bctvrircn orF op anrp inprt tcrmi- resPonse is per- Finitc open'Iap gcin . in Ph$ Crnttcrlod) ftom ttc iaprtr ltis dcni€ is ilso "Effiby yirnrc of makhg . by ohnris law wc have f -t:e (2J0) lLEr&Ia (e3r) From &uation (129).& < R.orulcsd'atcan be appliod to anatpc thci&at opcrarioo lnm€scs.ryiseninrcniag anptifierwibg&.b$gg€sts tc.rr"f*f"ri_ of tion with lidc cnor. ctrrent&roughR. a ieal oo amp aoes not.mnfrunorryrosq bogurorhc (+) op. of thcass'mcd olag€ in" finirc impcdanoc.. - RrTh Thn*thcrirrqritdEgnrc?. o sanrnrcs t" *&po.AIVALOG SIGNAL CONDTNOMNG I 83 flGURE226 The op arnp inverting amplifier.. .&/e.**tttuough g. casg thcsum of currsrts atrne. thcinvcrtiagmd.srdranuat:rsis-wiUp-Uao-tn"k"*rltt.p. Bccausc thc summing point potartial is assurned to be zcro.d rtrat baclq dreougutrdjuses toa votagestrctr wirt no focdback and thc (+) goundcd. The dcsign rures prcsentcd herc assume the op amp of course. no voltagb Nonideal Effects Anatysq of op amp circtrits wittr formed by considering thc following parascrer$ l- .oodinstingtcrminals" RuL 2 rtsslrrc q* &ctl-is nA+-AutA.Iz - musbc zero.Sfilrr$* f1+It-g i (-) dP i€ltcdth lchrdcdBEg ryPlicd Y*bPl* b€dlcd& lMYm rc hrrc rP Etf &sn +Wr btrte hrcdrdl itsc?fr^ elEPqGs atfi*trltI c bwrYbr.Err bigL qrF E-GGlfilg FffiFHiF ru f"oOn *U hiosshi$ffi b' msirfcrfu llng inPtut mon cf (22e' c. ihatisstriftcd rg0.$mniagpoint 1[#l. wi& fcod- r. Thc dcsign nrhs uc: -Tyopenpcitcttit RuIe t Asstrm rhat'no cuneat floqrs qrygh 6c op amp input tcrrninals-that ----' is. . . \ d r. IhltryP.. .mp inprsbrrclzcro inrhis casc. V+ += -::''V-.vr is ca[cd rhc summing poinc wc cao sce v. .

*c find vo:-*(*) u" (237'.6c toltsge I.'i.crct cnned'cal bc iecmfcC Yo can fq Ir: Sis ctcunt Sumndng tlic .. + Irf fficn..aThcgainisdcfrrrcdasorcslopcofthc /' vdugslngctfue' .200'000! arqp harafnitc ilPtrimp€dancc and' con- f rat op s |nd €tt€|il lbrcugb its inE* tcnnfuuls alvoltrgp r fiilc rowcoy. . lror{dealdraaaerisucsd anop anp trcfude Figwc2z5aaodagailioFigtt'G2..i e : In moct lns ia4 modcrn #trffi ffi$e 6cF"+ t"pd .r{-.rytas e.d. e4op. I I Foreqpicalopan$'Vr-t0VlndAy-l00pV'so.d{A f.'rr€n* 1t O inEms of ttrc cirqrit parametca to givc ..Poiu gitts . and offsets.w tip"t ue"a* is tninllv ontv r @ Z. Nolego -q.od oSil fu rurnrirring. c$cg^carr bc igooroA in dcsigning op tc tbarod o thc op rmp Srro rs 'h vo=Av-(ry)" Now' combining &c cquatiom.z' firfte gsrfL finiteimp€dance..vr-V*h-V-E=o' R1R2 Fnelly.t.s4 | cHl\FrER 2 rl ilor{rtcC !} tnnfirg rnrptrrstnot{dorl fPrrlbrfnr dnnacfiflc op rynp prgtrsrtee FG-UNE2. n * W iiii.noryoorylt impedancc' 3.

t wlnga yio.t" *t ich $e tae f *w ougut cftan&s to tte raturation value Ttris. t llfond unity gahfuquatcy (253. [f wc use r foodback rcsistarcc R2 of t00 k0 aad nrbEinrtc thc aforcmcotioncd valucs into Equatior (233I *c find r. t ". Somc. = o. thc ougut will satur:rrc to thc maimum. "o "rrl... wtkt shoffi tu t" g*o a"* eq.6csc dutlactctisticE are as foUows: prng .e" tcristics may bc asormcd.| dtc otput voltaga Sucfr a cuncnt is refctrod o rs igp."t . htpw bias anrratt this is thc rvcragc of &c tulo inputcurcnts rcquirpd todrivc uteco drc bnfind lrrats .rt . This is stmm in Figurc2gra hw oiba a.f. generatpurposc IC op amp shows \€ can sto*v z{ = trt for-ic p << r.io.ti.vi-* il" .& u.@32) f{w9 rcdtrccs to thc casc giv-cr by Equation e3l).' ."*. ror a $ep input...o n su!fi a . tlrc ioput brminalsto-dritc rtrc ouqut t9 zcro is e. no.omr. "p "*"roprc r oonunon. )! 2.r i" 3y am ru ilJn""rr"* ro"-puro"ular op ampe togcrhcr wirh ec opcn-loop earn ya ineut . pcr Gxpr€6scd as votts mi- fundwidth rhc frre4ucncy rcsPorsc of an6p amp is typi_ aerinca by a Bodc plot of opcn-toop voltsgc g.dr.nent rust as r vottage dt rw bc requirod rcKx* ttrc input to zcro thcoutpttt toltage' ro I nctcuilGat m4rt" t iuinoc i**rc* m inputs ti zo..ftX' . edo. ir.r_p cittttitsth'lrrccmplqyc4 hniamoetcascsasimnrrrtiarnls-ffiItatrtcidcalchanc"..."d previously dcfi ncd.' Irw ofu wltage oP rcdarc ra rrc cGcs.trr. W.p. ticocu.irpri"d il. op.It is be_ yond the qcope of this book to considerthe details of dcsigns $tr .(Xl0 4=75f) a '' 2M(l 5.tl..ls arC$nfy appl.*) . ttrc ratc d* .il1trli.icd to rlrc input of eo gp amp. SIcw a vOagc. irtypioi'rot ro ideat for a casc wtrc* R2lRr = r00.cry srmlt comparod wi& unity.42 d. rhc op rnp oostr rottr& Eay not bc zcro rorqgc rcrocs rti inp* is r.$ (e33) {".ANALOG StcNAL @NDtnoNtNc t 85 where r. "f. of ormc sry of thc . Tb"sc charactcrisri.* (gz) ar_ fcts trom rhc idcal bl ooty OIE*L lhb iB.plot js. gfi." ".*.vcry imporant for thc dcsigr of circuis dr"r-d*t signals.fihp9d. con- Thsc : ffi-al- Op Amp Specificaiion" are claractcrisics of qp enpc oecr rhan gose gim in thc prcviors scction that cn_ tcr into dcsign qprcanons.d.) assumc thatp is r. drca Equrior.r.t takcn as tlrc dfrctcoeof Sc two inputcunrcats.. of."* s t t t thc outprtr volt4gc to zcro. 2(X}. qi"*i "r"pr.pically h (vlps).'d. ihc 6ltr9.

if fu i4lut ls sct'lo m. .86 I C#APTER 2 HGUNE2. *yr'end -t1. In tlres€ cascs.2E srrdtetrlil rcsstaonced b filo tctminals if rbe op lnp. which * . no morcthan.TLb rtdsrlccd bc r{uScd oeily orrc timc arrd not .aod b tc ropply roltage.-loop gafin of &c op anp hrs bcomc unity. efeofme hpe'oectcrnd €opcls. . r'i FqEurc2rS rbowlthcbvctdqgrnd[fcrwittthcpcncrnrpgly oourcctiom. qgcocy kacdcd bsuca Tbcrcare:crcralfirdcrf isncs asociatcd with op amp appli- dcr tb rgpcq. but it vill notbcbccius of inps ofta roltagc.e wi& many otlrcrsupply rcqdreocs.ninat nluc R2 fu pralht dnoa thrt b rhc ctrocrive rcsistsncc sccn by thc Cmpclsdm fc'irry oGA rolage cu bc prwid€d in orp of tuo waya Many nodctnlC qP rngc potdile tcronnrb to dlffi inpot oft4 oornpensarion This bs bccn $o*l b tgnrc 2. Ahc fo|lwfug parlgrql|rs surnmarizc the is$rcs" In geocol. 3 smdl bils vottagc mustbc placcd on itt" input to providc tlr icquild oompcasalion Frgrrrc 229 drows one way o do rhis in the casc of the inverting amplificr.doo can bc em!. udcss thc prdmlrop rup usod b chragod.Th$. : "'' TbffiPthccb&r0ernnsfcrfrnfu fcthcoprnpcirtuitr Eqrration (231) in tfriscrscdlbchsrcclfordcdg!.Gencral-pttrposclCop'ampccansoucc.orsink.rcsrraoryilffi iE qi rrydrtuic hnrrhfoh do mt oontiburr ro 6e drd tnnsfcr fnaioo. Arcthcr practical issltc in thc apptication of op amps involvcs thc currcnt drive ca- pability. dbcr +V ot :V.idod by naking tlrc rcdstare fcofing toth lryi unhrts lpgo:drn*cty rtc sroa b Figprc 2iE fq thc invc(&. V5 = Q 6co tc atput ty gqd6on (23 l) shogld bc zcro.npffict dir Uc tm gruridca b r re*sta si ec $nbverdng tcrrrinal ufuc fo drc rem'as 8s gd invqting lc.3. h.b if &crcb inptil-otrsctvoltaga n tlriscasc. tlrc valtp of rbcsc supplj voltages is h thcrargc of 9 o t5 volt* d@gh op rmpc rrc lailabl.rnl zcfo.about20 mA. qgrin. op anpe reguirc bipotr ponrcr nryflics. ec yuiibtc rcsistor is adjustcd urtil tlc ' ou{.A some €r?afrFs pro*itte connect*)fxi for an lnput offset compensatSon tirrmer r€$istor. Tfic lipcrof &c rrd$lcrtd*or lr ood. of cqual magnitudc. rosdfqgpec Socffifu ofthcop rry. frlla Instca{ thc orcrrll eoqococry bchavia crn bc scco ty dctcnnination of drc ftcI rfricb tfrc opco.tctttyonpasatngfu hputoftctvdtrgaNow:thc tnnsfcrfrrrrction of EqarlionegD rfll bcqrcclArbog rctteop qb mtrcpled or drcircuit conrponcots !rc notctrnge4 fiutlpr adjustmcos of rtc rcsistorsre not rcquired Soncop ange do notPwidc tcrnrinals for inp*ofrsctoompcnsation in the mannq dcscribcd. wtrich rre coonccbd !o dqNigeatcd pins of 6c IC. I i qt . ttrus dcfining ec uniV gda fuqu#y baodilidth. fypically.

t t_tt-poqop lglcanpmvidcooly about2OmA so ttcUrcuit-worriC o6inrcrf. wc 6inlc mArnd kO rnd rcloct. ?x ittdttdcsthcctnentinthcfccdbackcfucsitThis lcadstoegcncratdcsigncdtcdontobcaF flicdrodcdgnwidroprnrps: Trtfu*naarrdtdrwhcndesig. *y = -.7 spGdry 6e dmrft rnd Solufron 'qioad. i" ic ocgilit'G. tfs wqild mcan rhat rhc fdback trali to u r.iio**o. howcvcq cu''mt xr [n tu dt s" ii Mctof thc op ampcircuis shown in this book will not includcpowcr supply conncaions orcompcnsati<rh oofliponcn$. I.Uin"_ tion wirh trrriorif+S..ringartlrritstt ot on i-6" thc foUositrg cxemptc ittustnrcs rhis point F ffi. : i+yl+. {rc catr usc gn invcrting amplificr. This is donc to simpnry *lc circgits so A"'iti*tar ulo*ing pinciplcs can bc unicrstood" You shontd rcatizc. to providc sp eolution' From Equation U *t:" : -45 .teasoo-Suppcc thc input crcca0YThco drcotrgutwouldtccxpccredto bed = "ott"i.-. * J.ri. as in Figrrrc 216. it is much casier to develop a circuit for a specific r"*i"" using op . sI) E"t un lh ifir G G Efr nin iG Cf- rfttu* Ir5 OP AMP CIRCUITS iN INSTRUMENTATION As thc op amp bccarrc famitiar to thc individuals working in process-control and instrumencation tcchnology.itrus.r Suppose uc pilckcd Rr = I O and Rr 4j It Thi.Unt in *ft .fiml-E E [-il.hcrE rhc praaftrr issuc T*:gimoqpley.-{i f.sot.5. $i*ics F S b = drc d"Sg. it is ingactical for thc foltowioB. *7.J(iQj = -9.ANALOG StctUALCONDmoNNG I s7 FIGURE22g lnput offset can also be compensated using extemal connectkrns and trimmer resistors. 8"T I h F ry for a op rmp cinrft wirh r gria of *f.. cqttalioo. . that a pnaaical" *o*ing cirrnit will usually nccd ttrcsc compcnsation elcmenc. &r = I kO ard Rr 45 tc(L o.0V. L *oo. a largc variety of circuits weudeveloped with direct application to this field. is u. -4. for cxamplc. ntio of 45. In general. ttowcvi.

opdrne Ina siinrfs sanrarlon v<ittagc otrputs. fire average call bc found by making Rr .16. Ranc Arcunt Or rtb rndifr66 is sbown in Fgurt 225.It is importmt o notg tc6ciryutirycUarcofeb&cuft bcssartiatty cqualto R1. rndbcre &cinputimpcdanac is notlargaTho orqut inr podanocislw."t o op rmp volage folioqrcr wh€ fccdbaek is providcd intcrecSeeGd for rary higb Pqlt itPcdal"a frc unity -nV. it is also disadvantag€s b thcrcqufuwrcnt of a bipolar porcr enumbcrof typncalci'.ltils ad&cir basic ampc than discrctc comFm€nts.p.followec This circuit tras writy gain but \€ry high lrput fo - impedance.c.t&b circoit in Gta thc inpr signal 1od-m4l trtl cir&crlncoornmc grnq dcecodirg o tbc raiooflpurylg1cq Xp rndfccdback rcsisanoc.Rr and R2 : Rrl2.5. lowlost IC op amps. thc lnEnrcsistam.rrp inim Anpceap is cs.hAafty 6c inPut *ryd"ttractrs tt}c inprt ovcr a pngc &fincd by drc plus orrrp.ss I CHAPTER 2 FTGURE 230 The op arrp voltage. In gcoc3gt Urisrcsirfi. 2.rgcdrcrqrtrhadcrivarionofthccircuitresponscasurminganidcatoPtmp. So* r ulit b o$lilly *.' fnes€z30$ffit.. Yr.it"* i"ppfi f*ruop rmp.] of this amplificr is givcn by (234) Thc sum can bc scatiTd by propcr sctcAion of rcsistors.mcdly geiircftdgs follorrcrb cscndally anirnpcdancc trandormq in thc ecnsc of convcrting a votgge utfgt iryodancc o thc sarc voltagc at l'ow irycdane- zsz tJ]'$NilN tnverting Amplirier TIt Tto hvcrdng rqlificrhs iready d discusscd irn onnidioo with orr trcatrtr€ot of oP rnp Ar*aieAir f4u*n gf t) sbgur &. .& = Rr. ttrcn thc orput is simply tbc (invcrtcd) sum of Ys and V2.lt rotiagc fbc d[|1 1OSM{L G. Foi cxample.t ""d9r ryscoq di1fortg.oeb nchrgp.Tlris pcdraps gror". ad oupot ilripcoancc is t}. Summlng Amplifier Acommonmodifrcarioo of tbc invrcrting amplificr is anan' plificr rhu arns c eAis't*o or mse rppliod votage ftis !inq! is Sown in Figuc 23f iir O" 59 oendng trc irsn reecrlhc trr&firmioo u&--[*n -*v. with ttlc levctopmentof op oitt pr.bich can bc "A"oit*lO itsclf' thc of ap. Crrreot orput is limitcd torbc short circuit current oio" ogLnp.ically mrrcb lcss tbT t00 (L In many cascq a cranrfairnci *nf nari. if we malc Rr .1 Vottase Follower "d\W -i'VE"f qtry$ryc' The -ttttv !i8b tgr u.

4Yi* 5.mptificr wiu bc rfod wie e to ll'"t dr.:fi. *T:Iga=Z3ZSclociooof6cvilucs. ro votragc differcne Io d'"t appcars across tlrc input tcrminals Ir* Iz-0 D r h B whcrc 4: - 12 h- cuficnt&rcugbn.H.oft"*sl" of kccping dlc curr€nts in miiliamperes. 253 on ooe tJer."dil?. r".tJiil :lmd..rsshowuinFrgure2_33.. .1g.ffi ffi. il.g3i a-scooryA e. and using thc point vottagc rt?. il..ii.1 Sotution Tbcrc rrc'_muy rnys tof o\ s gxtl $ *+s ousa surihing rnprificrwirt rcrcca o b -ro ls also aa intstcq :tT31111gg11... t er vr y2 ff* @( Dqrclopuoprdpcircuirelr-"p-i U*.AtuAroG stcruAl.ib. . p o".1tgg pgg *n re inI gd.. @NDrnoNtNc FhGURE 231 'l-Fe op amp surnrning anrplifier.3. si.?}. Noniriverring a*pfifier Filstt) engoiavediagl$iflcrn vbcoastnrctcdftromanqranp. eain of onb rray b fff_1.The saiaofttiscitciffisrouubystrranring &ccuncntsattbcsurnnringpoinqs. curent through rt2 h r 3t3 u ls & cil* FIGURELSa {" The op amp circuit for Exarnple 2..

'.At\tAroG stcr{At. | gl Yr v.!g* nilb nI& F23t ii6tru {r3e ttc ffi tn8Fil e".ffercooc appcars ac'oss thc 0 : .tmE 231 "ilin op arnp surnrning amplifier. b nEr rrie Etr i eruutrt-E &su ffin Tb Itc pb T@ tnr f iF- ly &ga : a53 NonirivertingA-pfifier Plsttl Wffif"r.rs : cuncnt ttrough R1 Iz: throtrgh 82 wbcrc 4 . inputtcrminals rdry Ir * Iz - dsl !fid . FIGURELSa <D' The op amp cirorit for Example 2.TffiHilt: d..ffiP'*.q. Io $ lrmming point vortagc i... no voragc di.1g. CONDTnoMNc ffifr.

A good example is thc Wheastone bridgcVa. garn can rcwr bc uscd for volagc -fquadoo e35) aucnualio bccirs tbo re b rddod to l.Rp h* rhi.8 A nonirnertiU amplifter Yost uot^= (r * frrn" I But thcc cmcnls can bc iFormd fibm Ohn's las sirch &atdris cquation bccotllc 3*u.*] 42.so I CHAPTER 2 f{GURE 2. Bccarsc tbc bput is rakcndircaly inothc noninv€rdnginpttrofrbco0anntcinButimpodarebvcryfrign.are many instanccs in measuremcnt and control systems in s'hich the diffcrencc bctween two voltagcs nccds tobc conditioncd.sinocitiscficeiivclycqual to ttc op mp tprtinp*ana-Thc otput irycdancc is vcry !ow.I +& Rl " fre: 4l n.= t kO..5. is the quantity of intercst. EI(AMPTE Dcsign rhigl'iotrrcdaoacrrylificrwith rwltagspin of42 219 sofution Wc usc thc minwriag circuit of'Figurc 233 with rcsistors sclcdcd eiom . LV : - .It-:o Rr' & SolYing lhil oqtndoo f& Y. ux"=[r. *t find (435. Vn where the offset voltage. rbows ttat thc no*ctlerdry anglifrcr bas a pin tlut dcpcods oo tb ratio oe-ff5q*rssi*r & rnd gordnceistor .4 Differential lnstrumentation Amplifier Therc. 3o wc could choosc 81 . which rcquircs Rr : 41 k(L 2.

J".1. -.V) g236) rtc ditrctcathr-gr" boff.ng i.#"?T "r. v'taut_V* Vt Q3n z Anidcaldiffcrcotialampllficrwillaothavcaayorguuhatdcpcndsonttrcral'eoftbacorn. .r" ii imdat* m€asurcm.-r"ffi an . : is sornc gein tinrcs input voltagcs: A(V.iei.ANALOG SIGNAL CONOMONIIIIG I 91 An i&aldifrcrcntiar amprificrprwidcsanouputvortage wirh rcspcct to ground &at dr difcrcncc bd.p circ. ."or.. Y.il'r5tr*nru sdffiffitrffi# Itctwoio$teminats. rhc ouput _V.its fordiffcrcntial amplificrrrhcmostoomnpncirqritforthisampuaRissrroliiirre.or* and the eppo. r.dffi. citcuit n:.'nst ntmcntation anplifier ff ". (r35) ec nslo rrnhr8P &sF *t€$la[ Hffi .f: iffcrencc UlrSo$e t'ri'dglr* -. y^tT1|rrod'.. (238) 2Otog.:.. if thc gain wcrc fOail Og alJ?: oJ V. or" aircr"r.pedancc ir ll::j. eati*rtrcdnilitgin r**rin*-q9*.:. :{o. Ttlc cot*'"Io*rejoaioo raEo (CMRR) wi[bczcro."-n. difrcrcotial anrplificr.od suct ra rmprificr phys ur"fimporani. .d.'. (2.40i rhc circuit of Figurc 2.Wtrcn tlrc ry1 y9 pafus ormarcrrca op lmp is idcal rhc rransfe frrnction for rtris'amprrril r. '' nm'ao&$tgg'.ff rnl"r. Dpical rralucs of t'strerectialiAmplifier thscarc inurlorop *.nL ""a Common Mode Refection Nodoc ggu voltagc as givcn by Equa_ tion (236) docs not dcpcad on thc valucs c {". ".tu nglgrV gfcn'ncr'iopoi"of*gc but only on thcir dificreoca Thus.Tf bc poor....Ndficcrhatrhe Fq"* ii. g."y 1xi..lffimpcdarlceinput f The result is calted :1.Eodc gaia (CMR) is ec CMBR cxpreicd io dB. el liG input im. % ud v5 ari tortagcs wirt rcspoct to gru.o(ClvfRRi ltc bcficr &c e3g.ai."*o". .:.t*".cianrptificr is dcfincd as lhc rrrio of drc difictcntid gai! to thc cdnnon..".ilra. ! -V racrce ie ffffi#. ."* lt#"X*:f." cMR wiu *T:111t3i::1gjj" SI:I*.. CMR rurgc ftrom 60 to 100 dB.rrmxffi.ffi .. CIr{trR 'd-FrP Thc rejocrion A : Aon CMR = 'Clcarly' tbc hrgcr thcsc numbcrs..33 has r.

t rr$itlerop rrnpooolnp€ntatc fcovcralloftcts of dl tuec op arrys.nr' xage initid tlr principally ""C A"a .ppii"i-" in proccss-mcasnrerncnt systems. a.tnpqlcompcnsafoncanbe *+t*tyt"Aifcand.q.sc. EI(AMPLE 228 Arcosororqurs r rrngp of 2OO to 250 mV rs r vrriablc v6ics ovcr iS rangc' Dcvclop ..|'rl llGUNE235 r.L.mmon. duptifictlioofcbddgccitutits if$re 2.iationofthccquation. O"o &Uiiinnt$ of rhf. .35 $Nrs c ty[r of iostrunrennado anrplificr in a.Tbc cirqrit muet bavc vcry high input trycdam Solution in Atogical way-to appoach probtcms of this sort is ro dcvclop an e4uation for the output to dcveloped bc i"por.Thcquation isthat ofa straightline.-drt*irrg ro Uier rhb bccolncg O !o5 V.1..nerner inctfes an *Y try for toput lsolation- lnsarnnentatlon Ampllftcr iyrnrcnril rmplificn sfib bigb ingrt impcdancc ThgV f* *ent inPcdanca ercgivcn drc sPcciat rume of instrumentationas amplif. volt4ge fOo.Irl HGURE2I^g Ths baiic differentlal arnplifier conftguration" (x-fatrr .A citcuit can then ii"ri r*rite " then wecan piJa"it"*.18..s2 I CHAPTER 2 ta tsc. rredryly dpe o cicA iopnt fneThc tnmfcr ftrnction is still givcn by Equatwo rcto tZrlOl. ir"t as eiat strown in Examptc 2. w-&.t is rlrat cfranging grin rcqufu6 changingprotidcd *rn i -it ti'tgtcocrridfyndtodhvdtd..t rme"trtio. iit V*: mV^ + Vo - .rciltnrf.-*r"r.

urhichisnscdopovilcecO. Thc choicc of *&icf. This circuit allows for selection of gain. ec rchcndc i! Iigurc 2..36 etor& noqv tii ootrio ue aorc withan ip stumeilelionmplificcNoa&crcttrgsdvidc{. ' ff* aE is fsm Vno 2lX (Ur - O. howeveq is thc circuit shown in Figurc 2.37.ibl'... oh"i comcs down to trc numbcr of parte _ orm.{. It can bc shown that the CMR of this circuit. by adjustment of a single rcsistor.I. sine thcy are in srdt oommon usa Mrny usc drc circuit syrncm in Frgure 2. ATUALOG SIGfUAL CONDtTtONtfuc I e3 '. - rytnr pal m tT!tr Manyintcgrrtodcircrritmanufa4urcrspackagcinstnrrncntationamplifieninsinglelCs. R6. althougli still .2l. 6c vatuc lz.O2)+Vo 5im(025)+V3 wc gct ns .gl"Vbias. in sonl cascs withfixcd gait! d in odrcrs providingforuscrsclaionof rcsistonL garncan bcctrangcd.3i.43{ v usiag standard algcbra Thc cquuion lL-2llUr- F ttry rr[3 O-49- In this foem' loucan sccthatesunrming rmplificrcould be usc4 suchas thc onestrown in ngureel:t.i V o l*** .rd yo .ias rlftagccoostant againsrc*rarrgesof Arc srpply vottaga This cxampkiltustratce an importint point-{at morc thanonccignif-conOiAoqing circtit can oftco bc usd to sali$ frc glquisncnts. urcuU Uc vo if yr O Fordrctrconditions ia thispeablcn. fcmtwooquations to s6trcforrn and yo 0-m(0. within certain limits. Lt:a-r *a. onc to u..Tt1g lp g dc # F zencrdiodc is rrod tokcgpthcb. This also'can be qrificn in thc rrrF F b!!- .O2) This lodcs like a ditrcnmtial arnplificr wilh a gain of 21.? anda fi:rcd innn of 0.. A more common configuration of ins&rmentation arnplifier.02 volts to 6c inrcdng dda lbus.\ / TTGURE236 Sofuson for Exanele 2ZA stiere rn is tte dqPc of &c lirc end rcpcscos rbc gain (n > l) or rficauarion (n < l) rc+drc4 and Ys is thc intcrccpq tba b.

docs not dc'pcod Rp.} is vcty higlr."o by "rornro i.r*td. ad rlbougut oa (L41) impodare rrcry low.?: .b{ttdlo*rthctscttoinscrtcxron"f E. irntt r*uo"r.-Y..bcn&:lo2fl'&ctxidgcofrsctvolt4c is foud from Equaiios (2.aAif"r"ori"tgaintndRt. Many [C rnanufac- '3oto mdcsipdgain can bcsclcCcrtThcy can &us cnsurclhighCM11 "i**.v.e4 | CHAPTER 2 FTGURE2.3' fnrcinsrunretttaionanpfifterallovra tre gein @ iitift fil ioput oo tobel*tq rx*U a $ngle reslstor' crl!fr| llatcbiog of drc dificrcnrial rrryrifiaresistors. .p"a"* rL: ('-*){t}tv.Ihc transfcr &rnction of this amplificris e'."ryruur*"rhcinFrgrncz3?cod{bcrsodoprovidcenotrqrutofoo 2:n 25v'Assunrethat& = Rr = 1 lOanddrar Rl = 100 k0' Soluion Ctcaruthchidgeis*nullvihcn&=t00ll.msr*rcuitslt6.3sdrowe rbridgecircriitfawlfch &YsicsAom l00Oto 102{LShowburan . ] ^v:(u-vct:r[#Al :'-2A:15 RGURE238 Bddge for F-xample mV 5V 221.j1qMpLE FigurE2.

'"p aop "iai*dt-iltic.1.'e t" rtso q v.ji'.n t*J'e..o"&l.[. .39 A voltage-trcu*ent @nverter using an op amp.Juo *.ffi. as requircd by a partictrlar apptication. ftrnction is rhonro h ttssc 239.42' RrRr providcd thctlrc rceistaaces are rclcctcd ro *rat brro ld0n &(Rc + The circuit cao'$irrr orrem Rt = Rz& (a€) in cirtcr direaioo..o* circ'it rh"..fr& FIGURE 2.TT} r ffi nurnbcr o" ut*r..fr'ffiil*n bctrrocn currutand *icqgc{oo'oGat voltagp b givpn Uy fSo" mc- lpp"rrd*-O I __ R.o"r. tt* r- -rfi6n ir (ir + irl ."a:n" Jrrr .i.*."ogin. .h.il.AMTOG STGNAL@NDmoNilUG I ss *"'HT:ffffiT.'n Eftg"- (2.: wehave ror-{ry}(i#) solving rhis' Trc ffieffi e55 rdm trd J(6- 2000 (L Notc tbd-trrc irput of ttrc amprificr bc con*it '=%-o"".*.*1 :[. I +"" I v*z .: x. prcvid* this "r.e.nxilfi . must thc porarity ""d Vottage-todrrentGonverter frrl nnrst bc crpablc of dakiqg a arrent into €. fr *.

r:450O 2.aL Ascosaonprrc 0 o I V. mA Spcs.s6 : I CHAPTER 2 Thc maximum load rcsistane and maximnm current are rclated and dctcrmincd bv rhc condidon ttrat &c amplifieroutpu sanrrat€s in volagc. Tlne.in Figruc 2. tlrcn Equation @42) lcduccs to rnusr hatr.6 V/10 rnA - t00J/200 Gurrent-to-Voltage Converter At thc receiving cod of rhc proccss-coaaof signal transmission sysrcrn. To satisfy l00O e Q l.R*: *'hcrc R.+ns)[?-ftr] . Astudy of Equdioo g)(AMPTE .tr: R-r : 100 [ tg 8.o &4{) Rr+&+R5 = rnaximumledrcsisUnce lL : f-: oparnp sa$ration on voltagc maximumcunrent C2'44r.R.contpnt \rclragc givcn by ! U&: -tR (L4sl provided thc op anp saturation voltagc has npt boen reached. & in the no*' invenin-e terminal L" cmployed to provide temperaturc stability to the configuration.4O. The maximum load resisancc is fourd 6 ftom Eqtration (Z4.39. -that curr"nt are rcizucr! br t (R. . atiainlaln lordresisrm is zcro.oo s'hen thc op amp otrtput voltagc saturateq thc rnaximum load rcsisrance and ma:cimuu . Analysis of thc circuit.f. n"rrfop.6t fu maximum I€d rcsistanoe if ftc Solution ffwc malcc 8r : l0 mAar I V.. wc oftcn ncod to oonrrcrttbcctrrcattrack ino avoltege.5. Rr. thoun ftd t$c nrcrtmrlrin led rcsistanoe is alwap UJ I 7.R5 f- tcss th11 V.10 . Tbis circuit providcs . The resistor.Thigcanbcdonc rnostcasilywidr thccireoitshowr in Figure 2.rticlr is rtlqrcd) so rhat Equarion @43) also spccifics &:&=looo This oomplctes tbc toltagc+o-anrrent cowcrtcr.lVllOnALct tts takc . se op amp satirratcs at {. V6/&r.

Thiscircuitrcnrptoyeainnanycaiesu.--i REf U. - rpdm *$$m (3.r bru notT**."ior"gd*Jr"t This rcsult rhorys duccrotrput isdcsirod. lfurcar ramp a "rrrvolaga Ii thc (2.4?) r!duc6- .t.nrioo (2. &ff$ HGURE L41 Ar integrator c*rcuit using an op arnp.ANALOG SIGNAL CONDTNONING le7 FIGUREL1n A cunent-to-roltag€ snverter usirg an op arnp.ffi' b ec ti@ fiNffi" O6cr ftnctiods atso_can be implcmcatcd.p. 919 wc can sum ttc onrcnts at fu strmming po. (L47' tat Eoryn---tolage varics as en integnl of the inpts volagc with scal'efactorof-l/SC. I I@ 'Om 25.46. bc solvcd by inagrating both tcrms so that frc circuit rcsponsc is .'T.Us"gthcidcalanalpis.is onsanq It .7 lntegrator upcrcfut to be omldcred is tfu. int4ntoarbis cmfigurlrit tL rhown in lfeq Figtuca4l'oorisseuinptrircr*snorendafccdbJk". f---t$rr.int rs *n +cgk=-e -dt which T (2.Ot-. Somc mcchanism of resa tluough discharge of thc capacior must bc providc( bccausc othcrwisc V6 will tisc to trrc outiut saturation value and remain fixcd there in time. Care must be taken *rat the o*rrent orrsut capability of $€ op arrrp b dbs hil.49) which rs a-tincar nrrnP. rtrch rs a highly input voltagc. .4-Eq.:--g-. a ncgadvc slope of tr?lRC.

ilh oNhcrcircoiry b dc0rcss lhFlDt*itity.r. ft:*:: l (L4e' Sotving for &c ouput volragc.or rne aeilrgtc G.Hdi&drcofitshibiuccrticorcvenmqtabt€rcsponsc"oC .8 It b Cvc Differentiato / t also pocsiblc to coostnrct ur op of Ol a.i$oc.rit takes $e tirie derlrntlve of the inPut voltage.-1a€\r : sill pffiidc lhc rrtich b e nnp 1!1fug rt l0 v/ns.IfwcmakcRc-lmsandI/"=-|QV'thcn webavc . ramp " T :r:?: or whcrrrhcinputvoltagcisconstarrt. io !* c|t to strn cutrc"a * fhc omming poiot givcs 6c G$addn f . c {F.E at 10V pcr ms' Usc an intcgrata to prodrrcc e lincarramp voltqgc risltrg ?-. r.put wltddThb tmP-ggtrt ci*iit *hidt titi rn oipot to thc dcdva- L4Z is tl€iliTpd with only of tbc iil4ratoc Using idcat analysis is sbown ln Figurc rno4r clprd.Itcrcforq &c o$puttoltage varics s thc dcrivuircof thc io6ntvoltagc' iniCcrffyti.*rows &at &c circuit responsc is . r"q**cinnir as $ow.*:-Rc+' (2so) . Achoie of B I ko rod c'= l rF rcquitcdfrCpmduct U.r -.monrdrft* -- gP ry"Grb ryl fIGURE2/j2 'This circr. Soc{oo 1032 crn.bc nodfod fc usc in oootiollcr implmrtation d..> .23 to!'ttion A.na -fy U cinih"Ooi'r. .H(AMPI. (t0'10+r)r Vt=-rrr.

44.:E(cV.a -cqlffiiel€ostslt FIGUREz*s 3.ifediodcisptaccdin&efccdbackas tion - I(l(. FIGUREL4H A diode in &e feeclback as a nonlinear element produces a krgarithmic amplifier rd 9-r' ltl|/J .ANALOG STGNAL CONDmON|NG | 99 2.sm A nonlinear arnplifier uses a nonlinear fe€dback elerirenl ilb m3:..) wttcr" . 16 (2S3) = ampliUdcooostant .Hlffi* of curreu wi& vottage ff Equatioo (251) ispohre fin pindplc) for U*.g.9 Unearizarion Thc op ampcan also implcrrcnt tincarizatioru C*ircrattn 6is is achicvcd by placing ar. t{%): o wherc Vin - (2sr) input voltage rffj : ffi. d! rs IJffi cttcit Y.wc gd 3 ua_c(*) -{- ml.aIhtarefuwtin thc fcodback loop of thc op !mp. rhc ftrnc- t(VJ . .s2) ouqntvolagc (*) = mmT " ** input voltagc [acruallv rtc inrrcrsc Thu* Talcrloptc. as sbocrn io Figure zi3. rtc irnnation of cunents providcs *..{c.- (?.) is arr cxponcnt'rat sbouminFigure2.5.

nl rcsistancq ctc-? I r I I i' I iL I FIGURE 2.-.onlythcsignatonditioningwiltbc&vctopad. srch as ttn togarithmic amplifier- 2.r. wtrich thus ooeiurtcs a logarithmic amplifrcr.l - |r'*ani ar-. so sonrc will not bc applicabla In maayecs.45 Model for measurement and signalonditioning obiectives. voltagg onrr.Paranutcr What is thc naturt of thc mcasured variable: Pressune' tctrtpcra$rc.Tbcgui&lincs arc gc&ralizad-Sinethcrcnsoris sclcctcdftomurbatis availablc tho actnt dcsign brcally fc thc signal ooodttioning. Dcfite ttu-r^"-ffi a. and thus Equation (253) becomes un = lrei(v. flow. lotcoqrgh infornation will bc availablcto rddcsspr issttc plopcd:n tttco lhcdgsigncrnuscrcdi$gpodtccbnicaljudgtrcntinaccoutingfqrhrtprtofthcdcsigu nggcZ*S Ebows thc mcasnlcmcntand signalcoiditionring &odet In sorc cascq thc eotinerystcrnis tobc &vclopc4 ftoosclcaing tbc scnscto dcsigning ttc signatbonditiooin&Ino6crcascs. tcvel.Itpggidefinccnsutrrbattcproblcmisdculyundcrstoodad&atScinPortant issucsareincftdcd.6 ' frnlincr DEstcN GUtDEuNEs this scOoa aiscussis tlpical issucs that shottld bc oqrsidcrcd whco dciSning a analog rigpat oonOiAmingryUco"ltccxanrplccshorrhovlbcgridclinsc. Dificrcnt fccftack dcvi6 can podtra amplifrcs that"only smocth ot$ variatlors or provi& spccificd opcrations.!bcuscdtodcvcloP recsngn'. i CHAPTER 2 Tlrc invcrsc of this is a logarithnr. Notorcry gpidctinc wilt bc important in wcry dcsign. Guidelines for Analog Signal&dditionlng Deslgn t. .

approachisto dcin{a m oquarioo for dudh srns ioprtr Ron 6i8 sF.? c- :' . and 6) on scnsorq nuny other cryinples will p'roblcmsprescnted. ' ooc*ant. ic#c- Sclea a sarsrlr (if appli<frtcl a. Aeuet What is thc requircd eerracy: 5S FS. wb* orqut impedancc .ougn fu-rtcisirc ac6oc b. sudr loading is a dircct cnor in thc mcasurcrnent Thc follodng cramplcs appty thcsc guidclincs to mcasur€mcnt eignalconditioning In latcr chaptcrs 5. gr+nicat cqurdon.$ge$c-cdc$t. b. EloS dry nb &dt!.o.with relisbac rnd the cftct of crnrcm Ou. cta? auW dgd udtiahg (S/C). 3. ctc. .-This cqu.? a. ..furunaer lvtrat is drc nen''e of thc ccaca outpnc rcsistanoc "oltagc.i\lo[r? Whd is thc noisc l€vcl rrtd frequcncy spcctruE of rhc mcasurcrncnt 5{t cnviioancnt? 2- .2to4Vctc.? k thc rangc | 101 of thc measurcmen[ r00e to z)O"c.ffi Cmbxra brerlW5' b. scooodordcr damging.. O to 5 4 V ro 20 mAr j to l0 kHz)? .45 to g5 psi.Raagc' What is thc d*ircd range of tte oleut pararnctcr (aif. T*FoprnppoOonofecd. crnrcnt dng.adE Mustthcnrcasriwrtoutputtctincar? e.tioo rcn6pscots &c static rrrnsfcr ftrncrioa of rtrc sigaat ooditioiing. rnd fuquency? Rangc wbat b trrc rengc of sarsor paranraa otrput is cascsr coavcsioa to voltqgc b sti[ oftcn a first stcp. (t d . mlsululcotilUe? fc &c givcn ' t hwer Xthrtb&cporrcrqaifrcadon ofttrcscnsor: rcsisitcdrssipation mllimura. twu ww iqput srFd lorr*?Tlrfis is rcry irqcrant in prsvcnting rheing or" lngr. crc.voltagctignrt u'w n*te. Notcsananalogtignatanditianingdesign a : If the inprr is e resistrne drange and e txidgc or dividcr must bc uso4 bc surc to ooosiclcr both thc ctroc of orgut voltagc goalincadty. 3% of rceding. .ANALOG StcNAL OONDTflON|NG b- Rangc what . Pamt*r whdbftcnrtrcof&cdcsfuEdo4ut?rbcno*oommon Desrgn t E troltqgghreaentend&cq'cocyrresorccncsspocrurntclaftcr . . Iitu.doq it wiu b€ dca rftl typcs of r:ircuits may bc usod.cprcscctothc c. loweqt ctc? c.otrpqtledcircuit? gostd drc sE otrcr to &c 4.uttetiryrnirnpcoau&uH6cs. c. Tmn{crfoatoa Whrt b tftcrclaioruhip bctsrccn thccctrscolput and thc msnrred vui$lc Sncr. .Tnu rapa* whrtisrhcdmcrcryonscofthcscosor: r*.t"rt * d- !QF. c" Alnrayr ooridcreny pcibtc loading of volugc soucs by ttc signl 'oonditioning.

Ttrc 'l(X}-Orceietrvrs*loctcdto&ecploadngbyrhooprmpcircuitsmatl. it b casicsr o dsvclop en oquation for drc ouqput in tcrms of ec iopr& Ron dfs. Moct 'ADCs havc iopt fnpcdanoca of rr lcest tcns of tiloh$.4) . tbl€) t€sistor h. thc mca$r€m6t arvircnmcnt.s bm usF4 ro bo6 loading of thc dividcr by tbc op amp circuit and variuioa of thc rupply ftom cxactly 15 V can bc compcnsatcd for by adjusting untit thc bias iscxacly2"4V. rnd thc output impcdancc of op eopcircuieisquitcloq so rhcrcis norcalenocrn for thcorput impcdancc of thcSrc.trn*Vd' Clcarly.tcstrnniqg rmglifrcinvcns. .bcco essurncd for tb dividcr reeistancc caliutations.l V For intcrfacc to an analog-todigital convertcr.pe of F*lco. we form trro oqu4tioos for thc unknowl slopc Gain). Ttre dcsigB oould also bc aeomplished by a diffcrcntiat amplifier.g23 fbc urnsfcr frrnaion cquaion is thtrs Vq: l?23V' + 4'615 . ra" andoffsa(bias). Wc er rimply askcd to providc a voltagc-totultagc convasioo. m:zslel-l. dm{c caa bc covisioood. Yc / : mVy* Vs Using thc spccificd iofomation. or thc scnsor.wegct = L4ttt and whcn this is substitutcd into the 25 --f. If thc I . eoryoltagcfollowcrwotrld bc nccdcd et rhc input" Also.923 in the transfcroquarion is ectorc{ wcget Vo.-L4m * Vo 25:-l.923(Vin*2. fulution fiorthis typc of prcblcm' no iofomration is providcd about thc mcasurcd variablc. 8ysc0" For this t. Sincc thc rouroc inpodancc is not known.kn *2.g4 2 A scnsor ouguts a volagc ranging ftom -2. thcrc rrc prny wryr to sati$ this e4rerioo" A nnnmingamptifier coutd bc uscd.4 3o -t. from rhc first cquation we havc Vc ecood cqudbo.. A f+V suPPly has. solving for rn.ts7 I CI{APTER ffi 2. !t is good design practicc to rsumc it is high rnd to dcsign a higbinptimpcdance systcrn to avoid loading.Atrimmcr(vrri. Ve Q -.4m Thcn.n:1. but it docc nothrrthigbitptttinpdancc.l):l. roei iavcrtcc wuldbcrcquircd to g9t rhe Gor"cr d8!" Thc drcuit il shourn in Figurc Z4{t l{oto thar thc b'i!s hrs Ueen froviaee Uy a divtdcr. {ds nocds to bc O o 25 U Dcvclop ttc rcquircd signal onditioning.

923 aodorcinpnfixodat 2-4 V. Sorhis isthccquarionofadifrsratidanrplificrwitha gainof t.'imp€rdancc rccodcr. soirrtfon Following Measu fic ggidctfurcs. A rclago'iollocr€r r4outd sill be rcqufuod on thc inprtr (Ttc rcadcr rhould complac tr!dcsign) €[ {ilrQ}LF Tcrnecrrrurctstobcmsuod in 6crangsof ZSO'Cto4S0tvithanrorracTdg2'C !i5 Thcscnsqisrreeisrre&8tvufo:slimrlyftrom2SO0to t0600fatbistcnpcratrtts rangeFourcr.tOlg *15v T{GURE2I5 One possble solutim to E €mple 224.' unspecified drc efcncnts of tbc problcau Tempentute' ' .' linear Tinte response.alfosipdodinticscoscnustbc&cptbetowsn$t Dercfoplralogdsntloonditioning dnt iirividc a volagc varying lincady from -5 to +5 V for this tctnpcrature ranga Ilrc load is a high.unspecificd Senso r Signal Pa ratne te r : resistancc Tm nsfer fwc t ion.ANALOG SGNAL mNDlTlONlNG sao | 103 -aI.'b ts firs idcati$ rtl rd Variable Pa rametec 450t Accuracy: tzt Rangc:2s0'to Noisc:.

0128& - 858 in the feedb-ack' This can bc provided by an invcrting amplifier with thc sensor qi.hr* 5 mW oo probkm' ngpirupcaanoc rccodcr tt *rta"c ns*.a -rs bc lincar.1% on wlucs ccbaod.*"a by an invcrting .*tor w notc 6at Thc S-mW rtc maximrm cuncng fa'Jen 0.Tt one possrshows 2:4? get thc Figurc signs correctto summer i"if. disdP"doo mans rhc c'rrcnt must bc Umitcd' To fttd aaxim. ---'cio"" trmrccn tltc senoa. = r6oCF rcsistancc' =?'l7toA Thtls'tlrcdcsigpnrrstalwayskGcPlhcscnscg[rcntbcloul2mA. =O.c:-5to+5\/ Irya fupdance: kccp porcr ia scnsorbclory inwna'Ea .005 : I2R | -. rcttegc'ltcn it sa rsist noc "oa imglcrncnt dP cquatioo- Un -' ttrRt * Vo \[|csolvcforrrandVo8rrsing&cSrvcninfgnation' -5 .?fim* Va +5:1060ril *Va Subtracring thc first cguation from thc scmnd givcs lO=7Ullm or m=0-0128 { Thcn.oo5tr Tbc ninimum curr€nt sin &us osurat &c maximum r-.td cct up a lincar oquation strat circrris will d€lc(nining of r nrancr is rc o"g".n . wc sho. using this in thc first Gquation' .r.ry.|.8% |he loqtcodtnd 3(L'14% stdtchigh cnd'Therefore' wc ro plovidc 0..Jtcaauracy b otdPut *i!l k .104 I CHAPTER 2 Range:280 O o t060 f'l' lhear fuarcr maximum 5 mlSI dissipatd io scnsr 'signal @nditioning Panmeulr.p .:l$ttx) + ua So tbe transfcr function cguation is Uu: 0.vol@a$*s Ral.llo.

ANALOG SIGTUAT CONDTNONING

I 105

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Thcrignaloditioningdiscusscd in rhischaptcrrclatcs
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mflifias (op anryc) arc a qcchl signal'ondidoning building block
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dmarcd in rpplic.tioos iotolving amplificr* coeiwrtcrs, lincadzation cftcuits,
ilrteratorq and scvcral otlrcr firncrions.
Opcrational

PROBL.EMS

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-'

iueasc'a dccasc sirh rcsistroe?
Sbffi botr thchidgc ofrsct cquation gim

as

Equltim (27) can bc dcrivcd

ft,om

Equation(?*O.
DccivcEquatioo

(2t0) fordrcbidgcinuitTbArcnin rcsistanca
Atltlrcatstm hidge. as shorvl in Egue 25, nults with Rr - ?f27 (1" Rz : 448 G
andar -' l4l4{LFind&
A ccnsor sitb e noninal rcsisrare of 50O is uscd in a bridgc with
Rr = 8r; 100(Ly - IOO V.lndR! = lfiXlpotcntionrcler.Itisncocssaryto
rpsdrc O 14 chang€s of rhc rm rccistm.
& Atrfrattrlucof8r'wil&cbridgcnull?

.
29

A rcmc rcsisanoc vadcs ftom 520 to 25m (L This is uscd for R1 in thc dividcr of
Ftgtttc a4, dong with R!
5(X) O and % = l0! V. Frtrd (a) trc rangc of trc dividcr roltage' yD rnd (b) thc rangc ofpcrrcr Ais*panon b5t thc scosoc
Pltparc graphs of tlrc dividcrvolugc rrrurs transduccr rcsistance for Examptc 22
rndProblcm23. Docs thc rollagcnry linearty with rcsiaanoe? Docs thc voltagc

'

b

Wbu toltrgc resohnion nrust rhc null dctcaor

poescss?

Ahidgc circrit is uscd iti0r e rcosa locrtcd l{Xt m rwey. Tbc bridgc is noi lced
compcnsetcd, ead lhesblc to rhc scnsor bas r rcsistencc of 0.45 O/ft. Tbc bridgc
nslls ?ith Rt - 3{(X)0,8i = 3445O end R1 ." t560O. What is rlic scnss
rcsistanoe?

2.10 thc btidgc in Figurc 25 has Rr = !J0f1, Rr = 5000,
UtV.fhc dacctor is e galvlrornacr widr & - 150 0.

a Find thc vrlue ofR2 that will null thcbridge.
b Find thc offsct cutr€nt that will result if R2 :

190

O.

&

=

340

fl,

and

y

=

2.ll A ctrrcnt balancc bridgc, shown in Figurc z& tras resistanccs of R1 =
ftz

= lkO.& = 590O,Rr = t0O,andV =

10.0 V.

Ar{ALOc StcrvAr @NDmoNlNG

|

107

a. Find thc valuc of R3 thar, oulls ttc bridgc with no cuceat

lr

Fird rbc tatue of

&

= 250mlt

&at

bolarc

wi6 ecuarnt of 035 mA.
LtZ { notcotiat nc.srry$ b.iQc srch-rshidgc
t"t il Ere tb, hss y ,- IOO V
I, = fr= ld}.
& - to rdl nnq 6c uor.oo*! po,*dh r t hidge nulls with
: {.:9.73
2-13 ei * it
bidge wilh r[ rrus.6 capctcr lrltr ;h* Cr o4,rF,
C1- O3l1f,rndCt - OJEItlF.Fiag1f+
Ll4 lhcachidgcof Figure2,l,lSrutts*th& - I kf\gr.= 2Lfl.Rr = lfi)fl,end
.R3

thc

e" FM&cvrlucsof&ead&.
b. If &c cindt ! cncircd by r $V l*I{z cdltatq, fod thc offsa votagc for
U - 5lO nIL'
c. wbgl rrc rhc amplitudcs of lhc in?hasc :rd quadraftG (9t}) componcna of

&coGavotegc?

d
ts

a

"*
,(

F

2"ls Dcvcloprlov-pissfcfiltcr,lo.ccauatgojMlrzooircbyg?s.spcdfyrhccdticrl &aqucncy, vrlrrcs of R edC raA rtcelhutionof;40Gllz inpri;gJi:
A
l,orrgsxcfiltcr has/. - 35rillz Frod o".n*,r4ioa-orr r*lrz *gnai
!9
2J7 A eigb'fas nc fltcr must &irc
l2o lrz eisc c"rr o i*" spocry ru gr*
q, radrhc*rcouaiooofa3Ol&Iz.ig,,*
of8ead
".it{er8
16 A* highaess
*qFq.dTF
fiItcr is found to attcouarc a

.

1,tg

l{cllz

?Jrt {

FTGURE

*

rr
H
l*

r

}rr

rignal by 20 dB. Wbat is rhc cdrical

ftcqucocy?
Hee-l uanapass fltcr cri& cdrbat ftDqu€odcs of t00 Hz and ro tlra respccrircly. usc a resistanci rado of oo5- Drawe scmilog graph ti&e rbat
ia nguc zra
rhowiq volrrgc ougr o irnprr tid,n fO ffz to 100 kIIa :
ryaouFut nccds !o food u rnpli{cr with r ro.H} inprr impcaanca Thc.e is
significant aoisc in &c nngc of 4 b 5 Eu rhc dara spcdun ncs
tao* 2@ rrz-

248

rc bridge for Problem2l4.

108

I CHAPTER

2
Design a low-pass frtter for usc bctwecn the sensor and the amplificr that reduces
rhc Oaa by not morc than l%. By lrorv much is thc noisc rcduccd? try both singlc-

' stagc and tr+o-ctagP fittcrs
.4221 A tclcphorrc lim wilt bc usd to c.rqr mcasurcurcnt daa as a fraperclr-nrodulaterJ
sigmt &om5 io6 ldlzThc linc b *sod wi& wk:c data bclos 500 llz, and switctF
ing nciisc oem tborc 500 ld{z. Deiign r band-p XC fi ltcr dtat rcduccs thc voicc
O.02. What is the
by 80fi and rhc sritdring by gffi.llsc a resisranec rai,o of r
cffoct on drc passband tcqumicsf
222 A ainglc linc is multiplcxcd ao carqt scnsor signals in a fre4ucncy rangc bclow
I ldlz and oommunbation signals renginS ftrom l0 to 50 ldlz Thctc is a largc noisc

-

-,

.

cunponcnt

t45 tllz frrom a unbihc in tcplanc

Dcsign

ttwin-T notch filtcr for

tte 4..$kIIz noisa Evaluarc thc cfrcct on scosor and ornrntmicatioo signals.
Ser/rion2-5

. AA
,

bcusd lo pmidc an amplifict with a gain of +100 and an
inFrt inpcdarc of 15 tdl. Show ho{'&is can be donc using troth invcrting and
moinrcrtirg configPratiom.
2,2A Sfpd& thc oompooos of r dffcrcatial amplificr wi& r gnin of 2AE Using an imcgralr with ftC = tO s and eny odrcr rcq .ufucd arplificrs, dcvclop e
voltagc ramp gocrator wittt 05 V/s.
226 Sigtnl€odiriooing analysis shows thatilpfollowing cquation must relatc outptrt
volagc toinputvoltage
Show hov op ampe can

Yq*

335 Yb

-

268

Dcsign circtitsto do this using (a) a summing amplificr and (b) a differcntial

uplificr,

ut

AdficrcnthlrmplifrcrlusRr - 4il kQand nr - 2.|k(LWhcn Y = Vc = 25Y
rhc orgut is &1. mV. Furd thc CMR .od CIURF.
tM. tlcrirc Dquubn (2.zll) for thc instruocotilion amplificr of Figrue 23?.
2,29 Dcign en iasrrumcntation anplificrlikc rhatof FigurG 237 sitb switch-sclcctabk
tliosof I, 10, 100, rnd 1000. Sbotr thc comptac cirudt using 741 opamps, pin cm.

z.fi
t

2ltl

ncctions, tod inprt ofrsa.rdjus0ncoL
A @ntrot tt4$an ncids drc-evengc of tcmpcraturc ftom rtucc tocations. Scnsar
mkc thc tcmpcnnnc informrrion evrilablc as volages, V1,V2,and yl. Dcvcfop ro
op unp ciurf,t the urpus rtc ruegc of itrcsc voltqges.
-- lbcm in$dingrmplificq urintegralor,and asummingamplificrtodcvelop sn qrputrcltagcgivcn by

.
232

'

vn= lovr +4'lVil
f-

Dcvclop a voltegc-t€rncnt aornrcrtcr drat satisfics thc requiremcnt
0.0021 lL
lf thc op amp saturation volagc is
V and thc maximum ctnent delivcry is 5 EA
=12
find thc maximum toad rcsistanc!.

Plot ougn volugc vgrss floq and ooomcot o &c liocarity. for0. ih to €.. Dccign a $gFrl-oodieonirg s:/stcn. . I rcalc forwcighiog:ltcbasicccnsorii a rcooovcrts wcight to rcsistanoc. llrc ncxt ttucc qucdions aif rctatcd to this systern. inclufiog noisc 6ltcdsg. will cgual thcwcight(i. Ncrt. * b 235 ?S ?SI 238 lr d 739 f}r # AhidgccircuithasSr = &2 = &r = l20Oand I/ = IOJV.tZt(LThcffigcbfisavoftagc is rmptificd by adiffercntial amplificrandrcntto eDWvhoeovoltagg bydcsign.nevptgp lignal sodiliooirg to peovidc 0 to 25 Vrs &c prcssgc nrics ft'om5()to l50Sn As56tcn fu ncodcd to mea$le flov. huh? Tlre purpose of thc rcsistorcombioation in trc hidgc is to dlow ruta&rg tlrbridgc to zcro using thc rruiable r€sister.0 Vas Ra fton t20 to ""d.t[9 ehoqr dstoq r . rad u ol4c &ryo&na of 2." f4o{L P[otV* wrnr &.om 5A! lo 2500 (L vtcrc O Y creqoods to SUI fL A:matrrics Aom I !o 5 ld}. R? This will allor eornpcnsalion forchangesof Rp or eny of the other resistors for that matrcr.. Usiecrurcru*ovoltagc coorretcr aad e summing uplificr to g* a voltagc cmrsignal vith I *ale Figure 2.O0lb. n* p SUPPLEMENTARY PROBI-EMS hil fitffi )r* o 5 V rs thc rcsictrnc vrdcs &. it nominatty hai I rc- system prcposcd rs e.! tdL T€sts rhffi $et 6c ouput of thc ecosor hr 60 I{z noirc of 08 V ros. rod cvrlsdtc yon dcsign rs follbura--- e. Dcsignrrignalq'stm ttat provkks raorqut of 0O O 5. -Dafr3s r &paLeodftiooisg 3y*a es providcs rn ot$ot tdtrgc rtr1fiqg tom -2 o 4il V rs thc vshb*c ctaogcs ftoln nin to nlr Fwer dssipotioo ia &o rcoror mtrsr bc kcp bdow 25 mwAptlseuc rcccodpots a rdtrgpvaryirys l{10 mvr}irndbas e2. Uscthis ia uqp aop circuittoprovi& a volfge vlrli4g &om O to 8 V rs 6c rcsistae ctanges.5-rd}orqmt inpelue. &*I/lnarly cistrnccof l19 0" and et299lb ithls rrcsistenoeof. Aprccces signal vrdcs ftom4 !oZ! E/tThc eepoint is 95 nA. Tbc rcquirof otxput is e vottagc tuying ftrom -25 to +25 Y fctlrcycliag fuw raqathc rcosorto bc uscd hrc r &rocf. .cr fre of t& noltE. Evztuatctrcliac{it}t Dd€lop itgqd coodidoing forErrnplc2t so rnoutput wltqgc vr&:s &ono io' 5 V r &c nsistane vrdcs fr'o64 b 12 ldL ooodidoning L19 ' t qry v Ds!. awcightof l34lb shouldrcsultinrvoltagcof 13{V. wltich contiauously c5lclcc bctcrpcn 20 1ad 30 gryoitr with a pcdod of 3) s. {/ecrc g b h 8dre.alopdgedooditioningforPrroblcn23 ro tbcotttprltoltagpvrics &ou0 factorof0sVtmAscoeor rcsigncc nrics fiom 25 to lS ld) as e tariabb chrngec &om . ttc ooisc'oo thc oqrr rs pcreot FS.c.eothcDVM vill r€ad 134)..stcr{ALcoNDmONlNG | 109 SeaionZO 5 F $ 23i ?&l F' t F .

dcrn sniw n* * Gt.inprns are @ to bidgp polats a md D o gitc tc rigil ooi. -La'r cyrftrarc nfu a*e* Fiat arypccry wl6r ls tso [.JJorrio &cquencics with 'oduluing dataind usin! filtcrs to cxtract tcaataat crc ilppor" on" daa channel isa modulatod dgnal of l3to 15 klrzand drcofrJis"-Jirrat"a signal of50 to 55 kHz' Dcsign the cxtraction fitters using simple nc nrt* r""t that ttre &a loss .a singlc *ino trdilfr.' Tod ry g{o' & ro tc te pl|f.-po*ty.is cxact u 150 h..'o ufre"rru or ornr *rir rhcrcfore. tftc wtturctcr reads 2gg Vsi b' Frovi& thcdrcuit foredtrcrwhl pnrvidc rlris gain spodfy &crcsleron in g-F rrprirficr crncnir."-iidge bc nuflcd usiog I &? c.slhc otrsa rcftagg ay.. rcsnrts rvlrci drc sdgbt S2t hidgebnuilcdat0. Th* rrfti of & wlt tc rcq&ld o nU rtc hidgp I O.rr*.oo-lo rJl.tb (assuming Lcuscooridcr&cmgmirofFiguc a49 ocxr . llthy is rhcrc an cror? b. ft3 r&etnrnftmrrr sd nori-'n rat'cs dRr& u.110 I CHAPTER2 o.oel" GeD.v otil (drchdeprrlleCl All retlrtorr ln olrrnr (A! IIGURE e+*9 Circuit for supplementary probletns. "rp{fic. hpaeeetorofvottrgcrcaaingrccsrsrrcnOi' --e! thc vaigbr b 299 sils r *l g.b't ---'in rols sc". ffit -*t t#rr"t. ur or-ry data ar ftc *amc tinra This b donc by "r" t*o *icay aec.iopor". s24 !Figurc 25) stroyt lrow. nrrrcn h.Otbf is 2gg".. Now rpccify tL crror at 0 lb (shi€$ rc onc weiglu) laC eg9 lb (wt ich f"* p. crt r is E &s ccah blsrmdae fu a'lc is crect* (xt0 r.t intcrrcs ec tbc \t wdgbt e -. StJ Coddcrfirstmly rhchidgedrcuir itFigurea4g."aegg r brr bas cnors at lfl lb.(t0 lb? b.changc thc gain so thc reading.

P-:5:3 rf noa! SnnUfrces rhat havc high gain whcn thc input volage is tow ana docrcadgg 6iri rs-thc iqpr volt4gc irc*cases so rhis is rn dcpcods qpon rhc inpnt voltagi! An op rrp"lr*lt sucb as ""rprino :!*"!4 ftat in ligulE 251 crnfrovidc rtb rcsponsa llerc aioacs'rrq.d-. is rc*imd bO?19 qor50t6 pmrcr) in rhc &ta cignal* IIow muctr anplinrdc clIlssorcrlcslllrs? (rrrhd is fu anplindc rario of thc 50-s5 kHz in sc l_li-kHz chlrradudviocncrsa?). . Dcsign analqg -rgnal oonditioniqg to providc a volt4gc of 0.ANALOG StcNALCONDmoNTNG | 111 fi>---.. .L.g.. assumclrc o'tpui. f. rO0-rvt- qt .00 to 1..o eftairclyJust pua {rc t0O-Hf rcsistors in panlldj "oq* ".-- Trrma*rdon slead 2 3lttrl2 HGI'RE25O System forftoHern SA4. m-' Ir n lry Br rrsing diodeb for problsins ioo u. pn..00 v as Itc hunidty radcs &'o0 O% ro t00%.i. S2'5 e humif*y teacor rcsistaacc varics tincarly ftoo 25ok0 !o lrn kO as humidity radcs &oo o1tr to lwh.4 v and this . -1. lr t.scd to isohrc fccdbsck ' r€sisro. begins totonaocqi. i rrt"g" trr"* irJorodrt rclagc vcrsus input voltagc "i"s" for this eir- cuit (tt&u' whcr diodc D.il.c' qcydo aot bcgin to onducuntil t 'z'tediodcr 6 rbovc lJ v.. Focrcr dissipadbn in drc lcnsoh must be Lrpt bd..'lv(i.p.t vie&cirfofl'"d rclagc dropggil6c ccndce rcveu Forfucircuit in-rrgure zst.. .".6..

. Vdtrygs versus pressure lor Problern gJ' S2.712 I CHAPTER 2 I.I Grctria su& as Fgurc 25l can dso bcrucd to pr.58.6 ' 05 0./ ./ / / s05 --* ll52?S335 1{5 ftrsslsc (Ps0 RGURE?. Dacmfinc t[cormrrto&agcorcrthcBrcssr./ ./ 0: . ooridcr r *odr crtosc oulprt tdtagc vadcs noolincarly with b pat ?rtsstrla ty lbs cq8jioey(ftl ./ 0.ovidc somc degrcc of lincarb tioo To roo rbis.? .1 '.OIBsy'.l ' / I 09 0s .4 r3 t2 l../ rrbltagc {}.c rmgg and plot 7r. This rcspoase is shou|[ in ffur f-n lUn ecsre rhc rcnrc rol. .UgC fo pmvidcd es hEtt to tbccircuit in fitF 2.5f.4 03 . vcrsrp You will lccltatScrcsultingrcltagcis morc ncarty lina. /at- OT o .

o6 G."d fotrnd.orm.*is ni".dis e lcrm usod to dcsctibc any onditioo Yl"$ alcvidc*ooofrgctrcpntrol6an -"4n..€q of lhis ttrd &c followiag tulo chagtcr! *"tt*trna rpplicaftonof pu sbouldbcabtcto r Dc$nc drcrnral cnc{gf.or""ru"spn irhysicat$anrity.cft" rmp*rr* Fs'rrent probrerne. corncof u. 1roerct hc _/ " ropcrattcnlcs ttffidt"g s -ui!d for inSnmcntaeoo scnsors'Aftcryorbavcrcadfhisclnpter' tb :daim oftcnpcrarrc etrctcdccaffibratioos. lllcssl* rcalcs to &crn l cocr8!ft rnd empcr- F."Jcontnof . ------7 .utiqoo orcircrannsrcgshiooarc vitelly conbcfir havc t:tm-s iiA' bodily frrnaio*."pttt"*.rrm C r blncnl rtip fc lcopcrtrc marcoeoc' ud r vrpor prcssurc thcrnomctcc. 6]gn 6.ss /dnr'. Dcdgg &c rpprcdot of I lhcrnisla to spcdfcrcryanrc nilsurcincat ptslcms' ri+. E 6hi" &."'IJ6ttrr"ur"a.in thc "etings.o*p.rnoundrtet rssrrCrrcd *il'."rp*O. r Thsf.d.tiffi. frpiin tc 6.*r*rwrri"rr*hasalwaysbornofparamountimpoaancutdbecomcscvenmoncso conccrncd first with developing *ittr thc advance of tcchnologt' In Ois Jraptcr' wc wilt bc 165 .*rp".diog among &c Kclvio' Rao&inc' Cclsiu* and Fahrcnhcit . fpgcarloo of u $fO tcgpcranrrc scosorto spedfrc ptobhms in ampcraprc ffircmcd.r"E t dt"rq"t Ptrtpmstt" ln onr nrnrnl 3.. .-"* ..T wISe ONALOB-'ECTIVES Thc dicc&.f fl-iie .cia"non ore gas thcrmomclcr HTRODUCTION or artificid' by wtticb a Ptw. On trc armcru wcrc struck foi wCrmttu Indusgiat ttt'firsr'fitcs iince ccEncd *iO .

Noq cvcn ttrolgh tftc molcculcs arc *ill attracted tooncenortcq. howcvcr. Thcse caienFots ectralty rcfcr r hos drc molccths of thc matcrial are intcnaing and to the ttrcrmit cncrryof the molcculcs" 42. Uquld If nrore rnd rmc cncr3lf is rddd to tbc natedal.1 Thermal Energy /' Solid In atry solid matcriat. thc drcrtrr. Gas Furrtrerinqeesa intlrcrnralcncrgrof thcnratcdal intcnsifythcvelocityof thi moleculcs until finally.Whcn the material consisa of euch unatac*red molecules rhoving onaotnfl throughout a containing volume.thc molcctrlcs gain sufiEcicnt cncqSr to cscapc complctcly from the attraction of othcrmolqrtcs. Thus. Such acondition is rnanifcstrd by boiitngottirc tiquid. crrles'vibntion C-onsi&r a particular sotid matcrial in which mlcorlcs are cxhibiting no vibration. Finatly. so &a no atom is able to movc farftom ia particular le catioq or cquilibrium posirtot Each atorn. mqt rnd me Yiolcril rs thc &csml-coct5 incrcascc.rnal cner$t gnd temperaturc. is capablc of vibration about its locarion Wc introduoc thcencptof rbcnnalcncrg by consklaing thc molc- .l cncrgy is suffbicnttocausc ib rnolcculcs to nrovc about and no longcro mainrain rhc rigid srmctrcof lhc solid. hclium is a natural clcmst coosistingof a panicular6rycof atom. ondition is rcached positinns are "qoruUrior lVhcn this ocovcrpomcud th rnolcculcs'brcakawaf ard movcaboutin thctnatcridt eurs' wc sty thc matahl tns nplad aldfurpe liquid. each molocoboosrsisting of acornbinxion of ttro hydrogen atoms and onc oxy- gcnaton Inpeartingephpicalp'ictrrcofficrmrtcnc4g6wcnccdtoconsifuthcphysical relatioas or intcracrion of clccrcr[s rnd molcculcs iE r particutar matcdat rs cittrcr roli4 ltqud or gas. tl/c may say that the matcrial now has some finitc thennat cncqgy! Wrs ) 0.Wc ln$cad of vibrating. and the avcrage spood with s'hich thsy morr isamcasurcof rircUrcnnaf cnapr irnportco to &e ruaariat. for cxamplg this cncrEt/ starts thc molccohs vibrating abort thcircquilihium poeitions. wcsay the matedalhasbccomeagas. watc6 oR tttco(hhan{ is oompocod of stdccttlcs. thc vibrations bccomc . 'Wrn = O If urc add cncrgr to this matcrial by placing it on a lreatcr. that is' thc rnoloctlcs ar it rEst Such a oatcriat is said to havc zcro tlrcrmal cncqgy. a u.166 I CHAPTER 4 an undcrstalding of &c pinciplcs of thcf. and then with devcloping I ryo*ing krowlcdgc of thc various thcrmai scnsors cmploycd for tempcraturc mcasurcmcnL 4.bcrE thc bording enncrions tltat bold rhc molcculcs ia th€ir .2 DEHNmoN oFTEMPERATRE Thc matcdalsthat *rrrcund us an{ indec4 of whidrvc ar€@nstmctcdarcoompcd of asscmblagcsofgtoms. thc individual atoms or rnolcculcs are strongly attractcd aod boodcd tocadrottrcr. Eadrof thc92naturalclemcasof naorc isrcprescntcd by a partic- ulargpcof atonuThe nrarsials tlrat sunound us tlpically arc not purcctcmcntq but onr binations of atoms of scvcral clemcnts that form'molcctrhs. onc onsidcrs thc nrolcctlce as ranAomty slirling about cach otlrcr.Thcmolecules stillcollidewith cach .

solid.les. rtrcc_odgbs rt oouincd in tc bistory of thcrmal cncrgl Ktociltq ae coptoyod !o dcfinc 6c avctrrlgc crn 31t pcr atoleadcof a matcrial Wc rill coosidcr rhc four Eost commoo uoits.ater maintained in a closed vesscl. Thc SI definition of ttrc kclvin unitof tcmpcraturc is in tertns of the riple point of water. fccrcll 6c evAigc rtand cocrg pcrnotanlc is scll dcfilcd trougb cquilihium conetic. $/atcc colidniquid Gquilibdutn 3.16 K. J. 422 Temperature If *s rrc to mnrre rbcrnal cnc{Eh se mrst bave srn€ sort of unis by wbich to clasdry 6c nca$rtltcntThc odsio. Sorrc of l. Iftrqgca a tc ro&L liqdd.bccansc it b aot crditiooalty uscd.nd'ooH. S!3. rncraA spdsl ccts of unie. In cach casq thG n ltc uscd to descdbe the tbcrnal incrgr per molcculc of a matcrial is rclatod by drc statemcnt drat thc matcrial has r ccttain dq rcc $ tanpcmtarc: tbc ditrcrtot ccts of units are refcrrad to I kt r[xlrulture scr. that is. Cttibr-rdon lbdcfirc ttctrymrc nlcs. $latcc liquid/g$cquilihium 4 Go[& eolid/liqiidoquilihium Tlrc various tcmpc$aturt scalcs arc dcfincd by thc assignrncnt of numcrical values of' tqnpcraruics to ti* tirt rd rdditioost crtibration points Bsscntialty. t F p 3 n t- fi . tfte avcnagc thcrmal cncrgt pcr molcculc r€present€d by one unit of the sca!c.l crcrgf! Xlc cry'nootd bc.THERMALSENSORS | 167 ofterlnd &e walb of &c @ntain€q but otcttrirc movc fteoly rfuurglput dtc container. trl*of ulibmtiq N. tb *andard calsralioq poias rrc * Oxygco: fErWgas Gquilihium 2.' lltcsc urcc satisficbry for thcir ltme but ra inadoqr* fa nodcn usa frc pmpcr unit fc erlct3y ocr$rtocat b &cjo.dc5of lfic t llrpfie in ec $I tpcm. .crycssad ia joulcq woufi bc bctEa to dcfitrc 6cru. bu pepcr wilt cxpaicnoc a brer&dolrt of ttr nolocntcr befae e liq$d c grecos etrtc cer ocars Thc thob rubjc* of thsmel scoscr ic rssoetatcd with thcrcrcmtof thcthcrmalc$crgy of a matcrial a an cavironmcnt oonoining many diffcrcc mtcdals.rlsingbcrlrcca:ofiAthuid./. and gaseous state of .iarrsis uscd.se. and.l units ud nerc toe. thc scalcs difrcr in two rcsp€ets: (l) fip location of thc zcro of tcrnpcranrrq rnd t2) OtG sizc of onc unit of mcasunc. This is trc state at which an equilibrium cxise betwcen tlie liquid. but thb would d€pcd on thc rizc of the matsful bocauso it rrunH indicrrc rhc rcd ftcrmat cncrgtoonaincd" A mcasseoeotof tlrcrwmgpthc(md cncqtp€rmoloctrlc.orgsscqtsrrarcsofvztiots prc natcdalsThug fon c*rmpler t sttte ofogrilihiurn crbts bacrccc ltc solid tttd liquid phasc of a pure subsance wtca $c rrltc 6ilus c*arqgr is thc samc ia cithcir dircction: tiquid to soli4 and solid to Eqdd. Tbc tncragc rydd dec mheulcs b rgria a reasrc of lhc thcnnal cncqy impartcd to 6c ncfocnlcs of thc nrcdat Ncr[ ouiatr uodcrgo ttcecceadlons rt&c $a!Fthcnnalanctg]'. This system has a temperature of 273. trd hdocd src aot !t dL !k.

15 1336.I shoun thc vatucs of tcmpcrature io lcclvin and &gre Rantirp at thc calibration porne introduccd carliq: From this tabtc we can dctcrmircdrctransfttnnaion of tcmpcraturc bctwccn tlp water liquid/solid point and watcr lQuid/gas po. a simplc prcpodionality relarcs thc tcnpcntre irn !R o thc lcnpeanre in lC thbtc 4.6 32 373. Titresc tcmpcranre scalcs difrer onty by thc quantity of cacql rtprctcotcd by ooc unit of rryl"snrc trc$ac. Temperature scale calibration pornts Ternpcraturc Calikarion Pnint ?*ro&ffinalcrrc{gy Oxygea: Iiqrlidlgas lVatcc slid/liquid Watcr: IQuid/Fs Cole dH/lirluid o o 9&18 r623 tI3'Js 491.1) in K tcmPcrature in oR r tcmpcratu! of 33j Ic Fiod trc amperiture in "[i. thc transf.iil b l(X) K and l8O"R.onnarion : lff tr"*l : t {r"n) U3*ot*"l1.15 67t. il is clcar rhat I K must bc larger than I "R bX thc ratioof ths two numbss: (r K) Thus. rcsgccAvUy.(33sK) : 603"R .1 E A maariat has Sotuion r(K) : f(R) : tGmPCratune :.l5 -l8zg7 o Absolute Tenrperature Scale An abcolutc tempcratur€ scalc is one that rscigmazcoaopcraancetrmatcdal trathas nothcrnral qrcrgy. Becausc ttrcsc two numbcrs rep resat thc sanrc difrcrcnce of thcrmd cneqgf. frat i$ no molccuhrvibntioo ltcrc erc tulo srch ccelcc ln eommoa uss thc Kctvin rcale in kclvin (K) rnd Rrr*inc scalc ia dcgrccs nrnkinc ("R). is gven by r(K) wherc ExAltJlPt 4.168 | CHAPTER 4 SAB|E{il. : r('R) :3r(K) q r("R) :.{596 497s 2405 -tl3.r("R) (4.6 2t2 r00 19455 r063 -.

thc dE of l"Fis tbcgymcas thc. thus. . wtrcn ttrcsc scales irdicatc e zcrc of tcnp€felq &c thcrrmel cncrg of thc nmplc b not ao.= Iilm =tar rd (4.O rfrcrc af is thc molccula mass in Lilograms tflptg .) with a scalc ehift. $ l1 . Ihcqg8ati1tofcocf$rcp6seofiodry fqc b &osamrs 6atindcatod by I K hilthc zcto has bcco 8tiftod in thc @lsius rcalc. rclaive tcmpcraturc scalcs difrcr ftom dlc absolutc *alcs ooly in e rhift of thc zcro axis Thns. so that 3T):T$l---€eq (43) lio tracfqm &rom&lsius oFabreohd$rrcdm$y notc 0rat lbc two scatcsdfrctby thc sizc'of tbc @rocrjust t in Kud 9& rnd r rcal.os. FsFocdsdy. itispossiblcto &rcnninc thc rr.ofagasmolcanlcbycquatlngthcHnaiccncrgof tbc nolcculc o is-ibctnat coctg!' **.5) r/tcrc& ='138 X lf t/KisBoltznann'scoenc.sizc gt!.Thus.cAgc6cn4epcodoctclodty.e shift of 32 scparatcs thc two.fioss trdous cdibraim poine of drcsc scahs.om m ff.d*.6sK . ltble {l .ts Similuly.I Givco tcmpcranre of t445qQcxprcss this tcopcranrc in (e) K and (b) eF. wo:|kr Pr1* (4. r(T)'= }r(qc) + 32 # b l'- t (4. co th-t f{rcy= fG} -TI3. Solution a' T(K): l'("C) + n3Js f(K) :1445 + n3Js r(K) :4tt.4) Reladon toThermal Enlfgy It is PossiHc Orclarc tcmpcraoucto actul ftcrcncqr injoulcs by using I ooosarit calhd ful@trrrtut's conslana Although not truc in -al dlcascs.itts egoodrppuioaiootosucthatthcertngcltrcnnalcnerg6lftlofemolecule can bc fouod from trs absolutc t€&pcrefta in K &.R St (4J.THERMATSENSORS | 16s Relative Temperature Scales afu. Tbcec t*a scalcs arc thc Cclsius (relrtodbtbc&elyt| aodttcltabrcohcit(&Idd!o ttcnrnfircI with tcnpcranreirdicrtcd by cC d !F.

6) to ft"R) '= fid Atc spccd" ..R}'=.3 MErAL REstsrANcE vEnsus rEMpERATt RE DEvtcEs fu of tbc pimary ncfro& fccloclricel ncrs[€mc$t of tcarpcraturc intolrc clrangcs in tbc clocticat tcsisturcc of ccrtain rnrrcrfoli In this. r wc of ttr resistane lndstcs rbc tcrnpcrature of lhcdcticcudthccovimuncat ThrcrcspmscbcorncswryimportantinttrcccrirscsUc.1 Metal Resistance Vercus Temperature Ameat ic an asscmbtagc of atoms in thc solid satc in which thc individual atoms are in an equilibrium position with superimposod vibration induccd by the thermal cne_rgy.{#:IK} 1(K):30s33 K TIrcn thc specd is tlTH = ?.Thc rcosing dada thcn ukcs oo $rc tce. bascd o thc vadation of ecmiooducto( resistancc wirtr pctttc 4.s'ci+34 f{rF} * 2'*Ll"F EHMPLE 43' A tamg of or$gcn grs hs r urpcrennc of fd 9fF. If its mdcttr mass b 53 x ttrr kgi tfte averagc thcrmal speod of amotccute. ts wcll ar oOo cescq the pri. of thc covitm€ot Thus.d fu . Thc trc hsic dcnis usod re tlc tuistan.33 K) [ 53 x lffks ul11 .3.t"lprt tncrsullttrcst toctniquc ir !o pLe lhc &mpcraorc€cosing dflicc in contact witn oc cd viroomnt rvhmo frycrrorc b o bc msrcd.170 I CHAPTER 4 h r("r) :}T("c) + 32 rt"ri=}tr+$. Solution Wc first convcrt 9trF to K and thcn trsc Equation (4.+cnptatutc daeaor lKIDl.. bascd on thc vedetioa of nad rcdstrme witb empcrrnrrt. The chief .r.. . causc thc rncasrmtoust weit rmtil ttrc dcvice conrcs ino thcrmal quilibrium with thc envircoM.'*r(.= 48837 m/s 4.hcrmistor.6 f(R) :gfiF + 459-6 f(T.:= (31 (l3s x rtrlf tlKr(305. f(cp) + 451.) = 549PR 1' r{K}.

on cugr of ban4 rs shown h Figu€ 4. It is possible to .rhrriE..:.-d ic 6c natcdel cxhibie'e nrlsrcnce r. rnaadar and rhe rtodu vibnte' tho onducioa clcctons lcod !o *cn. ro.i.d fr"q.o.rhl @aolidc wi6 rbc raniooaqr or molccrrlcs of rtc oatcdal u/hco r &crnar drgy "..:Xil.*a o-ub coodnctioa blnd elocrrrols rha caay 6c onrcaa Ar clcctom rorc &orgborr rbc a. cacrc a smll-grp .-*.ddd..wc say' thca' for rtc wtrotc nralcrial.. it is &c is to u" p. ttrcturvc of rclativc resistance verslrs tcmPeraturc is highly repcatabte.t * ii-r.f 6. inpai ig thcir flow rnor€ cncrs/.* in Figure 4.t. I{gre 4Jc sho*e t. and drus cioer iautes or grapns Ln be used to determine the tempcraturc from a resistancc measurement using th-at material.Lp m4l7j r! lletels bl Scmtcocrdtrtors ct lruulrtoc HGURE4. ture is raisc4 ttcatoms vibrarc wirh3rcatcrmpritudc. To comparc trrcdiffqqrt maadals.. a.Thb iopodcs rhc movcmcot of crcctr. thc top crccrnon cnctgt of &c vrtcaoe band lld thc bonon clcgr."git . sinitaty. dtaraclctistic of a mgal is ttrc fact dut cach arom givcs up orrc electnoq cattcd its valence d€gele*'eryrnct&aclyrhroeghailthcnratcrial..o's t-p*Ji'il.rEy.gonrcat' wc can ecc rtat "tiJ "ill*iog mcaltic rcsi-sanoe chouuirrcp"re 1T 9" *ith tcrnperature. a". itbccorncs r..o. only condtraiontand electrons are free to carry qrrren.id.lacontrrsr ltrls $irh e *cmiooo&rooq.THERMAL SENSORS | 1?1 Oyo.o''duaionelectroa. ttnt rhc valcnce rira and dp oon&sion hnd of c{cctons in &c *!"r"t r*{p iiJ"*ns in cod. and itdocs...pffi.l ' Energ[r bards for sofrds..oa ""uia iil ..1b.rhqoooducrioo t* betrrcin var.oos ..u"u"" rcsistancc vcrsus temPcratusa For a spccific mctal of high pudty. Ttc grapLia filurc 4-2 stror*s thc cfrcct ofincreasing rresistancc withrdmpcraturc for scvcral mctals.r"r. $rttrcr . whichcauscs cvcn mote oollisions with clcctroos.u-r ir*"I." ril mcraltic r€sistancc is e firmionof rh vibratioaof 6cetoms d gg...*. L. lcocc od oonduaioo acchos qftco e cuncat "-to*g rnatcriat."r" wi6 t& vibrariag {oms.

. but the slope is vnall' ccplcss&cresistarccof rpardcnlarncnf snrgfcatraonstanttsnpcraturc (I) andyticlft using tlrc cquatioh -t. temperature because.rrtnq trco Eqnad. f6r example.172 I CHIIPTER 4 / trrerrurfO HGURE42 Mffil resbtancs lncreases alnret lineady with temperatrne.R - samplcrcsn*ance(O) t = bos[h(n) z{ = ctw*caiooalarca(mJ P : rcsistivity(O'm) InE+rarion(. -- whcrc .?) can'bc uscd to detcrmine the resistarcc any particular sarpt of *rat matcrial at thc sarrc tcrnpera$r€.2 are curvc6 of resistivity vemu. curve. ff:e *(T - constant) (&r.2).tcpdrclpatincreascinrcsistanewi*rtempcrature isduetochange in Oc r6s&vty (p) oite lncnt virh emperanue" If ttrc rcsistivity of somc rteral is knorr d as a frrnaim *d.p. In fact. (4.s such as tttc in Figurc 4.

f) curvcoverson* spccinca ryn InFigurcai rcscc atypical R .om valucs of rcsistanc and tcnpcratuc ta&cn cithcr from agrap6.y is dcsit€4 For many applications. drat i$ a straight lina In fact whcn only strcrt tcmpcratue spans arc oonsklcred. : p(Tllle .# C. as dcscribcd in Scaion 432 4.g (scc'cndof ctapcr). Unear Approximation A lincar appoximxion nrcatr3 tut wc may &vclop an cquation for r A*ght tine dratapproxitnatcs trc t€sistancc vcn$$ tcoPcratur (R .R. Thc cquation of pcratur€! f. crcsistancc vcnsus tcmp"raruru astcs b prsctical only wlrar high accurac. resistancc vcssus arnpcratrrc grapts.'.THERMAL SENSORS ft(Tl.onn r Ublc of rwi$sncc Y€tsls tcmPcrattlr€' as givcn ia Problcm4.11) . for whidr wc sinrply inscrt &c tcrnpcraturc and quickly calcrrlatc thc resistancc.9) whcrc R(f) = apprcximationofresistanccattcmpcratureT " e(Zi)'= . as gitu tn Figrra42. for cxample. Ndc lhat'codcpcads oo rbc dQofm rcqpcnnlc fo vltich dnply says 6ar a saidrt-linc rpprudnarim ortr m ortcr qirn of &c orrc rvulH haw a difracnt slopa ' . and ?i rcprcscnA thc midpoint tcmpcra0rc.10) ffi'(slopeatro) or. fhc cquation forthis linc is tlpically writtcn as R(f):ft($Xl+crs. fhcrcasonforuingcaesrhcfrrcrional.3 2 Resistance versds Temperature Approximations An cxamination of ttrc resisrancc. ilrc firrcarity is ctrn nrore cvi&nL This fact is crryloycd to dcvclop aiproximarcinalytfoal cquaions forrcsisancc rrcrsus rcmpcraturcof apartiotarm€tal.Torrrcisthatthissaspooostanc canbc wcd f6jcr3p3C{rcr$ydcatdm.\ R(ro) \ r.or&.curvcs arc v€f.vcn$rs tcmpcraturc curvcs in Figttrc 42 chows &at 6c ."a A "r it i" sroigbi tinc is trc tincaripproximaion to dtc cuwc ovcr trc span f1 to T2. 11tc rlrrc of ca can bc fonnd ft.y ncarly lincar.8) Thc uscof Equation (4. .I resistancc atT2 resistan@ at fr (4.*oos (baglbtodcrwaoclioml arca) of thcsamg ldnd of lil€.iTJ n<r1Tz (4. .O $ffiil ni nrm where Rz Rr : : ( Rr. from Figure 4. wc can use an anatytical approximatioo of rhc currrcs.qistarpc AT co at tmpcratucTs =T -To - fraaional changc in rcsistam'pcr dcgrcc of tcarpcmnle at li.Icurvc of romc ma tcdal A str?ight linc has bccn drawn bctsrcco drc poina of tbc ctrvc that rcprcscat tcrnsho$nt.In gcocrat' 6€0' cro: t (4.= -p-(r) R(zs') p(25")tlA p(25") | 173 (4.slopcofltcR .T1 I :.3.?).

..'ffi et sni:ts of rt gc tnicr* I /qC or I tcc- /"F' orradrattcApproximasQnAquadreticepproximtiootothcR-Tcurvcbr or oi n .ro* rnd . ct2 :!a : = : B(roXl * atar + c1{ar}tJ (4. R(r) -' wtrcre n{f) R(ro) tr'1 Al|.3Gr.t*rvtrcar appoxknation is u*ally wrincn rs F.174 I CHAPTER 4 trrnerrtrrrfA FGURE4S Urrelrepresentsasnearappro<irnationoffesistancewrsr.T c'ne os some span of tempcratunr r tcm trc nrics as thc squarc of ttr rcmpcr"*" It tncldcs bodr..stempefatufebetween7' and Ia Ilc dcgrccs rnd rhcr:forc dcpcnds on thc quenttty cahas uni6 of &sv€rsc rsnpcranrc p€raus scalc bdrg .ffiftiil.rio*ffi o 5.d.14 quadratic apProximation of &c rcslstance at f resistance at Ts lincar fractional change in resistance with temperature -'f -Tg r quadratic fractional changc in resistance with temperature . .

dre?slFis&crnildo'int.?5Fl ?5) + c2(9() . thc lincvar apprcxiruation for resistancc is rpb mcasured valucs.001875/'F.a .om tablcs or graph as fudicatcd in tbc {ollowing cxamplc* using tatrn of nshmncc rnd tanpcranre rt er€c pnints. As bcfore' boh c. R(o) 60 65 ?0 75 m &r 90 Fil follwitlg fc thc du givrcn ia Ex- 6tr-ud 9O'F. Thc follwingcxamples draw hos *rcsc appmximations arc formod A samplcof nraal Et'tstence lrGrsus rcrnpcranne has &a r('F) 106. [t + c1(60 - 106. tfs wi[ bc uscd for dopc can be found ftronr Equation (4.0} : t l0: (90 .R(6fD d R(eo:F) ll22 = llo..4 bctnccn 609F and Is so that R(fo) = ll02'{L t {lt4 * 106.rndc2. Tbcn thc 0.s and c2 dcpcnd oar$cunpcnnrcccalcbcing uscd end haveuniaof l/"C rnd (l/cc)2 ifCetsius Empcrrturc b ruod. rnd U"F rnd (l/9f)2 if Orc Fatncnhcit ecale is rsod.l ilot lll_l illJ ltxz drc linc{ qgm*oaOon of rcsistancc vcrsus tcmpcrauu" b*utcco Sotutfion $occ ?5qC is rtc uidfoint.?srl "T":T:: :ilra. .t*o'oquafionscanbcsauprsingthccndpointsofthedu.0rq b6odc.0 tgr.lh.11): co- gfF.aancty. So&rtfon Jl.0 : Adding thesc two cquations 1t0.THERMALSENSORS | 175 rr?lucs of cs and c1{c found fr.6 l0g.ve ror c2: .60) Ths.ctcwinuscthisforls.andtlrcrcfocR(fo) = 1l.2[l + c1(90 - ?5] + c2(r60 . atr) : lt02[t + 0-00lgl5 (r - ?s)JO FLd thc quadntic +emrcitruEon of rcsisnrp rcrs$s tcmpcrsorc 4.

001rr5(r - ?5) - 4r36x l01r - ?s)t] E (IAI$PI.5 to 5 s or morc.8 (L which is an crror of +8. At 85"F wc n(85"F) = I 12.c apfiroximai* pcoviths a mrrh berer approximation of the rc- - sistancc vcrsus tcmpera&rre.thc principhs discusscd h Ac prcoceing sccriorg ihat is. iffiA of *ty O4fi wontd bc cxpeaoci-t6Fl toGO RfD if Sc tcmpcra$rc isciangcd by fC tl"r"ify. n(60"F) thcqu*atic rnadcl ft. 4.p'Aa vahc is 0.176 I CHAPTER 4 Thiecanbctrscdincithcrcquationtofindthcvalgcofcr. to nickel. ttrc quadrad. Ttu4 with Plii*ri.= O.om platinum.F) Clcady. more scnsiti'rq and lcss expansirrc. ln generat. For 8i"F.om Exam$ca5 finds ttrcrcsistancesto find b R(6fF)*1103[l+u)olf. Cenerally. which is vcry FPcatablc' quitc rcnsifira.l o Thb is an arr ftori thc guel valuc of l'06 O of +l%.Thus.owness of thermal conductivity in bringitg thc device into thcrmat equilibrium wilh its environment. Sensi0vity bc rrctcd ftom 5/pieal nalucsof ao tlsisttlc*lrtsrec*rna Forplninum. Tlr sto'wncss of rcsponsc is Orrc piirrcipally to thc sl.t5(6o-?5]-4436x1fl60-?5Fl = 106. whidr fu inarrby O54%.0O1875/"F.rhis number b typ An csrimrc of RID acfi6rirycan fhe[ncrfreAioneldrangein fo:r[yon thcodcrof O.thequ:dratic approximatioo for tlrc rcsisancc v€rsus tcmpsaturc is R€) = llo2tt + 0. r qccificatioa witi providc catibration informatftr cifhcresrgrryhof reoistrnewars g11p61tts€tr4 a tableof Yalucs ftom which thc s* ritivity can bc O*nnima mr drc samc nratcrials.8 from Solution &om Examplc 4.?5)] lcr.d4.icsc aeviocs ury fr. ud vcry cxpangirrc.33 Resistance-Temperature Detestors A tedstane4anpmtwedercOar (RIb) h e tcmpcraturc sensor that is bascd on.becarnc rhc cndpointwasorrcof thosc uscdio aetcnnine tleconstants' I t t. fa crarndc. this numbcr is relatircly constent bccausc it is a ftncrion of resistivity.q5/qc. RTD has a Esponsc timc of 0. time constants att Response Time . lnrrwcr.lrg ard for 6# r i.4 dr prcdicrions of thc lincar modcl can bc fotrnd as = lto2 [t + o-00ts?5(60 . *trldr ls not quitc as tcpedabl€.3 fl.O99o. tnetal resistancc incrcasing wirh tcmpcraOra Uctats uscd in i.0 O This is azcrocnur.E Bywtrapcrocntegc&rtrcprcdiaionsofrhclinaandquadradcapproxirnationsvary e€&$n!vnlucsal6{PFand85"E! {. wc find that fi (Si.

D leg may crre ctrugcs tn linc cdnroe.ILc angasAon&ra in thc dso appcaron ttc R3 ddc of thc hidgc end cause no uct sbift in tlrc'bridgc FIGURE 4.Thcsc cLangca rhirr rp rs falsc informetion. geod ttrrnd mstsct ud &st rcspoosa Ttresc numbcrr yicld a rangc of responsc timcs.a cnvlronncatg A fc locdy inscascs lcsponsc tinc but may bc occsary in 'muttiplcs of 100 O applicd strndsd scts thc csistanoc at a rcmpcrarurcof 0eC. fhc coil is protcacd ftromthccavironrncnt by a drrrha precdrc tfrc tbd incriubly bcdl. null .'* inu$nies &c RID b gpscrrlly sscd in e bridgc R3 bg of thc hidgc is rcstirod q.Inthc fqrncrcasq fh€rcis poorthcrnalcontsdrrd trcnoc slo$ rcsponsc. of coursq b ldopty a kng6 of rirc cfroec tcsistarc is to bc arooitdtd ls I ftrnaioo of tcrycrmna lbc oonstnrction is tlenca[y s!tr that fu wirc is q. Sigmal Gonfitionlng h ritt tryuctllrl$I vicry of 6c rrcry coall frciooalchangas of.4 t'tote the comp€nsation lines in this typical RTD signalonditioning circuit.wdoo rformfrorcoilloacbiercrrrtall dzeanditnprovc6cdnalcooductivity to docrcrsc reqooscflm. By usiag thc oonpeosation linc. mggpsting ctlrgcs in RID resisane. 6c sare rcsisttnoc ctangcs 6c csscorial fcrtut€r of$chrqrnco.rcsistroe cirwit tgurE4.Inuanycascs. urd in fie l&.THERMALSENSORS | 177 r'ftcc airr oudition (c its cquiwlant) or an '1oil hth" condition (or is oquivalcnt).&ctr lbck d tcngCrs arc co lng tbat thcrmal gradicna along rhc Sf. dcpcoding on tfic applicaiospccifi€d Gilhcr for Gorutrucdon A! RID..

01l)2(cso1 :0.13) LT: tcmlprature shcrc Hfi[MPLE -* f * po: in"C poltrcreissfparcC irthc KfD fnom ttlc circuit in W g.. Uy ooc &gcc of rc* . S-.f.t" acvfuc.tho/uts "25*iti"CAitp.rp"i"a Uy tt" ntD.a resistancq This mav Mle a causcs sltght dt -lp.Irc scff-frcati"g tcmpcraturcrisc can bc found ftrom thc ftom .054w .005(o - 20)Jo R = 450O null with R3 cqualto Brrccptfor thccfrocts of sclf-hcating vc woold cxpccttn" u. Tb KfD k'u* in a bridgc circuit stdt as thar in Figurc 4'4V l0 is supply thc If bridga "t thc to null lcsistor-usca R '= n.? (4.1?8 | CFAPTER 4 ttrcre is an lrR Power Di:ssipation GOnstant Bccaurc thc RID is..-ry tr. nm norn fi. .tgn thc RID $ustbckctltarfficicntly ios' ard cons*nt . and trccurrcot ttoducc significantfigurcs is found from = o-og A -r = --i9500 + 450 sothattrepowcris ' p= (0.o O-06/'Q R = 500 "na Solettlon First rl" fid tbc valuc of ttrc pation' &'om Equation KID rcsistane et 0'C uritho:ut including thc cfrccs of dissi- *'':t..rtsl'rrlttirptwiddinKIDryccificatloos. !oatuidsr|f*rcaringinreaorry'^aio. :i l .tio"g. i. cqual 25 m$/' hfD - Aff . by rhc dcvioe itsclf that _{3 7_1$ncaw. powcr is Thc 4gl(L is slill resistancc trc essunirg circuil m &..ri"" dp RID nitt bc hcat'd by lt. ..tt"r.t" P*fR lr h.fu ai"ripu6oo oorsant ls usraffy=spc<inoU undcr trrlo conditions frcc air and a wcllcapacity ofdrc modium to carry hcat siirGd oil bd.r.''. = :OO O "nA R3 a variablc b'ridgc" thc (Pc.This is-Gtts" of thc dificrcne in powcr dis. |ncasurEmcnt &licuc in Gvcn ws€tdtc€nvirodtnc|It atsocauscan crotFous lding of trtto. ffi.il. null to R3 valrcof nnd ttrc runmis plaocd in iba& at A! RID has co .*l + o.4g" to thcporrcrdis*tfiod Futt' 450(}rbq trt't rccuftrteclf-trcaingdocstoffjprottcm.. 8rd ftc dissipation oonstarfi ar 4.|"t*i*&*-'optt a-t" rairc tho KID tcmpcnnry lcscs in thc ttRpow€r if 6at perm"Tlnrs./C lissipation'bnstantof 6ERIT) in (L aod a dissipation orstant of Pp = 3OnV"C will afC..o"*n*. n.

e ecopcmreofOlt Whcn ftccmpcranrc dthc naialb increas4 trcmciloa&sbqin oribmna Iotbc cascof rscoiooodnctoq.o(}s(rj - 20)Jo R-45/. is thu thc ctrange iqs. lI | :500[r + o.rcc bands is smdl cnough to allow ttrcrural cxcitation of clcctnons across the gap. ss shown in Figrrre45 Thc reason semioorductors (but not inrutabrs and otbcr matcdals) bdnve tris way is that thccnerry gap betrcen conduaion and vale. r gpieal pllinun RID m4r havc r range o rfrccas an RID oonguctcd from niclcl miglrt t5tpicatty lnvc a specificd nngc of -180P of-t0f s 658 b300"c.micooductor resistancc is highly nonlheaq.8"C RID rcsistane ftom Bquatim (49) as I 3 17e ga drc tcmpcraurerisc from Equation (4. rlldvibcatmpqtiCcsaedCooatcr€rEltortcYlrlreelcctroos.o:x) mtactntly *thcbathtcoperaureof{FG butata temparatnrcof 1. ttcsc &ooe bme fuc of thc motcclce. i- Range thc cfrcaivc rangc of RIDs principatly dcpcne oo thc typc of wire uscd the acriw ctm. hcsrcvcr.Rt : {315 (L .' crias bcturcca vdcncc end'6oduaion ddcat dcttm.&rb.{har b. dscussion. as its resistane dccrcascs. 1.regr b prescdhtc arlnplo. AW.It ls 6co ctcatrd&crcnrioonductorbccom abcficr condraor of cuncst tcmpcradue is iscascd--. thc hidgc wilt null with . h r* *n '& b concrst o'nctsl* dcctoos in rcnicoodnctor matcrhls are bound to €act oolocule with srcngth 6s no coo&raioo Glocloos rp cotflrutcd ftom thc valcoe bgod 30 tlc mercdoa bud.5n Tbns.Srrcbenatcrielbcbarcsasuinsulatorbccausothcrcarc r mduaim docrcnsoclzcnrndthooSb l&c ndcdatlbir is tuc ooly wtco rc 6cr-' ud c. tLL As thc tcmpcranrc is firtbcriocaas4 mc rnd norp dcctons gai! arfticnt eacrgy o catct:hcoonductiooband.4:1 Semicondustor Resistance Vercus Temperature. Thns.. T/b sry thc e gap dcagqg6 AW.ltltcoerchcoctgsrGquals c c*acds thc arp cacqgr.c o.13): . thc cletu is now h &c oon&aim bond and b fuc !o crrq/ curril dloogb ec hk of tho Eate.Thcdaractcrisicsof tfiescdeviccs arc vcry dificrcat from rbocc of RIDs rnd dcpcnd on thc pcculia bchavior of semicondrctor resistance YGfSUS tcmpc&atrc. thcEIDis Wc must find tbc AT-9{E-r. TItrRMISTORS rc h I tir Tbc rhcimistor rtprcscots an<idrcr class of tcmpcrattue sens(r ihat mcasures tempcranrrc erwghcbangcs of matcrial resistane.esSarnhligtrc4. Rorn dris ttc rcsistaocc of e scrniconductor maficrial dccreasing ftrom wry large valucs at low tcopcranue to emallcr resistancoat higb ampcranra This is just lhc oppositc of a Ectal An imporant disinaion. urc as its fcra a picorrc of .Thus.lb.s.-.THERMALSENSORS Wc Thus.

180 I CHAPTER 4 ca -(.overcome the gap cnergy' .5drt** Tb. r rcniooauoc-rb* hes a iane . U"it : 1(r7 cV.Wbco hc'tc4 &i3 EaloAlryt gap of dfhoo.a6oog roto gpf . O C .t"tis cxcmpfifiid.4cv(tcy . suffrcicnt lntrue insulatorg arcraiscdothcoonOGon tcvet forthc materiil to bcsmcaconductor' cannot prothc gap cncrgy h * 6...ature is highty nonlinear atd usuallv has a negptive slope. ln gcncrel crgy pffiidc rofii:icnt Glc(tlt to ovc$comc thc whcn thc g'n cncrgy-is typicdly' r marcrial is clas#J-*1 t*tti*ta.ii*lg.y J) 'ii(} G fi[|*}f.0 eV ForI = 0K ForI = l0OK lfnr = O'Ot3cV FotT : 30OK Wtn - 0'039cV numbcrs of clcctrons with avcrqge rhcnnal cnergics as hi8f as.p.0o39 ct. **q["A"g rirl p rhc jotrlcs'to+v oirvcnslon.-.l' 6c1rarl Gocrgics that bring dtis ftrom i*r1-.ii". requircs tbat thc thcrrral cr It is imponant to notc that thc cffcct just describcd b'od gap cncrgy' AW'.UV l oonsg..t.**nce rrensuli rernpe.""* lcss than dcstnrctivc 1o orc rnatcrial vioc sumcicnt cncrgy to.ql n . thus: rborn can bc fo*rna using 6*a* (a5) and lTnr = 0.

rcsistare nngec. Gonstnrction nanrsctctcrmistriseUunrcnicoeaucroq.Ibc. for drc smallcst bcad thermi:tors in an oil bath (good'tlrcrmal ontacf). tlsmktor dcpcnds pnnerpalty on the guntity of rnatrtial pe. Rang€ Thc rcrnpcranuc rurge oilhcrrni.srt and trc cnvironnoenL Thus.itivitythislargccanproriidc.itcanbcfrbricatcd in'nuy form.Youcan ece thisoerningfortftc &crmisorresistanercrsus tcmpcraturc curvcof Frgurc45.atue. Ttrc padcular ccmi- cusscd rcgading conduittr neht urd vrdcs *idcly to rocoonodrtc icopcrerc eaqgcsr ecadtivitJr. Ederg pncfcd ryplicrdffi dffiolt For tlte thcrml*or thouru ir Figrtrc 45.cpony.|f. 'trfuiaion of indfuidgal anits ftw ttrcsc nomftul t:lucs is furdicatcd as I nct pctocntagcdcvialioo orr pcrccnagp dcvialioa as e ftnaion of tcmpcraturc. Itrcdcry&re re urutty nsao&rcod for e particular onfiguratioa.amarufacnrrar ctn pocidc r widc rugc of rcsisancc valucs at uy palicular tffpcf. r lhcrrnistor with a nofifnd rcsisrancc of totdl et smc tctnpcranrc ry change by I td! fq a tlC clrangc in tcopcrtturt srbcosscdinautt{ctaainghidgscircnits.$rc.(2)dacdontionofcocapolaionmatcdalad(3)inscnsitivity A higtrer tcmpcraturcs.nm in drmo r drc ccrcnlecninctca h dirncgud *vcral ccatincars tbick Byvadrrimc'fdopingtnduscofdficrcat$mlogducdngmatcdsls.ical.'' ' ln nroccas. nirisloooararmaairl nay rcltaothcrwie dcrcdorac es tbc tcmpcmture is r. tha hnr€rfihit f -SoorlaxnC. and ablcs orgraptrs of resistare ttcfsus tcnrpceatrte rrc ptovidod forcalib'ratiotr. pcr'tC rc not orrcommon thus.the:loppofihcR-Tcurtrofthctlsnisorgocsto dcryie ttcoisutnbbto mc.At thc lon ca4 &c plfrdgcl [duim ir tbil. Sens'ltivfty Thc rcasitivity of ttrc rbcrnistors is r rignificant frctor in tlrcir'applicatio* Chrngcs h resisare of tO. i. bc.suetffipccanrrcctroctivdy b€nscvcry liclcc*rangc in resistancco€urs.Tcfloq orsomco&cr inct matcriatThis prciocts tlittcrmrigriccf fton &ccoviroomcofi. arcsponscof l/2 s is typ. ' Respoose Time Thc'rcsponsc tinrc of .Thcsanp ttrcrmistorin still airwill respondwirhaqpicat rcspgnsctimeof l0s \trhcncircapsutatc4as inTeflonorothcr materials. lrtd todt.one ctange sith tqnpcnnlrc. the time rcsponse is increascd by the .. {lcfc rrc due nngc Smitai<n cffocts (l} ncltiog a &tcrio- rtruct lhc scosc.Itis rmtcrial may plecc rn qpcr linitoa thqlcmpcfer€ d qfricb thc tcnsccan bc sodzcro.42 I r81 Thermistor Charasteristics bq A 6cnnistor is r tcopcdfirc scnsor that ha &rclepod ftom trc pdnciplcc just disurionduaor rcsf. thctbcnnlstoris cncapn{od inplasic.is€4lhis andds gffiily linfits tbc r4lpcreqgn&atur€ to hss &ar 300cC. ttc tbcruisor lbsi*rre bomce Wry hidlr' into {rc lylfu.fhc Athnghcrtcnrpcrenrcs. for protection against a hostile cnvironment. fcciltnol h pdn4e to lcs thu trC in tcupcr.ds. ntion'offtc*miodrrctr.ecre its rcsistrre lns dsco bova'3M0t fu csrlly. if cxdoAc4ee bgrcrtd b $oc-S{tcC.!6s dcpcods on thc natcrials uscd tg oonh glocl:ril.scos.Mtrm ffiEB i!&a!c&ca.THERMALSENSORfi 4. v?rying in dzc &rom a bcad l. and oltcr frctocs.

ggtl" Yo= 35ko 35ko + 35ko $:5V powcrdissipation in thc rhcrmistor will Lctus now onsidcrthccffcctof $lf-bcatingThc be grvcnbY . scrmistor in. and thc dividcrtoltage sitt bc .m"r t'Gnr.G. r rtsisane of 35 kr) d ?o"c wi6 e to usc-tu .s]&'''3lr*qr"a"dr*dr"*i""e!. Pr. -mV"C'-It-ts DroPoc€dEvaluarc tb p-.y can bc fqrnd from Equation (4'r3): Thc tcmpcranrc risc of the thcrmistor p 7.o empcfs$r€. tg rhcse da'iccs rrc Esistag'carc difuik* m r.ihcpowcrinmiltiwansrequiredtoraise it*t**t' TyPical valucs vary from I mwfC ' a ttrcrrristor's ificd q *' bdu .**.il.otl"iffiili" for cvcn i"1or"r" Dissipat 0rtd.. cvcr.ingc"*cf#il. *.-rt has {. r o.e . cvcn {tilh goodfrcfinal contacl mayhavcrcspoos signalCondtigrrlngE€causcrltlcfBistorGfibibitsnlfielargcclrangcine bort""y pcsibt€ dtEuit qplications In many cascqir...xA*ioe" inBw qinlimis firc thc ttrctmism JddS uot "xt""a be ukcn o ensurc 6*ffii[p"t* whicfi thc tcmpcra6''" is bcing mcasured' #i.1o"i *tt"g" or so v ar 2ffC thcrmistorrcc'istancc will bc sccrhalrhcdesrig! tccos o.={*=#=t:t.wodr'Atfc'&c 35k(}. cffccts of self-heating..182 I CHAPTER 4 FIGUBE 4.6 Divider circuit for F-r<ample 4'B' poorrbcrnal@tactc.. i*rin "o rcamns-or oc rtrcrmistor d"*ft b .ilhfilc€olil|lnmcnLkrgodscorrodarcrrrrisors iitto of fO"csrqe..t .zirsp ristanoc sie nakc *.E ffi rco.1.-fotA t" tO mW"C q rrcrc in an o'il E]|(AMP[..8 slopc of -t0%fe ffi dtdd*.1mW M =E=T_-w7"c = t-42oC .

whcn r lcopcranrc dif- mal ec vibretioc of $oes rod mtim of clocrrons is rft*drothtrfiftrcoc hintcdd gtlsssw thc meir!.crnf produccd is pn4iortional to thc diffcrcncc in tcmpcraorc bctrrccntbc two junaions. 45. rcnmcotir2Sq h*thcmcagremcntindicatcs6attl'is isnotso. This c. wiib the sams maal trcausc thc potcrrtlal.TT"TERMALSENSORS I 18:t But ttris mcans thc thcrmistor resistane is rcall-l' givcn by Ran = 3JkO = 3Ol0 r.of dris cfrccq crtt€d thc. This cffcct is clraractcrizcd b1r a voltagc-gcncrating Ecnsor in crhich an clectnomotivc fore (cm$ is produccd 6at is proportional to. A ad fl erc rscd to .?a slrows e pictodal regescntation uAich tun difi@g mcqls. wc coas. tsnp€fercurduoccs"lhc {5 THERMocOUPI.1/qC) (35kf}) * 4-6 V.:ranrplc clrows thc funportanoc of including dissipaion cfrocts in resisdvc. Frgure 4.re rorrat cncrgr than rhmc inttc ootcrca4 end thus tcod to drlft tounrd ttc ooolcrcnd.If e is dccd by connccdog lbc cds 6ru{h rnothcr coductor.b . rcal answertolhis prcblcu iavolvcs e ncwdcsign that rcdus tlrc rhcrmiscor curcnt to e taluc giving pcrtraps O.Deviccs tlret mcesors t€mpcs.b of this ttrcrnrocletric pinciplc arc calted rftcmp- coaplec(ICs). Tbcrc cxisa aaodrcr dcpcndocc of clcctric*l bc*ravior of Fafcsials on lclnpcfiaCIrc ttrat forrns thc basis of e large pcrcentagc of all tcmpqraturc mc$ufcmcnt.actory.ES Ia prevfous tocdons.tcmpenatur€. drc qystcm is and so drc dvid€r volagc is rctually Vo unsatisf. Thcorctical trcatmens of this problcm involvc the ttrcnnal activities of the two mcals- cftd 6a. Such an cmf is found to be almost lincar with tcmtcsaQtrc rnd vcql rcpcaablc for constant matcrials.lqC of sclf{cating.1 Th6irnoelestr{cEffess Tbc bidc ttcory ud thanal Cttc tlmoouplc tnryc ctroct b foune ft.Ibb potcotirl ditrcr' cncc is relatcd tp dp frctlbat cfccmes in thc hottcr d of thc matcdat haw md.. Such rresistanoccfrangcisconsidcrcdavariablcparamctcrpropcrtlr in the scasc rhat 6c mcesucmcnt of resirtancc" ad thceeby tcnrpcsaturq Fquircs cxt€rnal poilr€r rdlrscs.ture os &c bas.fificrcnccs acrcss cach lca iiculd bs the samc end thts no na crnf would bc prescnt Ttrc.42'qC(0.om eoos&lcation of 6c clccticat ffcrd prcpqtics of fcrccirl b naimiaod sus r giwo ncals Io puticutr{. Thc actnl tcopcranrc of thc cavi.idcrcd dtc changc in matcrial resistancc ' as a fuaaion of tcurpcralute.frGct is ro say ttrc rn crinf has bccn cseablistrcd in &c circuit rnd is causirg tlc cusrcntto flow. TUs alin vrics fc dificrent mcals lt 6e ramc'tcupcramrc bocausc of difrccnocs in tlrcir thcnnat condrrtivftfus. a cuneot is found to floq/ in thccloecd loop Thc propcr dcsaiption of such tn c. We couli not closc thc loot.Srcicd closc thc toop win irc tirnnccting junaions at rcmpcrautcs ?s ard T1. Ctcarty.

esl dr t-i - emf produed in volts jtrnction tcnrpcraturcs in K thermal transportconstants of the nro metals lhis cquaiorL whictr dcscribc tic Sccbcck cfrcct.n inrcgral gu tcslpctauF .z Thc sedbsck enO peltier Gffeca rdfer b fi€ rebtion betureen emf and temperature h. thcefoecurcotioncd sitration dpod no rhw that its cmf cal bc gircn by.184 I CHAPTER 4 rl Sccbcck cffect / &)Tr b) Frt0orrficcn ncunei. systern Sc€bcd( Effcct Uciqgrolidddc ihory. strows Orat ffro cmf produd proportional to he dfference in temperaturg and. further. : l:'(e^ *'-' wtrerc a- : : Q*Qa TuTz may bcr' . to the difference in the .

€qrthcmcasnedcdofttcibcroocoupbandthcunknomtcnpcrtua wc soc first that re tcrnpcsa$G E0stdrcady bc knoun bccassc &c sccbcck voluge .tcrp c E coortanthV/K Howc\rcq.licc. wc ncod to cstablish a dcfi- afiardetionshipbetc. ditfqene bctsoc! tse rcrnpcnntrc.if6cmctalsarcttcsamc. A^s d QE arc neady indcpcndcnt of tcmperanrc and that an approximatc $ncurctationcnipcxists ss a-c(Zi-Zi) c. Rrttcrooc' GYGrt Goo-' acaionofdficreottnctalsmrdcinthcthcrmooWlc@formsudagdcviops.?b. lllFLE G Flnd&csoebaetcsrf focrnatcdalwithc *SOfrV&if &cjuo€liontcmpcrdouts.deQ e* il. arch s coofrng rmall ctcctloois pihs. an arranganentsuch as shominFiguru-4.Thus.ort Ttis proccse is rcfcrrcd to rs tbc Pc&tcr q@.fu.8ais uscd. 45.THERMALSENSORS | 18s thcmalroryorconsants.2 Thermocouple Characteristics Tousc thc So6c*cfroctes &cbasis of etcopcranrc scnsd.ttc &rba ls r re&iger.2oPc) and rooctioce'uscfrrl cxtcosion of the samc theE- .and if thctcmpcratucl tlc 6c ermc' &c cmf is ds<l zcm. g'r= a(li . is cxposed to the cnvironment whose temperature is to be meas- . nndroon willcontibutcancd.This shows dratdrc measurcmentjunction. 4. rt rod & rs bcfqc.fr) s * (sopv/r) (tofc s sr' Q.mY Eftect A! int€rcsdog . In fe:r. Sonc practicrtl l$icdonr of roch e &vte.drccmf iszcro. ooaccuicpropcaiaoccursrfrcottsrcncrscof ttcSccbcckctrGctis€nsidcr€d.rc 2xltrnd ltDle Soltrtion Tb cmfcan bc fotrnd &ron ' 'Peltier .Bccanscof thcdficrecclcctrothcrnel trarsportpopcdrcs of -'ttc Ectrld it b found &$ onc of tho junailits v. b ptopodoart.cxtcosion bads. es SonmtnHgpc4.dcpcodingo thcdiffcrcoe in mctds andvarious juoction tcmpcrafirc$To ptovidc an orptrtthatisdcfilitcwi& rcspcct to thc tcmp€raturc to be measured. hourea crtcmd rclqc b rpflbd !o lbc atsten to cSlsc acnrrtnt o flow inthc circuit. havr bocn coptoyed. ti e juclion tcmpcranrcs in K 6c srnall brr finite tcnpcraor€ dcpcodcnoc of QA arrd Qs is D€ccsary for ac- crntcooosfolcratioos. Ts.n.In ltis crsc *tooos8rrctIrcloccd loog ofiro diffcttgt Ectals.ffilur. L ir food &at'thc trro congnts. // 6rcf.Nw. rEdedaod ltc oftcr. .

ts shown in Figurt 4Ab. To uscrhe ftcmocuryb to mcrsurrl r lcfirpcrarurc. butdlcy mustbcof thc eamctylid naelrsrbcfbcrnomrryle. trc rcfcrcne tcmpcrafir€ nus bc loo{ra. incftr€ss to hostilc arvironmcntq scnsitivity. Tbc kno*l tcopcranne I1. and so oru curvcs of volage vcmus tempcran[€ in Figurc4. tnd tic rcfcrcooc jucions musr bc bcld at thc aaflrc tcmpcraturc" Thc tcmpcr* trc thilld b coastant. or rt kast not vary muclL In most indussiat environrnenB. Whco u crmtsioihcloopnnstbcffisidcrcd. Tbc voltagc Produccil has a magnituds dcgdccoorhc*eolrla nag*nUc of tbc tcurpaanrcdifferwc and a polarity dcpendcil oo rrtb cmpcnmt b hrgc4 rtf€sGrrd or mca$rcm€ntiunaion Thus. eirch rs ovcn mcasrrcrnestsr higbly localizcd trpasurcrncnts.Tbccxtcncioowiree rtowcobcnmadgnifreantdistr$ce!olb rctuel rdercocc juoctioos. and so or\ and is choscn for spccift applications h cacfi tlpc. tbc nfawe jundin "trcfcrcooc-jumkns rrtl dU.9 arc shown for a rcfcrcnce tcmpcratrt eocifrc . - Thermocouple Types €cnain standadonfigurations of thrmocouplcs usi4 sidfic ucals (c dlgys of mctals) havc bocn doptcd aad givco lcncr dcsigrrationqcrraS.186 I CHAPTER 4 li*nrrurnrnt rlThrec*lcthcrmocouplcrystom :Lffiffi:nsionwirachrthorme fIGURE/TA Pnacficd me6n€men6 witha thernootrple system often emplqyextensinnwires to rnove the tef€renceto a more secufe locathn- Thfuirrdioo is formcd of mctals d and I as showa. lbb hr souldbcdfEculttordricrcifttprnca$rcEsntjuneionandrcfcrenejunctionwcrccleItis pmiblcto mrc rhc refcrrne juncdons t{r e rernote location wi*tort upecuing lb nwrocr pmw by rhc usc of crcrslon rvirss. bolh E4liudc rndsige of the ncasxd voltrgc nnrst bc notcd.t . 1\ro otlrcr junctiotts a're thca famcd r i msoo gt€t t q which rbco comccts to &: mcasureocnt apparatts. vaious sizcs of conductors nay b cmployed fu Tb cascs. sary ih4' rhc nrcasrcncntjurctimbavc:r highcrtcmpcra$rcthan thp refcrcnccjunctionr u1!d.In&isarrangcrncnqanopcn-circuitvoltagcis mcasupd (at high irycds@) 6at is trco a fuion of only thc tcmpcraturt difrerce (Tx . poblens as voltagc drope acrocs rcsisrivc * areb rcasurc4 cnrf b Gopcrgh|tc.f") aod Urc tlpc of mctals I aod B. Ajunaio b forucdsitbthcmcasurcnt systcmt hrtto wir€sof tbcsamc typc as thc thcrmooqla thcscwircsnrybestrandcdand of diffcrcntgurges. it is not ncccs.rr: &o*a ilTa$a 4a Eacb t5 e hrs its pstkohr fcanrrc6. $rch 8s rangc' linc* ity. **.

/ E20 o F IO 1 . &om thcscctrrvcs. Wc note that thc t12c S thcrurocouplc has much lcss'slopc and./ J . higb scnsitivity-making mcasurcmcnts casicr for a givcn ghange in temperaurc./ .}.THERMAL SENSORS TABLE | 187 12 Standa rd thenrroouples Typc lvfatcrialf t Irm. and is highty inert material.itirfties ard nonlineaddes of tree tlpes.t3 ryrffi![!ffi These omrcs of ttrermocorple wltage versrs tefiperature for a (}.C reference shour the s uslw of OrC u{ for esvqal gpes'of thcrmooouplcs. First.* nF rycc. Another . @ pcst- t fols dm" wh iltm lrs mil@c- -lo K / / . Arma ed elaocl rrc rqicd rn& orc of rlloys./ .ffirr rilmf @. -rhffi cm' Fcftffiillaif different *ns./ I r' I7 7 s -t- JJ.$G.A g30 / 5cl. that is. -150 0 150 800 430. !cmpcr.mo*antant T K Coppcr-conslantar Normd Rangc -190"C to ?60"C -200PC to 371"C Cbtmcl-dlel -190"C ro 1260t -100"C to 1260"C E 90* plainum + l0% *oditrmdrrtinum gl*plainum + 1396 rtrs6ismdatbun s R O"C fC b l4g2f ro l4g2"C trlln tsid b ucaocirltc$ca ttc rccattcogcnnnc b more drel ttc refcrrc lOoma. Wc wish to notc scvcral important feanrres ffi" (ls. [t has the significant advantagcs of a much larger possible ringc of measur€meng including very high temperahrrcs. 6(n -7gO go(l 1€0 lm Tenfcranrcrcl 1330 1500 r6so t80o HGURE. wctcc tbat thctypcsf ud Ktkmocouplcs arc notcd for&cir rathcrlargc elopc.ishppropriatety less scnsitive. .

foundis APcttdix 3. Ys. *d a loncr voltaga Vr.if *q mrc rtthrgcof 4. respcctively.AtypcJ .rpAc bctrrccnae va!$es &rtbrackct ftc ddir€d value.63 mV and V6 = 23.fbus.cf. . Thc juncwirlr concsponding lempcra$rcs of Tt tion temperature is found from Equation (4.*"dl}"O* nmnfing lM lhc iron b"f:-10$g &ss Pocidttc lhao &aoomngn' Thermoooupl.11nV b rtceruod ritb r typc K thsnocouplc at a (f. g]tfiftrlPtE 4.* rlng to Op t$tcq for cxanrpfic. To take advantage of the inhcrcnt ffiurscy poesibtc with thcsc devieq comprcucnsivc tsblcs of voltagc versus rcmpcfrtrr€ Aerc *cn dctcfilind for many Q4tcc of tncrmoconetcs. rcf616316lcmp63*hdbd&cocsrmcmlm&e*ttcsnp€tanrcofintmsrfi. ent.C refcrcnca Frnd &c tqcrmrc of &c rwlr.rsrt Jrrlcfon" Solution From rhc tablc.f/fC - . it is neocssrry to t*.ra) (4. rtc nwrd To. In lcncrat.lo A vo[4c of 23.ttrge docs not&[ mly oo a abla vdua Wbn this hap f(A'?6Sm!) pcns. .crrdy. vlc occ that for a gpc I ttrcrmmplc at 2l0pC wi& a fC refcrencc' the voltagc is t Y(2tfC) : lt34mll (tPeJ'O"Crcf) Co*r.dior r fsdc*ar gp* of rtcrnoooo$c qfrcl the nfcaocc Jrnerions rc at e pcrticular .rtncJwi&r{FCrcfcrcnocwitlproduc+5Jf mVforarrcasurtrncotjuncrion sf $olqq mrul[g tM thc im is ncr poeitirc ftan ibc @staorr& For a 6c poltEity ctangeq and thc t'oltagc will bc -4. ms ih* if thcrcfcrcncc tcmpcraturc is lcss dicrmoco$ptc iscallcd imn oonstantanThb lhe will bc morc positivc &an thc conjuactioo imtr j1isu*st*lt tcCIpcranrtr tb.M mV urd Tp 575'C.?68 mV wi& r frp $ rrld aKnferancc' ue findfromthetablc *555qC (6Pc$'0fCnf) !n .14) Thc msurcd rrdags. shinhrrsinthctabhs.aos cstcs. tne velrcof mpcranrc can bs foqrd rs@ thc fdtorying E[gpglalioF cquario: ft*e&+ Tu. V16 lics b**cca e higtrcr voltagc. = 23 ?2liabctrrccn Y1 = 23.14): .eTbbtee Thcrbcrrcqlc tablcc rfnplygivcdrc rcltage that rc.Tla. wc 6nd ttrat Y.63 mV r"*r.tcmpcrmrcsooctcsponding to6csc roltfgcsrrelr and Tr' rc' :pcaivcin as ehom in ExenPilc a. A-l I ffiJtt'. Tbermooouple Pohrity Thc tolugp prcduccd bf r TC is diffcrential in thc scnserh*lfbmcsmdbcnrccnrhet*omcaElqtirc&fuqedinthcfomoatoTablc4Z byconygrtrgqSrcdc$ctitrionoifrfCkkatifresbmvthapot dqyisintcrprctcd.f0.r88 | CHAPTER4 important fcaturc is that thesc curves ar€ not cxactly linear. Such tablcs arc .$ rhc staatas.

b-l?2"c.72mV *Vt t I lse 23.cco a high (8lgebraicatly) Tr = -l?0"C and a Wt TL = -l?5"C Thc cor.63mV) mv) I r The revcr:c sioration occurs wlrcn thc volagc fora partictrlar tcmpcraurc.54 (Typc J.85 mV 9. wc tcc ltrat &c junclioo tcdrpcratue lics bctc..g:C rcq :mV (Typ" J. a$c as -rt) vx= -lztmv*ffi vtr: -7.a Tbc ttcy poim b rcsncmbcr is lhat drc rcltagc is poportional to&cdifrcrcncc bctc. *- Eqaarioa (4.63 : t/0"C + #(o.lan dtc rcfcrpocc ud mcasrcurcat jttoction tcspcraire Thus. thco.-727 mVThcTCvoltagcwillbc Xl"d! rilb fs (4ls) We usj rs)..ry. trA. &.AgafuL an intcrpolaioncquationcan bc usc4 such as "T L.trz"c+ t?s"c) mv.'"C ref) . Considcr a temperaturc of 4(X)"C tr(l6g"a. &fincd Find thc voltage of e gpc eF" *luil .om the Appcndix 3 6lcs.6. Fd tr rr- qc @lilPlf #".refacncc goduccs 154 mV et 3fC this.THERMAL SENSORS Ty - 570"C + (23. whicfi is not in trc table is dcsired. : 21.\ ufffi- Y(30"C) : 1.csponding vcltages arc Vn = -1.lEmV ].Ihc tablcs show drat a tlge f thermoouplc with a 0pC. if a ncrr rcfscncc is tabtcs grcatcrtftandrcublcrefcrcnocdlvoltagcsofthcablcwillbclcssfor6isTGThcamornt lcss win bc just drc voltagc of thc ncw rcfcrtne rs found on tlre tabtc. is ttle corrcction faaortrat will bc appticd to any volagc cxpoctod wtrcn drc rcfcrcnoc is 30"C. t trermooouplc sith a OC refcrcncc if thc juocrioo tcrnperarurc Solution donotlathcsigns bodrcrrrs butrncrclyapplythc intcrpotuionrclationdiroaly.rr Yx: -?.* s* & rdrcrc all tcrnrs Lr. ' €onsidcra typeJ with a30pC refcrencc.oe Tu : ftel"C Tu c (.#(3t) Change of TaHc Reference lthas akcadybccapointcdout that6amocouptc rrc pqradfocrprriarlaijunaim &epcrabrq n-ispossiUf ro rrsc thcscubtcs with rTC drat bas r difrcreot rcfcrcne t€mpcraffiE by an apprcpiarc shift in thc tabtc tcal.2g.84 - 23.b vx:vt*f#].14). 1L. T11.l2mVandI/s .

Toavoid coofrreioo on &c rcf.ldIJecC.pbica[y. rr*Irvf Tablc rcf ooC I - ltccorrcaimfrctsis $btrrctod bocrusc thcdficrena bcturuco.10 A change of reference frorn 0"C to 2O"C l$ osliqfalerrt to slitllng fie TC curw d6.4$ mV Yrlo(-gfCl = -lzt . !d add if tbc acs rcfcrre b lcee thrn lhc te& refcrcrc.15'l = 6.Therc tablcscanbc uscdtorelarcvoltageand odginal arrvc slidce dopn !y tItr nV NCc t[* you cannot dn$y rdd q3 aSCrA $c pg'gfc1pne tcrnpc6atujg as r rcaion frctm. tb In ammrn t$16 of cnoe tcrtpcraturc.n Orc dfrcrenoc bclurcclr -g0qC rd FC. Itb cocaaion ftdor b siefr thc rcttag€ &at tbc acw rcfcrre swld prodrrcc ftom tp tabtcs" Thc corrrcction facrcl rtg€br.ecrc by thc corrcction rolUgc of l.lhu* Vn mcans atlpct with a fC rcfcrcq" and Y'!s mcarB a tlpc. rnd drc volagc &Pco& upon thts difrcm' Thctcfore.ccrocc.00 In ftc hst casc.vn in rroltage. In cffcct.iqtty :nttraaod ftom table val$cq if&c w reftrcrn b lcss &as the tabte rcb cuoc.l0Opfid 30PC b b rhen rhc d&rtnoc bars {I0l rnd 0fiC.t with I 3ffi rcfcccnca To coosidcraoouplc morc tcmpcfantrcq vedfy&c fotlowitg 'Yr.lJ4: -5J5 mV = 8.' al3l rY (TtFct 3trCrcf.r -{0FC rnd 30eC b grcatcr&.12 30f to 4O0pC What output voltegcs correspord to thc6c tcmpcraturrs? olu fic . EXAMPLE A tffc t ttrcrFooonplc with e 25cC rcfcrcnoc is oscd to mcasurc ov€n tcmpcrature 4.leo I CHAPTER 4 f{GURE 4. drc fc a rpfcrcncc of 20PC. rhc nragnitn& of tbc wlta& ls hrgcr bmuse tlrc difrcrcne b€tlc. e curve is dnply r€ducod cvcr1lu. and thc voltagp b pcnds on this difrcrcocc" fC reltagc rrrars lcrpcrrtrrc rre givtn for r spccifrc rcfu' rcmpcraturcforedifrcc refaco* tcrylcnnrc ty uSng e vdtrp oosuim factoc.Ul mV.lO ilhstrrrcs tbc eq$ciioo prcocss gr. r(rm0nCl n. dtTC rcltrges will hcoccforth bc rcprescd widr aorbscripof rhc qryc radrefcrcoc. figprs 4. Cocrcction is dways applicd to vdtagcs. tba crnw for a ffC rcb cncc ls rssumd to bc fic tlble valuai Yon caa scc' thcn. .

33 .f(qC) = 5(?5 .THERMAL SENSORS | 1el Solution blc I r:f Since dp refcrene is not OoG a corrcction factor must bc appticd to thc tablc voftrgrs.o. thc croneously indicatcd tcmpcraturc would bc 8505"C.futcfcrlocctcdlpcranr€mustbcoottvcttcdtocdsius. u.32)19 : Z}JqC Soctcgct l/qg o 3ii56 mVand now d todaermircttc tcnrpcmtnra .te oow find rlre voltagcs for 30Oo and{00qC.f is.ltsgp lies Using intcrpolation..rinedrcnfcrcncc'rs ecnnllydoccrtothcsctcapcratuesthantothcubl4refcregoc.rcltagc foretcrnpcraturcof 25qC-$at E rc.%# Q3s -2o) : oe6 mv SinciOcrcfccoeis gt€dcrdnnrhct$lordcrcocc. thc rcfcr- cnca &. Tbcrcfqc.85 - : 128 mV = vi& e 75'F refec€ncc podue 11. From thc rablcs. . urc cxpoa thc rctages ro bc smallcr.96 - 3652 mV bctrs 3635 mV at 875qC and 3655 mV at 880"C t. . fu* rEFl. rlp corrcctiu factor is subtracted to find gblcs h- drcffilrcttag€s.(F nV S57 nV a voltagc of3556 mV Wbat is dre Sdution . thisa{. !t'kl - 1633 mV Yro(a00qC) = 2185 mV Yro(300PC) Now.wcwouldcxpccttbctablcroltagcs to Thu* ttrc oqreclion b addcd to ftc mcasured votagc: be la€crforthe ranre *nryt* Yro(4 = 3556 + tFC nEfo* '2[FCffi 2(}o and 25qG eo Yn(z3. 0.'if you ignored drc oorpction factor and uscd 3556 mV dircaly h-drc ablcs. ffi GGrcil- ffiryc ffir@r . That ortlction fccbcimply thc rablc.hanm *ry&* First.'rc rct4a ffi hctor b dcgmind udttg drc O9C teblcs end latapotation" fhc rcfcr- ae fatls ftntu rMb SlerEfu cffcro.128 mV ynr(ll{lfC} Gd. ' r-875+ (3655 (880 875) 3635) (36s2-rejsl:8?93'c a Thc orrection factors are not just minor adjustnacnts In this last cxamplo. Ynr(3$cC) = t6.E . wc find Yru(zs"C): t28 mV ru" 'ifro is rtc correcrion factor.ir *mpB tcndir Frcm thc bblcs.om thctablc.soc) rfifuc* .E tFl A tpc K tficroocouplc tcutpcratue? - 21. or a 3% drroc.

withcrtxtctypscporcddrcfinoconptcconstitrrsrtsintoaprcciscandcxuingtetrniquc. tow61.inxorc"cn0. .e rhc TC is sbcattrcd in a Pmtccrivc covcring or cvcn scalcd in "tc gLss to $otcct fig unit from a'hostilc cavironrncnL Thc sizc of rhe TC wirc is dacrrnircd ty to rfrticrrion rnd can 6age ftrom #10 s.Tlp tiOte iu Appcndix 3 show &at ttn gcncral-Pttrposc! t1ryc J tfrcrmocouph is uabtc ftrom-$(F lo ?45t fhc tlpc S is usablc up to 17659C. : Oftcn. In addition. typically lcss tran 50 mYThis mcans thatonsidcrable acr ptiRc. Wc sce ftom Figurc 49 trc following wors Sensitivtty and best casc ofscnsitivity: '.02-mm microwire in refindbiological mcasuremcntsof tcmpcraturc ' Ringe Thc thcmrocotrplc tcmpcraturc scnsor has thc grcat6t nange of all thc typcs considercd.:::JA I CHAPTER 4 4.lhcdrpoonstantisspocificdundcronditionsofgoodthcrmalcontactard Poor lhcrutat ontact as urctl. c/bc. TYpct: 0. A3cview of thc tablcs shows that thc rangcof drcrmooottple voltagcs is typicatly lcss fratr lO0 mV. iodustrial TCs using Orick crirc or cncascd in stainlcss stel shcathing msy rimc-innstans harrc as high r lO to 20 r. foi prairicat application.006 mV/"C Gonstnrc{ion A rhcrmocouptc by isclf is..3 ThermocouPleSensors Thcuscofettrcrmocoup&eforrtqnpcfanrcsensorhascvolvedfmmanclarrntaryptoasi .ise ia ruggcd cnviroancnts 3o linc#3OAWGu.05 mV/"C (tyPical) (tj"ical) T}pc S: 0.. Reference Compensation Aprobtcm with thc practical usc of thermocouplcs is thc neocssity of krowing ttrc refcrcncc tcmpcraurra nccausc ttcfC voltage is proP"ttigntl to the difiercnce bctrvecn the mcasurcmcnt and rcfercnce junction temperatures. so that 1ou can t€count for thc cnvironmcnt Signal Condtioning Thc kcy clcgrcnt in thc usc of thermocouptcs is that thc ouputvoltagc is rcry srnall. On rhc othcr han4 aTC madc from vcry snuF gaugc wirc can harc a tinc corstant as snall as l0 to 2O ms. Thc acnral scnsitivity strongly aegcnfs on tlg typc of sigrnl conaitUning crnplqrcd and on thc TC itsclf.5. variations . of coursc' simply a wcldcd or cvcr tr*istodjinaaionbct*pn ttfo mcral$ and in many cescer tlnt ic thc oonstrucion Tbcrc cascs. Odtctspeial t1rycs hare *o ad$'elow thcsa . thc smatt signal lcrcb ma*c ee dcfliocs rus€pdble to clcctricd ooir* tn mo6t'€Jcq thc rhernrooorple b rsod wit$ a highaain difrcrential amplificr."r.s"r).1*o Time Repodse fhcrrraonrptc dme responsc is simply rclatcd to thc sizc of 6e wirc and ery potccfive matcd4 uscd with thc *nsoa Tlrc rinp tepottsc cquates to hoil lorg ittakc"fbcTCsftteur j6 rcach dsmat cquilibriurn with ilrccnvironrncnC krge.rion niU tc rcoc.

$alh*w: t{ctg'g wdw ' rdccnccjuucricr tcrapcraturccanbc mcanlnd by apreision tbcrrnistororeno6crlC eopcmrc scasorand povidcd rs an input to trc ca6pu16g Softrparc rouioes ttca cau pwi& ncrcry oqncrioos to tbc thcrnocouptc tcmpcrafti l. Frequently tlermistors or other solid*tate tempefature sensors are used for the reference measurement.- rD rD rf tf lt. . b osA Figpru {tl $o*r e tiloct dasreof hov tbc ompcnsur b oscd.tbt@tt a te pohtenpenwa lc aconlly tcmpcranrc scosoes rhensetncs tbt ncrmr &c refcrrnejuoaioo tcmpcranre. Thc rcad rcfcrtnocjuuloas erc a tcoooctioo !o tbc IC. Thc ICs iorftr& circdcy fu pru.tic.- ? a t' h . Scm{ r tt*nocouple coostiortcs rn crtrIdcctricrl pidCIp Kisc ft'om clcctronagnaic radadon in trc radio. so thc IC tcmpctorcb drc refscncc lctnpcratr€. fu 3. fuoM sigual ' fut is also ao ioput to thc comptrtcr.pe thc&gpst obcrdcto thc w oftamixrptcs for aopcmnne uicasncuffhirersyisthcirnsocptibilitytoctc. Ccpcnfingoo Sc typc offC bc.lroisa First.idcs arcdcd oorecdm rcll4e.&i rclagpsgcncraod gwrlly ac lcsr tten J0 nV ud ofu rt only 2c3 nV.npcrannc from ibcTC voltagc take into aeount this hoqm rcfcrcnoc tcmpctlaffe.i- r-'- r. c/hich arc catlcd ald jtutc. particularty rvtco nany *crnocondcc erc in usci Gxtcosioo wircs txing dl rcfctencc junaioos o a lcsecr&rra-contollcd box in tl* oonuol mom. Nobc fd.i- r-.r-. Thcn. T1{ rnC rntcnoa fc of lcnt r'} rD rt (D r. Rdoots of tcr.1 :---------------:--------: Rcuie+n Autonratic referenoe eonection is novr comrnon ln TC systems.1 aa r- -. In m(lgrtcr-besod masrrcmcnt slrstcos. Ihe following tochniqucs arc crnplroycd for rcfcrcncc junction compeasation: tanpawttc rcfcurc bI& In eomcascs.THERMALSENSORS I 133 of drc rcfcrence tcmpcsaturc show up as dircacrrors ia thc rneasuremcnt tcmperahre detcrmination. its Thcnrodcraapprcachtorcfcrcnccooncclion L R{craw @rrcirct isnryp$cd A epcciatizoA istcgratodcfucnlts CCs) ed add orsubtract tb oorrtcdoa faaoraructty to &cTCouprn Th6c ICs.- (. s local coatnol E5ftsco rnrilhins this boc atl pteciscly oontotlod ernpcranrrc so that thc rtfcreocc is Fguldod. end ln thc idusuhl covto blrc Mc& dnifirols of chicrl noisc gcncrd by hryc ronncu ft b fu fficc h ely ffif rystcrn.

great care must be taken to protect against electrical noise by using shieldngt tlr. Thc diffcrcntial am'plificrmusthlvc rcry good comnon-nodc rejeaion to aid in the noise-rejoction process Thc dvratage o gtoundog thc mcasnc.f2 shores a tp. c"nat this no'isc.isting.ical'arrangcmcnt for mcasuremcnt with a drermocorpla Notc that rbcjdnaion i$elf is groudcd thrurg!.6 oTHERTHERTUALsENsoRs Thc *nsots discnssod in thc prcviotrs scctions covrr r largc fraction of tlrc tcmpcraturc fircasur€mcnt tccfuiiqucs usod in prcacss control. r nurnbcr of noisc reduction tcctrniqtrcs arc e@rycd. Iigue 4. and differential anrplification.ircs from induccd voluges from varying clcctric lnd magncdc ficlds that pcrmcati ourcrviroorrcnt. This tcchniquc is discusscd in detail in Chaptcr. I! tcmpcraue tfgnat at e givcn birc tcrrnoconptc may bavc many timcs more noisc than tima Touec frcrorylcs eaively in industry. micrutrrarc bads. at leasr partially.12 Sinoe TC vottages are srnall.thc snainless stecl shcarh.In principlq cqual voltagcs arc indued in cach loop of Crc twistcd wircs but of oppositi plrasc so thcy carrcel..el rhctb Grouadcd Diffcrenc irl mpll. . numcrous othcr dcviccs or mctlrods of tcmperaturc measuremcnt that may bc cncountercd. Aniuumcntatioo amplificrtiiat plq@forncasrrcracot has cxccllent common-mode rejection is cr*.bccausc thc voltage on 0rcsc lincs is subtractcdnvisdtrg is done bdcoouple thc u.ocot juncrion is that thc noisc voltagc will bc distihtql oqudlt on cach wiro of tbc TC.Thc fo[owing tturcap 6c moct populac short.f lcr fot!.1e4 | CHAPTER 4 l\rfu tei c:<tear Loa yi rcr On*adei rtrlllrrr . a bad vircs ftoo thc tkmocouplc to the rcfcrcncc jurction c mcasocncnt s5ntcdr !rc twistcd and thcn ufiappcd with a groundcd foil l. Thcn thc difrcrenrial amplifier witl. howcver. 4. There remain. yrrp Rcfcrcacc JuacCl.C.onr FIGUBE4. Tlc cxrcosioc c shcath- Z Thc mcasurcrtrcotjunaion itsclf is groundd at thc point of measurcmcnl Tbc grurndingisqpicallytotlrc inside of6cstainlcssstcel streath that covers dre ac- nralOcrmocouptc- 3.6. Pyrometric mcthods involve mcasurement of tcmpcraturc by thc clcctnomagnctic radiation that is cmittcd in proportion to tcmpcraturc.

THERMAL SENSORS

FIGURE 4.13
A solid obiect e)Qeriences a pt'rysical
expansioo in proportkm to ternperiature'
Here the effect b trigtlfi exag€prated'

I

1e5

To

.

f.

tl

TlTg

,l
4,6.1. Bimetal StriPs

of bcing relatiwty in'ccuntq hav'
This typcof Gmpcranrcscnsor has thccbaractctisics
lnd bcing loc, in co6t Su* dcviccs
iry hysrcrcsis, t""i"srdJvdv slonr dmc

re

uscd in

nuwo.s

Tsponsq
tppli#";- p"t*.rtly'.,'tt* en oIi[/oFF cplc r4b

ttran smoodt

or coatintrou ootnol is dcsircd'

r
ru,

k
E:*

dt" ryb'g€ar€r &ffBal ry
9t* about
Thermal F.npansion Wcbarc scn ear
6cir
iigrrs-ttq,t"o"y
-tfr*i"*
cnlcs of a rorec,o oJ,Ji*;*"-O.ua "oa
would
O"t - cxpisionofttc-volumcof a solid
ewragp po.irions. L ir--ofii toop."t
with
f[*f",irfo tcnO o drpy morc vo\ry on 6c avcragc
lo-mpatry U*
"f".r,
luOet".t'o-ratcriat19rnarslatbccauscof maayfac6cirviborrioas.nit.;f,i*tl*
can
*ab[' te* smlcutrq ad oec.*' Al6*gb oc
tors, includry r"h*ilp.-6
cxgar
to omsidcr a kog&

d;6J' it is more common
ooors*6* of-a rod a bcar- rr's' if
"d;;*
n". ,r*r1i"rtr"rt*r
;;ffiffi-*a
ffit r rcd
4.13' d &c tanperatue
h
o, f"gO l, *Aie*rur lo
c,€ barc
bv
"'guft
rcw lcngrh' I
socak of e vclgmc

ffi
ml

n

il;; ;;;

",r;;i

ru

rru
c/tcrp

&F
ffid

Af = f ' fu rnd t

natixiatof
Thblc43.

TABTE

fr ',u tc firnc to bavc a

Er.tf::AlJ
it rc G"t to-"f

q,1icbrcliral'p.e"*aS.,*.f Cf"ritti:qansioncocfhcicntsarcgivcoin

13

l'{stcdll

@

Alrrminum
Coppcr

dt*

Stccl

6Em

(4ro

c4nqsion cocfficient appropriatc to thc

Thennal ergansion cceffKienti

W

dvcn

Bcrylliurn/coPPcr

Expansrion

Coctrcicat

rdrc
lfrtec
6Jx rf/.c
25x

16.6 x

93x ld/:c

1e6

| GHAPTER 4
FIGURE 4.14

A hlirnetal strip will ct rve wlren exposed to a
ternperatwe charge because of #ferent thennal
esansirrn cceff,aients. Metal thickr*ess has been
exaggerated in $is view'

r>ro

Blmetallic Sercor Thc rtrcrcral scnsor cxdoidng lhc cffcct discttssd prcviooff
oarm v&Fr tslE narcrhls Tri& goosly dtrcttrt srcnnrt eEansion ecfficiens arc bmfl
rCg.6* ft"{, racs nclrcC, ru Afc"int cxpa$iod r.tcs qrsc trc l3mUty rrlvc strowl L
scrit b cooed or to atuae an ONCIFF mc*
dr**f+.fiis Gfrcctcan bc uscd totoctosc
a"ltr vt o Ocbmpcfafr|t? inscasc$ tolllc aPPmpdatcscpoinCThc Gtr€ct dso isuscd b
t*rp"t"n"t f"ji""tit, by mcans of asssnblagcs' O conrrcrt Ore cinvaturc inO dial rotatir-

.

E

(l{|tnnE

4.14

.

IIory Drdrlill rnatumfuirmrodof
cbangcdfiom0Pto l00t?

lsmlcn$h *2ffccxpand

goltttion
Fi$t, find

rhc

tcngs

atOC,wcgc

at.fC

and a[

l00oq

:

t; (to m)[r + (25
Ir = 9'995 m

tlrtcmpcranrcb

thco find thc difrercnca Using Equation (4-lO

x rffq(0"c -

and at t00qC,

l, = (lo m)[t + (25 x
t2 = l0'O2 m

'

when

tf

20"C)]

fcr(loec - 2tr91

Thus,thccxPansion is

tz -

4.6.2

Gas

h'= O.(f25 ill :a 25 mrn

Thermometers

p*

Thc operatioral pinciplc of ttrc gas thermomctcr is bascd on a basic.law of gases. Itt
,i*t"r, if a gas ir t"pt-io a container at constant volumc and thc pressure and tcmperatc
vary, the ratio of gas pressurc and tempcrat0rc is a constanc

THERMAL SENSORS

Pr:&
rr T"
whcrc

prnT s

:

pnTt =

aholtrc

prcssurc

absolutc

prsure

Agas in aclosodtrlumchas aBressurcof
pressurcbcat l00ec1

1s7

(d17)

8d @
agd

|

@

(i" K)

in statc

I

in starc 2

f20pciatttsnpcrafircof 2fCWhatwillthc

fulutian

First ure convcrtthc tanpcraturc to drc absolutcecalcof Kclvio using Equatiou (42I Wc
ga 293.15 K rnd f,t3.15 lL thcn wc usc Equation (dl?) to find tbe prcssuc in statc

2

T2

h=f.Pr
n3.$
Pr:ffi(l2o
Pz

-

Ps')

l5it Psi

Bccausc thc gas ttrcrmomctcrconvG tcrlpcra0ru informaion dfueAly into pressurc
dSpds, itisporeilsly sccful ilpaaxnadc aJ4stcns. Ssch traosd$ss src dso adrranra-

gaoosbacauscrhcreaenonovfugpartsdmdocticallirnulatiooisncocssary.Forektronic anatog or dgital eroccss.oonnrU eppticafu, tru,trrcq it is tr€ocsssry to dcvisc
q1:!ens for-onverdns ttc prcs$inG b eloctical dgndst Tbis gpc of rcnsc is oftca tt3od
nith BoodA'Obcs (soc Chaptcr 5) to pmdocc drtct-idficadtrg t opcraetrc nctcts ttrd
recordcts.lhcspsEoetomnoolycoptofdbnitogpo.ltmercsponscis;lowinrclation
o etccticat dcliccs becausc of ttc Sltierras{ 6at must bc hcalcd-

4.6.3 Vapor,fressure Thermometens
evfpor*tessneftctnonclcrcodvq8tcopcnftrinfornaiioainto Prcssurq as docstbc
partially fiIlcd
31s rhcrtromacq but il opcalcs by r dficrcot ptw. If I cloecd tcssct is
rm fgri4 tcn tb rpac *orc Aic nga rnn oosristof cvrpoaaicd vapor of trc liquid a
epressuretatdpdsoorhctcmpcralur-Iftbctcopcr.hlrcisraisc4morcliquidwillvapaizc,lrtdScprcssurcwUincrcasaAdocrcascintcnpcraucwiltrcsubincondcnsation
if rcmc of tic rapq:, rne ru pcssurc will dccrcasc.Thsq vapor Prcssulc @nds on tcmpcraflrc. Diffcrcnt matcrials havc dFcrcat rurcs of prcesure rcrms enp68filtq utd &c[l
of vapor
b no simple oquatioo tikc that for a gas drcrrromctcc Figurc 4.15 shovs a curve
'tlrese
prcssnrc v.(srls tempcrafire

fc

nrsfryi ctrloddc, which is oftcn cmployed in

scnsons.

it" prorup avaUiUtc is substantidas thc tempcratrirc dscs. As in thc riasc of gas thermometers,thcrangc is notgrcat, andrespoqntimeis slow(20
uid and the vesscl rnust be heated-

s and

morc)becau.sctheliq-

1e8 I CI{APTER 4

=
.E
O
s

Ib,
ta
t

*r

o'10 I0 s

E0 dt

s

Tmprrrn

ro

|rCN

f{GURE 4.15
Vapor-p,ressure cltn e for rrrethyl ctrloride.

Ei(|nfiPtE

4.16

.

thrc uahyl chloridc vspor1rcssurc tcnpcra$rc scnsors will bc usd O mcasur€ 6c *
pcrere ditrcrre bcn s trro rce*lion rrcsscls. Thc aourrimt tcryrnuc is 85"C. Fil
*rc prssurc dficrcncc pcrdcgrcc Celsius at 85qC ftrom tho graph in Figurc 4.15.

Solutian
Wb

rrclst

cSimeting thc slopc of ttc graph in rhc vicinity of 85cC.

drcslopcbctvccn

8fC

and

90C'

Ap_ 400 g0

AT

Ap-AT

320 psi

- gffc

8 psi/"C

-

Ib

do &is' lct us

fl

ilblrycraoxa?hiscficctfqcthcbasisforrhctradid. ttcsc &ybs hrrcrn wacy of bcficr&rn lqC rrd oftcn can bc calibmtq! to providi cveo bctcrmacy. rtcaas in poor ltcrmal range diirc it ry imta*af0t@o&auxrc. Thc tim ooostlc foi good Gcraal oocct trtl:s iin thcrange of I to5 *coods. Figre 4. rhc cxpansioo cfrocts of rbc glass oomiocr must be accqrnrerl ftr1 to obafu tigh rdrcrcy ia aopcase inficuioc.iea€sucxpansiotindirncosim wi6tcmpcraturq a liquid aL*o shows anerydtfonhtro&tmc{. tnrtcrcrtltagodcecods upootcoscratrtrc. = 0.16 you can scc that thc zcncr cuncot is (5 - 3516) V 510{} So with a curent of 23 mA.t6 effis roct r tcnpcranrc sc""T o prcvielc an oupw voltagc oqry Itat decads upo tcnpcr$rc. ScmUmg mustbcooosidctc4 bocausc drey do dissiparc powcr rs givco by thc zcocr voltagc dmcs fu opcrcing qrrcnl For example.rnalliquidingls thcnuomclcrrhat ic roooramoo h rcmpcrauuc masur€mcot.voltrnc atrcmPeranrelo .Gcocralty. It's rssrm r typical fandcr frncrion of $out f 2 nV/IL fc cxrnpla ltcrdore. rt r nomfiml rooo tcnpcranre of 2tqQ 6c ebcolutc rcmpcrature is rbotr 293 K ro tbc sr otryt rcelgc *ouH bc 3516 V.voluuc ttcmat e. ' Ccocntly.0029 A) (3516 V) : 10. Ttc rctuitrnstrip *ut govcms thc opcraliooof dris dcryioc is Y(r):I/(IoXl+BArJ whcr€ (4.2 mW . AI-T-To F . in Figurc 4.This tncqf tcmpcuanrc scosar i-< nor oomnody usd h pmccsc"ortot rrortbmrc fir&crras&lctio is neocssaqr rtr a1il-en thc indic*cd rcryarc foito an elcctri<nl dgnat 4.4 Uquid-Expansion Thermometers Justasasolidcxpc. trc roltagc dcpcods qoo tbc rbsolrc &mpcrame in r lincr wey.fho disti1nlioo oonstaat is in tlrc odttsq ed hcat sinHtg. 20 mTffC d+codog oo ttc casq Onc of thc rinplcst foras of tonddc tcq.xpansionoocfficricnt In acruat praaioe.THERMALSENSORS | 19s 4.rri& tcm- pcr&rc ovcr a spccificd range" Tbcy fuaaioo by cxploiltng thc tcmpcrature scnsitir{ty of depad scmimduaordbiiccs arch as diodcs and tnnsistors Ons comsron r..cttbrc of2 o scos operalcs clcqtdca[y like a zcocrdiodc. Tbe opadng tcopcratrc of thcsc sm b qtpically in thc range of -5f ro lSOoC.volumcattcopcranscT Y(fo) .0029 A &c powcr disslpatcd by thc zoner win be (0.eciou is csrtuidly r rcdodefu t&i& ttc rc roftrgp inclscs limrty de *arpcralua.65 Solid€tateTemperatureSerpors Many iritcgatod circuit manufrcnucrs now marta solll-statc t€mpccerc sensors for consumcraadin&rsrialapplkationsThcocdct iccs oficrraoltagcs thatvary lincarll.6..19) y(ll") .

?8 mV ouc"att gain rcquircd willbc a00 V/0SlOl8 - at20fC..1ecrcmpcramtorrccrion TtcsmorhastlrrcetcrurnnaksryptyvoltageVs.irh in Figurc 4. rhc acrrs6 rrill tc d{dcany 666cctcd to &c tdc&nc' block o.l59[60Vrc+ %J Stry To scc how wcll this wotks.Thcotnput volage tuics rs 8 mVfC' Solution A t DcJ thcrmffiryle with a0'rC rc&rcncc will onput tO.17 pfovidc T ougtil A tllc t 6€reooo@ b. Ttrercforq tbc t855 corytsadoo.ill n€cd d ilq6ficr ". G&. 150"C.zoo I CHAPTER 4 5l}v FIGURE 4.ri*r.t1 and then the output was amplified to get 2.f thcTC mc aUir *orrta 11pg i d.r6o"r*".rrryfo hs i slopc cf ryemAmacty 50 pVfC ThusJhc kr " *b.ra* iJ(f nvf3y So *r-" (50 petf.c self-hcating crroc ctcaly wc try to opcrarc rhc scsrsofwcat can strow ttrc sclf-hcating is *i"S" G togit* to 2000 1l' 1lo *ript.""ffy p.r= l. . a rcfcrcncs correction was applM from ttt: "b.r"* rcduocdtoabotrt0sqg "r corqrutcrs' ad Thcsc rmors erc caqt lo ialcrface to oolr'ol systc's-r{ "* -bGimthey oficr' An rangc timitcd roccwh* the rithfia *r"n g pupok Ar m"suninoms .16 Sorne solid*tat€ ternperature sensclrs operate like a zefterdiode y.'tcssorsyicrn c.. eain of 1355/160 r of 1855.lo bc $l!d ia e ucslnswn tys&m &at mu3t to providcrcfcruscd *inbc of 2.outputvoltagc.d".r*4.Td otrpug Thc foitowing cxamptc lr.00 at 200"C."**. Thc o4rfi €quadon b gim by : V. if ". (2) the compensation circuit outpllr .aVT Instiltair'thcdissipationorrstantistlpicallyabout5mwfc'sotlrcrecouldbce a l'ow cnr€nt to avoid strch f.t?.o"i*Jo ib. $. Thc fotlowing posc thc actual refcrenoe tcmpcrattrc output volagc if thcrefcrcnce uas 0PC. *e c.ooifr!* apptication.fri rfJt"q. 1".00V stUXFCAsotrd-lUrctsttpcraturc.*".}los€ ttol16ge ttpon temPerature. p-"40" rutomeric rcfcew rcNrpcraturgr:::f::f^T Thfu b p*"1CoA by coancaing thc scrunor to thc rcfcrencz'junctlon rre tro"t of 6iTC rnd eggi1Atg Sdt cmdfroning-so rtnt$c rtfcrcncc mr'rcc{iom typical a illustrates i". md glorurd. wc considec ttrcc cascs: 50f. and 2O0"C (1) e1ryltcd ttrg shows tablc is 20pC. EXAIHPI-E 4.159.n"* r"ry.fenenOs *' lo$ ..d6cqirtdlqr-ty pVfC) =-160 funcs targcr tba 1rnd4'ing 6cIC orptrt by a aei glh of fCOura*n rddiagrherarscrcferwsrcAion Tb makc upftcrcstofthc Fqufu€d shorlr is circuit Tlrc 1.

r(qc) ?irdrc) 50 r00 e58mV S. the output will be cithcr a standard 4 . fctrtfcrcooc of 20qCas dctconfinod by thc cirrarit of Hgurc 4.fi nV 8.l? and tbc preccding cqua- lioo.Itis cxanpb Xluseancs &c Srcat succcss of rsing solid4Ac lcopcrafitte scosss fq rcfcrcooc oqrcction qecn usiag ttcrnoouplcs.ic. urhich con$infics subsystcmq larclvcs carcful ratrti"g of rhc clcocotal charactcristics to de ovcrall jl'stco dcsign rcqtdlq!€c. .9 -{2 -{3 42 crc &q th* tbccorycostedu4utdficre em thcoqrcrpced d&r rcenl r€fc{Es:eby'tccs tran l%.484 Diffcrcne (%) {. . Evca ia fu dccigu of nonitoring ryEtcng whse ao htcgrstioaofmbsystensirreqaito4itisnffirytomatchthctransduccrtothcmeas- urcmcntcnvfuonocnt rnd to thcrcquired ouputrigneL lnkccpiqg with tlrcscconsiderations. .rufi tlu naturc af tlu ncasunnuu This ittcludcs the nominal valuc and rangc of tlrc tcmpcraturc mcasurcmcnt. 2.yt4 v V l.976V 0.Idcntih the tequired oapu signal In most applications.475 V 0.20-mA current or a voltage that is scaled to.17 One poesble solution to Exanpb aJ7.c[cncatcf 6p st'stcm. rod (3) l$c pcrcc difim. thc physical conditions of the cnvimnmcnt where the :ncasurclreut is to be nra. Itr &c dcsrg! of ovcratl ptoccss-cootrrol s]Ftctrrsr spccifrc requiremcnts arc sct up for cace.?8 BV 150 a0 Yrv 1855 yd(2oec) (t479 V 0.You OqC . required spced gf'mcasurcment and any othcr fcaturcs that must bc considcrcd.THERMAL SENSORS | 201 HGURE4.r{80 V rg99v rg95v 1. we ca! tr.00nV lO.Thcdccign of thcalqncoc tncmsetvcs.represent the range of temperature in thc measurement.lJ DESIGN GoNSIDER.cat lemp€rature transduccrfuign prooodwes by thi following stcps: Id. There may be further requirements 1.ATIoNS .

pr*'r'""*. cJ. outPut t cific digital *tpu'q"y ".pom'.inca r. "*h"oq tt . -""q"i....'cmployc4 srgnat draractcdsdcs .ni. .itc'ih.iri'p. -tttptrt t'oniog d€pcods.fl.i#i J"aiii"ine --Uti"g'h signal-conditioning rs 1. bccausc signal conditioning il*'.Ttrc following cx- *...[y.u2smw/l0koltp f: 0..-i.rrrc. d g.'kc ananrar for ahystctcsis Tmpararoq necd to do is dcvelop g€f ahe compararor at i* rfro as discusscd:1g'g* fi-ry' r"ut o ioc..ri""irh$tasdtt"nJinficatod'TtrcFiE doflsc *lotoon ad ti$alcotdidor concco of rhbuuri" r *Jilt"iracfb sfr€G e.*. IJD should bc nlncd o6' 3' what wc to tngtcrnpcranrc o gi"ei.alYarrdnotgcncralmeas.iur"Hi|o't"-J"n:* G-* dificrcm dcsigo* oroblcm' A solution is any arrurgc- t "r. F*."t& Bccaisc trc dsti Jo ro * "*bgS"c' ihe maxideterminc q 11c 6"*-o-i-VfQ '* (4'13): by rbc transduccr from Equation sdfecadng nust bc kc't bdou' 05cq was sipaioo consant for t6'tbcrmiStor mum allowable powct dissipatcd This rcpresens P = PoLT = (5 mfl'C)(0'25"C) P = l-25mW a maxirnumcuncntat l0eCof 7 = lrlRJtn -.. dil't* ffiffiffit rh"'l'tlrySt' *lt Hffi'trf*ffi.ftf**transforrnetions' o" t"q"l*a dgnal tech.6c*ron*t"t* are'infact' so many to 6tltcapplicetion'Tbcrc scis requirc4tcrc i.--. Esolution to . wb€o rtu tccrpcrrc &opi #'ffi thc "'Joff*.q. &c until OJs rtc tysrts* to kave it on .A*ngt".si.er#. ldil. anpaanrc n actranrbcr rcachcs bcrory."scrreraln*dl------------'".tr."a taosducdon niqrrc E€ared r" co"fi[i'. fu "PAnJ lnoocforngarrofrcr'ih€sc!ficpstl€rcquircdofrnytcsPcrafitt€scnsorappti* ry ..rffi..ffi.t d "de.idt inro rhfis sclccrioa.. tioqatrtroueh*"y"*o*oJ5.. wc will sotk sift rhrec :ngnificad --.alcfr'ng rncnt *rat satisfrcs cr f--o'ifitl* a a icsi* th of or*rc.202 I CHAPTER4 factors' In some cases' a spc- imped:frrce' rclat€d to isoladon.l#ddcsignandtypicdsolutions' E)(ANfiPLE at8 Dcvctop e slnncm 6c nrns on an alarn LED to s ojqc. kusceclscintcrcstcdinmlyt*o. * .354 mA . 'Cos.qoit"t"ttt probtem.tcoec. coodisignd typcof rtc ryccirrc convcctcd into &c fffii*d'-** as wcll as on 6c of typc oo ri..s no unipcisgn n* thir*ing from scarctring for p*."il.oftagc that riscs sith ternpcn. Dcsisn rtn tcmPcratuc of i.tlho F soccificd' "*"dd.ihcr'al se iog.

A. Trimmer resistors are used to obtain nonstandard resistance values. wc usc Tbus.Assuming thc thihlgbffic. mA' bc 0. .r : 150 V(R/nr)(53v)': o.18 - l.0Vin founa tom Squarion (3.oev {RlRi = 0ol8 wc will p. Wc now havc the two volages of intcrcst fr'om ttc dividcc Fc l(fG Vo .Wc will convcrt thc rcsistancc variation to voltagc tariaion using adividcr.: (5 - 35)/035 mA : 428.tfev€d by a dvidcr vrith a tinrncr Gistoc As usttal' nsny oecrdcsisns arc pocsibta F t* t &* & [m Ets tu furo'Va FIGURE 4.cocc iolt"gc hrs bcco !.150 V frorSgC'Vo: l/tV Bccrqsc tbc diffcrre is 0. Thc and dcsGn is shown in Figure 4. urc will usc Oc Oc.3Gl V Circuit solut'ron for Example 4. so using this for which V5.4I cttcta V.f& : (035mA)(l0ld!) = 3. snrch as dp onc strown in Figurc 2d and thcn fccd thc dividcr iotugp to r hystc$sts co@parlatoc A oommon supply is +5 V.()l) must bc thc required hystctcs's voltage.. furaio of iaput to foedback rcsistancc can bc V 6is comparatoroutpdiss. dnocitis icommob fixcd-rcsistanccvaluc.18.THERMALSENSORS sill | 203 f- O. Thc Ff.ick Rl * 500 Hl rod thco R = 9 lo.oistor for Rs (so Vo will iocttasc with dccrcasing rcsistancc.35 nr.1<fL Wc will simply usc43 efi. Rr sill bc dctcrmincd by Sin6p ttris is a maximunr.25V Thctcfore.18. R2 = VII . ttrc vriluc of 82 is .35 to thc cuncnt rcquiring iiincrooing tcmpcrtra). tlrc vottagg droppcrd &rosr thc thcrmis*r at l0"C is Vnr .

sfc'andr0fc..be pnnlCcC &o l4fd larcr &ca ro &c dp coc Thfu cl''cflt thouH €a. an RlD.l9 tffduer Vbpor temperaturmntrol process for bcarnple 4.so e mcasuFmcnt must e.range tcmecra$r-€.C oor..19.iir"eut"lc tnmdilry.n-.fi*"d"ny lincar.d . Yrpor ln .3Om$fC Tbcrbrccrsislanccsofimccstercsjfc.rncasurcntcnr are thc specifrcations: Hcre .o "tt*-q wi|I risc nrddcnly to pryo"o-vry A ft t f lii .?'rnA Tcmpcnurfi! FIGURE4. Thc maximuo powcr is found from F4uati'on PotT '* (30 nfleC)(1€) = 3O m'W P * and thcn the marirnumcrre$ftom 7 l: =lPlRltP: [30 rnW/159O]8 13. "*rJl. RID-* $ql + l}. becausc .FromthelirrcarRlDrcl* O* f* *n*"* tEquados (490' $c fird e5)] l4t o At#c. RTD = rsoir + 0-{!04(80 rso[r + 0-004(100 . drc ortput ovcr d|c 30.o u *i"-t O l0ffc oomga8do( oulpt! to o* lrr of a mid.004t50 -:65}J r59 (}At80"C. R$6ffC = l50O cd65FC: O."* .19 ffi iodusfiial uf. "apor nrrt cxoccd + l"C' If i-O fft" "i.65]J 1?l o At f00PC..0O{qC fo .*n* go hi& r" gO. RTD -: : : FdraloCcriuboiariscofsc$&cdrine.wccarrngrfindrlrcma:cimurncurrcnt&roughthc (4'13): RfD.2O4 I CHAPTER 4 E)U\MPLE 4.. d loopc a liqflows through a chamber containing tempera$re'.. ffltil*"** r .

4.THERMAL SENSORS I 2Os FIGURE42O One possble solution for Bcample4. At500c. Alrhog! m op rryodd voftage _ be usd tc us plrc tbc RID in ahidge ceEuit ena tsi oc oesct fc nffiffi.(l3J mA)(ls90l : Ltl v Tbccforq R2 is found ftrom R: - (5 -Ll7rll3J oA - 2065O Lars usc220Ofgrlabanrsc&is is r$8ndad v:trrc aod willcosurethat thc cuncut is lw rnd tlp cuor qdtion b.. Ibc rclagc rcms thc RID rt 8fiC win bc V : IR .Ra of tgurc 2.To null drc hidge .19.Thc ruatl raqge of reisarc nitl not carse any Epredab&c mntin.AyrJ#-5# LV : Q (i.st as designed) AtsooqA' AV: Q. to l4t: ltc hidge is shown in Figuc 420. #-5# 1447 V .satisH. Wc wiii urc tbe RID rs..t 5$q crc. banrsc this wlrr is commoo. ltc raltrc of R2 b da*uinod by tbc roquircnconbaltc qrcat bc bdw l3J nA.will makc Rr = 22D Il rnd usc e trimmcr to sd n. Thcbtidgeof&c volages will bc found ftom Eqnaion (28) forttpcndpoina and at rotrc. crcfioctla{tbchidgccarbenullodus(FC{rhichrillsiql|irytursignalooditiooiag" Tbc bridgA'*il bc Gxcftcd ftoo e 5$'V rouroc.

Thc ffige-*il bccxcitcd &on e SII'Y corucg bccausc &is valrr is common Wc will tsc thc RlD s Xta of Hgua a4. !c us pla rtc KID in ahidge drqdt ane rsi.ay:J#-5# LV . lhc hidgs is shml in Fiesre 4rO. At500c.l&7 V ..Lllrll3.2065O La us rsc 2lXlO fprRl bocarsc this is rstandard t:luc and willcosnlp ttat thc curcnt is los !trd tbc cror condtion is'ertisfiod.ltc V = IR = (13.Thcroltrgs&mcs 6c RID rt 8ffC sill bc Atrhal8b rn op ary codd be nsoA roltrgc fcwm.19. = (5 .0 (iutt as designed) AtsooqAy AV : #-5# Q.7 rnA)(159O) Tbccforc. R2 is fouod : atZ V &om &.THERMAL SENSORS I zOs HGURE42O One poss$le solutirn for F:omple 4. .Thc ttluc of R2 b dctcrnincd by tbc rcqurircocnuhat thc qmcd bc bohry la? nA.cucfioct*rod &c bridgecatbc ordlcd at 5(FQ udfchsill &ryr|iry thc dgt"l mftiooidg. The bttdge ofrsa toltages will bc foand ftrom Eqp*ion O-8) for thc crdpoints and at t00qc.ru oesct rnatl raagp of resisarc rill not carsc any rpprcdabb noolin.? EA .wilt make Rr * 22X) Il rnd usc e timmcr to set Rl to 14l. To null ftc bridSe t SOC urc.

Then the equation beornes Vtoc: 16. Tbc rdcrcnc is assurncd to bc 25= O.90 mV Signd conditioning can be dcvclo'ped by first finding this input Wehavc an cquation for the finat output from Vrrrc: mVE + Uo using the two conditions : nr(0. 5:rn(0.'silem. urc sill w i gpct rhmrlouplc. for r plating qpcretion ngst bo nreas[rcd for ooncol widrin a rangc of 5(X)" to systcsn tlrd. by a correction circuit. Also.2338) = 3J] V. rl6ough a platfuum RrD €{rld rlso * sscd.34(Vt - 1. vrFor315. 60fF. Thir can bc supplicd by a ixnmcrcial refcrencc.t63{ and !/6 -21. Vrs : -12&4 mv 15.01284.206 | CHAPTER 4 At toopc.29) simply a summing amplifier.0uThcrcguircd gain is {2l0.I m to produe an intcrrnediatc volagc. anyway.01590)*Vo O wc find thc value nr .The final circuit is shswn in Figure 4. or by measudng the rcfercncc for input to ttre computcr and softr*rare adju*nrcnt Wi&e25qC'rcfcrcncq ttrc tSpeI tablcs and interpolation canbeused to find the volt- ofthclhcrmocoupleas For26rc.r l"F. Dcvdop Solution . This gain is roo high for a single amplificr. we nccd a diffcrential amplificr on drc frront cnd for tbc thcrmooupla lrt us usc a difrcrcntial amptificr with a gair.34V. bocausc 6G w Eouroc rscd for thc bddgc is grourd-refcrcnco4 rlc must usc e difrcrcntial enrplificr for thc hidgc ofrsa voltagc.?} = t38. V All rrc aocdnotv isanamplifrcrto boogt&e80nCrclagc to2.l44. - 2l or Vtoc: it 16. you can s€e Tit from this example that the reference requirement for thermocouples pio"nt some problems . EXAMPtE Tertpcra&l 42O .S"Cto radsrydrc rcquired measurcment acc{racy. AV : t#- LV :0338 5 rro+H. npasurcmcnt must bc to within .. ThcgitEs tcnpcraauc raagc 6r*-po"ds to 260" to 315. + U.21. oi.20 rhc rcquird amplificr with gain rlrc comparator rcfcrcncc voltagc is :lr"*" Va: BA(0.6"C. scalcs rtis anrpcrature into 0 to 5 V for input to an 8+it ADC and r oomputcr ooatrol 3./'.6"C. Y r * -laaYw. For ftis high a ampcraore. Figure 4.

Ilwln lndicatioo of zeto unis orrcsponds o zcm thcrmal cocrgr."i ty I Korespods fd to 9rl5"Rfirus.Thc RID is 3 scnsor ttrat Ccpcn& on dp inqcasc in mctatlic resistane'with ampcrattlre. [n a similar fashion.') ("F] arld Rankine scalcs are rclatcd by f("F) : f("R) - 459-6 ' (43) 5. ' hsbqpmrvidcdfrtbcsoecasorsscvqatoOiscosas narcbin Uicffyacsc*ea- ^ . SUMMARY I t- L Therest*ttt"qandcootnolof GI- anrpcraturep. *cmocoupta "oa Ia ttis cftaptcq. f("C):f(K)-2''.ergrtsscd in unia of aqgccs of tsnpcruG noguaitsofampcraurc ari inoommon usc.3'15 4. aitrionty in thc urotrm of cncrgr:eg*errtcd by cach unit arnount of cd4E ryrcscn.. bccatrse thcir zcro docs not occur at a zcro of in d€rcc size o ttrc &clvin.Tbc oooaq of tcnpcratdt ls ontaincd in drc repcscnanion -tlrrural 2.fbcdassofscnsqsrtratpcrfomrstrismcasmrcmcntconslssprimadtyof $cc Ofcs -tt) tc rcsistanc*enpcranrre dacctor (RID).mi" R(r): R(rofit + %ArJ (4. c/c c?lr transform t""tp"i"tor"s rlng r(f)'=.r("R) a Thc o6cr two scaks arc c:tltcd nbfuc. & TTGURE 42I One possnse sc{rrtion for Exarnple 42A. cqgt es drc arc{agc dtctln t coergr pcr m6loctrlc. but $Grntl. crtich rrc dcsignarcd by &dvin (n rna degrrcs Ranrinc ("n). and analyticat approximations are uscd to exprcss thc resistancc versus tcmpcratur€ as cither a lincarcquation. (2) drc rhcrmistor.#"'' THERMAL SENSORS | 2O7 e88 *O B D Ir I . Thcsc scdcs.lalaanimportanttot"iodrcproocss- contotfutdustry.lhcbdsc:opcrzling irinciplcs anr agptication infornration (fin" .f. thc Fatrrenheit (4. t.9) . mstr fufocr.This increase is vcry ncarlylinear.ffvo ofOcsc ecalss arccafca absoluebtf.1) so rlnt sr@s ."€SV" Ibc'Cclsius scrtc (qC) has a drift of tbc zcro ffitr * lmfl (4. of a body's cn.

2A8 I CI{APTER 4 or a quadratic rclationship. uffch fta b coolrficd b an &ical signal or is uscd direcrly in pncumatic systcrrri PROBLEMS SarrimLl 4. fr{r} : R(rofl * cr. usually joincd rc a thid'meial r?ircthuih t*o rcfcrre juctiom. Thb$qrichasrhighlynonlincarrcsl*aruvcrsus tcrnpcratutcctrc and is not t1p titty usce with any analytical rypreximaCons" Strch transduoers ca.0 Y catculate the vottage th: derector nrusr be able to rcsolve in order to resolve a l.Eture of 500pC Calculaa thc averagc lcoltarspcod in mA.12) 6. ( Convcrt-222"Fino oc-oR. Abimctal stip ooavcra ffitpcfaitre into a physical motion of metal elcments.lr + cr(ar}tJ (4.4 {5 4.If R : 106 O at 20"C.QM/"C. Athctmooqb b rjunaior of disimfilar mctal wircs. 8.idt I high-gain null detcctor. tensos coRvcrt tcqrcraturc inro gas pr€ssurc.AvolEgc is dcvetopcd acroes trc common maal vires th* b pmponimal rlm linglla to dtc difrcrcoe h tcapcranrc betrnrccn 0rc Fffilffitaadrcfcrcoeju&.tablcsorgrrphsofrcsistan-'cve6ustempcmarc erc rrscd. This ftexing can bc uscd to elose sritche. 7. find rh: resis6nce r 25"c.OoC change in temperature. Bsusc of thc sult fr{ctiooal drsng€ in rcsisancc rtith tcrnpcnur$q drc RID b u$dly trscd in e bidgc cinft r.s or causc dial indications.r exhibit a "ety tsnpcranrq and hcncc vcryscnsidre makc tcmpera$relsggdrangcinrcsistanocwith changcdctoaors Many circuitoonfiguraions arc usc4 including brid-scs and opera- . Tlrcthcrmiocbbesodonthcdccscascof scrnicondtrcnocresistancc *::h tcmpcrature.Extmivc tablcs of tcmp€ra$rc r'ersus-voltage recroostypioftB rdry *andadnctals ad fa dkDFallorrranaccrrarc dctcrminarioo of gcqcratoc d tbc r&caoclutctioos. Tbc voltagc nust bc ncasurcd at hiih impc+ anccto eroid lefing cfiocts oa dp reurcd rrolaga Thu* potcntionrcuic operatioffil amplificrs.and lC Convcrt A l5fCintoKand"F- proe tcrnpcrailr€ is found to drangc by 333"F.olled in thc rangc 35Oo to 550oC What is ihis cxpresscd n* x lft itr"F! Section42 An Rf. 4.D has c(20"C) = O. lf Rr = R: = Rr = 100 O and the supply voltage is 10. 4:l . A sasplc of hydmg€o gs has r iempcf. Calculare rh: changc in "C lJirnr:Acfirangc in temlrcraturc docs not invoh. Tbmpcraturc is to be oontr. ltJhcagEaficrdcirccofamtracybdcsircd.8 ThcRTDofPrroblcm4.Tisus€dinthebridgccircuitof Figurc4-4. JVota: Gascous hydrogen cxists as thc motcorb tI2 wi$ a mass of33 kg. 9.l?R into K oR and qC.6 Convcrt453. timalamflitus. l{L & and vqtor*rrssnrc tcrnpcrattrl.e a scale shift.1 42 43 4. Exprcss thisdso in ftA. oro&crhighimpcdanoc tcduriqucs arc cmplo5red in signal conditioning.

03 s73.13.l1 1. mV si&efCrcfcrcao.49 120l} 5%.15 lfr tpc I thcmoorplc ffi witl bc irroduocd? is to mcasrrre 500sC with a -lfC rcfcrencc.13 589.S .N 100.4 {.lct !.0 {.What k ttcjuncrion tanpcraorc? 4-15 At.0 95.?c S lhctrnoaouptc with a2lqC rcfqencc ncasurcs 12120 mV.0 584.18 130.U t25l) 600. whar volagc d: HGURE422 3rn Grcuit for Problem 4.10 lo5. the KID is rcptaccd by a thcrnistorwith R(20pC) 100 O and an R vctsls fof -l@o/qC ncar2fC Calcglatc ttc voltagc rcsolution of thc dctccror ncdcd to rcsoltc a UFC cfiangc in tcopcranna Modfy 6c dividcrof Exanrplca8 so tr'at sclf*caring is rcduood to g..om (l" to 80qC.0 srSn 110.ut | 2Os : In Probltnd8. K flN. Is thc tesult lincar? What is ttc maxinum cclf.0 60552 stryposc 6c grD of Psoblcm 4J hss e dissiparioosostaotof 25 mV"c sd is uocd in e c&cuir tnr Ptrs 8 nA ercugh &c rcnsoc If tbc RrD is placcd ir e bas at rcOqq wbatrcsigne wiu rbc KID havc? what6€s is 6c fudicatcd tcmpcsaturc? Seaiod4. thc divifer vottagc for 2oqcll lltbat is ttc dividcr rolugc foc snd 2l qc? l9t rhc thctmisor of Figrrc 45 is usod rs shovn in ngurg 4J2 to conveft tempera$rc imorcltrgc.log What is. P.n 4.c epproxirmtlons of rcsistancc betn ccn f O(FC end t30pc Assunrc To = t t5qC* what is src cnq in pcrent bcnrccn tabk rcsistancc values end ttpec dctcrmincd ftorn drc tuo eppmximations? r(qc) R(o) 90.11 Atpclthcnrrccouplereures22.0 115.9 Usc thc talucs cf RID rcsistane rrcnils tcmpcraU[c drown in 6c Ablc to find the cquatbns for ttrc lincar and quadrai. What is thcjunc- tion timpcranue? :NF 4. F .ffii$i -lv .0 56A66 568.tcrsus tcmpcrauc &.*cating fr Pe = 5 mWfC? Seqioa4S 1.THERMALSENSORS 4.

Po = S mWfC. 42.00 kO at 90"F. Thc ADC has a S. dcsign a op amp riEtcm to Provi& I O$.om 00H ro OlH at 200pC anA rhc c from FEII to FFH occuning at 3S0.GV output for a 20" ro l00oc variation.22 Eird r linctr sfpmximation of ncthyl ctrl. n" spccifications are R : 5.-r 100 O st 20"C.17 A qrpc K @ with a O"C refcrcnoc about 3tn"C. wtrat asancc slrould ttlercb trccn ttc rcd cnd md &c conw d AnqCll 4. &. .8 $olvc Exarnple 4. Slhat voltagc would bc cxpcctcd? will rrcnitor an oven b' Eximsiori wirrs of 1000-'ft lfi€th &d SJII f!/ft will bc uscd to connecr b ffit dta Dct*nnirc tk mirtim$m voltagc mcasurcnrcnt input 4-18 inpcdane if the crror is to bc witlfn 03%.oridc ?re$surs vcr$$ {cmpecahee 70" tc 90oC.fi)-v refcrencc and is g uia.17 using thc RTD as thc fccdback elemcnr of an invcrring ficr instead of using a bridge circuit.fr A gns ttcrarmcrcrbs l prcesoc of l2s lrfr er {K end 215 toa ar somc tcmpcreu!.'ncnt rystcm. {Jl A nce$ chloddc W srill bc usd bctwecn ruF M ?00qF.21O I CHAPTER 4 4.19 46 a oqrycr rod l0 cm long at 20ec is o r anilocticat oontactata&qraatrcor roc. 42:l Solvc Exanplc 418 using an RID wi& Thc dissipation constant is 25 mW/t & = j00 O ard c = corn O. and a slope g0Tand l l0Tof-8 O/"C.11 using a tl?c K tlrcrrnocnrplc wirh a rcfercncc 0"c. lJ v frorn *candbflarrc anabout ?00Pc How nrany typc K mocttrplcs will bc rquircd in scrics.to l0. Dctcrnfup thc tcrnpctzCIrc in !C.if dtc refercnce is assumed to be nomind T/c nccd to gpt temperatrrre.f.50&V i @'win refercnca 425 Solvc Exampte 4.CAn'ADC is availablc with a 2. 4J. Thc dcsign should be rnadeso that gg"Fgivcs output of sAH {90. Develop the You hevc bcc* circuit. ?0"F? Section {. fora tcmperaturc variation of 500" to?00"C. nnd thc maximum cr:Klr bctu*een dre approximation acnrefl A thcrmoclcctic switch courposod of "nO surc in this range Section 4.7 4-X3 Usirlg 42A an ffiD wi& c =s O 003#"C-arid ff .Thc KrD dissipation constanr i$as mW/99. Aqrpe K a OqC Gferc$G will bc uscd to nreasure btwecn 200"C and 350pC Dcvisc a system *rat will convert this tcmpcrarurc into an &bit digitat wotd with convcrsion fr. A three-terminat solid-state scns! 12 mV /"C will be used to Provide reference compensation. qftaiprcssut? rangs @ ts f*s t€rrpffinrrc rangc? 4.0} and I t0pF giras 6EH{l l$$}. 429 AtJpe K tlrcrmocouple nrcasurcment system must providc an output of 0 o .003/"C at osrnissiod io dc6kn e rhcrnristor&scd digiral tr rrcrcu.

l - rdhnffi 4gl dtows E sysilcm &at is- of a esTtGcd 1e no1vs a rrdio.1s. .t s r m'biogoof 6"bt (1) Each ttcrmoouplc srgmcnt ha< a cratc. r.0041/qC n . . sr snrl 10rc didtat oup$ to t@flt' appropriarc an J.*fC uitl bc usod to mcassc e critical rcsotrnioo of olqc Dcvisc e sQr {fth mBEr bc ffiupd t n*t. See Problem S4'1' Electrical power from a lantern flame using thermocouples. Ostcf TC |ntctonc npffi hmffi' ehrrol ul-tffil ."*tpto arc rcquired and t"I fuy arc distributcd t}crnocoupta' oo &c vingp..5{ilic thcrado? EFcmm HICmlF hffiF vhdll edn' rffi@lE.ti.130 A cdibn&d RID with c = 0.ft'om thc hcat f""rcr""ft"r. tmpcraruc b . on I d xidct dibt rfrc ambicot rcopcranne cu drop 9 voltagc applid to rhc on this havc aocs crcct uaat juoaioas :rc rdtr. Tbc fcrlhnring assumEios arc madc el tbfi'ochcatat tho dtcmoaoupliejuaion is atlcast nx*sraneofAO ti' ilrF d flg Figtttc &nn.-rt"qghl'tfnqoonashicldarqrnd6clantcrnflama Eadt oucr slng. gc .o. Dcrcrsine no* *ty O.po*o that en at4t!09C'il lo"c If tbc lrot c.6*cm fiat witl prcvidc anatog signal appropiate and ADC fu potr" spoiry-trc reqoir€mcna-m ru'Ca rbfu ionAiCooing to intcr&F to Yor ADC' c K ilpqr- ndrw SU PPLEMENTARY PRO BLEMS rSbEh rcbch* S4.3O65(} at 2ffC' and Pe= rcactioo tcnpcfat'r€.t.r b tbc r"tiro. lillp d rpcffi ""4 tcrycratuc b 25qq 30ffi rnd nooioal rmm r.THERMALSENSORS I 211 .0 .*nam"itg s. Cutaway vicw qlile" Orc Ii'w' 423 FIGURE .trs tvpel tanooouptq frdng ec fhnc' si&lhccddjunaiou on thc opnAto Y x50 5.'*Ugr.. MF'. 1o *tidcr1bcilt€g{ r"si*roc 4tle st 30gog and had intq &livscd bc eny fr Wh."ra" i" *c tuec requ.

0 actual l spccd and tlrcclassof rc665 uscd forthcmcasurwrtof mcctranicalphcnomcnais of spccial signifrcrncc bsrce of thc cmruirc rrsc of tbesc dcviccs lhrougbout Ctc proccss-control industry.If O r dqdaoemcnt m€assrcmcnt ptg. - position r Dcfinc thc cfireclcrisdcs of tibraioo ud tbods r Draw and labpl a tSrpical $rcss.o 6. and appropriatc applicatibn notes.ilEslrc'&p iwfqand frcff.ow ncasrrcEgr[ usiog fficrcotial p*ft* InpasurcmenL INTRODUCNON ] - o. I Dcssfre &6 typcs o{t3oodctffii ud fu ctaractcrislics of csctL r Dccign r slrstcn drtrah urcasrcocot using ncal foil strain gangcs" . an cxpcrt undcrstandlng of a phcnomenon is not required to effectively employ sensors for its measurcrncnL 213 ./ r Dcfirc t*o tfpcs of prcssure msrmt si& clcctical signal oupuc r Diagram e syslcm of f. In many instano€s. r Dcsigp Orc 4Pticalioo of u Lllf. As iqr previous chapters.dtrsin qrn€. tcqyouslrotrldbcablcto . itis imporontio undcnturd Ocmccnai. Ourpurposcs hcrc are to girre an overvicw of thc csscntial fcstutts associatcd wittt cach variabtc and to make tlrc rcaderconversant with thc principal rcnsors used to measure mcchanical variablcq thc ctraractqisrics of caclr.ssoris shown r""d at a$ ele- exlblo*rs.ic"t phcnomenathcrnsclvcs and thcopcrating prrciplee urd rppliadon dcuits of thc !eo34.(l)Thcthcrwithin iln/"c voltage rf orpPlY .blcm.f' p r $oltagc carsing a rg alsrrn UCTIONAL OBJECn\/ES Slctdcd tll€r- Thbdragdcscribcs uarious tlpcs of nocfranical scnsors-Afteryouhavc rcad this chap- .. rn imcrrclatigo cxists by which a scnsordcsigpcd to mcailre *rnrc nrcUranlcat vuiablc b sscdtomcasurc'ano&crtedablaTo leafn to usc nrcctranical scnsq15.*d6'OVwhcn . the ' r Dcfincttcrdniodtiprnrmstml€r{ioo' vctocity''ud frfccn thc thefOoigP abridge .

dr potcirriomctfu scosor is simpty a thrcc+crmind variable bctwecn individual turns of Ttrc resolutioei of ttris scnsor is limitcd to drc distana. You wilt sci ttat drcrc is a wirc wound around a form. auomaric milling opcrarioos. *rc" Urcic pio"ipf"s of scvcrat oommort tlfcs of disptaccmcng positiorL and locatic * sors are givcn 521 PotentiometricSensorc TI1g sisplcst tpc of displamcnt ccnsc invols thc aaion of disptaemcnt in mori of jioaaAornacc. Sc tlsistarcc bctrrccn &e wipa c@F tion.2 5 DISPLACEMENrL LOCANON' OR POS]TION SENSORS poc rd *]1Fb qi' lcvcl rncasernents' (4) lxfr in thc ff1g srcasurqrrcot ofdisplamncnt. cntrrion of rtocl plarcs in r nilting srill €) tiquid/solid pnoo" ir. as ibc arm rnovcs bar* aod fofih.1 Potentiometric displacement sensor- fu . snd high clcctn-. limitcd resoluti. AR singlc turq with tlc resulting rcsistanoc ctrangc of thc In a Al trYrpcr coflrccilion FIGURE 5. pociti<rn. gc.inA$dcc Examplcs ofitdusfiial yaftd giw fcw a To dcsiStls. Ttis dcrfrce thcn convcrts lincar c angular motion im I changfu rcsisirncc &at rnay bc oonvcrtcd dirocdy to voltagc and/or currcnt d8l*" Su*-poa*omuic dcviocs oftca suficr ft.tly of arc also vedc4 ed dtc Gqui6d rcrscs (2) of rncinrcnrcr* rrtrd$ (l) locadm erd pcitior of objccs on r convcyor s]'stsn' . no'rsa ( Figure 5.3.1 shows a simple meclfanical picnrc of 6c poantionrctic displacca scnsor. making a wire-wound sistc wi& fixd rcsictana" & bct'ncco its cndpoints.n bund units. f and ?-'A wiper asscmbly is cc- n' wry tS* uo6on of ea lrm ctulrcs thc ryipcr to slidc acew-tb wirre-vound turm of itrc fixed rcsistoa An ctcddcat connccrion is made to dris rbtc Thcreforc.274 I CHAPTER 5. d1g wip..oa in witc. and (5) corwersion of prcrsrnd pocitioa of "*t to pfry5i63f Oirpfroro*t drat is nrcasurcd to irdicale pressurc' In thc follovring sccrif. or tocatioo ie ur important Oph m mecy llrriab!:s drcs: to tmlsute rcquircmanb .TE ndrld in ruch I figure'is highly pictoriaL tn actual scssorsr thc coil is vcry tightly wound of vcry wira - ren*' rb' sc$cmatic. and ciths fixcd rcsistor connection wilt ctrangc in proportion to thc motion.om trc obviar problcuts of rechanicel *fticdon in ihc wipcr acrion.

bour€r.2 -15 V Grcuit for Exarrrple 5.4*p rrcdd valtsge.plate separation qr (5. If rhc -t5 Vto prwidc tlcocrrcgo!*trto gltlhc.2 TiU sads& efu pr$cm.MECflANTCAL SENSORS I 21s A potcntiomeUic drylrormt scnsd is to bc uscd o nrqrsurc work-picoc modon ftom O ro l0 crn Thc rcsimc dnnges lincarly ovcr &is rangc ftom 0 to lk(L Devclop signal conditioring to prcvi& a lincaq O.J Capacitive and lndustive Sensors Asccdd class of sasors Itart fordsplacmcnt reasurcrrcnt involvcs ctrangcs in capacity or induaanca haclthrG thcbasfrcopcratiooofacapacidvcscnsorpanbcsccn &om thc famil- iarcquation for a parallcl-platc capacitor :::4where l{ = the dielectric colrtant : permittivity : 8.85 pF/m A : platc common area d : .1) .Thercfo. As Ro vrdcs ftom O b t td[ drc ouqc rdn Arinec Emdy &iqn O to lO V.frcrt ltr' $ppty b !a ficfl regcld.% bc@scec ?tfo rnd thgeforc dre output volsgc b linearlydcpcndcnton thc focdbackresisor. Thc otrg[ wltagp is Ud = -(RollkOX-IOV) V*': O0IRD r.1- Rp ts 3 52.to l&V arptn fulution Thckcythiqb€cbrpttoloccthclincarityofthcrqfstarewrusdisplarenLlflecanncuscerotagcfiridcrbccauscthcvoltagcvcrsscsisanocvuiationisaorlinearf6rtiat circuit Wccrn sec an op rnpdrtdt. lxrt d ffirnrs.rg &c circuit in Figure 5.

paratcd by a plastic sheatlr/bcaring range of capacity if ft varics ftom 1.2 ttr" L d *riclcrrcss I mmanddictccticconstantatI lcllzof2S. a Tbcrc arc 6rcc wayls to clrangc rtrc capacitp variation of thc diSancc barrccn thc phrc (d).f Oi chsad arca of rhc $*s (lt). Eoth efiects are rsed'm sensoftt.4 htcr in &is chaptec An ac txidge circuit or odrer activc clectronic circuit b cmploycd to convcrtthe capity change to acurrcnt orvoltagc signal..1).2.4 $o$rs aqocidv+insdacemsrt sclrtr dcsig. mUVanadm of ttrc diclcctric * former two mcthods arc stron*'n in Figurc 53. ft. What is fu E8rrrc 5.4 Capacitivedisplacement sensor for Example 5.Inc rc mc&od is iltustratcd "t"nt in Examplc 5.ocd to monittr smalt clranges *i*-pn"o" positionTbc two metal cylindcrs are sc. r and trcight. A - Q FIGURE 5. . Thus. tfC.lftlrcrdiusis25cnf findthc* sitivity in pF/m as thc uppcr cylinder slidcs in and otrt of thc lowcr cylindcr.1't6 I CHAPTER 5 Oercttf FIGURE5s C"p"dty*ri"" C with $e dstance betweeo the plates and the connnon afea. I I - qrh 2rrKe Dlepltccnent . $!(AMPIE 5.Thenctarcaisthearcaofttrestraredcllindricalan+ 2trr/l.0 to aO cm? Solution Ttrcapacity isgivenby Equation(5. vrriarion o. -.sprhccapity can bc cxpesscd rs *'trhh tras a radus.

LIrDT ltcl-vDrb en inpfitlltrnd comnoo rcaiufcdisplacocat mc&strcmcat ln drc. s . is givcn by tlrc dcrivaivc it #-z.2. focneso4 f'rcry pcpoeffimof thcooc porlue aaifcreat inauctanae" Inthis fashion.&ldoc cdrt bs 6c most oomdr trd cxlcoifudy uscd b callcd a.34i5 pFtoc-.69.5O pF.industial cn$ronncor Fgprc 5.6 shoffi rhrt rn LVDI oosists of rtuee ooils of nirc rruod oa r tdlow f. raecr tUnfugiqgu lndir&nl inducam. Aore dpamcable nretcrirt slidc ftcely tluwgh &e tha.4 A is dcfincd by how cchangcs with fu rhat is.*im -I{lJpF/m -dh _. thc induaorudrnordtccorcasscobly anybc uscd as adisplaccment tcnlor. Since hercffue If a pcnncabb sc is inecrlcd imo an in&rcta as shown in Figure 55.h./ .(34?5 pF/m)(2 x tfln) .: (3/.3' Variable-ReludtanceSensors Thc c!"ss of vuiablc-rchiaancc displa€mcot Ecnsoes differs fton $rc inductivc in that a b uced o ruy 6c'qt'rec &n cor$iag bctc.x lo-tn 85pF/m)= l(.rK$. . .zspF/m)(Itrtn) .lfuuar uoviry ut varlaWed$etealfuItransfonlr. Subctituting f6drc grvcn valueg qfie gct 'I dc :2n(2*sxs.oro. S$h dcvic Aoe ippticarion in nany&cumseccs fcthc ncasrIrcof bo& rangaeooal rnd rngdarai$aeocors lvtany configurafu of @.r(LYDT).s5pF/m) es...MEC+|AN|CAL SENSORS | 217 The scnsitivity wi& rcspea to tt c t rdgl.r'&ie is cxcibd by somc ec srurcc as ffiof FIGUREss This va riaHe*eluctarrce displacernent sensor cfiarues $e i.! ec function is lincar wie rcspcct to A wc find tbc capacity range as C. An * bidgc orottg *riw eonic cforcuit smitivc to inductancc thcn may be caplqr€d for sigBalsrditionirE:. .nCrrtanoe in a coil ln respotlso to core fnotion. thc g h&ma fo 5.fcn lbc funcrcdl b rtc prinrry.€ca ttvo or rac coils.

218

I CHAPTER

5

rc

Sourcc

reusE5.6

ra as
aa shown
cln*r^
Ttl6il;arnoraHE oore wittr fi€ drree coils

/

srrowg.FluxforrncdbythcprirnaryisEnlccdto&ctwosccondarycoils,inducinganacv*
induced in cacb pi
*"
thc issernbln.,o"
":1T:
"#[LT:'corc is oentrally locatcd in srtc
indrd
oocq'i larg3r ac voltagc will bc
oc ridc
*
linkagc
n,*,y b cgrallf e, ;;;o
flux
tbc
il O" oeto t o,to of 6angcs in
in qrc ooil ane e smanJ ;;"gt

*Y#ffi*

rhctwo voltagcswiu
ccntrally locatc4

b
v*

shown in Figure 5'6'
co*s are wircd in saics opposirion" p
is formcd' when thc cqcir
is iovcd to onc side' thc n€t

ff#"fi;,;;'#ffi;i;rs.

t r"tr. wt"io" ""* in pfrasc witl respect to thc sdrrc
t*
"iJ,;g.
fn-"aaim*af,"."-1, a cnangc
agc amptinrdc will in;;
** is movcd to onc sidc or 6c odrcc
is fod
#. i, that tbc difrcreotial amplitudc
.*1* do
Aresrarlcablc rcsilt, dlown in FiguG
$c
notc4
as
addi6on"
o oo"lia. - .p on"t' In
to increasc lincarty as drc corc is ,,'*"a
by mcasurerncrd
Thus'
*ri &rough;'cctfiiocation.
cc
is a phaso clratge * *i'il
thc dircction and cxtent of tbc
can d;;il
one
ptasc,
and
amptitudi
volegc
thc
motiori-rtrat is' thc displaccment'
FIGURE

5J

The tl/DT secondary voltage amplitude
for a sedes€pposition €nnection varies
linearly with disPlacernent-

VoltryG

MECHANICAL SENSORS

| 21e

RGUNESA

ft*

gtnple circ[ftpfdroes a Hpolrdcrott8ge thstvad€s with core displaement

Bipolrr dc
adput

HGUREss
LVDT signal-condtioning durit nses phase'serx;itiw deteclbo to
e rnon-soirt
"tcat"O
prcdue a Upolar dc loftag€ oltFuL

uantracurc! IJ/Df can providc an otrput lincar widrin
finc rcsolution' limitd primadly by
of,orc oiodoo aad wirn r
t0i5% rc I
""ry
'ngc
drc.dftity to mcasurc rcltagc changcsTh; dgnt condidooilg for-LYDfs €oosists pdoaiily of circuis that pcrform a
It unns qn &at

a carcfrrlly

voltpnasc.sarsiCir daoaloo of 6[ ditrcrential eccondary voltaga Thc output is thus a dc
6c
poluity
indicatcs
thc
and
C{ry1nqC
ttt pnnte" Gbt s the cmt e ru
lg"
an
outproviding
such
fc
circuit
a
simplc
AitccAon of Ol drsptaccfitc.t' Figiu* 5.8 sho*rs
* kniarioo of aig.rurn ir itr* rhc diffccntiat scconrlary voltagc must bc
*a r"

",re

i*t

theforunrdtolugcdmpof.ihcdodc$llrcuscof op tmpdcscto$can
allcviatcthis pobli:m.
proriAca as a-sinFigurc 59 slrorvs a inoFe praaicat dctcctionschcmq typically
system contains a
L\lDIb"Ihc
for
spccifieatly
gfc intciatcd circuit (IC) marufacturcd
'iignat
amplificr/filter
(PSD)'
and
dctcctor
phasc-scnsitivc
fencrator for ttrc prirrry, a

lif"tt;.ir,tg.rs

circuitry.

?20 | CHAPTER 5

,,,*

rangcs at !a1 [rcm J25 cm down to = I
A va,ir*y of LVDTs arc availablc with lincar
whic-|r ttre cgre is @nn€cted. Tbc
rt,o.io*resporm is acpcnacrrton orccquipmcnt to
for a girrca
perrnillln-cter(mVlmm)
miniots
givcn ln

;;";;;nrritiono.],r;dy i"
a, Abo oi;f,oi
f,,1,orry
"rpn

G}(A[VIFLE

53

c*

*,g.

Ttt

gl5

th

crn wirh a linearity of 3o3% over
from - I 2
b b.8 mVlnm. 11 uscd to tnack workaiooc motion
Cetcrposition
in
ortput rcltagc? Wbat is thc unccrtainty

An L\IDT bas a maximum &(c motioo of

;;-

of liacarity and rhc cxtcnt of lincaritv.

**f* frrtJ;
Gx;;;

to +1.4 clr|' what is ille
minaion dne to noolincaritY?

Solutian
can casily bc foun{
US"g t.t"".* transfcrfiurcrion' ltc oupu'tvolages
V(-lzan) = (231'8 mV/mm)(-I2 mm) - -2856mV
and

f(Lacnr) - (23'8mV/mm)(l+mm) = 333mV

/'

of thc transfcr funaion' Thus' the transf,cr
Ttrc tircarity dcviarion shows up in dcviations
function has an uircertaintY

of

(30'003x23'8mV/mm) : 30'o?l4 nrV/mm
intcrpretcd as a displaccmcr
This means that a rrcasurcd voltage, V- Sn mV), could bc
303%' as cxpcocd'
approxirnatcly
ls
l-iqrttrt*
ttr* rargcs Arun V;n ii 6ti;ffrJf.
eore positia
thcactual
l.4cm'
nosninaliy
is
Thus, if thc seffiq.*,p",-r"t Sj mVrrhidr
could rangc fr,onr 1.40329 to 1.39506 cstu

5.2.4 Level Sensors
of displaemcnt sensaa
The mcasgremcnt of solid orliqrrid tcvcl calls fora spccial class
in a Ankor hopperA grcr
Thc levcl rncangcd is moetwrmorly sociated wi1[ marcrial
as tlrc follorging represcntative cxamples show'
variety of measgcmenfiJniqrta

"xitt,

Par&Mecfianical Onc of thc moet common tcctrniqucs fc tcvet -mcasurement'
Thb
changes'
widr
lcvcl
down
ana
ulady for tiquid* b e float &at b ailoq,ad to ridc up
displacement mcrsP
in FigUG 5.10a' is conncctcd by linkagcs to a sccondary
uring qntcnr srrch rs apotcmiomctic &vi'oc or an LVDTcorc'

floai

as strocm

For aTtrcrc sc scrleral prcly clcctrical mettrods of measuring level'
or solid to varl tlrc tesistancc sccr
an ptc, orc m"y usc thc inhaGnt conatUi*ty of a liquid

SeCtriCal

is illustrated in Figw
t'-piiG f.rir"a ino thc matcrial Anodrcr common tchnique
a liquid tank The level of fu
5.f0b. In this casi, twoconccntric cylindcrs arc contained in
the cylinders' with ail in the remaining pn
iiE U pJ"Uy occupics thc spacc
This devicc acts likc

t*o

""joitoo

in parallel, one rvith thc dielcctric constant of ab

MECHANTCALSENSORS

I ul

--------F€
-- ----.-------irg
31.31 E*=
t---------------a

--

----r--l-----3t-----.
- ---r--r----------o!---a
.--t-!--Qt
r--!-----

r-

--

---- - ----l-=I
--------rrer
--

--t

r--------i

r

thrtrrdf*.Ic

l-:r-i-.

a--,8-ria-.---

--------iFI
Ft:-j
-------IrI-=-- --- --- --tr,l
---------*---- -- -----

a-Q+-----,

d trrdawm.tuttbf

-a --4

bt

--

L-_-I_I-_-_-.?
tj?,*.--t?'firt--#:r
D€-----t-

tldrrnrrrrrr.fitbrf rffitlccvlin*icd

crF.dbr

.

FIGUBE AIO
There sre rnarry leveltneasurement technirges.

t
1
t
t
{rG.:5Lr'rffi-F
D--------------F.---.--------*e------.*--- -t--:---f------.Gf,------t---a
-]------o-----o-;---------a
------

t
I
,

/,
--

---

--------a
---r-------t--

rta

------------------------------------- ---- -------- - -- --- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------:------- -----------------a
-

!-.

D-------------

a

--

-----------+*ta>----*-------a
;-;:
D----------------a

--

r

t-l

-

a-----it*----;

----

-------

---

tt--r--------

---a

ao---t------a

-:-----

----l-

rl9olldor0qrd4*o[r{.bo. {uquUnrrrlrt*t hrrrfro.'

nrgtttrtlta

antrld

FIGURE 5.I1

Uttnsonic level measurernent needs no phFhal ontact with the mate{ial, iust a
transmitter,

f

and receivec 8.

( = l)ardttcolftcrwirhthatoftlrctiquid.Thurvariationofliquidlevclcauscsvariation

of thc clcctical capacity npasurcd bctrrcen ttrc cytindcrs"

Ultrasrinh- Xhc usc of ultrasonic reflcction to mcrsurc lcvcl is favorcd bccausc it
is a'honinvasivc- tcchniquci dlat is, itdocs not involve placing anything in thc material.
Figutc 5.ll strows thc cxtcrnal and intcrnal tcchniqucs. Obviously, thc extcrnal technique
k beacr suitcd to solid-matcdal lcvel measurement In both cascs, thc measurement depcnds on thc lcngth of timc takcn forreflcc'tions of an ultrasonic pulsc ftom the surface of

3 srRArN sENsoRs is common ir Atdrough not obvious at firsL thc measurement of strain in solid objects prg€rs contmt."22 I CHAPTER 5 tinre also'have becorne popular for thc matcrial Ultrasonic techniques basei on reflcction ranging mcasur€mcnts toncontact measFo. r measur€ to used havc becn Pressures from ovcr and accclcration'.m*rorr.p uscd to measure strain' cuss the sensors .thc ctryl alcotrol th€ capacity ' C = 26(0. liquid mcrsurcnrcnt. it is also poesibtc to rnakc a on the u'cllbasod is qrllncsof lcvd if tfrc &Jty of thc liquid k too$tLThis mdEd dcnsity of and hcight thc lwrn retaiorsfrip b.8oo m2lo.i.0832pF The mngc is 0.A pcr rquarc inch to thosc within living biological systems.4 *jlg"Tpt"ttivc system suclt Thclcvctof ctttytrtootrolis tobcrncaggcd ftom0 to I I o ttrt . g = (tx8.l0b."i*n"needtodo sw carlier Brat thc capacity is given by C: = Keo(r{/d)' naalcotrolandthcnmultiplythatby26' isfind&ccapacityf**.Ihc follo*ing spccifications'dcfinc tfic system: for csryl alcotroL !( : 26(for air. wcigil' stcp in scnso6 to mca$rc many otlrcr proccT variablcs. K' .0.* tf1g "*".0032 PF With.l) cylinderseParation: / :' 05crn platcar€a: A.rrF) C .ttlltccn. Wc Thus.thc rcason it is not obvious is rhat strain ccnsors are used as a sccondry pressurc.2*RL= 2c(O'O5?5mXSn) = t'S06rf.0032.solution Thcrefo K*(Ardt. Strain mcasurcments re will first million p".. forair.ss C - 3l96PF pF/M)(r.€ftL whcrs : avcrage radius' :' along cYlindcr axis distance | R .3*** iL tottot of a ank and kssure "t trc tiqui4This is aaaressce furttrcr in Secdon 55'l' EXAMPlE 5.J*Cfu"yfitOoitt A .5J5cm 0 to 5 m' Find:tlrc rangc of capacity variation as thc alcohol level varics from .0832 FF- 5.0032to0. We qnd then db i( produce that forces the to it is related how and of strain .Oos m) ac O.t o*o inFigUrc 5.lncluding flow.

For ftosc rcadqs nccding a rcvicw of forcc principle. stlcss and strain arc carcfully defid tc cmphasiae rhc plrysical propcrticc of thc natcrial t*ing srrcssed and thc spccific tJ?c of s€ss rplicd.1 l r23 Strain and Stress Strcin is drc rcsult of thc application of fmcs to solid ob.lecrs. Ibc sludyof'tlti: phcnomcnon bas cvolncd intorncract rdurology.strcrs. and thcy arc likc epr€ssutc. Tlrc forpcs arc dcfincd in a sPcdd way dcccribcd by thc gcncral tenn .on of dnt objere Solids arc asscmblagcs of atoms in wbich trc aomic spacing has bcco adjustcd ro rendcr frc sotid in quitibrium wirh all cxtetml forocs acing oo ltrc objoct This ipodng dctcrsrftrcs rlc physicel dirncnsions of rhc soli'4If drc applicd fotccs arc changc4 drc objcc atoms rcarr&€e thgnsclvcs again to moiuooguilibriumwith 6c ncw scrof forocs"Tbisreanatgpogrtrcetlts inac*rangc in physic8l dim€osioos that is r€f6€d w s adefonuttonof thc-solid.12e 6c naturc of a tcnsile forcc is strown as a forcc 4p666 !o r $amplcof matceial so as toclongarc orpult apart trc sampla In this casq thcsucse is&fucdas tensilc saess c&c.Thccfrcct of rpplicd forcc ig rcfcrrcd to rf l ltrrrr.MECHANICALSENSORS 53.compressional stress can be defined in terms of forces applied to a uniform rod. . rd sc rccuttingdcfcmaion rs a *ra&r To fecilitac I propcr anatyticd &csuncnt of tlrc subjcct.lllcddincrrc ttcrt tbc three rnostconrmon gpcs of strcss-strain rclationships Tensile Stress€train In Egrrc 5.12 Tensile and. Appendix 4 discusscs clcrncntary mcdranical pnrrciplcs.A : $- F A (sr) appliodforehN cioss+ccrional arcaof tbc sanrplc ia m2 wc scc 6d rtc units of stess arc N/rtr in sI uoie (or lb/iu2 in Englbh units). r| Trnsllo ttrcs rppfid to I rod bl Comprceslonal rtrcss rgplicd fod to I FIGURE 5. including forca In drio soctioq wc will dcfinc etcss and &c Gsulting srafuu Oefinition A spociat case cxists fos thc rcluion bctwccn foroe applied to a solid objcc 8td $E rcsulting defornati.e f : .

ry*omprcssional thc polarity of drc change in apqlicd 6rcc ane a'..-i*tpt In this casc' llre stress is again thc solid oUio.13 (a couplel' which deform a .li". Tht srrrcss as shown ia is dcfincd "*tit*ti"ttf . t"pusa.rcnd.o* ordrcOi fencp*fcs ln on thc-sample' lcn$h.ftttttti'ro wilt now&tasc in tcngttt: comPrcssionat strain : f thc naftG of tlrc strear stfcss' In this shear 8tress€traln Fgurc 5..o't'" fot"t "t*t' F tl""t stress : 7 wherc f -r forcc in N A= closs-scctional (s."..t2b. Shear stress is defined in terms of forces not aaing in a line member linking the forces. iect as shown FIGURE5.[. .13a sfrows ofr (drat ir. atrgrg drc sarr lirc)' tcndiag to strcar casc. . {6sr ' Af = change in tength in q-(ln..r. ""o. ftc forcc is apdd.Thr$ i! s in Equation (52I "r".) t = originallcngdrinm(in') Straio is rhus euaitlcss quantity: compressionalsuess€train1hcoutydiffc(lnccsb"t.F :' conrPrssional sUcss = -A (5. Thc srain in this case is deFrncd .4) (53)' thc fracrional ctrancre in length as in Equation Thc rtsulting sa6in b also &nncd as f.5) arca of strcarcd membcr in m2 Ar n V rl $trcar ttnex3 nesults trorn couple r lorce bl $hear stf6{t tends to defolrn 8n ob.*rt Figurc 5.rcs*rG.r.Erl*fractional AI (s31 tensilestrain:T -' .ft".?24 I CHAPTER 5 clnnge in length of the sample.

{ Efiress FIA Youttg's E:m:m (5.7) $ftss .eccrional w of ligurc 5.9) whcrc A. I FIGURE 5.7).1 givcs the moddasicity for scvc{al rnatcsials.a M: ttt: $narn FIA a'xil * (5. necking and eventual break.Thisgraph strows ott 4!rclrdoathig tc*trruca r8cs end $rrto b lisrogcomc range of grcss.tirmsion of i bca This ir *own in tlrc ctoss. thc narcriat is csscnrtally clastic inthat if ttre stess f isremord.l3b and allottrcrunis have becndefined in Equation (5. Srrtr Thcctnin inthiscasc isdcfincd as thcftscrimalchaqgein. fic scrcss is kcpt wfthin thc lincar rcgioo.as givcn by' . ln rn cxactly rimilar fashioq thc shcar modulus is defined for shear su€ss-strain as ulus of .ldils'.t3b.FlAin N/n#(or lVin2) srrain : Llfiunitlcss fi -.risdcfincdinFrgurc5.6) I stror*'n in Figure 5. shcar strain trhc{c Ax = dcforhadon io m (r I- tlre shcared mcm- : 4I (5. 6is fu nodulu $ c/aaidry. whcrc a &lus.ionqThu$rrccaa'sayrhatrhclincarityandslq*rrctooncoostant is 6llcd ttaqof ftc tfpc of mchtonln In tq3sib and aooprcssnonat atess. .13b} widft of a samplc in m Stress€tialn Cuive If a'spccifre samplc iS ocposcd to a range of applied strcss and thcresultingstrain is rncasuro{ agraphsimilartoFigurc 5.l4rcsuls.MECHANTCALSENSORS U.14 A tlfpfical stress+train crrrve showing the linear region.drcdcfonaationbdsogre. modultrs of clasticity in N/rf Thc modulus of clasicity has units of sress--rhat is. N/ml Tafb 5.Btrtif&cclastic timitiscxsdo4pcrrnancntdcfqnraioo rrfritsThc magial mey bcgir !o'nd'x sooc locaioa and finally brcak Wfttfu 6c llrcrrrcgoq a lpcdfic typc of matahl will alwaSn foltorr trc same curvcq& ryitcffcrtnflltdc.

feS pm/m 3. it is common practice to * prcse the *nin s lbc rario of two lcng$ units. a ctrain of OO0l urould bc cxpressca as l000frin/rn. In this sc.: also. a micro Qr) prcfix is ofrcn includcd.*9 x lor$mr) or.63 x lt' (sce next paragraph) Althougb strain is a unitlcss guantity.n .226 | CHAPTER 5 TABI.In gcrrcral tbc srnallcst valuc of strain croorntstd in mst amnc*oas b lpn/n Becanse streia is e unitlss quantity. A strail of 153pmr/m corld also bc written in thc fo of f$pin"/ia 66 cvco lj3p.ltobeE=689x tOtonrldNow wc bavc.g9 *lsmiaum I Coppcr Stccl Folyc*rylcnc (ptastic) x l0ro l. we saw that {re rcsistancc of I?o: a metal samplc is given by r* (4.E 5.om Equation (5J)' .?0 3.eforccof t00ONlpdicdtoa lGmduminumbcr haringa4x ld-m2croes-scctionalarca-' SF Salution ThcnodulsofcJasricityofaluninumisfound&. fs cxamplc' as rr/m or inJiq.?3 X l0ro 2$.finlon5/fiuNong Modcrn usage often iust givcs itrsin b Strain UniG 'mic[G. fr.om1hblc5.' or l000pm/m.45 X lofo X ld E (/qMPT-E fiadttsttnhthrGsolrstomatcasil.2 Strain Gauge PrinciPles In Scction 421.3. In thc prcvious * arrplq thc $utioo ls statd as 363prn/sr.1 ldodulug of elastieity Modulus (lUm2) Mat€{ial 6./ FIA F:UNil so that stmin F = EA tdN : (4x tflm2x6." 5. bccr* tb strain is usnrally a vcqr small numbcr. it is u naocssary o do unit cooversioos.

tbc 1e dccan (5.MECflANICALSENSORS | 227 whcrc & = samPlcrcsisane0 p = samPlcrcsMvitY0'm Io *'lo = hne$inm = crocs*cAional rrca inm2 Supposct'1k safnplc is norr 3t1!csd by the apticadm of a foloq f.f0).12) is tbc basic cEration that un@ics ttc usc of nctal'strain gaugcs bccause It itot*'s rnat 6c strair atlt oorqts diroqly ino r.11) fr'om r*bicfr wcconcludc &at thc drasgc in rcsisancc is F+rat'ro (J.#) : (5.4('. it follour that if thc volurnc rcrnains oonstant and thc lcnglh increascq ttrcn drc arca must docreasc by sonr arnount Ar: (5.6 shows a significant factor regarUing sUain gaugcs. atdrough & samplc lcng$cos.10) vcri$ ttu thc ncw resistancc is ag .9) V. rcsistancc change mcasurEment methods used wi&r strain gauges mirstbc highly sophisticatcd- .ll AR :02A{L _ Example 5.: l*: (to + Atl}q$: A'{) Bocarrc bCh hngdr and arca havc cfiango4trc find trat drc rcsfutanoc of thc samplc will havc dso€hangp(t Udng Eqlptiotrs (59) proximately $vcn by ftrffi ud (5.:rslstane dungi EfFtE l[ fu durBe in 1000sm/n Ftnd r nonrinal qirp reistare of l2!0 $ rh* rc$ilts Aom a strain of Solutlon \ilccan findthcchangc in gauge resistanefrom . For lhis rcason. ' Aft arr&# aR * (2xr2oxr. its rolume witt rcrnaio ncady onstant Bccausc thc nolunrc unstrcsscd is lr = Iorlu. Thc ctrangc in resistanceis very smatl for typical strain values. as sttovm in Figuc 512r.ongatcs by rcmc anount' Al' so dut ftc *? U"g* t I = l + At It b dso Eue trat in srrh t stncss'strain coodition. Thcn urc know drat ttrc nratcrial el.

4S0"cthichisnvicctlrcbangebeuseof srrain! Obviously. . aR/fr GF:ffi where AR/R .004/'C in tbis casc Af = l'Cinthiccasc e(4. if it is scctrely rttacbcd.?28 | CHAPTER 5 Measurement Principles Thc bsic tectrnique of strain gauge (SG1 nErerr ncot invdvQs atacbfus (duing) a mctal wira c foit to thc clcment wtrosc strain h o b tnmnc4As str. strbcrandal changc in rcsistancc urculd havc recutted Thus. Thefollowing arc important to urdc$standing SG applications. To scc this. fu Chaptcr4 n(r): n(41l + aeA'.fractional change in gauge resistance strain : Ll/I : fractional change in length (5. which is defind as -.css is apdicd ad tbcdsncntdcforms.wefind ARa : O. methods in thc ncxt scction- 5. and other b' tors lead to slight corrcctions. rct pcratur€ cfrets cqn mask ltu strah cfrccrs wc are trying to neasure. Bccausc strrin is r frastional changc io lq1. An SG speification ahvays indicatcs the correct rclLuir &rough statcmcnt of a g*gc faaor (GF). wc necd oofy n dtat tb netats nscl in SG construaion havc lipr tcsnpcratur€ cocffrcic'rr { q = O. thc fu mcntionod mcthod of SC steasurtrrrcnt would bc uscless.6 bad-tircn l'Q.) l200nominal rcsistance = lbcn.33 as shown in thc signatronditiq* Metal Strain Gauges MctalSGsrrcdcvbcsthatopcraaon thcpinciplcs discusscd carlier.004/'Q gpicat for moet mcals Tanpcnnue changcs of t'C arc not uncorrn'n b mcasrrrcocot oondiliom itr lfc industial coviioomcnL If 6c tcmpcnturc ctrange in b plc 5.R7 = rcsistancc cbangc because of temperaturc change ao'= 0. Fortunateln ulre abletocompcusatcforfcrnpcraturcandottrcrcfrecs. lhc dtangc in SG rcsisrancc Fflccts &c $rain of both thc galgc and thc clement to rEL itis sccurad- Temperature Effects If not for tcmpetaturs compssatioo e. ttre typc of mctal. drc SG matcdal cxpcricret sarcdcGccmatioo. ir Gauge Faetor Thc rclation barroen strain and resistanoe change lEqualb (5.12)I is only apgoxinatdy trua Inrpudtics in the mctal.l /' AR7: ^Roa'Af wherre A.1I! because of srrain .ffccts.

on of rhcSG itsclf is suctasto mataltraery long in odcrOsfieatargpGnoqgh nonrimt rcsistalra (o bc praaical)."11y tooa1tA*ipufobacking strain is to bc nrcasuroa ffie 24O. a.#) . Ttrcn thc actiVc strain gauge rcsistancc will bc givcn by R't: *(t .Fioany.rhcga$gcscnsirivityisoftar e.s"tioi. mco' bodr gaugcsdrangc ia rcsistncc ftom gaugcs' Only Arnp"ran r" .-inti fL Signal Gonditioning T\ro cffccts are critical in thc signal'conditiomng tcctty) niqucsritforscs.lBcl{ANlcAL SENSORS rymF eb tu rll- | ?a ffittRE 5. Rnthcr. if e strain is apptiai transvciscty to drc SG lcngttt' trcbncm wlU tcod to unfold rattrcr than stretctu with no ctrangc in resistana" Tttcsc gaugcs strain t-tat is iondcd(rsing-cpoxy) to'ihc clcrncnt whosc ironnitraf SC .flr of SGs ttrat providcs trcsc Crarailcrisncs.ffocts"lbc sauitivity of thc txidge a circoit fordaidng tt"it. By folding fhc matcrialback rird fdr& as strorrn' rlc actricve a long lcngg to p6gvi.[1 .t\.t"og"s in rcsiSancc is well known Furdrcrmore' by using eomdummy gaugc rs sto*rn ia FigUt€ 5. Tlris is callcd a one'arm bridga for Thc sctrsitivity of this bridgc to strain can bc found by considcring thc oquation (unstrained) : R.& tridr rtsttane.fuduimyis motrntcdinaninscriStiworicntation(Flgurc5-l6b)' iut in tlrc sarnc ploximity 1s rhc iAfirc SA.wfue{dfoil-Thcbasicchrrcarc drc sarno in tcrms of rsistanoc changc fc a gircn rrrain thc dcsign of cach typc tcrisrics ionsfigcfi. m m" re id frhr tF M For metal gaugeq dris numbcr is dways clocc to 2 For some spccid dloys and carbon g1ug63. 500.Ttcfirstis6csnallfracdooalchangcsinrcsistance&atrequirc rcquirc'd might good sln*cm SG A circuis. which is trc nominit bridge offsct volagc. 350.itotiook 2ymlmstr6itt ttim trqqaCon (5.8 x ld Ofor r ooarinal gatrgcrcsistanoc of 12(l (L Thc scond cfica til ti ncca to providc somc compcnsalion'fc temPfa&rc cfroas to cliniinarc maski4gchangcs in 6trainThc hidgc cit€oitpiviaa rbc ansxrcr to Wr.15 $. rtrc GF may bc as largc as lO A hig! gaugc factor is dcsirabtc bccausc it indicatcs a largcrchangc in rcsistanoc fora givcn strain ard is casicrto ntcesur€.mt"tt. Supposc.. aod o makc rhc gaugc of srfficicntly firrc wirc or foil so as oot to resist straincfisi.fi'pu.12). trc35tlltmcot nifiy acsigr*t rcsistancc tr.A*frq.Rz : Ra gaute rcsistancc. and l00O {L Thc rtrost corunon vdrrc is 120 Hl' i[' m n' frr rfuF fr $.ut&litta*xahttratis.cslst"oc" (no strain) availablc arc qpicalty 60' 120' .16a..'.".r.e. wc sec tre coriutpn pd. $fc can Prcvid€ thc rcqlirod tcmpcraqlc p.itrEsPondsto fn onty.€13l strain gauge is mmpos€d of thin metal nmrr$ited in a pattefn On a backing or canier rrnq$re*'ial. Strain gaugcs arc uscd intno foms.t5.orc aitaiott-fn Rgur€ S. this would rcsnlt in r AR of mly 4. ti'n Ul" Utiag" docs not rispond'to a clrangc in both strain the activc SG responds'to strain cfrcas.

' Dummy (b) and thcb. rhis voltagc can bc shown to bc AR y" AV: -!r-4ARR' = .-#tr] If substinrtions are made as dcfincd p€vioQy. such as th:s.4RAR t *ln rl- where the approximation is good for (AR/R) (5.230 | CHAPTER 5 FIGURE 5.16 straln gauges are used ln pairs to pro*ide tern peratufe compensatio& ln soma cases. : -tor# Substituting from 'Equaricc (s.rd .ridgeoff-null volagewill bc grven by au:n[aft. only onc gaLgp acttnlty deforms dwing stress.13) allows the expression for AVin terms of strain: av << l.

lT showsaoommonapplicationof strain gauges to .of Figurc 5-t6a Thc Rt = 3500.t"*)f 2 \-v-t Tbrs."cr+ by : (5.ndis&qscallcd tttto<nttfufuIgaAllfourarmsarestnaingaugcs./ Thc scssitivity is found from Equation (5-14): :-lorsf avref.45 x rr3)t350o) AR n 1"030 - Thtrs. trc ncw rcsistan€ R 35t {L Thc bridgp offsct voltagc is AV:# R^v Rr*Rr thus. end tbc dumury gaugc has R = 350{L If e shain of l450gar/m is a1lplid. tlrc placemcntof thc aal'vcanddummy gauges inthccnvironmcntand in thcbridgecircuitis inrpcunr btgurc5. .This has trc ddcd rdvanagcof doubling thc scnsitivity.. ttrc gaugc rcsistancc will ctrangc by a value girrcn bY oF:# Thus.buttwo arc fortempcraturecompcniation only. thckidgp is bdanccd" Whcn thc strain b applicd. Anodrcroonfiguraion ttrat is oftco employcd uscs activc strain gaugcs in two arms ofrhchidgc. Thc bddgc off-nutl volagc in tcrrns of crrain is givan Av:\.E E I 231 * 35OO is uscd in thc bridgc. find thc bridgc ofrsa volagc it V = lOO V.MECHANICAL SENSORS Ep|ltlPl.t3srxro) 70t LV == 0llfif Y r-hi so tlut a?-mV offsct rcsults. cvcry micro of shiin tiitt supply only l0. Find ttlc rclation bettrloco bridgc ofr-mrll voltagc lrd strair" How much voltagc rcsults from a strain of A str:ain gaugc with GF = ?-03 aod R bridgc rcsisrors lre 8r : I micro? Solution lVith no strain. AR := {GF}{strain}(R} AR teg3xl.t5t lf.15) Obviously. AY:5 .

cs compared to thc metal variay. Tlrcrc arc prcscntly scveral disadvantages to these devic. for SG applicadon has increased ovcr the past few years. In this casc. Tbis can bc accomplishcd by using ttrc activc gaugcs in bridge resistor positions R3 and 81 . andtao are forternpetture compelrsation.t? arc connected into a bridge. it is common to usc a twe arm bridga Orr pair of activc (z{1) and durnnry (D1) gaugcs is mountcd on ttrc top surfacc"Thc actirrc gaugc will cxpcricnoc tcnsion with downwad dcflcction of the bcam.atu mountcd on lhe bottom surfaoe Thc activc gaugc will cxpedcnce comprcssion witlr downward deflection.232 | CHAPTER s HGUEE A1. Princlples As in the casc of thc metat SGs. whcre all four gaugcs arc activc and scfiipcsstur€. This sguctre sttov. Solution Thc gauges must bcconnectod so that drcofr-nutl voluge increascs with strain.In the carc of a semiconductor.Thus. 53. irnd ils resistancc will docreasc.15). HIiAMPLE 5. . rhc basic effect is a change of resistance with strain.4 Semicondustor Strain Gauges (SGsl The use of scmiconductor matcrial./t1aod D1. thc scnsitivity isinq€ascd by anothcr fsctor of wq fmsr Equatiofl (5. orc divi&rolugcshould irsec ard drc othcrstrorld dqc so thai thc diffcrcnce grows.1& ft is also possible to wirc straingaugcs in a four-arm hidgc. the resistivity atso changes with strain. Two respond to b€ndir€. .8 Show how thc fourgauges in Figurc 5. measurc deftcctions of a cantilevcr bcarc This is a beam thai ii 'supportea at only one cn4 ararl deflccts as shown whcn a load is aplicd-'In this application. .rs trour for gnuges can be used to measure beam bending. aod its rcsircarc will tmcasa Thc scmnd pair. of thc slandard bridge configuratid shorffir iri Figut€ 5. but numerous advantagcs for their use. notably siticon.@mpensation is ctitl supplicd.

8- ttr physical dimcnsions.r*"f $nh d'gcf.rdi dt gg1gg e"b.13): ' GtF == A8{8 strain mcans &cresistancc dcForscmicmductorkrain gf[gcC 6cGFis ofrco ncgalivc.valgcsof .it "d e oootUm.' .This i3 dnc to dranges in cloctron and holc tnobility . .noo. rs $own iofigure 5'f9' fto FGUnE 5. cfrich *ran a Ansnc Gticfiad in irc h o&cr d. Consilrucdon Thcecmicooductorfahgangg${Eicalyagrcarsasebandsetsip gcugc is Gidpt boodcd of nacdal tirh e. Srngo to .18 Sduti..19 Typical sefniconductor strain gauge structurg.MECHANICAL SENSORS I 233 FIGURE 5.fu rrc Hgtrly nonliur ia Psi*ancE vc$ustbc$rain' gaugc &ctor "r""ro .mrct"t"s ctlain is epdicd.ogo iiq]ir*"f . "ii-bg'mfnncr xt6 rcseei to 3taii.ornPle 5. wlt m mav be -150 nnla rcdsad*tn.Then€ttBult is I mgcb laqg€(geugc facu &an is pcibtc *ith retal gutgPs aloog with grcn by Gauge Fac{or Thc scoiconduaor fuicc gaugc factor (Gn is aia Equtioo(5.'Ib sc rhcgurgcfa6orversgsrcsistiea r-fry. strtss is applicd llrrlrcrnoc' ttrc GFcan bc muctr larger cascs as targc as -2O0 with no strain. t*.n* fo.*"* e 6ca.It must also be Thrr* ""a.i thc straioto taScsrtptae' thc ttsfutanoc 5000fo/rn' (sootincarly) Aop fxn -5(l rnaia.e-"h.frrlqvcngstbtilcecrivcortablcof.q ..on to F.f"orc"f oo""".

rtnin a. thc ctungc is AR : (lm OX-151X0.20 shows a simplc load cell consisting of an aluminum post of 2.9 Uaslc Lssanoe vcfstts strain drar*tcristic is nonlincar. Conra* &c rcsiscancc ' wi& GF : 2Ll3 wittt change produed by a tseg. €elled laad cetls tncasurc dcformafons produed by ttre wcigU.13X0.16.234 I CHAPTER 5 dirccfly onto thc tcst clenrent or.rn/rn strain in a mctrl b. Thc strain gauges arc used in thc bi Figurc5.Gl wie tcmpcr.038 x l0-t} $ gaugc.500'cm wi0r a detcctor and compcnsation strain gauges. For tlre scmicoraductor 0.10 Figure 5. 2'13' Findthc .15 AR : *:r:12 {. $(ATUPLE 5.withV =2!'Rr : & = Rc = 120'0O.hl"**p*n ril* An gffgfl p1r1blc*a b 6c nccd for lincarization of fu prt U.'andGF - tion of bridge offset voltage for a load of 0 to 5000 lb.ulry. rbcrrnclnkc ascrnbly is uscdthat ttas ggrrcfral strain Saugcs eo thrttftc rppticslioo of r fqcc caufca a rtnin in thc usanbly fi&t is measurcd g1ngcsiAoocymnapplication gscs66eof thcsc dcv'les in rupport of r hoppcrc dry orliquid marcrials. A rcnriondrgor SG wi& GF'= -151. ttrcscdcviccs arecalibrared so thatfu (w€ight) isdh€rly rclatcd to the re. In Spacral.f5 A^R : b. Arncasur€ of thc wcight though a load ell yiclds a measurct quantity of rnatcthtin {rhoppccCrcncmUy.cais" trc EXAMPLE 5.sistancc changa Forccs as high as 5 MN (approxi ld lb) can bc nrcasured with an apprcPfiat€ load cdl.5 Load Cells OoaimportamdircArpplieationof SQs is forthc rcast t"incrll of forcc orwcighn tnnsdus dcrdocs.3. Norninat rcsistances arc bosr l20IL Soltttion Rtoo&cb6iccgatioo AN/R GFe. e. if cmpculatc4 is afirchcd by trc cncapsulaion ml mcasuretr6' fnrcsc-SCs afso appcar as IC asscfnbtics in configurations usod for otllerl $ignat Go$fitionlng Thc rigpil onditioning is 6iill tyPicaltl e. x lO-t) 5. $fc find for ttrc rnetal gaugc SG AR : tt20 fU{2.

lYith oo srain.sothc e""n resistarcc is E AR/R =Lr3(r. vc find tbc sr$in Ltlt: FIEA Ltlt = (zee4onl4(6j9 x r0'oN/dxl-e63 x lf nf)l NI:1-644 x ld = lO4A*mlm(or pin'lin') nvi rcratioa&ip W*a rg'ifr.c gtN€e has R set voltagc of thc bddgc is : t2fi " AV = tJfi As thc forcc varics from 0 to 500O Thc form of load + 12fi X lb trc ldv: 120 + 119.644 BccauscR : n0 (\ x -35nxfd AR = O.Gcreforc.0pv ' offscr voltagc varics ftgm 0 to l?5 p.958 l?5.MECHANICAL SENSORS | 235 HGURES2O Load cell for Exarnple 5.(}25nF - 1963 x 10-tm2 Iiom Table 5. [n such a . The probtim is that forccs applied to the top of the load cell may causc it to lcan or bcn4 instcad of simply oompressing. From Eguation (5. crcdmgetbc fore to ocqnons: (nnOb/or21s tblN) * A2{}N resistanoc. Iirst. Soluion S/ccantindthcstraiaforajQflHb loo46cotcrcsultingchangcin esg dlc bddggofta rcltage.L &c rnodutus of claSicity of aluninuo is E = 689 X l0ro N/m2. and from Thc crss-scaional uca of 6c Post is A -# = t(0. thc I 19.V- ell considcrcd in Figurc 5.10.20 is finc for illustratini jrincipteq Uut real load cdlls cannot bc made in this simplc way.6 d *zb b Stw !y lguetiol {il3) {OF: (ARlRl/(LIft). Undcra5fiXllb ld4 ltc &li!.958 {LThuq thc offbddge b nutlod.7). thc rcsistane will dcccasc.O{2C} ld) {Llbgpttchidgcoffsavolirgiwinotcthattp post is undcrcomprcssion ad.

this *ill dtcr thc oorcct intcrprctatiot of thc result Praclical toad actk l1t nuec with. The proper unit of acceleration is meters pcr sccond squared (m/s2). Oftcn.which iscaltcd thc dbocrftrn babo spociro.16) and (5.4.lso 6c socond dcrivativc of thc pcii I dr(t) u(r):t . which is given as a this text.tokc asscmblics desiglrcd so that mountcd .11 An automobile is accclerating arvay from a stop sign at26. it is shor:rthat drcao€lerometercan be used to determirrc both dre speed and position of aoce.8 m/f. lociry).1?).is . r. c ptacernmt of ao oblu that is oauning If drc position of an objcct as a function of ri r(r}ltcsr tftcfirstdcrivarivcgirrcsttespacd of dtcobje. jccrs wclL u(r) : u(o) + r(t) = x(O) + fr'o*r)d$- I v(tldt lhus.236 | CHAPTERS ib casg one sidc sngf16 of thc bcam may cxpcricncc aornprcssion whitc the othcr dcrgocs tcnsion Obviorsty.4 ftls2.-liaugcs cannot be cxpoecd to str€sscs othcr tban thosc cails€{t by :hs compicssboJ applicdrothcocll 5.tcration.i dr(r) a(r):i: dtx(t| df Thc primary fornr of nrotion sctrsor is tnc accelcronwter This devicc a(t} of an objcct.t. FXAMPLE 5. is calted a gce. acccleration is by comparison with'tlr acceleration duc to gravity at thc Earth's surfaoc. This a accelcration.1 Types of Motion Ttlc design of r sensor to measur€ motion is often tailced to thc typc of motion be mcasur€d" It will trelp yo'u und€rstand thesc scnsors if you have a clear u h the typcs of motion. . illd position informarion* specd ( - 5.4 MonoN sENsoRs lvlotlon sc6ogl erc dcsigncd to mcasutc rhc ratc of clrangc of positiorU locatio. Then spcal be in maers pcrcccond (ny's) and pocition in mctcrs (m).3y intcgrating of Equations (5.(r). What is the a in m/s2 and in gs? . in the aelcromctc we hare a scnsor that can providc acceleration. If ftc SGd of dle obiect is also elunging thctr thc fir* tirc of ttc qccd gis thc amelcration This. which is approximatety 9.

21 An obiect in periodic rnotion about an equilibriurn at x O.. this accclcration sway from thc stop sign providcs'ur accclcratiori of about 80% of that causcd by gravity at thc Eardr's surfaca fuctilrnear tltls type of nodoo b draraclcrizcd by vdocity and aeleation drfichkcorrpoead*grridt-nncrilgtncrc. vibration is defincd in tcrms ofe rcgular paiodic motion whcre thc position of an object in timc is given by r(t) : FIGURE 5.fpf. ifan diog1is ptacodiapaiodic motioorboutemrcoquilihiumpoeittod.Thsroblo*nrayaccclcralcforw&doaccrtain vclocity.8. wc simply oon\rcrt drc feer to mciers according cm/in-ald 12in/ft a .4 ftl*X 12 i&/ftX254 cm/in.€fsc| and so cin" Tlrcrc arc malry QtPcs of ecnsors &- dgncdbhiodbCrie grpcof mcioa. gp.o| m/cm) a .O5m/fx9. ecaccttceatc'to a stop. ttc mcasurcarcntof eslcrationof this magnitt& is vcry important t<i indusaial cn"itonmcnts.Itis motion is callcd uOLOolr <fcarty. MECHANICALSENSORS Soluion fird rfrc accclcration in m/s2.(25. For anatytical treatrncnts. Oftcn.{Fm/f To In tcrms of ga crc dlsr havc an = (8.cellnmaxirrunaoetcmtiosarcless thanafcw. - tosin<'rr (s''0) .)(0. rcr.totrc ttufr' ht only lts mtatiotL ' Vibrafon In ttrc nornral cxpcricnccs of daily living.Smlf/g) : | 237 to 231 0-82 ss q/bcrc thc subscript on a indicatcs thc uniaarc g$Thus.as inFrgurc 52l' vqy lagc pcttkroetc*atioos may rcsult that rcactr to 100 g or morc. whep vibrations rrc often cncotrntcrcd ftom machincry op crations. The Peak displacement is rfu. Stlch dcviocs ca$ot bc ttscd to trcrasure Urc ptUrsicrf eispfmat of ihc u. vibrations arc sorncwtrat random in both &c @rrcncy of pcdodic motion end ttrc magninrdc of disptacccrcns 6m quilibrium. atrA nnr 1agulg' nodoo Sn r onrcd linc) k dloxtcd tf ther€ b ugular motioq &3n scveral rcailincar notion scnsors mrt be usc4 cacfr scnsitivc to'only one linc of motion11u* if vdric&a gtolrion is fo be rncasurcA trro Aansdrsrs lnay b uso4 ottc to mcasure morion in 61e ffiwid dipcfion of vchicte $otioo and &e ottrcr pccpendicular to tlre forward axis of thc vctricla Angular Som scosors are dcsigncd to mca$re oly roatioas about smc axiq s tfic angular muioo of tlrc ehaftof r rnotc. a pcrsori rarcly cxpcricnccs rcoclcgfions fhat nry ftom I g by mdc &an a fcw pctccat Evcn ttc scvcrc cnvimnmsrtsof ercckclaunctringiivotvcrccchdiottsof only t-gto tO9&rttcothcrbtnq ardr .

.'cd. to p* ***c .y.-rsir' ts F4lat (5.?m/sz)(nffi) Ago..*': o'!ro we sec that thc pcak rnay rsult b r..E 5./f.dlsandl' : 0'5cm al". --*-.20): * Ir daivativc daivaisc of Eouation Iilon ue cail nnd &c vibraiim vctocity (5gz) dr) = ro&Gosttr ard urc can gct rtrc vibratioo dcre ftom a dcrivativc of Equadon (522): (5'3) a(r) =<o\sintor Vibrarionpo6i6o't*crocnty'a{lereraconareallpoiodicfunaionshavingth **" ndt*.*.:.cquilibtium in m ro = Srdspaa'rmtftrom @:6gular@uarcf lnrad/s . pcriod I r "rr. n".* t relocity of 2rr kr a d{.: (2-ry)t(o'oo5) aea*: lg3 m/f that lg : 9. ftr rhcdcfigftioooforsarrgulrtoqwybooasiscrrtwithdrcrpfercnocto0)asangr}.*. "*where b' 'Noting ctr2& (o : ?sf = z}". (524) frcqle1"r sclt'-^g pak displacemcn*i as tsf..:-.*[r*L 's dcpcndcnt on &r2.q with modcst amplc5.ry elcratioo r"fr.b -g.{.c. and O) g accclcration' 05 crn Rnd (a) tlp ' Solution Thc pcak acccleration will be given by a.r(r) = objcct pocitiot in m !rrlr--.8 m/s?' we ge! a'.-iii" 2r orn of one retohni<n d'6ur surccpe o ro are rclarcd by (521) =Zqf Bccasc/adoargrdatcdbyaconffi'qerefcrtoorasbotlrangularftcqucttcyandae gularvcktdty' -: .'. -.of punillroioritt"sis drcpaat accclcration 4.k:(19.-gut *" t"" tottand "il*-at d.- trrc a/grrlar *ilop".l2shm's E:il{MPT.rffisqgr spocd.235 I CHAPTER 5 whcrc ."t df"oCoo of ftequcncy of ro Hz-wi& a displaccmcnt in m.12 ffia p.pltt onc rution asof arevolutions e" pr If ao nunrbcr rlf'ru n"qt'"*yJ rcptcns dlcpersoond"An cffi€spoods to t r'"+-ilI: angrrlar rarc irr r Lvotuion rad/q bccause onc rcfffi{d andis r""*j.-fr tians.k: L0 E : 0'005m .

8 n/* fqZ ra. I/pi. as v*ircn an ob' is &oeecd ft.ofExrupte 5. t5picalty on thcodcrof milliscconds.Sm/srXZln) ' o .IEC+IANICAL SENSORS I 23e FIGURE5. lr/c find tlc velocity c . urc havc 62mls o=ffi Z or 122 g No = t200m/s2 wonder that the TV br€alc apart wtrcn it hits ground! .wc havc a t)"ical aelcr. as considcrcdin lf ffi & Exearplc5.l3.kdurationis5 ms. 1\lc can find an avcrpcak mum c acoclsson.ation graph re e ftnaim of rirc for I cxpcdncor This gra$ b characterizcd by a maxianC bon&ry. - A2*vibrating c<itation of any mcdnnical clcmcrt can bcdcstruairrc' )lct lhb is S3rr€red rtr&cnodcaooofitioas.Such plrnomcaa rrc {rc csultof vcry targe aetcratons. rf:2gx . 4G& r shock durdioo.findtpavcragcshock in9 &lution The TY aclcr:arcs at 9.I\. es in a oollisioq.2.lZAspocid clasc of *osm hrs bcco &rdopod fc ncasudog ?ibrdi@ .P: (2X9. ATVsaisdroppadfromaZ-rnheigbrffthcdroc.cal shock aeleration profile.ffckrafut Shock Aspor$al typc of ecoclcrarion oqrs urhco an objca drat nalr bc in uniforrr motion ormodestly loc{cragos el nxileily bmught to rEst.our sornc tpidt onSo a bard trufac" Tbc narnc sttod is givcn to dccctcralions rtrat uichargcdzcdby rcry dratdmcs. €c shockby brfngthc vibcityBf tbc objcctsndec drockftration.62mls If thc duration is 5 ms. u &rzllly &cclerutians. with pcak rc€lcrations ovcr500 g In Figutc 522.

b} sprtng-m8ss a) spring{nass sylstern with ation a$on FTGURE5.mass inkig a = aaetcrationinm/s- Eouatioo(525)allorrsthcrncagrcrrcrrtofacoel.tv.erationobchduccdtoarneasurcmcntd ffi . s1rctem with accelir' .t"d.. fiiilry.42 Accelerometer Principles ffiffi.". (Enear disPlacement) bcca$c .dt s2lh 1 T*= thc riho-lc Frgrrc o*Oonopn*iLrufortang:ssary tcods tn na This condition b to 8@l€rate thc mass.ft-.ton's*Y:.l*eiiNc".rhc mass is connc*d tod..k Rdrxod u-t3 (sJsf a: -ax .-nXJii.U?l.'r t alt mcn urcfs ftcc o sri& on a basc.t o" inot"oial s'od4 tt( f.n ud ErcanOrA ?dne H'! *o&x no acceler.* of nass relcratkxr ' arabcd on **Jffi mm dcslgn i" O"r."mmffi ascnroty-tsffi.d* lawof cPnngactiott' r*ffil i*.23 basic spring{nass system accelerorneter' *.2N I CI{APTERs 5.*f#ffi.il." whcre &' (srsl ft = sPrilgconstantilN/m A'r = springGxtcnsion m m rn . .i.tfi. and Hookc's gi '.l* "qoiuti"t ' "e posftiur for a disancc ut*#ffiH ffi tj}.'rm.

vt*UAasthcunitsofs{. a.Ospingditptacomcntis rcduccs to linear disnpasurcrncnt ascelention or scisrnic racre Wc t* aI*" Aut ioignt difrcr in how tlis displaccmcnt measurcmsnt is ptaccmcnt If Orc -"r"uo*ii. p"ni .r*#r.tro#ofoecilt*imiscalledrnrnsr'err is t rit C ty .acnrat ft'equcncy is givcn by fx:*tffi $ttrsc fs - (s.* and .ilsr.pring ir*.Iltc dcsigns' Thc spriiag-.Iopad"." if . madc.fnicncrlt."* u. drcsimplc princiNattrral Frequency afld Oamping Oncloecrcxaminationof oomplicatcs nJ *oCto cltai".h""q.araStcf.. as drorrr in Figur" 52d wlrocc cqua6on Xdt): X6dsin{2of*l tvhcrc Xr(r) - Jh: c- transicot nass Pcitioa pcali Position' initialtY damping cocfficient fx = natural ftaqucncl FIGURE 624 A springfnass sntstem exhibits a natural oscilhtion with damprfig as a respor6e to an impulse input (s. g'*oi:l* tclls us thx if we hibis osciltatiqrs * so.rasr ii*tpt" applics to many common ryIc*nctcr rcfcrrcd toas thc lcstnrass' mass thalcsowrtsdF.npror"O instcad of crtcndcdl Uctwccn sdng displacancnt and acoclcration' .ply' €xceP-t 9" 9" acclcratiqr is revcrsc4 thc samiphysical argumcnt wou]d ttrc rclationship dcscdbcs still EquaConiSS6) . p*i.aomass andbasecr*toattyuniogs ficraasstorestAnydisplaccnrnt natural This occurs' accclcration ing sl6tcrn *.28) .signal..27) nanrralfrcqucncYin Hz & = rFingmnstantiaN/ut m = sdsmicmassinkg by e damphg Thc fticrlon furcvcntu*ly hings 6c mess to rcst is dcfincd exficicnt neqtonse' o.dcratio. *"iff"ri* .rsdc uumt $eqttettcl.ta*Ac of sping-mass systc-tns that plc jgst dcscdbc4 massalsaysex"r" a slrstenrcoosisingof aspringan{u aTcnea in"'Jfnr.*l6g1"r.i.-.d*'d. Jd it Gn &c abcre of accek'arion). it vill bc pullcd back [i.rrt.ilf tttponJ6 *..g.MECHANTCAL SENSORS I 241 ap-.rtiiuriuqanasclilaakkandforrlu&rlytiaionassocimca$r: ai"a *ii.r.

usc4 but usc of this combination dpuld be arnidod in favs of Pa with thc *atc orefir ln rhe Englistr system of units. ttis is not e vcrlr oonrcnicnt rmiq srd it isqnb thc will scc prefires You standard F*a or MPa a in conjunction with thc SI N/cm.scuss€d later.1 and a bicf Icscrigion is givcn of thc moet oommootl'pcs of prcssurcscnsors. if wc rncasurc thc prcssure of watcr in a tte fhc nozztcclosc4 wc may findaprcssurcof. If it i3 is thcforcc pcrunitareathat$cgfs cxcftson thc wrlb it If thc fluid is a liqui4 ttlcn thc pesunc is thc forac pcr unit liquidcrcrts on Sccontaincrin whi* it is oontainodObviottdpttcprcssued wilt bc uniform on all drc walls rhat rnust cncloec thc gasoomplctcly.325 kPa or = I 4. and numcrotrsottprfacl6m" Units Sinoc pressure is forcc pcr unit erca. thc pressure that it cxerts qr lr roundings dclrnds on the motion. wc dcscribc ir in ttrc SI systcrn d squatc nrctcr.Prrcssure can dcpend on floul. thc prcssgc in the trosc wi!| droP O a difrcrcnt vaha' 30 tbpcrsquars irrch.Thus.'f is notbcingpumPcd fuooghPiPcsa spacc'thar in tnrc fora Buidthatisnrit moving rrtrcrc no rnotion is ooarning is rcfcncd prcssurc in cascs ing through a eianncl. The use of i or feet of water and millimeters of mercury will be di.tr.sal. nr*csirls for *ttl*t ptot. As will bc sccn latcr.CHAPTER 5 5. lb/in2. *hi"h is I 0 1. ccnpressi@ thc flui4 cxternal forccs.being greatcston tlrc bottom of thc vcsscl and zcro on the top surfc' necd not bc cncloscd.7 psi. Forthis rcasoq e dromrghdcscriprion of prcsstlrc. thc rnostcommon desigration is the pod squarc inctr.3 Pa Agaiq usc of thc pascal with appropriate prefened. Otlrcr units that you may cnc{xrntcr in thc pressurc dcscription arc the atmos i"t*).5 PRESSURE sENsoRs Thc mcagrrsrrcnt and control of ftuid fliquid and gas) prcsstlt€ has to bc orrc of th 'commoainall thcproccssindustics.24S | . rnust bc mcesurc4 tlrcrc arp many difrcrcat typcs d msOr dcsigrn In thc fotlowing paragraph' drc basic cottocpts of prcsswc are pt Yg. np sraaic prcssura static Pressure Thc starcmcnts Dynamic Pressure lf a fluid is in motion.40tb pcrsquare inch (norc: forcc arca). If rhc nozAle is opcnd. Bccauscof &cgcatvadctyofcoididoas'tzq3E .One torr is approximatcly 133. prcssurc i thc of by oonrrcrsion accomplishcd is often that prcssrc 111easurerrcnt tion io eomc intcrmcdiatc form. and the Da4 which is 100 kPa.5. is usualty winen psi Tlrc convcrsion is Orat I psi is approximately d kpa For very low pressureq such as may bc fotrnd in vacuum systenrg tlrc unit ror is used.nusa notcb ctttt stanccs under which it is rncisurcd.1 Pressure PrinciPles prussara is eimp$ drc forcc pcr unit area trat a flukl cxcrts olr its sunourdings. such as displaannenq which is thcn measured by r to dctermine the Pl€ssure- 5. . This unit has bccn natncd te Wsal (Pa)' ro by -pancwtons'pcr oftce I = I N/m2. In a liqui4 sure will var5t. thca Orc prcssulof containcr that hotds tlleg* tr tb made in thc previous paragraph arc.

'.oot3utibcc p1.* 531... 5.3r b mosrer conuron fnefpd of corr lllDT lo cunrert th€ m$dffifnent to volEge . Again' we bavc a disaoooruion ir a b grcacr 6an p1 or opaad if a b lcss &aa nrcnt) is a nrcasurc of &c prcesnrc pt"".t ".sbowa io Ftg..*t" Oryiryit itir sil.1rrigtr1-tioccxpansioo"1trcacordion-*apcdsidcs of pfaococnti -fi sill cxist a na fore aifl'arql prcssure a is ttcrc maal-Whca Arrd" ftom.it*1opo.c6 of thcbcfloql&Thc onth'trr.ffit$silfr€ to displaemerit Hef€ 8n p2 .MECHANTCALSENSORS I 251 fr .Pr glft FIGURE 530 A diaphragrn is used in rnany pressure s€nsclrri.i-*itl ougc en LVDT sdtaee sryfi$dc 6at tu linil"i"rn" certy relarcd &t -/ Pr€ssltc.thc Aapnrap displacc' adiapbcaggris li&c dEcttnca that Abellottts.d rtc pl sida Thc €xtcot of 6is dcfloaion Gc. If a pressurc pt crists oa onc sidc of thc diaphragp and p2 on lhc oecq drco a nct forcc is cxcrtod givcn by f r (Prsdrcre f : Pr h: (s33) Pr)A diaphragrn anea in m2 pfcssurc in N/rnt lrying d thcrcforc mds orontnacts uatil e Hoo&c's law fotcc is A**rya-64 6uf*ci t c prcssnrc dfrcrcoce forcc" Tbis i3 3bo.C*"i6pcssrrcArcracaTtiscoovctsiooof prcsstrctodisb wry i-ify peac qpcfce wc bavt sugglstcd tc usc of ao LI/DT to .rm in Figurc 530 for p1 gr"dt*f"No6oc&ardoccrhcfore is greatcroothcpr eidcof thcdiaphragr\ ithas tnoaa 13[. Displacelnent varies wifi pressure differen€. A.fria titc-3 cotlgsc will thcn asscmbly bcuo. is anothcr &vie much likc the diaphragm ggnvcfts r p1€ssttr" dfiqcntial inO a physical displaccncnt' cxocpt drat hsc thc dis6c bclmuch morcr..rdtdi.

252 I CHAPTER 5 Hard mgtal tube JT v I Flatten $r Ph > Psal Pq1 P11 .inter ttrat rotatcs ir portiion to pressnrc arcbascd on this scnsor. is orccad.Xbct$c will tcrd to straightcn out if thc insidc ptcssnc is highcr b outsidc p{essurc and to crrvc morc if thc pr€ssure inside isless than that outside.tco fu tsi& tpPlid pr*sutc is dtiftrcu fta .is cloccdoftThc a$c is ttrcn bent into acurvc oraqsomc{futles cvcn a sfirL opcncndbarachcdtoahcad&bywtrictrapressntcanbointodrirdtothcinsidcoffu Wbco lhis b fuq ttc tftc qill dcflcct u. ousidc'p6ssrrra. [n this fashion. Thc simplcst tcchniquc is a mechanical linlogoconnccted to resistance changa Other methods o a potentiometer. prs$ur€ is relatcd of conversion employ strain gauges directly on e . Of courrq for contol applications.$rt€flffitisconrrcraddirecttyfromdsptaemcnttoavoJtagalnadditio'n. Most of thc oornmoa. Figure 53f dso 3[o*: bow an LVDT can bc oonn@ CI Bourdon Tube Pnobably thc most common pmssure scns{or in univcrsal usc b upon thc Bordoer nrbe cmccpt Figure 532 strows thc prcass for making a Bordon how it mcastrcs pr€ssura Ahard rncfal ilbe' usually a qpc of bronze orbrass.d placcrncnt and prcsn: erc nc*rly ligr -i rclatcd. '/ Bcnd tcd onc cad conficct tlrc oth"r I lo f{GuRE532 Ttre EOurdon Pres$lrc aoorce tgle b proba$ ttre most ommon pressuretodisplacement deme$L fte bclos6 so fu surcrne. aid bccrusc ttc LYDT voltagc b *ittt displaccmcnq &c voltagc and **ou* arc also lirrcarty rclatd. wc arc ia ineonvcrting thcdcllccrion intoanclcctrical signat.This is accomplishcd by variots of displacemcnt scnsors to mcasure thc deflcction of the Bourdon tubc. Elestronic Conversions Many techniques arc used to convert the disp generatcd in thc prcvious cxamples into clcaronic signals. rOund prcsstrc gaugcs with a mcrcr po.In this casq thcdeflccrion is transformcdi a pointcr rotation by I qrstcm of gcars.

edirpt'agm rhat.olty.? pd). back sorid€t'te tcloparcn of sensors Es prcsuc rotid€&eqs.. tn nr{dur"rr r Uoo of sucb scn_ sorr wilh tuious nngce of prcssne rad oonfigurrirc.scd uy scnrlconaucra dirccry on the silicon wafeq fudhcnnorc.ffi.ra rud tc:casaory*.r. rhe wafcr as wcll. signar-coodiaoning circuitry k o.MECHANTCAL SENSORS I esg Amplificr tGuREs3:t a dfferern aipressure (Dfl cen rneasures feedback qns1em minimizes actmt rytrragm.id simpte modifica_ tions outputvolraggtf arc used to conv€rt thc basic sensorio an ab-sorute or difrerentiar_type gauge.. Thc bd*cscnsisgcrcmait b asaran q*cro_fsiticoq.usod b-mpnsrrca toonrrcrtbclloqrorBourdon nrbc rrsing oonfigu{ioo. s33. $r€ n4ges of 0 to iln thrcc. f€Gdbo* not iq& rsilE uiroduclim mtoslhcctrqdgn t i"ru tical nrcasuremcrt of rhc prcsnrc. The configunation shown in Ffuure'Sbir r* ror*iig gffiirorurg since one side of thc diaphragm is opcn to ttre armosptrcra Figuic sis .g.a *d.n#afrrc compcn aaon and cidritry that po. in this casc drc dcfbcdon b sa. preslry dfference with a cfraphragm. otco'fiuirc p*rli dror/n tn Egur€ S_g{a G.ffi.!$ fi"d. deflccs in respoosc to.. Thcsc snutt uaits ryrcs grc.rts. This signar condrtioning l'..rit tcctnorq8y has rcd to rhc de_ ace*.an anrya idue * iid.cspocificdoperating range.d* io thc prcs_ no morc dran plcssorc ooooccriotr is vir a kPa (0 to t4.ori: tincartywto pcssu*orcrd. ffd..*J. Fessr€ in Figrge 5-34b. Th. A qaphri* LVDfs!dodrcrlnduaivcdcvies motiory lonuplopottioorlcloctiealrig.il.oonnoctioos--dc Ectal tubc $ r diaphragm in . as ttsuat. vides.is* i#e.rctingas . riiou. For . dro{n is ligur. oft€n''p*ss* *Tg*rtr d"flectbn. are .y '" . r spcciar fcod_ aiaptur$n fta'q guvidcs an clcc- rnrcer"r"d dr"..d*i*il1".iFt d.

2W I CfiAFtEHs' a.frciliticsarcprwidcd!oallowapptie$ionof indcpcndcntprcss pr 8nd pz to d* hr$ sidcs of tlrc diaphragFrl ss pr€ssure scnsors l.oncsidcof thc wafcris scalcdofrandcvacrratcd. silimn This example measures gaugp pres$ure.. fcrcndef Fr ircasnqrcrt. . Eolid statc Prcssurc E€nsor Pr tgaugel tkiurlcg 9z o atmosPheric b! lnternal structsrc of the prcEsuf€ cell FIGURE5'34 $dd.state pre$sure $ensffi emplory lntegmted circuit techrnlogry and. $o rysponsc tirrrc is dcfined as the time for a changc from l0% to of the final value following a step change in input pressure. absotutcprcssurcncaelr€mcnt. ans charactcrizcd by Scnsitivitics in thc range of t0 to 100 rnV/kPa Z^ Rcspons€ tirncs on thc ordtr of tO tns. Thesc are not first-order timedeviccs.

in homc appliarc such unjtc* uA cnqing Brc[is. thc prcssurc will bc p ' = pilh .0 ASS passlne rcarhatoqus2S mVtl€rfseprcssurc variation of00 to 25 as dish- llPatvilt t3 x ldtg/nlWhattolugc tcuc&tomcasgrctbolcvctofateuidq. whcr- inthccoluttscial crrcrhmprcslrcsu:tobcrncasurcd.r*ra ITGURE 535 Smple rvrodficatiorrs alkrv pfesgre.Anothcrirryoontagp&catioais fickl.48 kPa Y .*}runcneat cf Pz bt llerrrmoer{ tlr. rdcrc cn& scors rc cmplaya4 for cxarrytc.fFtE f.l . F:sc of rsc.0 m. | zss t{ dif{crccfrl prce*rc.fthedcnsityof qtgtrrilbcogcacdfoctevclvariaionrft.' .itdc ff.neasure absolute ordifferential 3. Lincar vdtage vc$tts Ptcssur€ within tbc 4ccificd opcrating range 4.s m/fx20 Thercforc tlrcccnsorotrputwillbc ! So the scnsitivity (25 mV/lcPaX25. Pl .Q !F Oressrre seosonsto.ooOo2.(r3 x ldtg/mtxg. whcn cnpty thc prcssure will bc zcro rd orgrSrotegc rrrill be zcto as well At 2. vith oftca only tfirec conocctions: & porvcr (qaically 5 V). groun( ald thc scasor ouryut voltagc" 5S prrwercnsm 6ld rpdidoo in r beocd rocror of hdusrry eod mtnd.48 kPa) : m) : 0.63? will be $ : 63?mV/200 cm : 3-185 mV/cm 25. f.MECHANICAL SENSORS P2'o .0m?lYhatisthcecnsitivityfcbvet mcasur€uent cxprcsscd in mV/cm? Solution Thc pacssncscosorvittbcaaactrcdto thcbottomof thctankholding ttrcliquidThcrcforc rhc prcssuro mcasurcd wilt bc givcn by Equation (53fI Charly.

n" *ro as -"'ylq of both H ongtrt.1 atmospherel madc using purcly dcoMcasurenrcnts of pressurc tcss rhan I agn are most onvcnicntly prcssurc mcasurelnco& lrOnic rndlrOdS.c rccl*anocnc51neorcue rrcbo& pcdonn€d with a bddgccircuiu qorsc of ruSstancc wls prcssure is highly nonlincar' Thpl' filarncnt a/A sccond pdcssulc ttansducc( or gaugc measurcs casc' rthis ln filamenr tg O-. u&ich is e-p*o.'ka taf"rne' and th.unttvotunr @ends on thc gas pressrr€..onkation -*otn Gauge Thislfrl ara.5.This gaugc cmploys clcctrons' usually fta t0. down to abotft 1fi3 atrn. toionie de gas uitrosc prcssarc is to bc mcas$ro4 611.256 I CHAPTER 5 5.t."d $Ff thc and thinitocouplc' " drc for a-lefcrr"ne bicnt room tr-p"oa.ot* rncasurcrncnt to fs iroporOonaf r tclnlrcratttlc mcasur€mcst. C-alibration *a-tUr6rpfi girgo "f* qi*na" on thc type of gas for whictr the p'cssurc is bci3 measurcd- ThermCOUpla dcvicc is uscfrrt for trc trEasnGm.odcfiacsrGurcfulforprcsuGlcsstha$ tals'downtoabout fromahcd Thcyarcborhbasodoothcratcatvhktrh€atis@ndu'rcd and tadiarccla1lJty tothc n' ntamcntgtaoce n ar"u"ar"ourecarironnrcncThchcatlcsisptopo*i'onal fitarncnt cunent' dtc fu bcr of gas molcCltcs p*. ro r*"r ft and thcn measutEt hcancd fihncm.c3 Comtnon rnct'rxdsotelec8ortic -' l(ril' ThafiGttc.1hcnrunbcrof ionspd. Ghr rrrr{dotrr . m qld offilamcotrcs&lcnaeinrcdAanccwirbthcpinciplcscstablishcdinScaion4'3t PbadGauge This ga0gedctcrnrincs thcftlarmttcmpcranrc tbrough a cxriq$os .a1.n*re arefhr. aitotfy T""{.o' und€f coos1"nf b gas prcssut€" Wc havc drus transd'ccd a p{css- .cnt of very lor p l. and hcncetfi2r rertelsodcpcn& oo 83s pcsswe.odcs-in thc ioni6d environrncnq as shown io fr 536.1.oor tirp. ftb"rfng-b€tsrdcn turo-clecg. pcsatdrc udng t#oo*pf... RGURE 536 The ionbation gaugp b tJsed to measure Yery ' knftr pressures.. il highly nonlingar.nris cuncntis drco monitorcd as an approximdt car indication of prcsstlr€.3 Pressure Sensors (p. pt€*&g.

MECHANICALSENSORS | 257 ROW SENSORS Tbc mcasurrarcntandcoruolof flowcan bc said tobcdrcvcry hcartof Proocss ineosriesC-ootinuously opcraring manufduing prcoesscs involve drc mov€$rcnt of raw matcrials. tt would bc unrearonablc to try to p6cnt cvcry gpc of florv scnsor. thccombination is caltcd s.a1gF |nclsucdty *lidfog thcroomof dratcrial or e1il:tranof bgfi e .th. : tcngtt of weighing pladorm (ur or ft) Flow Sensor In tlrc cxamplc with which tc (s34) t (kg or lb) arc urorking in Figure 5. It is the actual weighing pladorm thatperforms ttp measurement . it is evitlcntthattlrcflow scnsoris acnrally thcasscrrbtyofmnvcyor. rfrich dcflocts diglttly arc'io 61c wai*rt of naledL Atoad odt ncasures &is &ftociioa rs u irrdic*ioa of wcighIn rhi< case.mcl f drcn punpod throrgh pipcs likc a lfuirid. 5. ttrc flow usualty is dcsctibcd by a bythc mnvcyor +cAtUOmof C. it is onty ncsiary ro wcigb tu qrEnriry of narcrial oo fqg nx{ hgth ofthcooweyorsttstsn Knowingrbcspccdoftlrccoovcycallowecalculerimofttemauiel Oourma In 1igt[ei3:t rt5pficalso$cyorEysoc]m is $ffin{tfrctc rytt*I k dracnftoa a bep3j 6iltanaortodfo Oc 6onqfc qrstcc.37. and in thic soaion *c rrill comirls flow rl'ec uO nor.f autonrobilcs ncdrods of rncasurerncntof illorrr arc at lcast as varicd ns thc indusry. wc will find trat ftori infsmation is oftcn translat€d into an intcrmcdiarc fofiD' dtat is$cn mcasured using tcott- {r.rgo.s n*onwcightpcrunit timc tba: istcing transporrcd Tomakearncrisqrrr"*n"noltswillbcinuaay6onns-foecrarnplc'tglmiaorlb/min icacnt of l!w. d*n1y-c. tro. fto ocoryortclt slftlca orcr rhc pladorm.oducq "nd an asscrnbty linc or rncrhyl {todac.rt ec pt€6" All sudl &rarcrions can bc cursidcrcd ll'o$t' p.ts*OlE liqu( anr: gas.1 Solid-FlowMeasurement Acdnmon rdi&flow m€asurcrnc$toaeurs rptrcn nrarcdal ia thc form of srnall partklcs' suct as crushcd materialorpourdcr.A u.6fugn 19ina Ttrc h.6. if solid nratcrial is suspdod in a lQuid host. is caaied by aonvcywt*lt qn'tanorby *ry{* hm marcrial Forcxarnplc. As with prtssurc.IIory. hopperopcning and wcighfrom which ing platform.Yb vilt cousifu thc cmwlrcr sJ&cm ard lcavc slurry to h trEascd as lQuid flow' Conveyor Flow Concep6 For solid objects.s tt** t c aiqocs dcrdo'ped forttrat form.t *y insra.d& naal"t cit mr no-&c homcronto ttc coarclrorb+ Tb.cebanical valvc controls tbc la3c at .lt is &itrcn by r ine briysrcm. fio** r"tc oo bc calculated from Q:y: whcrc Q = flow (kg/min or lb/min) W = weight of nt"rcti"t on scction of lcngth ft = €nveyor spcd (m/min or ftJmin) l. b.

*dannorlb/mis.t *tt"*ls viu b6 is urnt OnnE*foecxamgtc. Inrt i< casc.6.MEeHANTCALSENSOFS I 257 ILOW SENSORS Tbc meJa$Grtrcntandcontrdof flowcan bc scid tobctnvcryhcartof proocss illdustics.t .5.Htr t!E. wc witl fittd rh4 flori inforsratioa lsoftcn transtiatcd into an intcrmcdiatc forr& dtatblhcn mcasurcd using tdr dqucs dcvdopcd fqitrat form- .end in rhbsoclioor*cvillconskfurflow' ftdiffi a qT&. tfsolid maarial is suspcndod inr liqtridhost. C-onrinrnu*y opcfadng rnanufacttuing prcccsscs involre 6c rnoncnrcnt of raw rnatcrialq bc eonsidcred flouq pmduce arfu fufic Atoc6*t6c proocss" AA iucb Tttc or-mcdryl.As wi& Prccsur€.qui4andgas. f. Occom{tgtion qill cond& is calcd a gprrl vmi * *cn 1uilpod tmugh dpee tiltc r fstid Tlb ftow' coorc)rcr 8!6cm ard lcarvc sluny to bc frealcd as lQuid tu Corweyor tlow Concepts Forsolid objects.rygh oo threebtoad Aoms+offA.irbootyucwy!owdgblkqtndiUofmtaialooloacfitcodho$h of d1gaorneyorf!'sqern.r* an 19tnc. Knoqiryrtccpccdof rlrcooovgrcallowscalailadooof thcaa- sielOwraa In lilirc 3jrf e typilcal ooerruyr systcm is thenm r. rt rry Ar1a1iftc sarcfr.bCIclsuEd wig}nng rhe emouutirf 1btcddm e ptdorm of f-gii f.bclt sli& otr tfic pladorq rfiich dcf.1 Sotid-f{owMeasureflrent petie' A crimmon sdid. flo* r"tcc"obccalcnlated from Uy Q:ry where Q fr ft I : flow (kg/nin or lb/min) of ttttrcri"t on scaion of lcngth wcig* = spccd tm/min or ft/min) €onYcytr = r tcngdrof weighing pladorm {nr or ft) (s34) t (kg or lb) Ftow Sensor In thc cxamplc with which tlc arc wotting in Figurc 5'3?' it is cvilcot rhat{heflow scnsorisactnlly &casscmblyofoonvc5or.ccts dig$ty ac-to Oc urc*itrt of nancrirt Aload dl ncases ttfis d&aim rs rn indicarim of tflGigtf.€ryt1rycof floyrscn:or.sory g|c{reg|cd socuft ryhca rnarcriel ia tto fa.A ne&nical Yalvc oontlols fu rafc .6ct" trcttt b dryr ftw r fryGr rnA |lllspaU ty Oc omqg sfrnm.r*hno6*cit mr$utctomcrootorhc eavcyorb+Tb"btltisdfircoby rino- rrsysrcm.rtcdr"r tJuiornobilcs d|*. It is ttre actual weighing pladorm that perforrns thc measurprrent . hopperopcning. trcflow usudly is dcscribcd by a spccificadm nf Cr* r*" **eight pcr unit tirnc rh'l is bcing transpottcd by tttc oonv€!&r qr. It as $rc rnricd as l€ast as at Dilcftods of mcasurcnrcnt of itos smabtc totyropr6c$t€r. unreabc sould indtstry.To makc a mces- iamofdow. lirrc as*rntty i. and weiighfrom :vhich ing platform.m of Small ssch as cnr$cd rnataial orpourdcr. is canicd by a oonrrcywbclt Sy:*cm orby h5j rnetcrial Forcxamgk.

Q - 901000 lb/h 5. converting to lb/h by multiptnng by 60 min/h.258 | CHAPTER 5 J *-e c(a+ e - C* *? uo o ftcunEssz Conveyor s1€tem for illtrstratlng soli*florr mea$lremenl- flottt ratc is dctcrnino4 bowcvcr Wc scc th*flow mcasrtrcmcst bcomcs wciglr urmcoL In this casc. EXAMPIS Aooal oonvctrurqfstcn 5-19 patticdr miglting nors ar l0o sbouts lhat 75 lb of fthin A@hing platrm ml sc o is iJ) ft in lcngs. wc havc suggcslcd tbat &is urcight ie measured by mcans of r adt nthfub is thcn lt*nb Sa1gc ffit Arc&€r pqulsr dcvioc for weig6 urcoentof Eodng ryrtm likctlri. conditions undcrwtrichthcflowoocurs ad thc wstlydiffercnttypes of matcrial rtrat flor sult in a grcat many tlpas of flow mcasurernent rncfrods. b anLVDI rtamcasurcs ttc droop of thc at tlrc point of mcasnmcotbccarrsc of thc nxaial ttro it canics. Indec4 entirc books.are wrinea voted to the problems of mcasuring liquid flow and how to intcrpret the rcsutts of . &c platrorrn Fiod &c coat dctivcry h Solution wb can usc Equation (534) directly to find $c flow: QQ: (75tbx100ft/min) 5ft f500lb/min Then.6.2 Liquid Flow Thc mca$rcgnentof liquid floiv is involved in nccty cvulr facctof the proccss indusrry.

--! rima lpicar units FIow wldy Erscssod.".owing ru rtlilff"t PO pcr.rrcaisgi*ty A= wtrcrc rfu. Q givcarzs &/s.tis is rcrrrca J'- i c so on) wcigbt f.rs r. r-.:t-io danccr Solution Tbc ftory rcrocity is (535).r4)(0.ow mte a' cros$-'soctionet or*vightllow"nd erea of flow carrier (pip* aoo Exprcssod as mass lypicat unib arc tg/h or rb/h-'i. units ' Tb ulits usod !o dcacdbc rtc fuw mcasrrcd * dcpcildiqg m ftov dtG tpacia" pmo.diameter/ so that q*f4 = (tS iu)(tlnftfio") _ 0.v r.Jr-.rrnrcasureacntwittbcprescntcd.nit rima oy (s36) urhcre f = rn 6s orwcigbt flornr ratc p'.8F/min or l3.MECflANTCALSENSORS | 259 measurqnqlB' It is imDfraclical erxillotwithio tbc-npc_ofthisbooktoprcscntaco'prelcusivestdyof li+icfl'orr.&pidfto. is_prapod f.ol22 ff )(60 s/min) I = t..0122 F Theq the volumc flow rate is Q = (25 ftlsxo.231iat).iaforrnxion Tlrc r* Flow bc of scvcrar tions arc tbc foltot{ing: "o*rrr* qpcq descdtr l.V[Tb.ow *ffi : tolucOwr"rr. eotbcrcruurc flow rarccanbc fousd fmmFquarion .lb*ausow ac ' L- Exprcsscd as a rohme dcrivcrcd pcr uait arcgals/miqmtltrordrt(t gat .ootyd.t2st214 : 0. eii lu7p.ne rcigUgovrlrra-Thc GgUa*"i.125 n 4 = (3.mas Ccnsiry m wcight &rxity € s volualcfloryiaa re nt Wec fu"4 trgc 1tt r fl.cbciciG.5gallmin . 6ai*ac t c riquid uavas ia the canicrpcr unit tinrc'TyPical units are ur/minoe ft/miu-This ls rclrt"ato oc volurnc oow ratcby V:9A wtrerc * - V Q $ 3' Ha'ss (s3s) flowtrctocity volume fl.

ipc p is atir"n by thc prcssurc in gpe t * this pcssurc is causcd by rtrc urcight of liquid h rtrc tank of hcight (trcad).260 I CflAPTER 5 Thc weight flow rate is found from Equation (5i6): f' : (62. ' -------------{ ---:i ------------------*--. Ois pro. Wc fd that thcrc is a relationship bctrrcca thc pressurc drop and thc ratc of flow sttch &at' as &c ftow increascs.--rrra-.Irstca{itisourobjcctivc to discusshowsuch flov-is ncagrrc4 regardlcss of tlrosc fcanrrcs that may dctcnninc cxactty what dre flow is relarirc to rbc ooodtions" Rcelrietion FlowSensors Orrcof thc mo6tcommon methods of mcasuring thc fb'w of lisrids h ffipca b by intaoduciry a rqrria*xr in rtc prpc ad mcasuring urc pressuedrcp orttl!$ltsacnos thc rc*icriou Wbco $ctr eresttcrion is ptacd in Ocpipe. "a4 simply &ca{. conccp of prcssuo t o.n dcpcodsonrnanyfrctors.B d/rnin) Ja' : Iljllb/rnin Pipe flow Principtes Thc rlos ratc of liquids in pipcs is detcnnincd primarily by thc peeesrc th*'b forcing ttrc liquid through dt pp. and thc prcssure in thc rcstriction dccruascs. vclocfuy-cg*qI( tlow. a----- lF--O-- a--*-!-- ---Q-- tlb---rF--:-a------ - a--r- b- -rta-ra Flotr N . pipc Ptolrlo4 pipc siz.4 lb/d)(t. Th.hc vrlue of drc oonstant sod11f in this oquation Ttc ftour raa is tirrcarty dcpcndcot not on rhc rcunEs38 srrous $e pipe.ur".-DrDtlr-a e--------l r- -tlt-- . one qNn find an cquation of thcfqur Q:K6 (s37) vthcre g = volurncfl.inctudingthctylcof tiquid. ando6crs. g ls determired in part lbr.uid ttrough rtrc rc*iaion lhcrgascr.ow tnrongh p. leqPcrafirq so on" Thc tlpc of rc*icion cmploycd also wilictrangc .:r-a a----: a-t---i a. In Figurc 53& f.----- ----a -----! ff--+t------ --------------------------l-!b--Gr -t----- I----- a-----.It ttsyotratrc s"opc-of ttri" tootcto atuit craalyhorttccfaclontdctcrmincthcfior. ThcprcsnncisfouadbyEqualion(531)or(532)-Manyodrcrfactors afrcatrl actual Oow by pressurc. causc it is casy to relatc tbc forcing pressure to thar ptodrd by a dqxh of liquid in a tank Fm_"erS thc pipc cxits. introdtrocd in rhc prcvious scctions is oftJn uscd to dcscriU. thc pn:ssurt rdrops" Ia partianlar.v ' Dy ttrc pressure due to the head.q roughncss (fricT!" L- t I lioa)' tubulcoeof fbwing liquid. thc vclocity of thc f.including this liquid viscoci$r.K'r r oonstant forrhc pipe and tiquid tpc Ap * drop in prcssur€ rcross drc Fsfiicd. fi.Osrarc . sizcof pipc..

om thc givcn flow: .tc prcsstlc drop. hrtourtc sqnare rcot Thns.= I195(Fyrdn)/pelt4 e Udbcr Ec&sunes thc pccssup with en LVDT so that thb orgrt is 1. Ap: QnlllgS)2 - 0.f. find e€ range dvottages 6at rcsult from thc givco flow ratrgc. rer sras incruse4 drc fiow ratc will havc incrcascd only by a factor ' of 1. LP: (QlK)' 20 gaVririn.8 Vrpsi.?- rl Vcfirl -_lul \P2 .om Equarion 'For €37)' wc find the prcssures 6at rcsult ft. dcn ty oorcaioa lo drylmf which is ncuurcd by e displaccmat scasabcfqcfroalygdtgerignaltttwiltbcuscdinthcprcccssdEolloop. .4(&cqrnremaof2).horminfiguiEsSgc. t'al JI t{ord. tt is iatcrcsing to notc ihathavin! coalertod 0ow hfctnaiocto lrcasurq crc trbw coploy w of ttc mcthods of lnc9 edag pessnre.)L]L \Pz / rt tI Gt Orttc.MECflANICAI SENSORS FIGURE 53:I | 261 Pr Three different tlpes of restricti{cns are €mrnonly usd to convert pipe flovtt to a pressure diffefen€.Ccnaia:tadard tlpcsof rcstriaionsarecmploycd inixgloiting tlrc pussta*kt{r ccttod of rcdng fol.lbcorifiocplatcisdcsaibcdbyEquarion(53?). d. figgiS:grhows rtc tucc mtcommoo mcdrods.Ttcnost corirmoancrhodofncrsnringthcprcssucdmpistorscedfrcrentielprissrncscnscsimitar to that drown in Figtrrc 535b. 't-. Soltttion R. if ecprcss-urc &op in apipc incrcascd by a factc of 2 wtrcn 6c nom.Tbcsc ire oftcn dcscribcd by thc narnc DP cclL lnLE iln Florrisiobcmuottodftron2Xlto l50Flirio"Thcfiorrisrcasuredrsinganodficcplatc s5mcmrucLrstl'rt. wi& X.0280psi .

A moving vatlc flow mctcrvcrocity inThis typc of scnr* i" Jr.hg d*ctcd m. n*q ttrc difrcrcnti"r pr"o"Jn"i"*it t acfoss *J * ffiii"c .m .t-1 Jrhc ftow ratc. of. the flow rate can bc nrcasured for usc t*hed .i"r. thc voltagc rzrnge is casity found' : 0.4{l point in th€ g6s or liquid' The pitot tube rneasures flcw at a and for 150 gaUmin. is-i["t"a o.rateataparticrrlarpoint is tubc placcd in *r flowing fluid wi& fi'id O. I CHAPTERS Flow a Pildt b€ nrl rrr I Ps FIGURE 5. The prcssure u&ity rs thc urba This difrercntid Fcssur€ *lie pcssrc of rhc nomins nuia ir.8SV For 15O Ft/min.l*u. . i.8) : 2.o * *gt"-ili*lnt Droccs!." "ir of thc static ftuid Gsr in ftc r6c.*ffitr$'m.tlyid will bc brc. b...'.-|] '. V PitotTubeTbcpitosutbcisacomrnortwaytorpasurc|lgw.-af.f*'a .i. lf thc rotati"g creasas. is proponional .ght opq.g v/psi.'*ilfr-f-&ic obstrtrctionFlowSensorA$orltcrty?cofflowscnsoropentcsbythcctrcgtof ftoat riscs in rhc ootumn. ry"d:{ Ll rata m" fifting forccis becausc it is a rcsriction in thc flow' has a vane i"r both tiquids and gascs. arc-sarcno* Thc floffi ratc in a pipc vadcs acrw oe6* wil bc propordmar t-#.J*-oe er*r.rt of .oc-f'ow as rhc frow target immcrscd.U t to dtc differential in nunfied b in trc pui urbc cfrcaire prtssure of ftc flof.** :y th{ "r"n*.p Becarrse trrere are : (150/1 195)2 : l5?56Psi l.rt rarc only ra rhc pointof insatiotu rlc pipe eo rbc pnt* n Jfr*niG Crc tlour in a fiouring * ..controlapplication. Thc anglc of rhe vanc is tn a tr.*to ft ennc*fc t-!ru tlrc. . V : 15?56(1. f *r"iu*in is attached .bin"typcofflowmctcris@mposcdofafreclyspinning m" tn1" of rotxion of ihc turbine is proportiond iurbine blade asscrnbly in the flow e"tflt can to a tachometer' a coovcnient clectrical signal to the flow rate.0504 v For 20 gat/min.r.0280(t'8) = 0.il-fr*. th" " ptcssure plus qU t" o. #'iffi"!.zffi.

*.lirn trrrc frot lt{ fitctcr _/ c HGURE5..palh !o mcasure "t"id"f reaction on thc flow sysunwantcd any are uscd ooly *hcoanobeiiuAion docs notcausc bc producc4 In dl rcm. ttrc obcrnrction into frc ftoi... ment is made must bc insutatJ.. the norr-caarUc mcastucAby atlowingtrcliquidtoSorr itnough anugnaic field this ttteasure*.. if ttrc ftowing liquid b rlso a coodrrcbr (cvcn if oot ncccssarily a good conductor) of clccticity.i m""ruri"g dre transvcrsc potcntial prdu€d" Thc pipc scAion in wtrich produced. Ttrcsc dcviccs arc illrrtratcd io Fi$rc 5{1.it is ncccssary to prcscnt a subof thcsc ndhods of gow this rcason' thcsc deviccs For flovr.41 Ttnee df{eleflt Trrdl*llcwnar tp€s d obsrudio{i frow mEters- . will be potential the or itsclf. and a nonconductor .*- l Llo. Magnetic F[ow Meter 'It can bc SoMm Aih if c&argca particlcs movc aso6s a magnaicfiel4iporcnrialisestahlishqdpmssthcfts$pcrycndiculirtotimagus!fi3d: ttris.Trpcrcd elqfil .*.

thc LVDTconvcrts displaemcnt lincarty into e voltagc.ribratioo. 2" Thc rtnio puge orc.4Z1trit i?cof'tdrtorpod. lour prcssurcs Forgas prcssurcs tessihan I atm.42 A magnetic flor'. Thc objcctite was to gain familiarity scdprion oirrn "tr*lot wi6 Urc csscntial fcaturcs of thc'variablcs thcmselvcs and the typicd mqrsurcment mctbds. ?. ln somc cases' thc lcrnpcraturc of a lrcatcd wirc is uscd to indicatc PressurcFlour scnsors tr€ vcry important in thc manufacturing world. Aiebromacrs rre lsod to mcasuc thc sclcrarion of objeca bccausc of rectilincar moi.2U I CHAPTERS Uppcr coil Voltage from probes FIGURE5.lbd rFss. meter will vro* onV with conducting fluids such as bloodin Figurc canccllcd bycnrrcos in thcpipaAdiagnrn of ttris typc of flow metcr is presented j. ' Topicc oorcrcd *crc thc follorring: L poeiiioo. purcly clectrical tcchniques rtre uscd. rn assoftrncnt of ncxuremcnt sJrtcrns that fall under the gencral dcscnsors has. Ftuid flow through pipcs or channcls typically is measurcd by convcrting the flow information into prcssurc by a rastriction in the flow systcm- . capacitivg std LVD[. errd shock Most of thcm opcrare by thc epring-mass prircipla *fridrcoarar8 rslgaiqr infonnation into a displaernent4.ntrcs dcformetion of sdid objoas rcsulting from applied forccs . Tlb'rtrain gaugc ooorrGfis strain inO e changc of rcsistsnce" S.c. nccsanclcctielsignal dircctly and is convenicntforprocess- contot abpilcaCons inrctvirg conducting fluid flow' SUMMARY In this chapcf. Electronic nrcasures arc oftcn used for 5. locarion. including the potcntiomctric. rrU Csptaccmcnt scnsors. 6. Pressurc scosoc oftcn conwt pt ssurc infonnation into a displaccmcnt Examplcs inclu& diaphragn+ bcltowl snd *tc Bourdon tube.on . solid flow is rnass or wcight pcc unit tirnc.ben strrdied. Typically. prcssorc b Gc fore pcr unit arca rhat I fluirl cxcrts on rhc walls of a conaincr.

t0eFcfidtdloo.5 cm long.25 mm.il 5.I Figure for Problern 5. ff thc dcsird resolutioa is 05 mrq how many bic must ttrcADC' havc? c Dcsign analog signat conditioning to provide intcrfacc to a. Whatis&crangcofolputtolta$c? b.699(Re + n!rC. Tbc pot is wound on a 3-cmdiamcter fom.f. P[otftc &.Swpocc&ccryocitnin ExitrPlc 5'2 is usd in palrllcl wi& r l(XxlpF firccd c.lbc staic rransfcr funcrion is 25 mV/mm. asslrown tB Figrtr€ 5. aad tftc discare bctrvccn x. Usc 8SlpFfordl tbchidgocapadtorq rld rsstrc r tO-r/nnr.1 so tbc ouqut is -6 to ff V as tb work piccc wvcs orrt thc G to l2-cen ooti<rn limiu A3' Arycttivcdspfcqncarcmisucd lomsorcrotaliogrhaft wobblc.eaciff fc C in lhis cir€uit Ttrcn disptaccmcnt *iUtcffiv€rtcdtoevztiarioo.1 52 A l0{ro.ofoueut*qtrcoci e.Thc ouPut witl be intcrfaccd to acom[xttcrvia anADC a.o cafcdty is 8g' pF *i6 ao urctbh.lrcs in lhc pot is O. : . PROBLEMS Section 5.5 .Tft* is lbc naximumbddgp ofhct voltagc upnudcf Figuc5. Thc s.iblco53./13. Trire {roud pot is uscd to ocasrc thc displa*ncnt of a wq* piaca Alinlagp is carpfoycd ro6atas thc utoetpiooc aovcs ovcr r dstancc of 12 c4ttc potrctatcs by ttc ftttl l0 tums.What is thc rcsolutioo in work-picoe motion? Whatrcsistanccc. 50-ld:l.fir displcmcnt of the scnsod? 5. Find thc cbaagc in capacity {IIZ-om Saft notrbld Dcrdloprn rcbdd8pfcP/.MECHANTCAL SENSORS I 265 ftlotor Shrft o Wipercoctrct FIGURE s. Wbatranlc offrcarcncy @rrtspondi tottc l-to 2.bipolar ADC with a S-Vrcferene.6 ' b.@.4'4 *ows hwrt55lCrlscrnbc qncciodto malcc e&equcrcy gcncrnocfrc ou{ntloe limc fo givcslf Tr = 0693RrC' ufrcreas fu tigh timc is dscabf Ulf .3.cqgc{tcy atangc w$ns displacnrcor Is it lincsr? Art LVDTvilh r$ocidod sigrut onAidbning will bc uscd to ncasurc wort-piccc motion &rom -20 to *2fi qa. for e +0.0.hangc corrcsponds to this rcsolution? 52 Dclr^Cq dgnal coodtiooiog fa Probku 5.

44 Figure forPnoblem 5.. calcukrc (r) rhc srss lnd O) 6c rffiin of6cbc.e-O-ro 1000p..od is E dc ftom wfu" with O.._o o r*ltc.".*it Liog o tnJffi pi.. r.L many bits mrrsr tlrcADC havco spporttlris rcsoluioo? D6ign an rc hidge Ukc &*inFiSgte2rll tooonwt &c cagacity cfrangcof amplc 5.{X}3.fft" ''d strain wcte. how Jr 5a .lc range thcn making r'tmooth nutl rdjustrncnt *oti.a"to. crlculatc thc rcristanoccfqagc rccuking ftom rfain of 144 p.*.. oomputcr. Dcsign e hidgc rred a.r*.tl)isvatidrofirstordcrin Arlr.r.dd.' 59 i"d". iOOO t" dOOO.* dgc ouwa is inlcrfaocd to e l0-bir ADC wh.266 | CHAPTER s 1t 7 5'J t { Tiacr FIGURE 5. Dcsi8tr a linlcagc sy$cm strch dut as e fo* for liErid lcvcl ncasnrcrncnt movcs fr onn o to r a.c 30OG t.fC*2St Ttcdissfudoo esrb gircr re pp 21t nVC 1trmJ 1. "* *""rr"d.If rhcbcamdiunctcr is 62cnr. s:.10).iafiu 5'14 ArrraingilrgcwiltcF = ?-clend tzonnoniinairesisrraceistobcusodtoracasurc stsain with r rcsolution of 5 Fs. 5. ro d. adjust rtrc sriroorh potFuntil e nutt ooqrred. prx thc rortagc"oorr"r E(- Setion 53 5Jo Anduminrmbon nrBporc r5$*g CIrs*.Fqr h"..r....h* bc et 390 p.n d.r ForExarnptcsJ4. GF =. o"t p-rlocs t is ovcr fivc rwitcfrcd rangcs of lOOGp spans G. tvD.r A $''ir. How much crrordocs thiscquetion have from *roci"ctirr-nutt votigc irme fq *d.c sc 6 rccp !dd.t is crc rcsotutio in lcvci ircas.206 rnd R'.t-XT:.ors bdow I p of stniu? 5'u' A rrin grnge hts GF * 2.14)' giving tftcepprcximatc bridt. Thc id€a is that a bti{gc nult is folrd by r oombinatftm oi. s. {0d.5..o€ d lit o.pmrcdr*Eq*rior.120 fi. sJ.:t. an wDTco* motcs oncr tE fi o.nL 5'rl !{etry*oas(:-9)Td(5. otr-nutt vottagc iiou" strain. . wnid ilura _ _ 1*d-. .(s.* b rhc naxirmrn conrar_fut crn bi ptaod rrrmug[ e.t4 urd e aominal &sisn.Noe6at U(t-xI I + rfcr < t.15 Dcrivc {rc &uation (5..ftatcagacity clrangcwould nccdlo bc lution of 2 crn? If thc mcasuremcot willrrftimaaly go !o .4into enacofsarcttagc.

? Gt rcus'strain givcn in *"i" entg" has R ..it Ut-g" .Do mt usc r dt" tban 5001c any oinglc op amp cirtuit stage ia !sg1-nountcd on a JFAuy .00o. dnngc vcrgruge rrxistane thc gio tO6O fr as w. o.18 Wc will 01 resiltae in ogc ""igh p. rtnr g". GFvepus strain {or Problern 5'16' s&aio is 500p? As$mc all ottrcr = 205'Rr = l2ofl'7r = lo V' ad ec bridscrcsistocsrrc n0dso.?0 5r1 522 *.*i. tabletop.'li"i" gaogt of I = f2I'0' GF = 2'(Dpouod_Ptaccd 5.t G.ls.2 0. rcc rlrc rrt a: sttdfacq cccelc'adEg dgiinwad at I & An objcd r*rr.cidrt-varlcs fron O to 300 tb.rr. of diagram a Draw rqistare? in ttrc columru B A.ii"d ' . S""t**ra"t '.."".MECHANICAL SENSORS 0.l it h"r t"t"t fq€a Evalu..t? F.tFf. uft i" r u.rpm notor'in rad/s.t &e litrcstity.Howinanypoo0dsdocsGachlsBrcpcscnoPlot&c gain of more eoc rttp.doa t" "n coppcr ootumn .tG dcrcfop dgn3l @oditiontug o prwiib iryst to I lotit ADC wifra5. S. ruftcicdrt*.5 | 267 0-o Streir (l0OO tt) t{GuRE5.no* aftcr5 s.3 0.g t OJthc rhc systcm thc roarion ratc of a 10. """og.000..to e 55'*g nas* Find thc rcsutting acccleration in m/s2' A iore of 2J 16 tt o"t in gs cxpaienccd by a transisor that falls l'5 m from'a Calculatc ttrc reaching the floor.r ms to dcceleratc to zcro whcn |.300O ud rstic1 5.Ptot GF srswcigbe. d"r.a.whatisthcspdandtredisanccmovcd? .{ . 163 dnis Yadcs ft'om fc s. d"pb 5.1 0.increasc ordccaasc montcd' bc gaugcs shoutd givc dummy and tt.S"t*irate 5.g"!b6 scalc ' rrg. ir it tatcs i.vrcfctcre.16 --./15.

26S I SIAPTER 5

f; *O€ tg

fcrrrrodt- fdfrrct
FIGURE5.45
FigweforProb[€m 528-

5mm'C'al-

Aorstmobitefcnd€rtiibrdcart t6tlz{/ith epcak*oacakamplittrdcof
crrtrt lhcp€akrcodcretioa in 3s'
S2A Asping-oass 3n51; h* . nral of O.g2 kg and r sgnng €onsttnt of lag N/m' Calcriltia lbc ntnml AcWcrcY.
Ttlc
5.15 fu WDf b 6cd in in letetmacrlo mcrsc *ignic-nrs disptacunat
c'oae
maximum
cnr
a
*2
wiih
mVltnm
I.ftm.oA *gn"l aondidoniry ouFut is0Jl
kg' Find
dtspteocrML fn" tpdtg-"tt"ttr is24olVrn' rnd 0lc aor' fiurl*l is O'05
(b)
maximum
ttle
wtuge'
rna
ouput
m/*
(1&c rdarioo t t"i*iea""ao" in
i"*:"..*rL firacrn bcmcasnrcA ard (c) thcuanral frcqtrcocy.

Sij

S2S For6ctcdcrwcrtninbbosSS,dcs&nrgignd-codhioning E/ttcNn&.t PrcV/m'
aidcs vdocig informetlon 1 2 nV(n/s) rnt poeiiim informatlon at O5
a
natgnljrc;
and
mV/g
6l
of
funcrkm
transfct
has
r
ilfl A plcEodcctec aelctomcrcr
lcstrt lt0 llz, r reading cf 3.6Y'pcak rcsults Find
q,*cry**Slilla brvffi
thc rehrdoa pc* ehocncos
Sr8 earooAcmoaarfainoct b daigniasdrounlnFigrrc 5.46. Frnd qtclation bc'
t*tcarrnia grngc t.drc ch.ngg rnd shoct in 3 {.e- thc rcsbtanoe changc pcr
glThc erc-rod-crses€dod rra ti ZO x ldnf'
Srg 6*igl edpdbmdidodog rchm forrbrmlcrmctcrin Ploblcra J28 using.
hldFdr.iltt not ftc bddgc_oGctrottaiF vcnrs rhocLin 3 ftrom 0 to 5000 gS.

S&t5.5

g3() ekdrl.

.
SJt
5J2

x3 b16g

(e)

r|d

Ci

ab)

prcssurc ia atmosphcrcs ihat r welcroolurur 33 m bigh cxcrts on
if 6rc Sbid b memny. Conwrt drcsc rcsuls to pascels.

$ p*."r-

Mcrcurydcnsityis 1354'5g/qdf, wUaing tant torc oxygco rt 1500 psi. Wtrat is ttrc tank pressure cxprcsscd in Pa?
What'is thc prcssuc in atmosphcres?
Adiaphng; has rn c$oairrc rraof 25 cnrl ffrhcptccsucdifrcmmc across the di-

+tngrt is S pci, whatfue is cxcrtcd on ttlcdiaptuagm?
SJ3 ng,* Sr{f di.?.6 a propoeod sansoc focmcasudng ttrc qccd of liquid flowing in anis
SS pcssn€ sensor is contrc*cd to a frrnrrcl rs sfrown" A ptcssrrc
a"t

"*A
"p!1
firnroe c,tm rhcfunncl

tras its opcn cndpo,intcdupctncamsottnt$e $quid is bmught
wtrcc p is the
prcssure is grwn by P =
to r€6tagarnsr thc ftrnncl openint

ne

lp/'

MECHANICAL SENSORS

| 26s

SS pressure sensor

Funoel

FIGURE5.47
Figure for Problem S.iXl.

S3t

liquiddarsityin*g/m! ana u is ttlc liquid spccdin rnA.Thc SS pressursscnsorhr a
,'"ge of O o S U{*m . r*to funcrioo of {O mV/tfa Supposc thc ligid is *'atcr
wifr rdensity d lg/crt' $th*t k thc araxirmrm spccd wtridr can bc rncasuredl Flot
a gndr of dsororF|r volugp vcrns liquid spccd Commcntofincadty.
ff," lafgt"t, d.plu;$& and Bourdon tubc ptcssurc tcnsons dl cxhibit sccondordcrtimcrtsponsaThis rncans {tat a sud&retrangcin prcs*rc willcausc ar oscillaion in trcOisptaccrnctrtsn{thcrcforc' in scnsorotrpuf Bccanscttrcy arp likc
springF,

tlpy tavc ancfrcctivcspring constant and nuss,

so dlc frcqucncycan becs-

Coosid€r a bcllorrs with ao cffcaivc sping constantof
to*tl6 UV
prcssure acts is
g.
3500 lg;-a1d n ro of SO The cffcairrc arca agrias wtlich the
pci
and (b) the nat20
foreprcssureof
OJ hl6al31il{lc(e}thEbcllogrsdcflcction

rr|l

it*f*

froqucncY of

(i2O.

cciltatiotu

Secrion 5.6

A gnin aenrct/s.ryrlctn lfuds dlc vcight oo al.0'rn pladomr to bc 258 N. VJhat
ooc*eltoe sPccd b accdod to ga a $ow of 5200 kg/h?
Sj6 Const rratcr florr of s2J2-grltbido kgrh and vclocity in m/s through a 2'itt diarnacrpf,pa
537 Forrnqifcplabineq6*cm prmpflng alcobol v,tfind K - O.4 m'/min (W4t4
Plot thc prcssurc vcts,sho* r"tc nom 0 to r00 m}r'

53i

SU

PPLEMEfUTARY PRO BLEMS

S5.1

I to 9 m in a bin'
An ulAasonic stlst31n wifl bc uscd to mcasurc thc lcrcl of gpain from

asshowninFrgures.4S.Ihiswiubcdorrcbyrrresuriag$timc&laybawccn
gnin urtnnsrniUing t drortuttnsonic Erlsc end reoeiving lbcrPulsc cg$o ftrom thc
input as
higgow
e
logic
dfrby
ard
on
uiggqcd
bc
fbG Asgitlz t,"**Arcr""n
shown Tlrcusn$ni6cdputsctrasadurationof500ps,andthcpropagationspccdis
a signal is
3@ nrrs. tlrc n rircr it *r*ral(t to a cou{talator that gocs higb.,iihcn
a pulsc usscnding
whilctrctransmimcris
disabtcd
rcccivod.Tlrc rcceivcr mustbe
iig i f"gi" mgt input, as showri. An 8$it countcr will etart counting when the pulse
is scnt ana stop r',trcn thc cctro is

roccivd. Its count is thus a measurc of the timc dc-

lay and thc grain levcl. A reading is to be taken every second'

.#P{fiffiS#r"ffi

|F.

OHAPTER
3t

,(:

Spticel Senscrs

$I.u,iSTR U

CTIONAL OBJECTIVES
'Aftcr you havc read this chaptcr, yor should bc abtc to

' Dcscribc clcctnomagraic (EM) radiarion in tcrms of frequcncy, wavclengdl specd of
propagation, and spcctnrrn
I DcfincthccncrgyofEt{rafiationinteflnsofpowc{,intcnsity,anddrce.frcctsofdivcrgcooe.
photooonductivg photovolaig and photoemissivc*5pc photodacctors.
' C-ompare
pescribc *tc pirciplcs and strucorc of bodr total radiarioa and opical pyromcrcrs.
'
' Distiqguish incandcsce$, rtomic and lascrlight sourccs by thec*raractaisics of thcir lighc
'r
Dcsignrhcapplicrrioaofopticaltcchniqtrcsioproccss€stolncasuemcntapplications

iL'
.

rNTRoDUciloN
A dcsirablc ctnractctistic of scnsors is drat thcy have a negligibte cfrccr on thc mcasurcd
cnvfuonmat--{hat tc trc pmccss. Thus, if a resistance*cmperanre dctector GfD) heaa
up isown arnpcraturcenvironmcnt,drcreis less confidcnccftatdlc RID rcsisancctruly
rcprcscns thc environmcntalampcratura Muctr cffortis made in scnsorand transducerdesign to rcdue backlash from thc measuring instnrmcnt on its environmenl
Wlrcn elcctromagnetic (EM) radiation is uscd to perform proccss-variablc measuremqlts, transduccrs thit ao not afrcct drc qnstcm rncasurrd c@". Such systems of measurcmcnt ere callcd nonlocal q torco&act becausc no physical contact is made with the
cnvironmcnt of thc variabla Noncontact ctraractcristic nrcasurcmints ofteir can be madc
ftom a distance.

In procis control, EM radiation in cittrcr thc visiblc or infrared tight band is frcquently uscd in mcasunemcntapplicalions. Thc tcctrniques of such applications are called
optical because such radiation is close to visible light.

213

274

| CHAPTERG
Aoomrnon cxamplc of opocal transduction is rncasurcmcnt of an objcct's tempcratgrc by is cariAcd EM radiatioo Anotlrcr€xamplc involvcs radiation rcflccrcd off thc sur-

fm

'

ordisptcrurt

nrcasurcmcnL
is a rrassrbjcctcovcring a span ftom gc<'mcuical optics, includparamctric frcing
Fisnrs, grrlinp, .nd ltc likq to physicat otrhs, with tascrs,
but all that
intertsting,
are
all
qgarcy oanvcnion, and nonliucar phcnomcna- Ttrcsc subjcas
of spcandaknowlcdgc
b6qqircd forourFrpocc isafarniliadtywidtopicalpdnciplcs
cific transducrion end mcasurerncnt mcdrods'
to ytaa e kvel
OpOcat ta-+rn

lffi,

rtg

6.2 FUNDAMEMTAIS oF EM RADIATIoN
sith EM radiatioo ts visible light. Visibtc light is all around us. EM radnioiselsofanriliarhodrcrform,euchrs radioorT\f signalsandultraviolctorinfuarcd
ligtn Most of us faltcq |nulwtq, ifastad to giw e gcncrat tcchnical dcscriprion of such radied6 incftding crit ria for mcasureococ end units.
Tffis rccdo overs I gwel 6abod of &nctcddng EIvl radiation Althotgh much
of rfiat fotlsc6 b rdiA fa tc oop.tcte rangc of radiatioru paniartar attention b givcn to
Orc fufu, viibls{rd uttrrviolcl, bccausc rest scosc rpplications arc conccnrcd with
Wc ae all familiar

tkra4gcs.

62.1

Nature of EM Radiation

EM radirioa is a form of cocrCy tha b dways in rnotion--that is, it propagatcs tlrough
rpaca Aa'@ that rdcascr, oc cnritr, srch radiation toscs cocrgy. Onc tha absorbs r:.dia6oa gai'rs

wgp

thqs, Trc must ectibc tow thic

qsp'

appcais as EM radiation.

usc drc gnr clcamrnagnctic rzdiaof cncqy, it b ao surpisc that it is intimatcly ticd to clcctricity and
ugpod$u. Indco4cercftl sody shows rhr.electrical and rnqnaic phcnomena producc
EM rdadoo"Thcredia&n prcpag$cs ttrurgh spccin amanrrcrsimilarto wavcs in watcr 1xopagdiry firorn sooc dsaltanca As $cl\ wc cen dcfirrc both r frcgucncy and e
*rrchngth of thc radrtioa. Tbfraucy rcprcaents the osdltatioo per socond rs thc radirde 1nssca romc fxod point ia spe. Thc
is tlrc sptial distancc bctwcen

Reqtrcncyrnd Wavetengtr Bccarsc wc

tioo to nemc this

tuto

trruir€

mrrimaorminirnrof tbc wawin thc dfueaion of propagation.

Sp€cd of
epcoA

fqn

Propgadon

$@.atof

EM radiatim propagrtcs through

bo&&cwavrkng6end frroquency.In

c

- r/

qthcrc c=2998 x fdu/sGr3 x tdm/s

I
/

= watrlcnglhinnacrs
= firqucncy in hcrtz (llz)

a vlacuum

at

a

@nstant

this casc, tlrc vclocity is

(6.1)

=spocdofEMradiationinavacuum

or cyclcs pcrsocond (s-r)

Wlcn such r*lidoa mow6 &orgb r sonvrcwm covito@L &c pogngarioo vclocityisrcdrtccdtotv:luclesrt._# [:3fi]m Notc:This EM rsdiatiou is uscd to carry AI{ radlo signals- .oPnCALSENSORS J 275 illtffit-E rtn Given an EM radixion frsqucncf of ld Hz-find ttc wavclength.2) ll*o wtrcrt n = in&:cofrc&action u .vcloc8 of EM radiarioo in thc marcrial (-/s) indo( of rcftilcrion oftca urics with. Solution We have c: If and r=.5 of rcfiaaioaof thcacdium".t'c' In-Scncol'{roocrralocityis indicatcdby 6F'i.thc radiaion *arrctcng$ for somc Tbc matcriaL Firrd &c vclocity of EM radiatioe h glass 6rt has an indor of refracrion of n samplc of : Soluion Wcknowttut n:- c o so ttrat x ldm/s o=:-cn 3 ls? o:lJ1 x ld mls is madc Wavelength Untts Formany applicatioos' spccificationof EM radiation microwavc Auoueb6bfrcqtrctrcy of 6siadiaion' o ine t+Hzradio lq*:t" f€IIz wanelorgth' by'the rediUion nU ml*t6q it is omrnon to &qiUc ugfif" ".t*Loi iortr"visibleligbtband-Thc ptopcrunitof mcssurcmcnt is tte iit ir./td.pti*frrfy*" .Jhcindcrcof rc&eaioa is rratlo dcfincdby c (6.

howcver.Rod Spectrum Wc havc scco that Elv{ radiation is e rypc of. I X-Rty lox -]-tJltr*iokt tor.belpnd. T Vliblc fdr.276 I CH4PTER 6 (t FIGURE 6. ?"stant spccd or vclocity ir wi spcciry the directionTttc oscillating natutt of this radiation givcs risc to a diffcrcnt intcrpr.Thus.d loc /" I t I *licrrr*rtt 1d 1 TV/rrdh I td .l Wrldcrr9dt B. e IO.) wavclcngG.1 shows EM Radiation 9. p*ryetcs .r.3 r -J. rt e conversion is lefr rs ur cxcrcisc for tlrc readcr. I vtF td I lcng$ in netcrs wirh essociatcd prcfrxcs.1.elation of this ndiatioa in rclation to our cnvircnmcnt. we arc describing its position in the spccrnrnr ofladiation. o&nea as lcro m or l0-ro m/A Thus' fu rcd light prcviously ccscritcc tns e-wavctc"gdr or iooo I.1 The electrornagnetic radiatitrn spectrum frc+rcncV $. o. Figure 6. (Scc dso problem 6..2.fid arrnr l.tEnr eveq/thing fran wry lorit frecpency Mfl rrlio to X rays and ..$HZ signal is dcscribcd by a 3Gmm ligh is aniucd at tbout0J pm wavelcngtlr" Ano{tcr unitoftaerytoyea is trc lnjnrr.nl col.. tA)..encrglt through 8P1t" 1-. tn catcgorizing radiaion by wavelength or ftequcncy.

rgtr thc ernoo6 uuiarionof ftcqu€Etcy. .Thisradiation band covcrs thosc wavclcngths to ritridr oor cp (c radiafion dc&ctofs ia our bcads) ars scnsitiva Visible tbc lqrgcr-wave rediarioq band ttrat cxtends from thc limit of cyc scnsririvity l(L?6pm to apprroximarcly 100p$ is callod fu{mnn$R. naturc Solutian \ & Thc wavelcogsl is givcn. wc scc that this radiaion lies in the infrarcd band' generally' anA is acsignatca as &r'infrarc4 ryccifically.oPTIGALSENSORS | 2?7 thc rangc of EM radiation from rrcry low ftcqtrcncy to vcry high frcqucncy..1 prcscna distinct boun&rics barrccn EM radiation dcsctip- rrariag ooernic rij-s rrU *t tro.\ Ught @ttt4Pt-E Dcscdbc (a) ttrc wavclcngdr Gn m and 41.3 5. drc band b ftrrtcr subdividd so thaf radiation Of wavelcngth 3 to 100 pm is called -far-infmnL Agairu trc limits of 6csc bands arc not distinct and scnc onty to roughly seParate rhe dcscdbcd radiation hto b(€d catcggrics.m s5. radiatioru In somc cascs.2. 6.ft: " b./ *:r c ' m *m of EM radiation of .r.f). From Figurc 6.2 Characteristics of Light Becausc light has Secn described as a source ofenergn it is natural to inquire about the energy content and its relation to the sp€ctrum- .igfrt ncaning eiltrcf lR. so that ovcr a considcrablc ban4 thc radiation could bc dcscribod by eithcrtcrrn Ught Thc small band of radiaion bctwccn approximately 4QO nm and ?60 anr rcpr€sc1j3 v[siblcligfu(Frgrnc6.visiblc.1x l0r3Hz1 I = 556$. togctbcr with *c rssjciatcO wavclcngth in melcrs ftom Equarion (6. in rcaf ity Arc Urrndarics arc quitc indis{inct Thus.1) Erd how thc bands of frequcncy *'"sm of cncrgr ranges fioo ndio signals and visiblc light o x ra}s and pcnc- inlight vkiblc urd iofrarcd trcbands' intqcscdintrroof urcareparriartarly "t***atio. lr1frsrcd .4'x l0rl Hzfrequdncy. and (b) thc |. !#- W ffi.tcr refcrs simply ro. dffit il ffiI.bY a. Orrr treatmcnt for tle rest of this chap. bccause our concclrn is wift thcse ban&.6$d r:556 x rF. thc transition bawccn rnicrowavc and infrarc4 ior cxampla is gradual. Evcn trough Fii n" 6.In proocssontnol tions.1.. tr:(3x ldn/s)/(5.

. Ocr.pn rlt"*"ii. This cncrgy is cxpresscd in ctocsoo.. : h phoron 6..63 6-63 is w /s: w? IJ 6. a siruation wherc ""niJ. . Find {e} thc cstc{gy pcr photon'and (b) *re number eif p}rotors * fr.q/Pical sounqes and detcctors of light. Thc gcncrsl cncrgl.coz rrrl.. a nrore comptete description is joules per sccond. Thc number of photons - lOe s-l x IO-3( J"s}{IOn s-t} x lo-25 J {6.63 x cnerg (J) l0-3{J-s (known frequcnc. unit is conraenrion_ ally cmploycd and pmvides convcnicni magnitudc pfrtn ir x rrr.r"rr"i]..63 x 10-25 JV. or wans. "il.\{fu find the cnergy per photon wlrcrc I GI& wP: hf Ws : W?: b.. 6'd wn: hf -* wherc Wp: * f : f.:" the Power Bocause EM radiatioir is:cncrgy in modon. bcca[sc of rhc motion of thc cncrgy and ire spati"i aii ..i'Jrh" . *-r* Solution a.rion. *."d is insufficienr. it is impractical and unncocssaryto considcr tnc aiscretc nanlre of the radiation.be . how'* " cvcr.roota cdrcr€ ov-= i.asdrornbyErample64.rro.rcn")r. Wrcn dlfing-with.tion is rhen given in ioales otencr'gy in the prcpagating ugtrt eri.il. io faa it h cmit"f or quant4lTlresc quanta are callcd .ri. we deal with macrcscopic pmperties that rcsult from ttrc collcctive bctr""i* oi number of photons moving togce€r.. for Energy "i"rgv air"u. mmruPIE s. of power n ur.n8 I CHAPTER6 Pfroton No dcscription of EM radiation is complxc wittrout a discussion of thc photon' EM radlation at a p*tlcutar fuqucncy can prcpagxc only in discrure quantttics of cttctgt Tlx!$ if somc soure is cnriringddiatiotr ooc-fr.y (f.t) (6-S1 as ptanck's constant) t-) wavclcng& Thccncrgrdocphotonisvcrysrnllocparcdtocloiccncrpq. giinciplcs n*r* """rt aIJpiJ'ortrc net cnirgy of pcSaltion as it prop4gatcs rtrougtr a rcgion of space..q.t.15 X f02' photons ffphoton Figurc 62 shows the cncrpy carricd by a sinirc phoron ar variq$ wavetengths..!i{g dtis ittctlgy as a large ncmbcr oiaurctc uni6 p.. Instead.ntonarhc cnrcr€y of ona phoron is rcbta no dre'ocq.{ A nicmware souroe eaip a ryrfsl of radiarion u l GHz with a torar arcrllr of t J.

2{ x td z{8 xto to r:{ xtrl 50 a48 r6 xtd t:{ xtd smce qnits t0 W of lig[g that is. or 50 V/r'm1 In lcncrai. &ttdron of rygation lhr+ if thc IGW rcuc Just disarsscd was coneotnatcd in e bcarn with a cross-scctional area of 02 m2. lntensity Arnote oomfba pictrcof thcradia$on cmcrges if wc also spccify thc rpatial disributioa of llre lnwcr rtznnrcrac ao tfu.tl Th€ energry canied W one photon rraries irugrsely luifi $e rnrar"eleqgth of Sre EM radiatl)n.4) .oPIICAL SENSORS fIGURE 6: ttilnlttcng$t {l. in this casc as (10 WV (02 m2). intcnsity as thc wafis pcr unit arca. tlrcn wc can spcci$ fre. dc i:rtcnsity is I:* (6. 10 t of cncql in tbc form of trgbt radiarion arc cmitEwn this dcscliptioo isincompl€ac*ifuut rycci$'nrg how ttrc powcr is spaially distibutcd- e tcd cvcry sccond. - 1 &vl t:{ x Id qqIS e{s x rd o0t 27s ?hcottcr*tW qqtl t trrrrio+ct | 1.

. is catlcd h"r* .bcam crocs'soaioaat arca in mr r aat it h sornains difiieult to r squar€ m€rcr rclarcs to a small-scale poblcm- onc oroblcnr s..ry "f.io*rr"ig."" dinaioo of propagation' as slpwa in Figu" 6J' ^fun"a . Thus' for a circular cross z{r At : : rrR? 7'85 - (f..la)(0. ofdrc potrcr canlcd.'ffitl"rt- [:l:#'ffiffifr*..c qidt .itly . and tlr divc.. ttrc cross-sccrional area ovcr whic'h thc fu* it OittiUot a.g.Suclr sprcding of radiation ba' &c cdgc of thc outcrnroct by is rnadc o O" angl. Fordtis rcasoq drc unit m{cm2 is in comrm nsc.c sce drat rornc disnance away !"a rtr... poirru. T6o frr.frorn th'e sfflrce' "Upaf* u/h€rc f = intcrsitYin$m2 P = porcrinW * .F l. e.05 m and tlrc divcrierrcc is 2. 1OWI#.il. sry. e dcscdpio'oittc c6c6Sy tt|rc of Agh proprgating tluough a rcgknof .1" lntensity is g. hospvcr.*63 Salution the intcnsity at thc sourcc is eimply thc porrer over thc area. This ffi ilr.t".i-rlb"d. Bausc of thc naturc of &c cotltoc W is distributcd ovcr a largcr thc l0 samc tion. ror ttr intcnsily Dfuergence Wc still lflrffi&lfi. il.rgene' E)(AMPLE 6...'Jffi$'#.ith cxpGssing drc intcnsity as w/nf orpoler ottr h"d##.ineasurcmcnt situations is odcn in thc mit- liwattrangc. of. Bccausc cvcn durgtr rhc change to tight of *rc r.05m)2 X l0-r m? sectiC .dinnniskd.-nOr-*urcc porrcr in.0 I CHAPTER 6 FIGURE6s So*tto" of €M radiation exhlbit firergrerne duoqgh the spreding of the w{th disAnce.Hs#ffi -..ffiI .5 Fld t for the case shorn (a) at tbc courcc and (b) c tnt odty of r l&w sourcc ! 1-away if tirc radius at r{1 is O.oto pcoplc bave difficnlty relating this sizc to 2 uee rn Thu* if a sciuc hrs "-"' ..28.". $. i. powcrrcmaftrs @&$lrll fmt it bcst sccn in Figurc 63' \ilc havc a lo'W sourcewith u atd thc straight-tirc PrcPag& at drc sotre. have not quitc chaustcd thc neccssary descripors of thc Gathe radiation travcfpy bocemcof tlrc andcncyof light lotravd in slraighr lines.

-ffrity 11n dccrcrse * ftroa r eosidcruim oi"6.-of a$rcrcof radiusR ft'omthc .nd.4) .'anO the area considered. I=Z HGURE6s The intensity of ltght fforn I potnt sowce soufce' depends on $e distance frorn the ' R.as SupPocc r tour€c dc&vces I Pourcr' R vdy $thcs d€dog sith rourccs or:Smfng fton e t*4 F-*fi-r 3f dl& is fund by dividing the total powcr by I o. fitd tbc radiuc unng Figtq' 6'4 as fcntc4 uiaaglc rlgt* dgonoaclry.m rhc ligbt.14)(0.ur(|l T a & Thc intcasitY at6c mtrcc is . rc bne .&t t.4 Diagram to aidin solving drvergence p{obtetre. A (6.r=* lOW= 't. as in ErearrrPle 6'5' " Fi-- )l firlr+r.rii* rt.--tqnoo A 6*dststrcc ft.rrrcas hrvc an intcopint Tlis can bc ecst 6f.-=-?-85 x lo-'m'=:lttSMrr? tr - Slcfrstmsstfiod&cbcanarcaat I mogal{l"4fu-fuintcnsity a guida Rrom elsncntary W.i Eg. .oPncAL SENSORS I 281 flGURE6. eS.085 m)t 'A2:O'02z?rlf fIt : -'2 10w o.os io shos! sctttc: G*tfe. wc sc&at' &r trc '? Rr + Ltari(0) at I nr' (65) Thst Rr: O-05m * (lmltan(f) 8r: 0'S5rn i: rgl : (3.a227 mz 44053 Wttn2' or 441 lff/mt qtrinc-h" popag*ing in dl dievcry.{fipo-ur a.P rcgios.filirffi.

Go.r=* 'r.022? rnz 44tl53Vm1' or441 lfiffmt mci. =lUf/3Wlmz .i*"r*-r{rr. x l(F'm'.nd &o radi.0S5 m)t O'0e2?ilf 10w 0..4 Diagram to aid in solving drvergence proUerlrc as in ErcamPle 6'5' .-b - 7-85 lOW.oPTlcAL SENSORS I 281 -T FTGURE 6./{2 and ttrcnrhc intemity at I rnwc first nust find &c bcac . is found by dirirfing the toal powcr by I from thc torce r=* (6.ea at I m to 8gt gui&' Fkrora clemcntary f..s ttsiug Hgt'(c 6'4 T a fqsto4 EitnglE dgls &e ltiSgtody' *c rcrhaC for qr.liog sith surccs origi&dtrg ftrom r sbw! i! G "f of ibc drrqgpoca Srrypoec oncffi FiSrs€ CS.a*rgae. depends on $e distance frorn the ' R.4) HGUNE65 The intensity of tight frorn I polnt source source. dsncc lnint Ttris can bc scctt dty tt dccrcascs * #. "*ft"" ic" of fia i"#ii * .ll'tr+ftrrr{fl a & Thc intcnsitY at$c eotrrcc is . wh€o d€.ou*-&r-*ir.14)(0.'anO the area conslderd.05m * (1 m)tan(f) 0'S5rn r3l : (3.A Arq A . aiurii"" e sptrcre of radius r roure dc&vprtl pfi*' I of lig$t as f. Rt:Rr+Ltar(O) (65) Thcn : 8r - Rr i: 'A2: f- It * -t2 0. vcry unlu qontlxt paoeaeatug in dl disuch po-iirrr lo-rrccs havc an iotcnrecdor *c bnc . aom oc e.

252 6 I CHAPTER Tengrtcr rt rriooC at tl a$.s t.: * 4nR2lthus' over rhc entire surfacc = * *t*.l:t"T"':. a 5 30 a o ttt l}.Jr.. ffi chrcnatic tungsten so the sun to that from a standard 2dili.*X.S:*f.u*it wave :J"H a*p"""tu.r afunction the maximum as a "r rclativc " powcr l"l*r [" "..::fi.:l'il''1'i...**' Anoilrcr incurdcsccnt bulb rnay . a.itisorinreresttodeterminethc . A sourcc suctr to as I rcferrcd is and o:r raJi"ion oii''*ti"sourcc' how icribcd by a curve showing rr p{ thcl 'Ws.1'1'..'{i:*ii'*.[ffi -----.+.incd CoherencyAlcssfamiliarcharacteristicofthcradiationisitscoheiency.#wevdcogth 1-2 i:t l.:y" 'pt"*i 6ro"a {f**"Iff...:i::lt."'* .rvr*rv tor'vr'' xatatcmpcra$t€ot rdu of radiation lunctlon .WcI seenthat*ghtisd..: ::":15:f#fri:.il.r (Prn) at$13 ldd filament' as rarel the sun and heated tungsten EM radiation ernitted bry hurnan eye' spectral semitivity of the ffi*t# tte r " of radius R is 'A The surfacc a:ea of e sphcrc rounsng e Poimsourcc' t l-l ? (5flr 4rrfi2 decrcascs as thc inverse intcnsity of a'point sourcc This cquadoa stroc's thu *rc 6c disiancc from drc Poinc S..ffi .. z6'u

t..:l.r...1il''.*iJ.11*i:X5 :..li"* sourca a squ*d in thc &scdPtt* srdr'as a lrcr bcam' wlich fsor of sign'ificancc soatml conwnrf d" ..*'J:ffi .-:'tr'":T:i=.Tx:il'. -e (t ao €at te & r-1 ilii-T--e:e o'? ffi-t:o -.i-t"...en. sinelc savclcnr* (* 6...

.rrr o-m.cofradigsf witlcmitradiafion of trcaforcrncntioncdftrcqUcncy of R1 .to oiCro" problcm end d.il e*fot cyc docs not rcspood to hfuidtt d-Ynio g EIlt radiation havc . so thcy will not bc covercd' . h*r..uoresocat ligbt bulb6' s s4 $g&.trY 'Tbc cooyesfriftsl onis dcsc1frd pnryiusty would *cu to be satiefaaory for r cmplctc .hnology in contnol.ffi3. Figctc 6.l lm6ca. rrhi"d* bcan arc in phas+ &c bcam bas sptlal durune^xthcn alurcnufu. Frgurc thc ccn6J shorei how a l-d soure is pictorialty dcf..oe6c.*"o1 sourcc of ohcrcnt rdiaioeue Uans wirh no o&crcocaltaso is t ouly ooovcnir:nt l*'*.oPTlcAL SENSORS I 283 ArrrSr Foritr...O* J*nA *gt Tbtt radiation is roughly : rcc sDcctnml. Ur*rtt.' Bic.1@4-t problcns lba most basic unit is dcsiga i.ws thc ronrinakpcctnl scositiv- ..A i-c6souteisdcfincdasoncthatcmi6 monocfiromatic radiation passing W gO i-iOn pi* SSS nm warelcngih) at eudr ur intarsity &8t &cte is 1/683 in thc middle of thc visible through onc *t .t&Ia(od).n 6c in r linc along thc bcam nas r ilccc-pbasc relarioq .* ar*o{opA.6 rtso rh. bc.16 b" & in erchhmran'relarcd at tl'Sl.{. relUiooofsciliaioasofdificrilotpansof&cbc.a.iocd"The \*a toqgqtith T an cntcrof a[nc..cpYoucro - tlf b pcrUa i!6c{&iblc bod' *yott rculd c*poct r€G& u i*elsity of f SfidoreaA If ao infrarcd Sqpoac ft i. bmp.-*it" cmploycd to dcscdbc visiblc or luninous mcasurcnpnt applications units do not find significant applicafion in instnrmenAtion and using optical t .t'ily.In w*l iocandcsccot and f.hm qec rould $ill Fot bc $1e !o rc8d' bccanfc i1.c rbc bona usc4 r"r13g..n"WbdtPoidstt@$oEcctl(lss scctbc radiation .r*iptt"" *. 623 Photome.Thcsc' Therc are **y-oC.Agt 6&t SGUnE A7 rhe candela bdefmed hteilBof rnrilofm rnonoctrornatieradatisnfronra Fr*nt soure.p". Fof dcdgd h nsnan cqgiscltiPg.e. ergy of 11633 W t rcugb uripac of ru s'rfacc *ith rn area cncrgy.". of rou*es *"i"Co-f . .cq tbp5c tradiioodit&r rtc ililfi€i€ot $& f tsnsc Oc hrnan cyc rcryonds B{ ooly to 6c iotcosity b C.

il Tbc rardqrtar raddionmvctcoglt. w ba*&" sl*urctncnt rangcs -. As ductor resistancc sity.rnaximum as a h[rction of .ry spcctral "dte ettt frdll ottFr 'hc crally usort *ola et (RF) applicatiotts' rn radio &rcqucncy dation' such as RFdaccrss *" *itt'*tffi In this sccrion' Con or Liit and "p"t"tion pJ'upur @fications' 63'1 PhotodeteEtor t!".uccdvarrmc..is as dlc. rr *"j'i**:*.n .so ftir dr. #.-r-t**a aaplicarion* scnso* gen.i"tt' s.lrity"onat*t"ity rcsistas J* L Jf* piaorcs*Aucclls' Bccausc point of btcststaaa.dl'wcnotcd{rrascmiconductorislmstcrialinlrhichel ffiffiffiffi:$mffiffiffi...t"a'raoiaiorr.inc a o.h.s LW: serniconductor energy gap (I) tr-"* : (m) maxirnum detcctable radiation:wavelength (6.t=p** rrr*g mis is givca es I grapfir]'..s" d"H &c from dcvicc tbc wc Gcdbc .ourogy'lisimporanttomrdthcsfccnlrcsPonscofthcscnis to bc uscd' il *"it*i* *"x) "* in which it to 6.sconstant'6.li* G dtducti$ band.tr l* *yffi"-*..32 Photoconductive . rad& th"*cri5rttift'a * fU r"l"ri"c to ot.Tilig pro"iAfr*"* oJ".w*'changcsversrtslightintasitl' Frlnciplelnscctibn/+. viewF.suchastrairsferfunc{ion' linearity. thc mrarncrcr'nscd .ot*&o.63X10-3{J.rr*ffi&cecctraaisics' bffiaedcscsibadbrcrgof dcncoion b lhe spcaml scttsi' . wherelt:Planck.-tkd"gt.284 | GHAPTERG 6'3 PHOTODETECTORS of liglt lo an fuisur m€ntadonpnoblcmishowtomcatlrc radlation lics in Ao funpodant pa't of-uty-applbarion .-': .sc''Gralauractccisrcsof$rotodctccrorsarcryrr|lra|vinportantintypicatapplications typcsofdc' r"&croir*togaiu*oi*t'thcvarious afecscermi"lr*.tdbL. "r'Photod"t""t"rs rhrougb a descdp iharacteristics ."T::?:'. Detectors oncofthcmostcommonphotodctectmsisbasdonttrcdrangencondttctivityofascmiappcars as a changc Thcctrangc in conductor material *io t ri"iiiJ"r. Fort' ptrorcn a th" Ot omarcdoa ban* thc scmim rcsunc.rn invssc frtdioo of radiation intco$ a""r*ro.J*tt of ra * *rffi frGo*. tt'l' *o h m'Xcarry at lcast as'much Gn"'ly indicarcs a maximum wavclcngot: Ep:*: Lw \Amar --hc AI4t .

i:::-a oPTlcAL SENSORS | 2S5 Any radia$on with a wavclengfr grearcr than ttrat peaictca by Equation (6.s resisana gpomcticatly rnA gwilcs nuxiqum surfee ute fortrc &toaoa This rcrdtisbdocEquarios(a& g = gllA wlre.8a shows'the basic idca bctrind &c structutc of a photoconductivc ccll Esscntially.t : 1.r'\il'r -LAWf whictr lics in t'. A = ctoss+cctionalerca(mz) Figurc 6..ToPrcvcnt trc ptgtqPnduetor ft'om-showing similar-rhcrmal cfrccts.86 m l-lf &cIR It is imponant to notc. we make thc photoconductorin asidq thin laycr.re R: resisancc(O) p = rcsistivity(O'm) | : kneth (m) . such as reflccrivity and transparcnc'y to stain wavelengths.?) cannot causc any resistane drangc in thc scmionductor- EnffpfE fC Gcrnraniuro hs r band gap o'f O.that the opcration of a thermistor involves thcrmal+rrctgy- cxciting clcctons in thcondocfioo band.?it+V Lr89fc practical. as shown.nris Cen btirraure lkoconnrpn mium srtfide (CdS).ttal'min- itr..8bS{gurc in the strip is wound back and fordr on an insulating base.hrr q/s} {qrgr x t9r*t's}{3 (0. gincsbutksaarplcs'rresisranemuchtoo ity uroon tcarpcreture. changcbyphotooahrption Notclhat Fld dtc matimum wardcngth ffi x fdt: for rcsisancc I cV' Sotution Wc finrl thc maximum wavclcngfh from . trcsc of tiosse t. it is ncccssary cithcr to ott€4atc ttc dcviccs at a controlld temperaturc orto nrakc drc grp too largp forthcrmalcfrccrs to produccon'drction elccoons- bo6 rggroa*cs arc carptoyd in praaicc"lhc upper limit of &c Gll sp€ctral rcsPonse is ecthtncC by many-othcr factois. vi& r band gEP TdiedoosTooncroomcrti*eqcrialstnrcnrrcbrso4rs:*rouminFfiruc6. wtrich rcdtrccs tlle nominel tcsietinoc.Thd arca Pr€scntcd" : L to light.df cV.8. Of esursq such 6. "r{ : WL is largc for maximum cxposure" whercas thc elccUical lengttl I unwield$ so is r strrlct$re is small. as shown . photox*rduairc scnrieondrgcr nst€riatl are cadotL4ilc{ rndcadmium $l€nidc tOdSc)' with a gry cacqgk' bo&rrdcrbts hetc a vcy higb rcsistivlaap grp.6?cYXl5 x ltrre#eV) t-.

47 to I to3pm l.?l pm 05 to 0i7 pnl A.400 rrs PbSe -10 t6 ms ms Spcptral Band 0.ii rcsis*ancc with intensity are usually p' "*iau*of at a particular wavdc€' vid€d in tcrms of a g"o *.o ffi of photocond'ctors Figruc6ll usrally nonlincar.286 I CHAPTER 6 Thh "t* 4 .cthc PhYeicd dzc FIGURE6.8 6.5to4pm ..1 Photoconductof characteristics Photoconductor Timc Constant ss -100 CdSc -10 Pbs ^. with variation Thc *€4 Mg1 f* *.u1" of resistancc vcnsus inamity hundrds of ohnrr vary from *ithin thcryoctralb"Jnpbt vallcs atdarkrcsistane radiation intcnsiy.wmresisturcc-dcceasing as thcradiation intensity incrcascs' TAB[.o.3tla and low resistance a) cell configuration to harrc large sfea / bl' Foldino lhc confgu:ratioo bac* and forth reCsc.8 Tlre photoonductive ces tpsa structure to maximize exposure and minimize resistanaa vary oa' c€ll characteristics Tb characlcristics of photoconductivc detectors as the active clemcnL TE ridcrably *bco diffcrcnt scsrioonductor matcrials are used 6'1' inThbtc draraccrisucs arc summarizcil fortlpical valucs ---ffi.

rvith any accu- rate rasistane-measurcment mcthod. \ r\ !-a = c{. 3o& drc PbS rnd PbSc cdls arc rblc to dercc infrarcd rrdiatioo. .3 A photocord{Jctlve cetl resistahbe chang€s nonlinearly with radiation intensity. s Ito Iatcmiqr {eW/crnr } FIGURE 6. a photoconductivc ccll cxhibits a wi& thc dyramic variable.n in $igure 6.an absoluieresistancc that decrcascs nonlincarty incnsity nrcasutctncnt is'desirc4 calibration data are used in conjunction. & UT l. by scvcral hundred odcrs of magnitude frorn dark to normal daylighc lf. cfrangc in resistenoe is pmnourd wtpre r rpsistence can ctrangc $e intco6lty. but thcy rrt drcrcssapCbtg no drcmat rcsisafu changcs.Tbsy are usually uscd in u.o ttcoocirci* a-o.. C] g10 rFl I {r.t rU (.rfir*ootdlcd erdorutc io prcrcu tkaral rcsion€ drsng$ nun -rsfing raCiafoil c*focts fhQts ett is thc postoommon photoconduaiteocll in ommctcial usa lts sp€ctral rcsponse is similarto that of the human cyet rs shou.rp. in this casq radiation Gcncnlty. fhis grqh is for thc wrrclcngilr of nexlmum rcryonsaThe respcrse is kss as rtc urarnCcnlrh g& iUrr" ot bclow this raluc.t fr Cc8 \ 1 \ \ \ \ \. sttows a tlryical graph of &x$isian€c drangc vc(srB fU raAiarion intcosity.L oPTtcAL SENSORS I 287 I I t l tt t \t A c tt .6 forc r* $ignal Gonditioning 'Likc tlrc thermistor.

l Rr = l3k(} Fhotc.en R2 = 39.at thc ambicnt lcvel. Tb tfurc oonstant is 72 ms.0-V constant inpur Thi output is so . Thc cell is R2 in the feedback of an inwling amplificr with a -1.R2 u*=-###BOT_TEXT###amp;/(-tv) wtr. Lct us first find the ell resistance er lO rns tring A(r) .. . Variqs op amp cirruits rsing thc ptrotoconaucor as a circuit clement arc uscd .t0 will aeomplish this. = 3 V so that Xr = 39. Dcvisc a sJrtcrn to tigger a 3-l/ omparator within l0 rm A CdS ell 50 d &€bcam intarupioru . Sotution Thcc ac nrary trssibb dtnions to &is psobhrn.1296) = 39-O7? lcf.lR. 'irn'rctt tirc E istancc ctr8ngc to a culT€nt or roltagc ctanga It b imgaanrro notcdutGcell is euriablc rcsistorr and rhecforc has some nrarcclts havc a rating from 5O to innrm porrcr dissiparioo ttraf cannot bc cxecdcdm$li dcpendrng on size ard congtuaioa o Mc $(AMPIE &7 ell has c da* rcsistare of t00 kO and a rcsistancc in a light beam of 30 k0. /R'\ :.i - - - lhd wc must havi a +3.t -lv +3V flGURE 6.7.O77 kf.10 This circuit is the solution for Example 6. Rr)[l c.077lcf.28s I C}IAPTER6 - Scnsitivecontnohbout somc ambicnt-radiation intensity is obtained using the ccll a briUgc clrcuit adjusrod for a nult.hl e(rc ns) 30k + ?0k (6.= & +. we make ' V-.).V signal to ttrc comparator urtcn dre cell rcsistance is 39-0?7 l{L Thc circuit il Frgrrc 6.

ltcc da&s rrc c*lhd futowtwlcoaflr b6causc d thir ru&agcffics-qq gllr-coq.oPT|GALSENSORS l2S!' whidt s$uc€s tlrat thc comparaor will tiggcr at l0 ms from bcam intcrmption.ple Opcradng pdnciplcs our orrddcrario b on instumcnarion- of thc photovolaic ccll arp bcst dcsctibcd by Figurc 6.c.ts.s fonmatioo ofmduaisrdectrronsand holcs.Thc dcplaion-zonc potcnri* of tncpn junction ckots lcomirq ndrtion HGURE 6. .:: FhotovoltaicDetestors enodrcrinpcamclassofpfrotodamorsgcocratcsavoltagcdratisploportiomltoirrcidcnt ie*y.r &c EM Gocrgt b ckicet *"foemmc*ms rc frund r torh EM rrdarioa dacclotl rnd pow rorrccs owertiag roGr EM reddo pwan&ag radiaion ido clcctrictl pwcc'lbc mptsls of tlTc4ptlcarlue Pdnd.11 A photouoltaic 'solar' cell is a giant pn iunction diode.1 I .." oigg* 633 -sP l3ko (-l v) d*V. Wc ecc that ttrc celt is rctually r giant dio& that is construclcd using apr juac:tion betwccn apgopiatety d4cd scmieonductors" Photons sriking rhc oett'pass Cuouglr 6c thinp'@d uppcr hycrld rrctbsorbcd by in thcr lapq which c". To scc that thcoomparatawill nordggcr with rhc bcam prcsarf sd R3 = 30 kO 8Dd ttre amplificr ouput is y--q'whiclr k innrfticicnt.

:ryY *itry" will have ins[photons in6i*au* bc. .ia a family { rrill note rhat utr''r You of Egttt fotcd. fo ng"t" O. oiopticat effects an upper limit to * "" Ooougttfte"cU.y. *ff wirh e thin n-dopcd *F$. Ctcartn if tnc ft.equcnc.rifd .i*itl*' Nmslrivc diodc . * O..r.. "tthe "*n.2S0 I CHAPTERG ujil \ ->l-.oss tt ejunAion Thc uppcr ternrinal rt laycr on toP so that dl polaritics It is also po.* tiiaf'.'tii.o u.'r.f* there11f produccd' be urJnlvofagcwiu {icicntcncrgr to. by thc IV curr shown as gcncratcd o-* Oi OioA"' thc jur6ion is illuminato4 a vottagc is voltagc' phoorroltaic voltaga thi" it-ry croesing the zcroc$€nt axis wicr a noozcro it is rcvcr* when diodc' the Figr'c 6. such Penetrer "t Gi*t b"-. -.12 exposure to EM radiation' The lV curves of a pn iunction diode rary wtth thenscparatcs&rcseconduaiohclglronsandholes'whicbcausesadifferencc:1ry is pocitivc' and thc lowcr ncgabYe tial to dcvctop acr. btcnritY (Notc tcrfct {G rd nifca} (rdrtitc) FGURE6.n as radiation "fom*nof"pair.*tcharacrcrisdcsofthcphotovoltaiccellcanbcunderstoodbyrcferencctob curvcs is shown fc r of pr junaion OoOc fV Ju.f2 Ebo 6hoc^ 6at ttrc rivcrsc cnrrit through to bc dr photodiode' ir tr.prod'aed.ra Y**o* ttrt ftdooofric tolrjc I I t tLi3!t fr..siblc . in biasc4 also incrcascs J. 1' .*=r.rrtit "roi".t. +rr-D /f*t*."ctpristics..ioo htst"ttpls":"olt"i"cclts whictr a voltagcril atsohavcarangcof spcctral.3 r fn.y is.

Thcrcfrc. itispdsabl€iomcasurc thiscsrcntwb6 uing thcccllio rcasuremmtud lfggs 5. thc ouEr reltagp b Clttn by lgffio ry Yr : -8ls (69) Sinccthcc. Vogt . Is6r n&ich is sinply tbc ccll voltagc dividcd by is intsnal resistars. = Id log.13 The Th€venin equlualent ciradt for a pbtotoltdc celL Th€ resistanoa also varies with radiation. Futmarcly. ttcfccdback ell drlctltto u op rry. tbc intcrnal rcsistancc ls ncady oucranc Thc Sort circuit mrcnt. which is propottional to tle number of p&otoos rfiiting tbc ell and tbrs thc radialioo intensity.f4 fuwshov Iscaa bcobuinod by omcaing trc inpumostbczcro.oPTlcAL SENSORS I RGURE 6.Tbis is casy to undcrstan4 sincc tlre ctrnent ic goporti. At low intcnsit5l ttrc ncsircalocnrytcttousaodcofoh$rcreclac rttigtcrinmftbsitmaydrcpto lcss tlnn Vo 13 Aftyers.onal o fhc numbcr of drargc canicrs. yo in rcri€6 qi& an tntmsl rcsistanc.13.}r= l* Sine thc photorcleicell ts r bancr:r ireaa bc modclcd rs an idcal tolagc sourcc. ?S1 .arty srfth tiglrt intcnsity.t to ttc tntcrut reionc. FguF 6.f 2 dtoffis thc short-circuit cuncnt as dp values of currcnt whcn tbc lV cun'e crosscs ttrc zcro-volage lina Slgnal Cohddonftlg Sie&cshott-€irdrhonrcng ls6r is liwtyrdatcd tothc radiadoai*crsity. so is rtc ortputvoltaga rt converts the cell short-circuit cunent nal voltage.slems todcrivc maximro power ftom thcccll" sim &c optinum !o{d b Gqu. at higbcriatcnsitbs. Sire &ccryEsbttcop currcnt lt(egb I must oquel lg. VJ& nadcs lid.dcpardcnt on ocll matcrial = ligltintcosity Ilrc imrl nsisrre d&c odl dso vrfts silt liglrt intcnsity.r {" as dro*n b Figtm 6. It $ras out tlrat thc volagcsourcc rnrics wittr lightintensity in raappmrimarcly loguithnicfashion: v.uncntis lincatly ptopodond to light intcnsity.8} %=opco-circttitocllvoltage = oomtilnt.(l + rr) $rtrrc {6.Thfu ooodirxcs ttcdcsigs ofs.

00286(316.so Isc(S m\I/cm:l . to find m and I/q wc form two cquations ftrom the givcn facs: 12: O. 4- o.? and Uo: 1.lrow ttrt its unlqded output volt4gc rangcs ftom o-:2 ro o.ffi a Find drc rangc of b.286m.r.Zg4 . oj to 1.PLE a8 '' A photovoltaic oett is to bc uscd with radiation of istcnsiry frr.2 v as t Soluion a" Tb fiad thc'shod-citcuit cufi€otr wc nccd !o find thc ccii rcsistancc at the intcnsitics.wcfina 4- (0J2 .2s2 I CHAPTER 6 H(. and Isdt2rn$cd) .0028&rr + U.00os = 34Oe (0-42 - adat 12m{crt'.00r7 - t{t t! Now thc chort circuit current is grrnn by 136 .421t47 Itcn.lhiscanbc dooc by notingrtat &c load cttrcntdelivsed into-e d*r f0GObad isgirrcnby f-_loo+& 'L u whcra lr.dop .ct's just find an cquation for tc whJtc silriat coraitioning = A..l]p1O : 065 m.. sho*{ircuitcurc$L signalyd{dry ro prwi{te s linearvohage from intcnsity vcics ftom 5 to 12 mllrft#.t@Utlrl rcsisranca s# .E tilssncnts .?) : O.002 lm or m: 316. So.at5 m$m2.isthcodt opar+forcriit vdbge ing for &e resimoc. De. .Op.4t v tensity whilc it deli'cis cuneot from oi to lJ mA into a lOG(! load.rn 5 to 12 mVcm2.00065nr+Ua Subeactitrg.TM. sc fmd &: (% ad & b thc ceu intcrnal . 0.\ b. OJ:0.0.V"/&.as in Flgure-6r4 &dtrcrrigmlcoodirioning wirt prcvidc the rcqu&od oueuc l.2 0. Thc signal oonditioning wilt oasist first of arr op arnp (-un"nr-ro-volrage oonyqt5''.? : 0.l?)/o.05)/0.

lr$ * lO ti$ SpccffiI B$d O."50 *2 .lr.lrrcs to premt thcrnal ctracts fttoo obsgttisgle' iied66 dcrc&ir.rm O3 grrr to 0.ts ^'l. TLtils 62 lisec scvcrrl tJpcs ofoctb ud tbcir qrpicel cpccificatios.r to 1.44rl'm to I .E 62 Tlpical photovoltaic cell characteristics Cdl lvlatsiel Tic Coostrnt siiicoa (s0 -.I6?t l00lsc + 0'0923) circsit Cell Chardefstics Tte popcrdcs of photoroltab odts dcpand o" tc tr'rtd als cndq/cd foc fucetl rnd 6c nenrcof rhc dogiCIS li$dtolrotidclhcl adp laycfs" Som&G ue rsod cly a loc Elrpcr. sincc tL Figsre 6.16?(t00lsc)+0:94 ltthat remains can bc provided by a dlfferrential amplificr.nrc riliom ptcoolnic odt is ptobdy the moet em. So dE *frotc sigrrat ccinditirxring is Ydrc lt6Jlsc + *P4 For &c first stagcr let's use a 10$'O fcdback rcsistoc %:3. rcltage Frt TABT.oPncAL SENSORS I 2e3 8.8 pm 15 frm to 3.. Thcmel ctrocts can Uc proiotrae+ podrrcing changcs of ec odcr of mV/'C in ortof fixcd itrtcositY.79 rrm .t h O.6 rrrn (coolcd) 23 pmto ? pm(coolcd) O.8.O&la V HGUREAfi Ofie solutbn to ExarnPle 6.62 il.20 Fs Selenium (Sc) Crcrmanium (Gc) Indiurn arscnidc (tnAs) ' lndium antimonidc (InSb) ms .15 shouls $c finet 3.

4 Photodiode Detectors Thc prcviouseoction sho*ed oncwty the thcpn juriionof ediodc is scnbitivc toEX diation.l6ashows abasic rcverse-biasconnection of such a .3. thc currcnt nill bc inqcascd almoct lirrcarty with light intensity.16 The photodiode uses the pn iunc{ion reverse crlffent to rneasure radiation.( / 2s4 I CHAPTER 6 YR $'I Orra2) (b) r(r*l FIGURE 6. In particolar. which givcs risc to photodiodcs as sensors. Rgure6. TIrc plotodide 6ea rcfcxsto. 6.&c facr that phcons impinging on 0rc pn juncrkr dter thc neyense currcnt-vcrsus-voltagc charactirisric of tlrc diode. Thua ttre photodiodc is in the rcverrc$ias mode. thc plotuoltaic $e*Apn diode is scnsitivc to EM radiation in anothcr wcll. .

075 "i"t""t coovcrrccsith Ito Brarnple 6.Vi|}.9.*r r". l5 kO .""u" t* ess lsgo|.00wm r"A) prcscnr light no wifr v zj rri *-t .t"c"a" is . of about 0.iL : to0ol:ft".:n" vide radiarioa in a trc.-.18.ilt n<i vplage drop rros trc diodc' 20 v/l:i rd! '* 133 nA' This 2Xt V io &c cnficot -8(X) pA as thc inensity 6tr-t-"itt loq -200eodmplc-drrcnt-to-vdtag. :thc :-GF.ni o" ..iq".'"sp.pttitro6doe Frgrncglz Ootoeioac caaiog" as sbourn ia -. in .tiE = tom(sm *l) *. 6oire bftcq thc lcns b boift into thc ilra alcas mostbc *ffi-f""" qgnn"!."..c !o..9"$i raa*cu'cnt :.pr!{ infraro4 but with usable ---r--..B**?ircJd"a*t typica[y nrc * nmgstcr gfircngcviorsly' pro^- daodard xirrcci to ioe.rcd and far-inftarcd radiatioa respoosc in rbc "tSiUf.d lirc $offi o"r orffi "i"g" is rrrgcs &on f6O t i&.12 akcady sbourcd how &c rwcrsc Thc load draqnoo thc Frlcr$'(|Illotw c[rvcs of 6cdioda urc 6l6b aload n* rc id6ity' IGS of afimfoio rs rbcdodc linc is usd od&nrirc lhcvdt g9d|anggs of 6c pt illunrhatioo no si6 c[ncat' m6oic aioa.Gf.f *iblc Thc Photo4iodc io onput voltagc -ar ns.t Thc ds*.Gny."*t *e its fas timc mspmrc' *hidt can oo" *t"prr*"Ia"r*go oea" o.rr".jP** cir€trit of ouFut rctbg! {'ill be rhi rangp * *S".'' ii# cr6 is uscd ia rhc shown in Frgrrre 6. rango .o. tGl C*l* 6"n *d EgurG 6'l6b T eg$ Ktruttiehot)' urygca x ry lfFP frorn apdlphrpnrattu ffidd .. n".t? rdffi are verysmall ard often trsb an lnn to focus lidrt on the iunction- ctlncn increases with light inteosity' In FigFrgurc 6. What rangc from 100 to 4o0 Vm1? drrrit fUrt i'ntcciea Solution of "/ Alodlio€isdriwaoctbecrrrrcsofFigrrrc6.cxandingftrom!9supp!vo{ag:9f q.l6b.(|ncd raditu hansitv junaioo" (}nvcs n .oPTtcAL SENSORS I 2ss 6.t" rcry small likc rcgular diodcs' so' bc in rhc nanocccond oiil C.tf*"'o:8-tT9*.

hgwcrq'd thc short-circuit currcnts arc tlqr smallIn sorne cascs. since thc orlF vill&cnbezcro*trcn itrc vottagp lszcro. thcspccd issloscr. As usual. Figure 6.E E16 a.with maximum in the infrarcd but usable range in the visible band. r Phototransistor An cxtension of the photodiode concept is the photot d In this scnsor. thc inrcnsity of EM radiation impinging on the collector-base junction transistor acts much likc a basc curcnt in producing anlamplified collector-cmitter cur Figurc 619 clpws thc sc{rcmaric rymbol and e typical groundod cmitter connccrioo phototransistor. *3 to Collcaor'cmitter volt g'G FIGURE620 lV ctrrrres ol phototransistor collector cunent ard collectoremitter voltage form a famt currres with light intenoity as the Parametet d photodiodc is ogcratcd"in rhc photovoltaic modc. in much the samc way thd curcntean for rcgutar bipolar transistor action.In dris mode. This device can be used much d . but still offers response tins microsccondS. there is a limit to fhc spectral responscr.zes I CHAPTER 6 FIGURE 6.2O illusraai how EM radiation intcnsity can bc rcprcsentcdr family Of collcctor-cmittcr ctrrcnt vcrsu! voltage curves. Thc phototransistor is not as fast as thc photodiodc. ^20 \.19 A ptptotransistor does not need base current because lt is effectiveV supplied "bV incoming light intensity. ta L Arz L o I (.

lct !s ooosiftt rhc two+fcrmt vrcrnm Sotmrbc Sotm in Figurc 62f.'m -v FIGURE 621.Aledlincusingdt'dcolbdorrcsistorand nryply vottagc witt show rcspoosc u efirncliooof ligbtidctrsity.19.t harc bcco'taaefy rcplacd by otbct dctcctors in oodctn mcasurcocos.ru 3}ani-m n'ffi frSiiiilllilllilllr w frWl.6e led lifur Grosscs 5V. Sue phobd. dtffi . liko lblt itr FigttG 6. Ye caa se rhat &is crwcs tbc f0slld lioc ltlbortr l2V rsoss rhc tanvoltagcof ebout 5 V sistm.rg ffif*dnt rilplui r'l ?trotcl*ttPnr Llght lnprtt fI{tril. to @n€ntratc radimion oq tbc transisor junaion 8.rl-V valrrc on tbc Y.? nc h Fiut! Soluion td lioc nrns fiom tbc l. Wbca rtc intcnsiqy ls 40 m$on2.oPTlcAtsENSoRs 1237 tran$sqcxcctrfratnobasccuncrtbrcquircd.lhctnaosi$*rtltagc ralgp vill bc l2to A fcr 635 Phottr€missive Detectors typc of photorhteclr *as acnctqpia Esry ltars $o' bt* it is *ilt onc of thc most scnsifirc-typk. Structure of the basic photoemissive diode- .frfi/tPtE ilm pbaouaaristorsiecbractctisics rbo$n ioligcrc6-At is uscdinecircuit likslhat 6. A{. crie e l4-V aryply and e 50G0 ollocto( rtsistaec. -Oftg|t thc @otranfrstor has e built& lcss.milh hr*i.idc vsicty of spcctral rargcs and sensitividcs canbc scl€ctod ftom thc oany gAcs of ptotoenissilg dctcctib evailable Tfrris ocdraniss of photocoissive aa viocs. Thns.n. $rhat raneg of lL rcsUl tom ligbt intcasity ranging ftoo lO to 40 W/trf.In Principles To undcrrtan<t thc basic opc..d"&.exb to e qrueot of lzl Vr50O O = 28 mA m ibc I! axis.dooal fhCrr*drr coci.

. "u. PhotomultiplierTubeThesimplediodcdescribedprcviouslyisthebasis as shown in Figure 6-22a' As pre of the most sensitive pt ooi"t""tor.1f"'iltfi'"X'u"* .wcnotethat*rccathodcisrnaintainedatsomenegativcvoltagewithrcq I"TTS:T.ff":ff..a Drloo.. S51 1{ :An:: a photon :}: cai strikctur f#Jtm..'.*T"*5leain'Eachd'r'd vottages to acceleote the elestrons' is mainuined at success-Je-ty i*"-i. o.7"-. the ca6o& striking light of that dcpends on the int"ntity tor R.. casily dctechcr ro* #=#t"'i . .HS.2e8 I CH+PTER 6 -Vc l'b4o r{bod.A*.*.rJ h paiicurar.3. .ierdependsonmurtipricalion"11lP99'a15.o*tit" Figure62l. rhcn.::1|""3fj to thc wire anode that it e*""dtd-til"grt toiti* n T" materiar is a metar ror which ..'*iI*im5 t31:: . .um"i"ii"-n"'gv-it"""rlo*"tt-?11t:P11$t:-":?lt::..out"ri.j}e3 -7t tllno& -1..i"Jl"]".u*n..ec 2 t -slo v -?*l r-l Dpodc s'ii*: %" Iti"Xff#-. faccandimpart. we have "..'. Thus.ff.il"bl.'#.. throug! ta to thc anodc ty ttre poq*+ and then fff ..

ud r rolugc drop ecrw 6is Fsistor b ocasurcd. 'Ilrc ca:ly tcln pltto. fic rfr*ily. exte. we consider the mectranism by whictr such radiation and tcmperatu€ arc related and how it is used for tempe{ature measurcmenl . $3 designatcs fldtcsponse &om abqrto35 to 0. wt€c €ach stti}cs tbc grhe with sficieot cncq5r to ciuscvcnl mpclccrrors. thc ..12 to0. it is possiblc to build difrcrcot tlpcs of pbo. Thc atrmbcrof dynodcs and drc natcdal eoo which ttrcy are constructcd dcterminc&c anplificaion orornrnt gaio. thc first is thc spcctrat rc- photocsissif uatcdat coatcd <is tbc cafroac" Tbe scoond is thc tra$parcoqf of ttc glass enrclopc or window 6mugh srhietr fte EM radiation must pass. cailcd dyno&t.7 p1n" ' tiurc constatrt for photomultipticr Erbcs rangcs from Z) gs down td Ol ps.e clcctr.22a" rddr nrfficicnt cnctgf '' Speoiticrtions Ttc Aocificafoos of photomuttiplier orbcs depcnd on scvcral fcatnes: l. Many ottrcc ctcctrrode dc. tbe photomultiptier (unlikc somc odrcr transdocrs) has I gaiz assoc{atcd wi& its dctocti<n Onesinglcplbtonstiking rhecadrodcoay rcsnltin a million elcctnons atrlrcanodc! tt b 6ris cficct drat gives tb photomultipfrcr is cxccllcot scositivity. I-n this section.om0.ign arrang@ts arc's$d with thc sanrc prirciplc of opcration shown in Frgure 6. suintrin€d at suoccsSncty moec poitivc volagcs. ande. [il ilil i# ffittltt p' #.qdcd io iaclude any of scvcral mettrods of tcmpcrattuc nrcasucmcnt that rcly on plvt radiatioa Thcsc mcthods dcpcnd on i dircct relation bctwecn an objcct's tempcraturc rnd the EI{ radiation cmitrcd.Ih's. Ttc final clcctrrodc is Arc. Gdns of Id to l0? (rclatiog directpho.ons rre rclcntod to 6c sccood d5roodc.t rngpty dirocly.95 pnspoosc of tbc ltrcoonbinatiooofcathodcoating and window nratcrial is dcscribcd by astandarO spr. qthcrc lhey coostiurtc I anrrr-nt througb&. @o' 4sCMETRY Onc of thc most significant applications of optoclcctrronic tnansduqs is in thc noncontact m€a-curement of terpcraturc. : ' Stgnal Gondidoning Thctiglatcoodidooitrg is usrallyahig!-volagcncgaivc Fm :.om thccatMc stikcs fie fintdynode b c. takcn toge*c{. wc havc many fo[. cfiich is groundcd tbrurgh a rcsistoc & Aphotoclcctnoa A. span wavclcngths ft.iutt1 tas bcer. Z toclcceoos &om ftc cadrodc to GkcEoos attrc enodc) are typicat Thc spcctral rcspoosc is dctcrmincd by two factors. fbc cathodc tlryicatty rcquircs -1000 b -Zn0 V. tooultiplic$ that. WW.€onocbd !o thc photoca&oda Arcsisirc voltagc dividcr (Figuc 6.lbis proccss is rcpcatod foreachdj/rnodc untilrhcclcctrons thatrcsch thc rnodc arc grcaffy mtndfliod in numbcq. rnd cadr dytrodc is thcs dvidcd cwrly fto6lhr A l(Hynodo trbc with a -100G'Vcarhodcthus has-400V on ttc fifstdynodc..owing€lcctnod€s.icct rcvcol clcctrce Alt of th. Using tzriorrs matcrials. rs shown in Figure 62?b.-S$V on ttrc *conA rnd so on.cm to indcatethe spocml responseThtr* edcsignationof Sarde numbcridcntifics a p{ticr&rband"Forcxamplc.22b) ptwidcs thc rcspcaitc dpodc volagcs Usnlly.qdc is glouotr 6rough a rcsistor.oPT|CALSENSORS | 2s9 notd a cathode is maintaincd at a large negativc voltagc and coatcd with a pbotoernissive marcrial In this casq howevcr.

oodrt and soremaias11t fir6d tcmPcgnrc-Thiscncrgy gain rnay bcbeuscof thcrrnal It is obiccts.i. at vcryhigh tcmpcraturcqthcmaximum cmiacdradiationis s ttrc visibic band.bjcc is allnirrg EM radiation ad such radiaion is a forrn of cncrgt fu ' objcctmusttclar&ricncrgy.but iltris ctcrctnrc ils tcmpcranrrcwould dccrcascas thc * t*LL* olay" tfo f*J.thc tdnpcratur€ and cmittcd ation are in onc-tNnc correspondencc in thc following rcspects: rf I A *udy of blackbody radiation shows that the total cmittcd rr.4.Thc rhcrdiationforseveral toslrow the intensityandsparralcontentof (por persccond theordinatcisrhecncrgycrnised and scissaistreradiation wavetcngrtu dissipatcd) pcr unit arca ar a parricular wavclcngth.6. at low tcmpcratrrllr.rcc en o. .tcbody.orn radiation EM of rbsorprioa wi&anottrcr oblu 96 rhc by abssption trcat and cmission radiation EM 6cmrccn intcrpUy imporrant 1E not md r tir objoct in achicving thcnhal cqlilibriuttt- Blackbody Radation To dcvctop a quantiadrrc descripicn of thermal radiath.2i. In gcncral hot- "6.n raOi"tion vidrotrtrcgard rc any spcciat pocutiaritics of parricrrlar uavclength and ttrcrdoc bmnrcs anidealenitten Assumc &i* idcal objea is now placd in rherrral cquilibium so that its tcmpcrat plmod is controllcd In figurc 6. and finally.f". Wc scc that. As thc a. Thc arca under thc cqve indicatcs fu rotel cm:gy per tccond (porrtr di$iPatcd) pcr unit arca emincd by thd objccr Sclrcd ourr133 are shown on thc plot fordifrerent temPcratur€s. Becausc of this shift in cmission Pcak with temP€raturc' an object bcail to glow as its temperature increascs. considcr first an idcaliud obja-An idcalizcd &ject absorbs all radiation impinging G8l3 also object This Mce idcal 1"9gsdtcss of warclcngth and rtrcrcforc bcofires.cct A simptc mariaSc of finite tbcrobjectwith thatan molcculcsconsist#. rtre gtrl raAiation cnriuod frorn srrch ai iac* objcct is # tcmpentur€s. .lilf . estatc ofcqnitiUrlum isreH wlrcrethcobjcctgains as muchcncrgy as it radiat6. g.3OO I CHAPTER 6 . pcr sccond for all wavclengths increascs with the fourth powcrd diation cnergy or the temperature. Total rudiaion Eaf4 where E T: temperature (K) of object (6.fiiof .1 TherrnalRadiation All objccts having a linitc absolutc tcmpcratufp cmit EM radiation Thc nature and cxtcu of sucfi radhtioo dcpcNd on tr ampcraturc of drc objecr' rtrc1$cannaing and d"s'riP ' rion of trtg pfpnonrlnon ocargicd tt intccst ana aUarriour of physicists for many ycs' hn rre can U*Ay a6c_*rc rcsulA of &csc 1pscafi$s th1qrgb ee following argumcnt' h b charges' Wc rbo urctl lilown thd EM redh&n b Scrrcmtcd by thc eoeleratiqr of ctcfiicat motion of ttc vibratory in resuls object havc scen that thc additkn of &€ttn t €trctgi to an with thc fact 6r couplcd corccPT' &csc rnolcculcs of thc ob. For tlrc blac. sunounding ft.pcrature is inqeasc4 thc nraximurn cmittcd radiation is in tlp sttsE wivclengths.-h"tg"*' ledto&cenclusion rnotion' mal cncrgrcmis EM radiation boeausc of cfiarge 3gc. oa i.. ttrc radiation emincd is predominantly in tlrc long'wavclcngth (far-infrard to microryrt) rcgion. for al isolatod smatl sanrplc' ihis dpcs occrrr).

* # r tru h* lru r& H TF r#i .rrrttffiitffi'.ry". r t att T I 0.ffi.dt Fr calibrarioo to en i<lcal btad*odv' -"JiJJ*'i** cnittcd ftom.J .42 Broadban6 PY6meters onctypcortcrnpcrau'c ryt9{otl*9}ffi.* blnt' F.tbd*clcarfromFryTj?dEt&eradation rt*ilft-qq5 11Pe of tcopcraury er*urry -.sild" in Frg'rc 6'2{' Ttrc radiaion ur *e applicd.. a -a a a- -G € l F a t I E I I I ta I tl b r I I I g l bn fr- ld.Jffi or o Sf-d FEnE6zl -r&nasaftmciionoftenperaure' UqnrcscfEf'Irae - l.'.ttuod ffiffiH#ffi*ffiffisffi.-"r-objc€tg .lgy.l*" - 6.irde. F.s }Ltr rhatso dd* 5nn tmd ' f.udt&tatlien.*ffi tcrnPcrrnrrrc'tsa€ascs grauoocvffiffi fnfcrrudqffrcI46fu endatiooarcrgYrct q ty "f idcat bladsodv' traLF*tt**?i..301 oPncALsENSORS I ilr F Ft rto b th h b ..r"ffiH[ pcr unit are+ effiy qffi *mm #ffi ffi.6 a. f" p.

!ilmmcd Ctcryi&urc ttod rbod 3{Xl K ro rhoct m linft. anddrc2-cm np6n? what is tre aimd rt ftc mooo (238.F rb t n 65 A&tcclorcan jos rcsolrrc r figit intcnsity of 25 mVml Hory far away can it bc Placcd ftom a IGW Point eoucc? 6.cTtsbfl Qplitrtios for 6. Appfc*ioos of opical tesnigtrcs arc particularty uscfut {thcte contact mcaswerncnt isdiscule PROBLETUS. divctgcncc (*axCing) in radians' and qlcctral"Tltq llrhcn Nodalcd wilh tunan e]G dcmifi.i&out &c liquid?wiih n ffoi foog Aoait ufc O" ligt* !o &nrcsc ihc lfil qn' and a diof 4 dianclcf cxit rn 6.iis baso6 oe a copfu of:rinutalcd coissioa cxcitcd atoos to emit many mcc Sotons. Amracy vaies from 3t0Kb 305 Koe bcocrinsonrcG$cs.tion k dcfincd as a forsr of cnetgl cha6ctcdzed by consant spccd.cctasa functionof is tcmpcraturc' raa IR promce{:s m8y be $scd io lmccss. *ctioa62 x Ir : 13 b. and nonochnimati. dc- t..D fornr of cncrgf EM radiarion ts bcsr dcccribcd bf lbc intittllity in tlag pcr rtnit arca. l00o w of powcr. 3. li8b b dcscribcd by r ect of luminous units drat arc ell relaiw to e standard' visible soruoa As r Tlprc rrc four tasic dr6odctcctqs: ptrooooaduaire plrotovolaiq pno&ct*ssivc' r'6 phorodode.000 uril. intcnslty in nVf/cd * AO atthatdstanca . fact-ns is spci:i* OrilcrisOcs rdativc to spoctral scnsitivity. ?. Convcnrional ligls sotsacs arc usnally divcqcat rod incohctc*.hnrOmiclwccgmaybcdnost566p4[rcmilicqficrc onc pboton can stindatc A 1.omcAtsENsoRs [ 315 L EM radi. Total mc.4 e ffasfrffge Ucan has u eiit poro of t(X) m$l' m and thc sizc of thc bcam vcAadof tl'. Crlculalc 0.a 10. qpq. 9.1 Flnd rhc Scqr&ocy of 3-cn wavclcngd EM radiation What band of phcnomcna docs this rldiatiootlptlscat? 6A Aeurccofgrandtb".t-i of65 x l0r' Ilzryhttis its *avclength in nanomacctn'n)ladhA? rcfracrioo n * 13 ' 63 A'[ds bc|d is irssoC trou$ tfi] n of [qrfd qirh an indcrcandofY. Thctightfrom elascris ncarly nmeivccgcot cohcrtot.6 ilowmanywatsof powcrarecmiucdbya ldsouroc? -cxit diameter is 61 A tsscr sith a oolmrad divcrgcoe. wtat is cre bcam sizc on radiation inrcnsitY? . Thc wavelcngdr and ftcqtrcrcy rrc rclard b3l c:v 2. 4 (6. 6.. tcmpcfanrety mcasuring tcintansity of EM ra- diarioo ftornan obj. I*ndcsccnt tpcs rrdie ' & xe.pol:rchmrdc.

4. is dcscdbcd by a ect of luminotls unia drat arc elt rclarirrc to a standard' vkiblc Soiloe. Seaioa62 n r3 G t3 h F nF t n 6.1000'SIof powcq..1 Frnd &c ftcqtgcy of 3-cn wavelengd EM radiaion Wbat band of phcnoncna docs tbis rediarim rcFscst? 52 Arorcc of grtca Eglt bT r lSequcoil of 65 X l0r' tlz What is its wavelcngth in aanooctcrstnm) rnd i! A? 63 Af$tbcgnisFssodlbtougb fQ$mofliqddrithrnin&rcofrcfraaim n = l'J. Thc liglttG. Calcutarc Urc intcnsnty U nlV/cd * 60 m and thc sizc o'f thc bcam atftatdstanca Adcrcaor can jqst resolra I ligtrt iotcnsity of 25 mS/m1 How far away can it bc 6. Tt!6p arc fogr basic ptno<ttcctors: ptrotoconducirrc' pfirototoluic' Pbotodnissivcr a As r fqtr andphoododc.cct as e fruHion of ia tanpcratura 6. ffw tq Oocs lt ut t" tielt to telncrsc lbc l00 nr with end witbout & liquid?6A f nashfgls bcan has rn ciit powcr of 100 nT/.qucs are partiarlarty uscful ithcte cootact Ecasur€rttcnt isCimrn PROBLEMS.om an obj.mraddivcrgcnoc.and2-qrcxitdiarnetcris What is &e airnad attp moon t238. dc- t . Totrt rafido 11d IR f1ljomcur may bc rlscd h proocc$oolrtrol 4plfuatios for ncr31t1pmcot *tcnrpenUra tod sbod 300 K O almoct ao lin'iL Accuncy tztics ftrodr * t0 K lo tOS K orbcocr ia sonc cascs?.hcn rssodarca wfth hurnan qc dcrcaion. divcrycn€ (sEcUing) in radian* and spocmf contcnc a ttr. Idcmfuocot tlTcs & arcpotrc$lw*ic.hsdooielsut6marybcdnoctnoooduomdic' A t rcr-is bascd on r oonoqt ofgimularcd coissi. Eacbhrsits spccru cUraraisdcs reladvcto sPoctral scttsitivity. 10. " tcopcfanreUyrncasuring&cintcnsityofEMra- diaion fr. Appfcalioc of optical tcdrni. Ttrc unvelcngd ttd ftoqucncy arc datcd by EM radiati<rn k c-V (6J) of cncrg6 EM radiarioa is bcsr dcscribcd by lt€ inti:tsity in rtafis pcr ullit arca. What is Crc bcam sizc on thc moon? radiation inrcnsitY? . Udf. and a divcrgpodof tl'.000 mi). L omGALSENSORS | 315 defincd as e form of cncqgr chanctcrizrd by coostant prcPagati'on spccd. an cxit diarncrcr of 4 co. Coawrtional tQlrt surocs lrc usually diicrrgcat aod fucdctcu.5 placcd ftom a f GW Point sourcc? 6.m stcrc ooc photon can stimulate cxcitcd atoos tocmitmany morc photons9.ool I tascris ncarly nmdvcAeaf' cobccotr asd monochnimatic.6 How manyuntts of trnwcrarccnriccdby a ldsourcc? 6J Alaserwithag$!.

roduccd"cri 16 tt FIGURE 6.2.isco'"Jt*-.cn and produccs the intcnsity is ro.silhtchon the it ttrntf et" *tl' e""h 6rc a pulsc suikcs $ikcs 6ro c. m$cnr2 *"i*."i zo io light intcnsitylrrl"ri" . a Cmuct rssns disa grapfr of't*sot t"tn"t"tt* 'i. with a 0.fi: &rl vc*e** nd Jt-rrditrs. Hov "sccond? *.rrcesurc ft" ph*ryn**iT elr in Frguretoo6-9 ffiffJff.t* design display an ontpur oi. i.iil** r" *ry r is 6'10 $tchGstttcfimlrcsi iffiffiffiffiwxi'H nlraffi:* ayd IJD if Pt pr. crror *hcn *: [i$ffim'rffi":lz.tJirt" J***t' sttt* voltagc versus tirne' and Tlre find thc maximum voltagc p.35 Circuit for Problem 6'13' 'it Jiuoaon voltale is v6 0'60 ...6-v wtat is-thc *.ffiiffi ffltW*fm* ellbasrdrrcddst'ntof?3os1nd'.i.@tasictil'€orlrykrtA.316 | CHAPTER6 dctecor pcr 6Asupposce?0(FnmbeamcdftaPow-gofOJmWanda5+mdiameterstrikes many photons suikc thc i&""to.&*r gJt'trO A'" ripneogriatct-ED urrncd ort.light p..5".nd&atof probr€metp" D6. cclt rhc brchcs ercgt"A ""4 .t'{d:il#{i}n'TffJ* ootp* : v' zwl#inansity *. aiamctcr. of 02 .

Cli e inrff e 100'' o 40G$/m2 ".. "6 *io .b..ing EIJ.i rhr .y in vrilqand tiglar an alarm if puts dlc d€viffi .* cts Dcsigs r 3'tlct! rsiag ec Photodod' a S'GY tcf. r". ewcatrgntbcam rcsist$ao must bc uscd to aUc-to-grntoa cfcctroo{s.n{ffig5t.oc F *"et T 2 n in tcoedr' e.d* inat or a" elcctoo is t.cirwittoltagcofo. G1!'Al&slrrgoalagcrbrsrbcemdiamctcrofrscm.ottlNdr. t"b* fu t gtiit*tu tLi" trtt" zo rvy'#' prod'ccs 5o uir i rd. 6" ru. 6" d. thc samPle nominallY dcnacs froNni Hffi# l"t* t t5 n ftoqr tbc bcam ryticcc Note rcodty of &c b-. tt ieeA to dclitrcr 500 mSI at 9Jl U n8.c|rrr"or gct a 3-rrV votilgl-ti gaio pd.*inngd6r0 is from t0 to 40 wl$'' outrut volttgc ti"" ff6t n*S'y in Figprc 6'0 cantiggcr r corpar-aal? p"'tr" r :ys"*l} s6if.'tLirg" coulomb.fb.i.rrr* Ttr divergpooa rhl rhc spliucrUf* t" p"l^lud docs not rficct thc 321 Aspccielrimingcircultcanrc. .It In r tnbidity .oPTlcAL SENSORS +10 | 317 v HGURE636 Ctcuitfor Probbm 6. ffi z:*ffi 'zt*.16- Gr4Asfurgtcsilicotlpnogvouee*.ttkfo0oiltobaveanqnn. U.d1"*1"6*6-q.t drc phoomrsistc . a f0Sit'bipokADC vi& intcnsity o I ongrcaThc *lqf ttf q&rr of 1006 ADC an Wl6t n'odt* c*"o.Calcrrlalcthe aJ Tt.igu 11q$qAmnrnssysicrnthatoutgoc.Iffoqscdorlqmdiamctcr' foqrs' fnd rbe iotcosfty of ee ndarioo bcam rt ftc A l'sct 634 .a*i*fiHffi lsd' a V into "oe. uc uscd 5zL F*e" t"rbiffi. and400ti/mlproduc4{X}p uscd in trccircuitof Figut E636.t^---^.6 x lvre ons $sbt a.ph.f .6V of ttssc rs tei" ntg *ll'rgFt' shottr horr ecollcctioo *o.ffs.. 6*aar.ffis* glfrffi t""It"dSrydt"o*oclls . withf vs. 5xrcion65 r..sotwz+nsrihedficrenc'Findthccloscstdistancc ui*feen:rsuraarufugt'sslalgio& ."fr..rg *Baotmrlopil*s.Ttc 6ofr rn t-tr *"i''t". l0O .

2 on thc lincaritY' opcraE as follo*s whcn an intrusiolt occu6: An automatic dcry camcfa must 20 m$cm2.r l'o'cm ouqut bcam dialrcFigurc 638 shows a lascr with a 6GmW output Powcrr ftots or02. a light sourcc is triggcrcd' tiggcred' 3. plot the AD6.d fixcd wittr disancc' decrcasc in intensity rhis so'rcc no* Oiio SO m usini thc l(tlowlt ano ai1. FIGURE 6.ttr. R = 15 ktl r. lcss than 2Il m$cm2. Whcn tt s"-ut"" lighting reacttcs 20 m$cm2' the shutter is " .irc. usc an &bit l0 number versus distancc' Com*cil b.or drat "cn ..[.16a cufrcnt and ligbt inGvcnsc ai* tcttt Glation 6c artuit.31S 6 I OHAPTER c4 aL O (t C eael JI a &."r U" aitatt". cxpresscd ss a basc s6.rit in Frgurc 6.O to 5'O m is convertcd a. from 0."tftY t" t(rre) = t'4a. unipo^larADC with a lo-GV refcrcnca to ur g$it aigiraisignal."n l..F witlr % =20v Thc @odbd. tlrc shutter is activated' thc ambitit figfit bvcl is grcater tt. Dcsign sieni *Jili. A photodiodc will bc uscd to mcasure distancc tcq 1. If ambicnt fignt i. If 2.1 ilo m.It-(w1rnlf) + :?' * t.37 F$ure for Problern 6-??- SU PPLEMENTARY PRO BLEMS s5. *.

0t$) .ints a and 4 is simply Wtc8orchidgcr Tbc dnptcst ud nost ooonn rs rho*n ln Figure Zs.Vo (23i . fu objcct tabcbd D b rralugc &uor dlo omperc thc pccadrts of pofints a ard D of.tb lcnro*. ForR2 = 4 kO wc havc (5 vxt4 kn) : 1.fris ncens tlurnrylifidon can bc usod to incrcasc tbc voltage lcvd fc iscascd raddvity lo vtiatioo of iry&re. ths dcactc ir r vcry high. In G nodsn qp$crt'rons.y reosidve galrranorucrrfih r rclarively low irnpc& : ane mly bc taca cspccially forcalibration prrpoccs and spot mca$r€ment instruments For our initial rnalysis.b Olecrangcofotputlmpc0ancr. This AV : V" . Ttc ponrlrAirsigatoC W trc ransorcaa bc dctccniood moct casily&rom as tbc voltage lcross R2 has bccr calculatcd.Thc V2 I &.5S I GHAPTER 2 and YJ = Sm V. lvlany nodifr catrc of me badc brldgc uc coplo5lod fc alrcr spocific ryticetions In Figruc 15.'range.om286o5. 2:32 Bridge Circuits ticuscaoomvcrtim@ncc variations inovottage variations Oncof rbe forttis Oisk is drat it can be dcsigncd so thc voltagc Fodu€d vadca rround zcro.s &r = lOO kO rrhoec r€sfucancc yilb &om 4. A&rppEcrtioo of ffigp cilcuia b i! tlrc prcdsc static ncasurcncnt. rtrgH.62oW.00 b and (c) thc rangcof powcrdissipatodby Rr i Solttfon a.. Supposc & is a scurcr f2O kO es @ dynamb vuiablc varics ovcc a .

Rt + R3 rhc suppry voltagc. It does .r *..&Rr .ANALOG StcNALmNDfftONtNG I 5e f{GURE 2. (2.. n""a* il.5 Ths basic dc tA/heatstone brklge..tttc bcediffcrenb low iloPcdlnstrurnents.=potcadelofpointcwilhrcspoctoc V1 r puhl of pold} rilh rcqo*'o c isj'st Thc vrlucs of varnd v1. rd (zj).r t &) (L7) Equsdon (2"?) choss lrow thc diffcrene ia potcntiat acrross &c dctcctq is a function of thc supply_volagcand the ralucsof thc rcsistoi. willrcsultinzcrodiffcrcoeanazcrcvottagcacmssthcdctcaor-ttrat tor of Eqrlntioc (2?} it is clcr rtat a parriarlar oombimtion this ccnbinadon. of Rr ahc "' 1 nVzlRo ' tP p produccd nkage g di- (L4) In a similar fashion..f. an opcn iimplY (2'3) A .. bs is. qrecrc I/.rnutlciu*""rrv.9) Equation (2-8) indicatcs ttrat whenevcr a whcatstone bridge is assembled and rcsistors are adjusted for a detector null.iriil g1"il. .. av-ft-#t e"6) using algcbr4 tbc readcr can sh6ri' that rhi< oquatioo reduccs to rfr is thc dc &iottingrP rtrnY modifi- bsrc25'thc r td b of. Itclunr i ovcr a daltrr. nr).. from examination of eojration (2.D ls b..(Re. the resistor values must satisfy the indicated equality. vidod bctrrcca Rt end R!.Rr& (R. .. v& *ft . % is a dividcd rott4ge given by rrhcs" '--lr LOseof u:=rryl'.V?- (2s) kidgesupptytoltage I^Try**ym*eqgd'6s eacaabcwrinca lty"t Ercnt'of an (L3r (e4).pw cen bc found by nod'g 6ar t.tc volagcdifrcrcnccocvolagc ofr.: "air***.

l ctrangcs.oV. in rc ncans rliat V5 is largcr tban V- "ii.ThcTfiAmincircuit' Butis wait! thc D of and a pii C-opct***f.:.616g"f Equation (2-?) is thcopcn'citcttit voltage. so RrRr l4r:V (R.-.l$c null is upintahcd' Equations (2'7) of whcatstonc brifscs to eroccss'contnot applications us- not rnrttcr if thc supply vottage&ifts CZSift". rcftigc dificrene bctrrcen'po'ints .uoi ry Ua lorr udbocanse rc rnust dctcnninc ttr bridgc ofrsa rs cuncnt ofrscL wncn au[c4Eryrrloo(28)sritl dclincs thc rclationshipbctqrccnthcr€sistors in ttE of ctrrcnt dnwn by difi-fu gqo"ti*'12"A -o. nulls with fi r Rr .9'.tnptt the GelvanOmcter DCtcctOr Thc use of e galvanomtcr rs e nutl daector in tu bcalsc bridge dtEdt htro&rcce rmc crrcrcns in ourcatcutations lc|3t6ff .& rtcni nfuf ooO Uon ir not pornts a tcttren ca.ntit fr e* rc noO drclhcvenirequflvntcnt ad ? of &"#.figrnc2.r."C?r.(l2ooxlzt L \ -'LV: IOV'@o)-(l2oo+ l2to) AV'= -2ojl EV h Exrryle 2.R. Rt: l2ootnd& = l2t(LIf the Solution wc find thc offsa from essunrins &c dctc*orimpcdanc to bc vcry higb' ..5'asgivcnbyEquatkm-(23)'Sothcfact0tat ldodoe thd lh3 Gsutt aV A *p*r.nerc. rF .+&)-(Rr+&) RrRr fII .t to modificd to allow dctcrmination way to dctcrmine casicst thc Falragc prcsart G ."-[.ll"-#rfoif"d" c "rA ing higFinptrt irnpadancc dac*ors E:T[MPLE 23 trffi ua"" rs stromm in Figurc 2i.60 ICHAPTER2 . {l2ooxl2oo} .. & using Equation Rr&'= RrRe Bcca'sc ftc bridgc is nullc4 find 1000 o.ffi. " .+Rr)(Rr+&) R. (5oo o) fi1.il: 'z - (&42 o) fftr=€1 O E111MPI. Rz = 842 o and (2-8): R.uo. Rc6embcr'that Ay is simply trcdificrrnet.f b r ncl3rivc voltagc.l' nnd $G lrrluc of &' Soltrtion.h.E lbcrxfslorchebridgeareiwntyRt: Rr= supptybt0.fitdftc$olttSeo'Cct' L1 . siqr volagc tptrlOf i* O'r"t n ngr*ZS *it m aaccmrenrowd).500 f.Rr& (n.Ru (2.

drcpfisc voltagcis qrt _ -:./ I AI{ALOG SIGNAL CONDmONING I 61 l I I HGUREL6 tL?) When a gah/anometer b usd for a null d€toctor. " finddrcofrsctcrtncnL Sotution From Equation (2-9). t*a TtcTh6rmin cdstrnoc ir foud ty reptrdng &c $pply vohrytr by iE fui$l rcsistan€ enrtcdcrrlering tc asistrocbcnccl ictnrinb a rnd D dtltc GunrL wc my lssumc rl* rhc fouad rcdre of &c $PPly ir netigiltb ooBrcd'O Sc bddp tm rcsis' t!ncc3.*I. tt b tcfrl encrcrdrcforrbo rcafuo *mrdrathc1tArcuiartrfuteffb Jecn tt pdns a end D of thc btidgp b 4 L If the .0 lko (2 rdr)(2. a gaharclutr A ffigc cilqft has rcsistare of Rt : Re i & : 2'00k(r and &'= 2'05 ko and a SOOV-inpgty. thc oftctcunent is ^R4r as shown in Figure 26.-E]RrRr .8) dctines lhc lilbcarstonc bnidge rc- I .10): (2 (2. ticular.-(2 5Y aF Vn ko)(2ko) ' I/rr: -3{lJnY - (2 kJl)(2.Whcn itton in the n drrwn bY Pdcrcrrnine Eaandbof trgeis sirn- It (2"11) But wait! El[tPtE Al .05 kn) .AO iotcrott rcsistarc is uscd for a Celector. Etrtfi rcsis- Fcf.9' nult dacctor is uscd.rposc rrtcncvct ---* tb simply p fact that Etor in th. kox2 ko) Rm: (2ko + zko) Rm: 2. If r gatrnnonrctcr *A SO.os ko) (2 ko + 2. In par- ic: ilf vrt R" -Ur{ng 66is cquaim io oonjtncrion witt Eryafor C2.05 ko) . lt b conwn'lent to use fte l$ llS- Th€ver*n equirrabnt circtrflt of tto hidge. Rr& ta10) -*. We nixt find the bridge Th€vcnin resistancc from Equation (2..4 Thc Th€llqain cquivralce circuit fc ttcbridgc coatilcs rs to casily dctcrmhc 6c curfi11 rcnt rhro_trgh ury galnanomacrqriOi intcraA rcsisancc.

Sohttion On e ZX!-6V 5calc.9 mV so ttrc smallest moasur- rccd to fitd out trow much iQ has dhangcd from ft drangcd to somc unknown valuc rc that 100 .ftom po'ir*&topo'intc intlrocireuitof Figurc25). 31q51nc r&rngc of f0Ofil. *c rmy usc BEntion (2D tofind h geactd.9952fi= O.62 | CHAPTER 2 Finally. oe gim thc @rrcsolu- rhc drange in rcsistane drat causcs this ofrsct EXAMP1E A hidgp cir.r20o + lmn .G0 ristsances and a tg. but cvcnnrally wc find .GV s'pply.1l}: Io: Ic : -30.tV t6ults: l001lv (rzooxtov) &(lov) .rrlf*mntrtldaccta.Itfotlows thatabridgc offsctof -l(ArrV sro$ld bc catrscd by an inscasc of &. because itcan also bc said that AR r"prescnts the unccrtainty in any determination of resistance using thc given bridge and detec(or.scafc.Sr4pccaglaneitp\A4qna20GmV a6 -. or l00ftV.i crn bc rncasrcd is l"T^that A& = lZt(Ftt9. rhc DVM msles toal abtc chang b Ol mV.before the dctcctor indicates a change in offsct voltageOnc may atso tierr this as an overall accnracl.0048 O must occur. gal- BddgB Resolqtion Thc rcsohxioo of thc bridgg circuit is a firnCIion of thc resolu' rionof thcdacctornscd todctcrmine6c tridgcofiscaThus.120.0(X8O Ahidgeoffsaof +l00pViscauscdbyrrcducrion of &. O. So.lrit hs & = 132: 13r = &:.Findrhcrcsis*anccrcsolutionforrncasrcrncntsof&.0 o 199.dt"hldg"isnqlic46Equatioo(2S)Srou/s. " . .imUc. rcf€rdng tothc casc whsc a $hgpofisaows.l2oo+ & This oquafion is a bitof an atgtUraic Aratlcngc to solvc.of the instrument.05 ko Itrc ncggiru sign on thc ctrrent rimply r*ans that drc c{rrlnt flows through fic vanomJcrfiorn-rightb lcftGc. So drc smallcs ctrangc &- 119-9952O . this rcr e finit oa &c minftnum tncastrablc lf r d6crn rcCmce*m*tn rhi@e rrdng tlon.rry.9mV aot ko + -15S pL 0..rrcdcfnctbcrcsoltdoninrcsi*anocasthatrcsisfinccclrangc inonc rtn *Oc t i4e &* catrscs rn oGarroltrgp that is cqnl o &c rcsoluioo of thc dcrccror. rtrfo dctocla. *e o crcete rhis much off null volaga Wc riarpty rrsc pquario (Z6L wi& 120 O 000. a In Examplc ZG vrc scc that a minimum rcsistance change of 0. tttc cun€nt is girrcn by Equation {2.

whcrc thc rpsolution is limitcd by tlrc minimum mcasurablc currcnt lead Compensrtion ta mmy proccss-oontrd epplkatiors. t* ta t f* v I rnychugesinlcadnnisrrcscinmdtmdoquallyintotwo(bottr)unsofthchidgecircuit. this compensation system is used to avoid errors from lead resistance.lcgof thcbridgaWirc (l)iscxpscd toilrcsanrc cavironmcnr and chiltScs bt ttrc sanre emount.wlrir:h lsasnrmod !obcthcsansoGhas bccnrernoved toeEmoie ldnllilh lcadu'tEs(t}(2).uscd 3odrivcamcrstscduftaltcrcdanariabteresistortorenult thcbridgaSrrch asptemdoes ttot sttit thc modan &drooloe5/ of cl€ctronic pmocsing bccausc it is not ver5l fast.ardgmelcsdoctonicnobaAtcctrniqwttatprwidccfcanctccbonb nullingof &c hidgc and &a rscs only fircd rcsistors (cxccpt as may be rquircd for catibrarion) calr be ttccd oobtein r- Hd 7 T d'wc n shrr Bg mE FIGURE 2.itiatoducdrbdnngclntodre tr!. .In rucbcilcs.Wirc (3) isdtc porvcrleadandhas no influenccon thc hidgc balane ooditioa If wirc @) clrangcs in resistancc bccalrsc of spurious influcttocs. tnd dtcmical t4ors. many proocsssrtol epplicatiomuscdafcodbackgrsaninwhidrthckidgeofrsavoltagcwasamplificdad.7 For rernote sensor applications.trclcmrining fixd hidgcresistorscan bcchoscnloa€ount forthcrcsistane of lcads rtquired tr onrrca thc hidgc to thc sensor. but is in thc 8l tcg of ttrc hidgc" Efrcctivcly. a bridgc cirurit rnay etoonnidcrablcdsrneftom thcrcnsorwlrosc rcslsanocdranges areto bc mcasured.t$d€).\ I - ANALOG STGNAL CONDmONTNG I Gt Thc sarnc argumqlts can bc applicd to a galvanomcter nrcasunemsnt.a -'-. bo& R!ad&arei<lcnticallyclrangc4andrhusQuation (28) showsthat noctrangcinthc bddgc nutl ocannThis tlpcof orirpcnsarion is often cmployed whcrc bridgc circuia must bc us€d widt toqg lcads !o dre rctivc clcment of rtrcbridga QmelrtBalatp Bddge rm M Oocdisadrailageofttrcsimpl.cWrcasonc hidgcis rhc r mll bynriation of rcsisnors in kidgp anns. tcrnpcranrrcr $rcs. Sdr drangcs witl show up as a tridgc ofta urd bc intcrprcad rs dnngcs in drc *osc orilpnt This problcm k rcduocd tdng lcd conpenutioti c/hcr€ bc locatcd I I . is subjcct toulctr. Andter Pmbhm cxitls th* is not :o casity handlo4 howerca Tlrcrc arc many cfrccts that can drange thc ttlsisane of tre loog lctd stcs ql r trutsient basis. Rrrdrcnnorq arty mcasrrr€snent of resisrtrecan bcdjusnod forlcad rtsistanoc todctcrmirp tlrc rcanl resistance.ftusclrcingmcfioaivedrangcinhidgcotrsctr iadcompcnsatftnisshowninFigurc 2-Zllctc urcsethaSl. $rdr as frroqucncy. In trc past.

babne brirlge. and Re A ctrncot.€vd:. R.l plovidcs &c hidgc sith t sc{aulltngabiliy. If one of the bridge . + Rr) Rz*&+R5 ]E' I .t &>>Rs Oftcn. ltrc lcast rcgicrirc ls to requirra - (Lu. t Vclhc y(& + Rs) 8r*&+R5 + tRs t (el4) voltrgc of po'int a ic ain grv€n by Equation (2. Thus. the bidgc ofrsct voltagc givcnbyAV=V-Vt. The srandard Wbcar$oae hidgp'is modifiod by tpliuiag onc arm rcsisnor into tun.a1t CHAPTER 2 tlGURE2s The cunent.r"at to nirll thc ffiga Aclocc&loop sjstcm can Glrcsbcorsrrrctat tftf.R3 This can beporidod for by rny of .I k : (2.q Lv: VRt Rr+R3 Y(R.15) This e4uation shows that a null is rcached by adjusting thc magnitude and polarity of thc curent / until IR5 cquals the voltage difference of the first two terms. Thc baaic pdnd& of the cuncm balrrcc txidgc is shom ln ligurc 28.t . uscd wilh 0rc trlCgi ff* nrcCroA uscs r cu. b th{ &) >> R5 (u13) cittrcroonditions of Equdioos fal2) or (2t3) arc satMrc4 thc voltagc u dividd supply rctt€c dus rhe volt4gc droepod acrocs & ftom thc anm of thc thc currsnt. t k fcd irrc &€ hidg€ thrqgb &c junaion of & and R5 rs shown Stc now siputatc Orat lbc afoc of &c bidgc rcsistas b such ft* thc cuficnt flws ercdonrilrantly 'riuough . if a higbimpodene null dctocta is usc4 drc rcstiction of Equation (?-12) bccoru (Rr + Assnoing point.4).

thc bridge can bc rcnullcd by dranging cuncnt L In this manner.In this case". Soluttoit Frst. The voltage appearing acr.thchidgcisataoullwithf (to vxr ko) : Qbocausc l0ldl. as shown in Figutc 2.0008 Vc 0. l60pA .:0.t6) wherc V.+lk(} %=0909tv wi& f s 0[ E[uation (Zl4) givcs {lo vxesoo + s0o} Vt: t0 ko + 950(} + glo Vc:0'909[ V WhenR3increascsby. the hidgcisclcctonically nullcdft. This can be pmryidcd by r cunec.8 mV to rcnull thc bridgc. This tlpc of mcasuremcnt is pcrformcd by plachg the porcndal to bc mcasurcd io scrics sith rlrc dctcctor.: l0 k(###BOT_TEXT###amp; = 9500.thc tEidgs is nulbd at rorp nocnfurat e*of rcsiSarc with zcmcuncnt Changcc of a bridgc rcsistc. ftrc null detectorresponds to ttrcpoantid bcturcco po'ins cand D. Find tH thc crnrent rcquired to nutl thc hidge if 8s drangcs by I {L Thc supply nolagc is l0 V.ANALOG SIGNALCONDmONING | 6s rcsistocs changcs.ss thc null detecloris AV=U-Ub:V*V-Vt .fcthcnoninalresisanccvrlrcsgilca.fZ)bccom (rlgl fre voltagc rt ryss Rrfrom (L1O t mct voltagc b (L1s) tr I potariry of rre of the bridgF Potental MeasuremenG Uslng Bridges A bridge circuit is also riscftrl to mcasunr smatlpotcntialsetevcryhigb lrpodsnoe. &rom Equation (Zl5) and AV : O found from 50f = O. V5 is given by Equation (2.9.unanyooorrn&:$curcntsourca In nrostqpplicatiotts.8 mV. lqdre (arl) | :. is givcnby Equation(24).&r = I ld!'& = 50O and e hig!-impodancc null dctoctor.9099 V {r- hs snndard r A currttrt ripnlarc ttcr rgb RyTbis *bich shoss &a thc wl6ge$ & must lncrcasoby 0.E A qres belrae hidgcr ts ehoml io tgurc 2& lus rcsislors Rr = &r. usingcittreracoovcntionalWbeatstone btidgc or a ctrrrnt balanoc ffigp. and Vris thc potential to be measured.14) and %bt' U:V+V p.l Oto 1001 systc"rn carl ft%M tlo vxrool) lo Kt + r00l l.ae daaod as abrldgeoffsadgral &db rrscd opovi& ttr renulling cun€RL Tbc:c{ion iscrplaid in ExampbZT EliFl.

tbc nullingonreac t' El(AltrlPLE 2A A hidSe rnd &- Ur-I8s-g fcpoauid msrmr ry{ 500 {} wirb e lGVrypS.+##-i(rox5ool-:o U+ 3x69 .t- nuXr vbco'Rs rhc Solutton *c si@y Hcrc (ale) .3-333 : t o .e thcn tlrc two *da9f* in Equatioo @tgl csnoel.owhca y. V* Sincc Vrnumerically submust be *inoi"a itpoint a in Figure 2.$c ecc that ie positivctecurinal . rmhrinn pdrnd.66 I CHAPTER 2 F|GUBEa"g Usirg $e basic Wtreatstone hidge for potential meaSurernent Anulloondlion bcetrbli$odwhco Ay = Q firdcarorc.irh I . knml potdl rfrcc rucL e mtl b hund.in.mcrrrcnt floucthmrgh thc u*. fu potcatial is ptaccd in sc-.and Ay b defnad cxacltyesbeforc.E cal dsobc uscdforpotcorial mcasrrsncntwith rycryryat tryugn 6c porco&l to be mcasrrrcd Hcre ag.9. caa bc mred Uy il" hidg ". ricssiththcdctocloa.. . so thc nult coodirioa bcoosncs us+# v(&+ ^Rs) &rs) Rr*&+Rs -IRs-0 rthq firtcd rcsistors rrc choscn to null fu hies u. U = {ll|3lV Tlrencgativcstgntclls tracts ft'om us thepolatityofthcunknown voltagc. Nour-howcvcg V5 is givcn by Equarion (2.R2 (ZlZ) lo rotrE fo-Vn v.ryl"g rc*toc o provide r mll rilh v. h rhc dtc& ril lotvtE for % uslng-oc iuu-oooocoi' {ara Tbccttut*bolaoehidgcofli$rc2. Find usc Eguerio * t kfl Rt = 605 (1. Tho+ V.14). I/. lcavingl rcry simpte relationihip tL% .

hft irnpcdanccs rqlacc rcsistanccs"Tlr hidgc offsa volage thcn is rcprcscatcd as natchicg of itrrpodanccs in genctal. i= 3s offsct toltage Q20) . urc cNr nsc Eryation (2.66'? V 5k+990+10 = fir+&*Rr Thtts.endRr = l0Owitha tGVnrpply. & : 9900. lt+fr=1567V and EIE- tifrF h i y(&+n) r0(ee0+l0) 1.4r(4+ z) & *"no ll{.llY sn$l'.b tcmbry {Ltsl ac Bddges fiie bddgc concept dcsctibcd in this ecaion cen bc applied to tbc qrcll rs to rcsistanes In this casq lhc bridgc is rcprescotod s il Figurc 2-l0. 44+. . Fir*.\ ANALOG SIGNAL CONOmOMNG rffifli{il@LE .and crngloys an ac cxriadon.ffi nil:e.rnd LE {LIe} .19): 12mV-lOJ:O f = I.vnr _ f- 0 and lo(t kl Rr+R.FgurcL9" as f{GURE ElO A general ac brirlge circuit. ao cnmioarioo of thc rcsistane shows tut drc bridgc is nullod whcn % = O bccartsc ftom Eqution (Zl8). usually a sirc warc rcltagc signal.Findthc qrn€nt naocssary u null trc tridge if thc potcndat is 12 mV Solution . . Ttre anstylis of hidgp behvior is basically thc samc as in thc prcvious tneatmcnt. AE-E (2.Thc fixcd resistors arc &r = ftr * 5 kfl'' Rr = I k[l. ZrZ.&str I 6? A crrrcnt balane bddgc is uscd for potartial mcasurcmcnt.2mA eln rri& .

(.IGUBE L77 Th€ ac bddge circuit and components for Example L1O.} . 21 = sinc wavc cxcitation voltage bridgc impcdanccs .68 | CHAPTER 2 whcr€ Zr 4. h hidgcil. E= 74. From fruatim * ZlZa e'J|i.R. A{Pccial notc is ncccssary comrning the achicvcsrcntof a null in ac hidgcs.Findrtrctarucof &rd q Solution Bccausitbcbridgc is at nu(urchavc Z&t .E 410 Ao *F$e_coetqc lnpodaaocs as sboun xrt€o Ge hidgc is nulled. ru io1lh.-*) &zRr -it:Rr&-# \t Thc I€aI and imaginary parts must bc indcpendenrly cqual so that &_#:=Q R. Thiscordition is analogous to Equation (2-8) forres.it is ressary ro providca null orufu raturc (90'out of-phasc) rignds bcforc (2Al) applics ' Bq*iir E}(AMPI. &is bcfore by a zcro offset volagc aE -1 oonditioc is ma if drc impcdanccs satisfy thc rctation Z2/2 = 0.e2"[.rcffi[J inFlgu.1ry| ?-trditi* is &ancd (220).istivcbridgcs. = (2 k'sl(l k'?l tko &:zlrf. I Zt' t fn . somccqscs'lhcoull daocrionftctcm is pluscacositivc withrcspoct to tbc don signat In tbcsc iostanccs. or Rr(a-*) -R.ZrZ.

oaml dgnU mdiOoning is o eotttt rndetim of rcsistrre into wiatioos of rcltrga ltb rolagc vrridoo b thca firrrtcr ondtioood fa hfics&F o ro ADC c othcr iptcm.Thcsrrcnonlincadty is pescnt in rc bddge oftc es gircnby Eqrndoo (2r0I ThqB.E &t= & = |!ltQ1gd-V :: ll0 V-lfioh-thamnllncrftV dAV rffi-4113.rb trd*lc tdryncrflrGA -. 6l Horr*elrer. if e wbrs en inpcdare &. sincc it b ccntercd *orzcro. for srnafi ranges of resistarioe' cfrange. It b rftul tngortra &r notc'thrt lhc vrirtio of triQe oBa s girro by F4urdoa GO is noofincrr'il nryoct o royof thc rrrdstors. fio off<rufi wltage is neafly.l2r shorvs how Ayudcs wi& Xa foretddge tih& . thcn the nontincarirty of rduge rerus r€sistare is sinttl ligurc 2.t huatim ibes" In I Brldgc Appncadons Tbc piirury qpplicrtioo of tridge drcu[ts in rnodctn prccsc.5* Ineaf. is rclairctylineacAmplifiss can bc uscd to amplify lhis tolagc variaion. to ! uscf.ul raogeFGURE z12 bl Bridge off<rull r€ttage b dearty rpnlir ear for hrge€cale cfiar€res in resistanqe.20 p cxcita. thcn &c vuiation of Ay witft Rs on m cpardcd rcalc.:.lt trd6&o0Obglt(L If ihc ruge of rcdstancc vuiatioo is soal rnd ccntcrcd about thc null vahrc. t b-t ur Ir & . dqua& tqdq 6s c.1 ttacdty b lost ryhco rbidgc is trsd to qvrrt 6is o r vdtrgetrffoa Figurc2.t b Uocar 'rffi rcryoct o.ANALOG SIGNALCONDmONING and C.={trrF}*# Q = 05pF (2.12b shows ftat if thc rangc of vtirtioo of & b sE ll (90 to ltQ O).

pnaaical filE* @ fil$#y $qlc romc critir:l "ilil. "r" uah ec$r* -.s and passcs lor 6q[: ciec" n rdd tc nocl dcdrdc fner trra.cal ftequcncy is givcn by I *: {(2*Rc)l I It lt lr&il rt L It L It r: an a flr.BL. XCfilicc ebcrllod hnr-pas:bocausc it bloelairi$ e.!fteeuen*This ctiticrl ftoqucncy is rtat ftcqucocy for wrribr *rc ra6o of*r" *pur ltrPttr bkaga b rppoxinnrcly OJiOT.o ". rhc variaion of rcllckn wirh ftcqrcncy is ' tbow! i! I{gprc Zt4.70 | CHAPTER 2 FIGURE 2"13 Circuit forthe lowfass RCfiltec 233 ECFilterc Tb climhate uawantod noisc signals from mcasurcnrents.cdwith6utctr&*rcn it is vcry snall azcro.whGnthisrarioisorie.qgcrrd..n m rl-*in"r f r lon-p vatuc arc sirnply rcjeacd.W9AEHW. ir i i I ' FIGUREz-l4 Response of the frrwfass Ecfilter as a function of the frequenqy ratio. irroaolsdeir. 613 *tP9 i.**.$* iWil. tbis traph.oft!n fg:rlOotreerolophlsc..thcsignal ispa.+. . (?J2) . fro signal is cfrccrivcty blockcd: Thc hqizonoal b rgfrty$c logadrhm ofthc ratio of the inpur signal frequcncy rb a crttl@.Io tcrrrl of oe resistor and capacitor.pro.rhc ircrricrl b 6c rario of orr-put roltagc r" iriprt. it is often neccssary to usc €ircuits dtat bloct{ or ban& of ftoquencicc lbcsc circtits i"f f"uffir ArirnplcFltcrgrq bcosrruCcd fiom I sipglc rcsisnorand a singlc capaciror.ch thd idcd rie tuying dqgces of $ess b tlrc cr* of the hw-pse nC fltcr.

G[f- rucrE" risror vrluc is oocrpntcd ftrom Eqution ofrcrcd on dris poocss: Yna$t t.ccornponcril trluc3 endmprnc &co6caoftco 6ccrpacitcis:aoctoa aod &c r"q.ri.!f dcsign ttcxiUtity elloqr.Necan oftco just eclccr one *rf."d. f.:ny from Figurc al4 or can bc computcd by H: lr f... dgml hs ! &cetrcncf <f kIIz. t* Sclcct Wn.If it is bdot I k{l or rbovc r }rfl try a ' &loler dtrcrcatraluc of cepatrro rbatrhe requirod reslstancc falls widrin{. This must bc comidcred in your designoftcn. sti& wilt $trid noisc rnd heding pmblcms" rcyb 3.' crrnoe in indicatcd vatucs. (ml (f/f)'I'^ filcdtods AtJtpicrl fitt€rdefgn is. t3rr rhc rcqglrcd rtsisrana ntuc. urebavc tbc rclationstrip or0l - froqucncy witt givc tl + (l MHzlf").ign e lw-pass filtcithat rrcouarcs rbc noisc to l%.. capacitqs havc a tolcranoc as high as +2OVo.isffi. 2- b+k j vglt- sy tiD calcutatcd. ard6cocrtculatc thc nahrc of rtrc rcquircd Esistance-Thcn a trimns (variable) rcsistor con 5c uscd to oUtain thc reguired valtrc- r cfit- tcJ') illffilwt-E {iltrr6p lll I. thqre.Atrraysrcmcnbcrtratomponcotssuchesresistorsandcapacitorshaveatol-.eeunplishcd Deeign B + by finding trc cdricNl frcqtlerrc!/' fu: Titt sdsfy ftc dca&[ cdtsie. 5" If cxrc trlucs rr€ nccew1 it is usnlly casicst-to sclect a capacitor.)t : 9999 or fc : t0 kHz (uJV): o.0l at .Ttc r arndad cryacita vahc h rhc . whal l" dr".. osc rtcacarest Sandsd naluc of resistanoc to that lwhcn 4.ANALOG StcNAL CONDmoNtNG | 71 Thc ouPut-to:input voltage rado sigrral frcqrrcngf can bc dctcrmincd graphicatty {o(.f following practicat gCajfirro "* ro pF eangc. Bocausc t*o unknonrc (n rod C) htr oolyoocoEntioo.r e. ffir orsfi rc qJ. nrc re*sr* and capacitor . nrczlsuse itsvatue.yn which givcs us (ltvlllz/!.* oaominod o podde ttc rc$tircd critictl ftoqucocy iom Equation <zizl. ln€aaurc{ncqtsignd ttits E ximutirof I fHz? Soltit'ton usc Eqtrarion " ' (u$rto &tcrminc cftar crirical I MIlzTo do this.. but rtsc is unnrantcd noisc at about l-qrytq"* t Mrtz De..tr.

ee6 Thus.Of pi. R- :339O (zttXtdnzx04? x tO{r1 This-|s a vcry rmalt rtristarrce' c/hich oouH tead to cxrcivc qnrcnt and loading So u/€ try e sstrltcrvalocof. Thcn Equation(LL2) can be usedto solvc for the required rcsisanoc.ataJ-G.7. This will gire ra rcunt cdtic.f - I MI{z would = I =o.ooeeges instead of O. = OJg. Norc that Oc rnagnin de cqut to ttr cdtical tpgcncy.h* ttrc frequincy is is Sovm in tgtue 2.0l as epccificd To ctreck thc cffect of our fitrcron thc signal at l%l lfll = bc down by I I ry wc have :0.t frcqucocy o. FIGURE A15 Circuit for the highfass Rcfiltec : I . thc data havebca rcdusd by about o.- :6=l59lo 8:# is ru6 nce practicaL Nov srypce wc ty r staadad valrc of rcsistancc of l. G *otm io ec rchcrrdic of n6'nc itS: Similar o &e low-pase filtcr.cqgcosy&definodbyrhca'''.f Aq $o fi* (zr)(lsotloftfF) s 10610 IIz q/hich is a 6% diffccpnce.rF. ". . So thc noisc at :=' Itrl lu.nAfrtrsillrestrft inehgcrvatucofrtsisrc.oyaluG-qgafon(2r2)-ssrotool&-p"i.Sldl.utttautiuntca over r *nd '"ng" Thiscriticalft.72 | CHAPTER2 Lct's try acapacitorof 0.cryadty.4. rhc rcjo1ti*-l trct *arP in fircqucncy. Lct'slyO.4jh- Highfass 8G tlter A hiSh{ass frltcr passcs high ftroqucncics (no reigion) and bloclci (rcica$) bw eogcodca e nrcr or us tlec can tc consiuoca rsing ahsisrc end r crpocitoq.16.n"y filtcc ThcgnPh ofdcf *qoto inprn vcrss bgnrirhm of ftcqucncy tocrirical frcquency & UJU.

o iqpc.f == 2klIz1hecfrocton6GIlzno'rscis Yur pmqiny raw rlra omiog: tbund rsing Equation (224r./ Solution La ustrrs nnd q''"t vdesc T.rcltagc fiq*T:Tgg}.wfih ftn.Thuc.tntrlscasc. it has been reducrAby 97%.l frcqrrcact b &at frequcugr for rrtlch the ou{rutbettcnuatcdby3dB. . that is.t lr + (flf"l'l't' (224).-g h*t a-a at tt an I nf flt f..pass WTNilPIE td rd tFP ffisfrs$ trmr ery'b . . we see that only 3% of thc 6GHz noisc remains.ANALOG SIGNALCONDmONTNG I 73 l2 Lr I It It }lnlo$ a? V.|6 : Re+onse of the higfrfass fiCfitter ."r": -3.Gt RE2.Jrtfr u Wi^ tt {" . fr r s4ping noior arc bciog lransnitod rt 2000 Ha Design a filtcr to rcduae 6&IIz noisc but rcdue tbc pulscs by no rncn€ &an 3 dB.ifl.*_ lvJYul +'' d : as a frrnaion of thc Ae- (flf. e a funaion An cqudoo for 6e ruioof orqut rbltagg qucoqy fc thc bigh. Puls . (UJU): lf3/to - c'at wc :ncnb* so'down by 3 dB' mcans rhrt P 0JO/' ltc crllic.'ry.. t- 'd"r ' -- 60[Iz [t (@l?4eo)' + (60/zno]2lt/' vJV" = o'03 Thus.'4rQr t*r*'dL ftequ€ncy ntio.Thcreforc..-**.

Thcn Equaion (222) sbows that the resistor shorld ldl.74 I CHAPTER 2 Lct's ry I capacitor of 0$l .21).ndtoa b tbcfiF'c lcss rangcb Oftco.R and ccan bc cmploycd that 6bcriricateeqpcoctoqodocAn&bcofprlcrical issts linitrhc rdocdon. to thlfxod rc.istors aol cqadoc of qprcrirn*cly &c oomput{ valu can be qnplo:rcd. 51d5jy Apart&onloading.96 Sr-ld} resist*.ng esptcmvbichvillrsc0rhig!4assclw-possf.ould dlow nsc of cithcr a ?Sk(l or haw a yaluc of ?. Thccfiocriw ingul tnbcAane rnd output irycdancc of thc RC filtcr may havc u cftc on rbc cftqft in u. tn prircipk. It is posdble o mdc-8C filtcc in sctics.If cxdvahrcs trc nc6a0f itisusrallycasierto scl€ctsnd trcasutt e capacitoq.) ' $olution An attcnuation of 60 dB meaftr that the output-to-input voltage ratio at 60 Hz will be 20logs o(U"nlV.r/V^ - -60 = l0-3 . 3.€co trc filtcr ou@ut and thc rcxt staga Similuln if drc o4ut impcdancc of thc ftcding sagc lo &c fihcr is bieh you m8y *a!atoisolatc thc input of thc filtcrwith a voltage follourcr. ho*urce Sw of the rrtc . Hmlctec.2.' rftr . un ry to kccp ttc tcsistancc in &c fO rnd rbovc re4c nd ca.rF.to obtainimpmvod drarpocss of thc filtcrcutotr&qucocf.") V*. bccauso&cec trcstadard talucs- ffi Coneldcrrfionr ltccrrcrrunbcrofts$ca&ddst*ficadcsignf.hicb it b rsod bausc of losding cficcs.crscdiqg6ltc$rafucsthcfihcrcquationbyrlnwcrofthcnum- bertucadod.CfiltctsCoocidcrthcfdl.&€crrctcflicrl ecgrcy is aot imporunt. r 1&ry srna[ ulucc of refstrnse re !o bc rwridcd bccau$ trcy can lcad to ll{Bg crfllcc.'.t*ohigb-p filt€rsd6csamccritical&equqrcyvould E$rfon (2r4)3qu!Fd. uy trhrcs of. it is impatant to onsidcrlhc toadfutg of onc RCr*rgc ty rnotbca Ttc orrpt bpcden€ of dre first-*agc filtcr must bc mrch lcsg ilnn rhc tec t@ancc of thc mt *agp 3o avoid loadrg.6cocomputc adobtain tr approgiarc rcsistanir using a tinmcrrcsistane" . Whatcfroctdocs cach havc on lhc data signd? (tercrc lo.ovingitcrns:. l.If 0rc tnput irnpedane of dtc dfttrit b*€ fcd by fte filtcr is l oq you may want to placc a roluge follwrr (ecc Sccrion 25) bct{.ding. rcspondby 'EXAIVIPIE A 2-kllz data rignd b Gontamtmtcd by 60 llz of noisa Comporc a ringlc*tagc and r twoa13 Sgchigh-pc&Cfilerforrcducing the noiscby 60 dB.fhus. ud lftgr lqe todry cffcct& Sinilafy' vcry tergc cryadmoe Oould bc rr€idcA h Sencrel. After &c €riticrt eoqgcocy is dacrminc4 tbc valucs of R and C arc sclcctcd to 3Nd4' Equado (2. Fcrttapc dcsiSn cdtcdr u.

$.n(E Afllrsquared Ttrcrcforq to get reducrion.". [(2rr) (1896Hz) (0.r$r:--l. op"e*rffi6i[. trrcse sanr ver'cs arc used for thc scc- Howmudrfinths"a*u"rioio""-.Ig96 tlz Tlrc cfroct on thc dan cignal is rq*ti* eiai{. we have _ .* bae A slcs.AIUALOG SIGIUATCONTXTK}NING FIGURE ZI7 Cascaded higtr"ass ffCfilter for Example 2.*:**:*3Yjr*i.r2 Solvittg lhis for tlre criricat eoquency a rou4pyqnhadqs E.o sourocroi. R: ^tR (2nl. (6A/f.. r + (601f.r*"y.Ft'. .00f :& vr *ffi#*ffirffirtr'' lL= ftat will give this + (601il2 .lg.r b Thus.a".ffi1lffiffi ruB Equadon o-oot C a (.cuit rage of Examprc 2r3.E][pp*" * .ixt*a*q I 75 O.ort"rfili*. . <.e f.i*i. ..c usc Equation @2*) to find rrrcairicat ftoqueocy ffi.r.to *ro". r $out gi . c.1.iiat2 kttz beca"r""floociqgrwhatotrput fil*.22).dr vidr ffil. ux Wll8e6rrz)t uh l+ (z*Jlzlt3ffiH"r: :0J3 -- 53% of drc dia sigul is retaioc4 Et tbr ovtrall ancnuatioo of &e data signal rlnmupu supposc re rcqurr€ nna ru approftaa fl fO- ril ond staga q fi": ndZ. rrcr1r sraarl inpcdanccdocs thc scrics Solution Tne value of f is fo'und.C1-t = 93.""d?z ut*ft u* *'a_r-ruq.rZ shoq6 ee cfo.rbrervhcnoanis Ql{{rlakI&) rL + (2*J{zl&krtzF vt rbu*_only rbott'3 s%of drc dara rigrrat iileftl on rhe no o.9 &O - &tu{tiorr(2.001rp)f.(x}3 nignrc nCfleri Mi.""AA*il* dr v.froro dreequaticn forcriticat freguengr.

orJSvr . 13. which has an input im@ancc of 83. = 0. ulc sas that thc first stagc dorc hsd anoQotrt2ldlzof l/. FScr€ zr8b $ffis oc croccrc circnit ror'oc car& fi ltcn o dcterniclo. wc find 2L : 515 to 4-46f. by its mAvcoin cquivalcot circrrit uftcre thc firdvcnin voltagc is simply 0.76 I CHAPTEfT 2 "4.&&Thc lotdcd iapu !o tbc aosnd ftltff rt po'ina at ig thcTh6vcnin rclags dvidC bctrrccn fu tm ingoaarc.65 ko 4-435'.14. Tosordy ttrc loading cffeg w€computc thc reac{ancc of thecapacitor at2kHz.9 ko-t795 ko : t15.00trF)f' X = 79.. et 2 kIIz In Exaarglc 2.73 l/j libw scwitl calculatcbow mrrctr this firsr-*age oltlput votttge will bc loadcd by thc sccond filtcr.18 Anatysis of loading for a highpass Bc firter in Example 2. FIGURE 2. Y*€ {115.I Zt& strcrye 8rc liltcr drawa with thc clemcnts replaccd by tlrcir complex imb polar foen.?3 V1 and thc fhAteqin inpoAarc it ths pcralld combinatftn of tbc capacitor and rcsistor (sogrce inpodrre b vcry suil). b (b) . Tlp first fittcr and sourc.&t 1555Kl zj-435'} 1!49l. ' I{gurc X =(2tfCl-t: [(2r)(2000r{zx0.5 &f. Thu$ wc usc rhc ac dividcr anatysis tofind. udlg &c prrll'el rule for impcdanocs.e can bc rcplaced podrnocc.

"F"t is rfienuarcd for rll Equaioa (225) gis ttc rario of thc Eegninr& of ouput voltagc t9 input voltagc for &is6llctesiiiriuioo-oferoErcncy.?3 of drc input roltlga Ttrcrcfoc.i.d.ru+." bcod"ass trlt* .A.49lal rur tlrc volagc amplitudc rlat is prescntcd to ttc !o6nd filtcrarge. &rcqncrcics arc roo turocote $osc logc6cr. Tho ro*-."t is 0.lg The response of a bandfass filter shows that high and low frequencies are rejected- .*y.73(O49 Vr) . Notioc 6at it is siaply a low-pass filtcrfo[ocrcd by a big!+ass filtcr. (?."a i Ptritors' hr mc cffitlcnt lrcrtfuns u* ileirctan rulo. fre e. nssru uacaaiFssng rrr*s cu uc daignod Tirh *lrno* . Band'Pass low e low linrit A-CfiltT stil far b.A . wc find thc magnitqdcs of rhe voltagc so thc result is [%l = p.rcspoccrtorn iE ngu* erg. Carc must bc takcn dru o.r"*y 1ry6 b* .*d". thc pas$and Ggion ncrcr Eact ft.-.25' FIGURE2.. rf ru r*Li Hgh. thc ovctatt fiitcr ougut vottagtis t at@ ra ta rc- rd rgc !of 16r [ct fiod ncrs priu qyrif 0. b.. yog shoutd refcr to ryodrlircdboe oa fltcriqg lo kare rhcsedrcuir.gb-eragc fitter. fd ry e.. t = RslR6 -. r"*oa rUto docs not load ote 6rst Tbc lff.. thc hieh criri. or O?UL ftc Hgbct ctfticd ftqttctrcy. Of ootrrso rhis is ardnn r :ir.n"* &" n"qrrcG-ebouc nrtich thc rrrio of ioql ydry^1" dtrgc ar aonm tya kest3 dB.ili.tr*d 6c linits Tlrcsc tc crtlcd ladgas6tlcr:.ticb-F git' ororryot rcrtagc r" i"p.clffi. &ispossibletoooostuctsfiltcrrtatblockr froqucncics bc- od ibovc I high linat rtib t"q.ss filtcrresisanetodrc lowaass filtcrresistane..r of ttc m'dnrcr. cs usity G. orb.Ar{Aroc stcNAt-ooNDmONlNc | 7? Sincc wc arc only intcrwcd in thc amptiudcof thc voltagcs. wc havc al.. Thtts' l'ocding has nduod ttc datr dgnal I'om 53% to 36*.XU' . m" ruq. t g.TbisoquadoaircruoairccrJsof loading byaoonsanqj vhieis d$zltioof rhc higt{..oqucocics)..Grctiti€l ftoqucocy is that-of tbc higb-pass irltcr' t-tu*.rt *leg. *rgi ho n rert c. *'tricrr rc& oory 33% of rtc signal. down by at lcast 3 dB. andtr is callod &c pssfud .A.t" d. cat ftqbcocy is e. Tbc hrdaass xCfiltcr is stroum ia Frgur€ 220.at 2 kHz Fed lec = i.. dctuca thc a eogcocy tdow q.

Ib pick oomponat velucs.--:-+ dihers.l l0O kIIz Equ*ioo (22t) lus bcen plo6€d in Figrnc 221 fx trc two Gr:iqs r-= or and r = 0.t lZ) t{z by a facror of 1200 I{z llrcn *c esk rvhacridcel l.$rcurcotforfanrfion. on thi desircd pas$and -" ftoqudries? Solution Fir* lle lrk *trat criricrt liStFpass ftcqtrcncy witl rcdue Ol usingEErarlon e24r. ec rtsfufic ruio bc tapt good Slc drdts dgnryliaioo.ndq= t33pF.851. so if *c pic* Rs = lfi) kft. tci alS% rpduction.orr-pass frcrycngy will rcducc t+. Oftcn such a filter is uscd to rcject a particular frcquencl or a small rahge of frcquencics that arc interfering with a data signd.1 : tnlft signsls which grvcs ft - .01. Band-Rejea Filter Anothcr kind of filter of some importancc is one that bloclcs a spccific rangc of frcqucncies. You crn *c th* l[tc owrrll Fssbmd rccporce b roduood (boceuso of lo6ding] sith tbc luSpr vrluc'of r I}e cficct m dtc stgnd cu bc fornd by cvrluaring Equarion Q. bccseaial ACgnd-qdtimiryrlrscmlsasrnegclvrriafioofton6tllzo60*I{ztocarrynu--'::CP[E ._s.5. tnd thc voltagp rado at 60 kHz is O.t kIL Ttrc capacitor talucs ac thcn found ftrom Equrdon (2rO to bc Cr= l59pF.ln general. bdos OOI. urtre$e1f..ltcrciseonddcrablcm&cl lZll{zaodat I MI{zDcsignitaoa?-t-5 pass filar to rcdrre thc nofoc by 90%.r fu fioquarcy in lrcrta arrd 6c cddcrl ftcqucncies arc dcfnod in tcrms of thc circuit @mponcnts as follows: .kIIz is 0.) a. rcspoctivcty.l = t *{tich givcs fn - a factor of O.-E reqb 215 itlusrrarcs I typical dc.fit2 signab by usingQuatioo (2Z2\ O.--*.969. itrcn Rr * rRa . tfr" a"f" .21t) lhil&ccdd(d fugarciabc al farqnc ls po*._ - {*:ffi lbptotd&r pdanAil I I cft= 2rr. 0. 6 kllz rnd 60kllz.01. Thc rcsuls are as follo*rs: Tlrd voltagc ratio at 6."tr€.RnCn (?..to I CI{APTER 2 FIGURE?2O A bardfass RCfitter can be rnade frmr cascaded high*ass and loaruass 8C *---. ve rntrst harc r = 0. fora 3% rcrlocrion. Whd ts thc.

-qt qqacclat band{cioct fittcq. ob0dnd using rctirc drcuite.ornotctr. or rbcno?u.{ 0t:l s o lr lo to(I rrd . re d a l#t rd . ftis circqit. eallda'rctdtfiltcrbocausc lt bloctcs a ycry nam)w rangc of frrcqucncics. niliorof$chrfiltcrbgiwrirF€urct.ANALOG STGNAL CONDTnoNlNc rN t2 i I ot Hor I ?s OOt o.zl. Lb Ilh --fl> Hnds wmqy hc dcff'.?:7' .rfrcrcas frr is rcriticel fiogcocy bctow vtti* rlgmr ere mcrrt atod by 3 dB. b rrd fhofcy$I"J rrd rrd trto? filruRE2. : l/(hRC\ (2.Itcdcfiniriocrrcnuchthcramaasthcbadry* {51! 6nfs lnt crirlrt mepcocy. is -.{iO ud !.Tf.renciesare f s. It is possiblc to oPTruT ta*'cioa ftoqucmica using inductcr ard c.bon€ "Am ru Ogn f is rou*rC by 3 dB. c$oc.ina.r- n*ected. : ap. ' It b dfficuk to rcdize such filtcc wilh pasfrc iCombinarioos. o. hrt thc mogn * i.ion of n. fu fu pardcutar conb.nesporseqfadfr<et ct. calied t minrfrIuq. wherc f.. = l qc/r.o't l&' t$l r ffrh h..pocirors. EGURE"'. ..filterstprrcthatanrkldlebandoffreqr.$.:t Sandfass r€spffie for ttre fitter kr Ercanrple zls. which can bc rcalizrd with RC oombinations.O.785f. is $osm h Figrc 2:B-ThE c*rancteristics * oris filtcr arc dcrcnninod stongly by ttrc valrrc of thc grounding resisoriurA cappltor labcled Rr and C1 in Figurc 223. fi ltcr-rcsponsc d vcrsus ftoqucncy is staown in Figue zzi-tt**ticar -*ldr' n qo*"y occunl at a frequesygivcnby fn: O. you dpurd rook ttrcso rp in a rcfctene on filtcrs.

. onplaa bandaregim.785Jl ' ..{(n = o. FTGURE?3.lotc that ar &c ootctr froqucncy. PiG.} fru . l2 I tE lv"l ot 0. then thc rcsistance is gir.A'RE2:2tr The truftrT reiection rotdi is rrcry sharp for one set of components. Dcsign a twin T n@ fittcr !o rcdG lhc {O{fz d€ntt Wba ctrcct suld this herc or nolce signds et t0 to g0O H"f At *.002.3 One forrn of a bancl-reject Ecfitter is the .. (2.l8flfc 3Id fn - -f5?f. 0 t o.5l0Hz O.cn by R: 2Tr(510)(0. l.?02) from thc pass. sogrc rcjcction is ncl Thc ftoqucncics for'f.80 | CHAFTER 2 .6 {I4 42.If wc pick C - so 1!: b* .0l pF.$r ft = O.gridf.206 f.hidl rhc ouput is docrn 3 dB (about 0.0t x l0*) 3t.2S)t EI(AMPLE A 8crymy$1P IIz Prc'udts rbosrd rn eircraft. thc ouput computcs to about O.ti at6 hlgbcrftcgpcoct b Op ouput ddm by 3 dB? Sotutlon If *r rrc f 9* Eqrntion€27): a notch fro$csrcy of 4O0 Ha rhc crirical frcqucncy can be found .ol ttf .

traruistors.l4{0fJ-_ - can be csrimatod o. howcvcr.10 = . FlqF drc It mlst bc uotod izcd using 2"4 ion b sffi &eF" €.tt".ioii"" op*rn is ustrally shown in a larger ckcuit rsing ia own schcmatic symbol as irt Figurc Z.99 ard O-03' rqocdtcty.0t 6t a:#:o'o3t' cffa irun F[gurc U4 by noring dtat tOll0O = 0@S and snpl\ trls rncarc tc otreutnnprt ratios are about 0.$ l{ey *ccid circuis lnd gcncralflsposc ampli6as ac now conaincd h iArrrcd drcuit0C) pack4cs. bcfocecy& beqscdo trpocificprslcno. Apdt fon &Gseerrzoc lOq thqg b rtso tl.theyrtt-tra1p"i*t*rrCrrra"tobdcs ofongldoo.pe oi rmi-te'eoor i. passivc cinuiS tltat.ATUALOG Now thc valucs of thc gounding componcnts are forrnd StcNALOONOmoMNG | 81 "s @l:98ooo p. thc divi&G bridgc. @cr(openpltrsba lftca ftom dffi tecf*m.{€jca and noict filt€rs can be rcal- tcivcclrcuit* plCctrfAy useng op tn ps.ardothcrqpcrations wcrcrequircd. diode..rhat canbc crrptoJrcd Ubast Oaigrs rciain! o aoy g"t rt *tp.zS. urd eC frltcrs Uistoricattn tte dctcctocs u$d ia hidgc circuis corsistcd of urbc and transistor cfucuits. \ hdfr@ drt-. oPERAnoNAtAMPuFIERs ArdsossodhSccdoo2r.?5. tt *o fiorn n t". prodpciag aquickbturioo to lignat-onorioring p19b lcms ogctlrcrwitt &all eb+ low pourerocrsrurptoq rnd low oit h Senctll lhc tFllicdm dIC rc$foes farrl[aity nit an avanaOf linc of such dcvi€srndlffi qocnc{lc ua nlnCms.4. tc nrd morc irnpmtrcd band.ra"a 2.€ @osidcrGd common.li*t ti SroundWhcnconsidcrcdas a funcrional clcnrcntofsonrctargcrdrcuit. and capacitors. hcd$ca€ fornanl'pas... ttigh* f*gttcac*ls villbedoryn'3 dB for&roqrcncics bdow lflfoorrbout23gg tgzThc 3F/J.".rdiloqing apetiirAoos ftis dqioc calhd m opcratmar dit-d. ttcbi8b€r low froqucoc*s rc ercauarod rignificantba. rnd aow rs im4rarcC CrcuncAilhougb msny lincs of op arnps rtittdrcfsc4ocifiaimscxistftromnraryman*ctrrcc. So.tcreqofuqncntro implcncnt&sigos fton di$tEtc ompancG has drco crry !o casicrand-morc rcliabl.id" 1 s fu hfildngtfo* of dgnLcoo. Noacc that the power supply connections are not shown-<nly two input terminals and an ouFut terminal. .mer of drgml €odiaig.-. boft tlpically +Vafi'-u^ito *.t pror:a" $rc of 6c rcqttircd signal opcrarions..1 "e Op Ainp Gharasteristics An op amp is a $urit composcd of resisors.. all wc are concerhcd wi6 are its input and ouput signats. It uluircs connccrion of bip<ttargnwa sqpplics--sat is.3fiil ffi r?At*I.thcrcarcmaaydivcrsc rcquircmcns fordgqot coadirioning in PloG omAot In Scdioo 23 c. . ln many other cascsrfrccimpcdanetnnsfornlions.e r.d l0(0. with thc remartabtcrdnnsindoaooicsandinlegratodcircuis(ICs).t. lciurfitrras dcsigncdlttdcpco&doo dscrctcclectonicoomponcars.ampliflcation. no.

-aY rl Opcntloorl. ' Ottcr chamaaisica of thc op anp rrc that &c inpn Anpcaanca .[ fccdbackpctnis implcrncntation of many. thc ottcr b hb"H eirt.special rclationships botcrq tnPut end onputvolagc.tbcdevice is dways uscd with fccdbdd ouQut!o inprt Su.tpts (+1 sigr ud b cattcd 6G ttottttrct*S inprnfhcdgdlabcls ercpartof tbcqmbol and inus al*ays bc ircludca In ttc and fo Tr:ansfer Rrnction . I CHAPTER2 l. Thcre i3 r lnur rugc of dtrercnht in1lrn vdtgc. typica[y crooeng I l{tl tftcreac tbc ouqc forycrhre { rtry low.For lryutTolilgerage b lccrthrn e dtfivolg r&crces thc rmrndoo vulugec arc typtcatli c lhc ordcdof t0 V.crrod).rtqdy. Ingurc 2r5b shoors rhc rclariochip bctweco voltagcs applicd tcrurinals rnd thc rtsldng ouryn wlg$Thc orry* volt4g Y*. lct us considcr thc cir' cuit in figulre22ll. to this samc point.(n0 Vrll.6ir " 'aaufu'. L pod8rrq rhc c4c e to ltc trro &st tc - - wad r re . to tbc invcdisg anniryt Itc intcqqUm dEgurc 22!tb b madc rs fonslri Whca l/2 b much lagcr rhan V1. Ttb b u'tltcffilr rccdlcdhtrcttilg ud mfnncrtfog.". 6c dgn is isl.re vcry big!. is plotlcdtrrsus6cdftcnebcurccn&ctso inpdrclt€ca. noet op rmp6.&. (Uz n egdirc rottage.'lltbol U| bt Re&afiocstrp befrrcen hptfiand odprrt wltag€ ndifionstXpb€ffilflgulltdotneutvoltaos I{GU8E225 Thesclrermticsymbol and response of an op arp cctcmh sJdol dHgsc2. connocts thc input voltage V. -lL. &c dopc of ttc tusitioo bcturcco sanr{ioo lcrcls is rcry la4s tyt'ca[y creoding 100. tbis inprt is cdtcd rtrc dtlbafral U4aruecga Fgprc 2r:h 6ols thd &cre ls rc gnund ennccrioo dirccrly to thc qp rry. R€sistor & is uscd to fccd back thc ouQut to ttre inverting input of op amp. +V-.in lignrc 2JIft. onc inpr is labclcd sftb3lninus (-] sie! cilbd thc &nuilhg inpril. wtca % b uch hcr 6. tbvd$€3 lhorn rc wir& rcspcct !o gtourld. fiorrGrrcq. rc*cc8t Gty. labclod Ay. and R.Oc. ldeal lnverting Amplifier fr scc how tbe op amp is uscd.rr yD thc q46 b sorrnod t m poeirive tnlage. fhns.25r.. Noticc re havc ap Dliod I/r to thc nooinvatiry ingrn rnd V. typicrly hss tban f 00 & Afur cbrngimicr dldcat op rnF ue (l) an iofinltc inpodanoc bctwcco inplr and(2)azero ooQutirnpcdanoa In praaicc.mefificrtdrcm. nrilthtrfdcL ecooq'otctogca froo+ wfut r. The common co . (Il Vr). Ce U. Whea ttd wfrgem6c (-) u&d b nsc podivq theoqd b no8drc Gr.

as shown in has infinite open-roop gain. wG can si16 ftc circ*it rcqronse as Vm . 2.Nocuncnt fiows trcqgh drcop unp urput tc"mfutG.in"". > o raa'rrcs drc ouput ncgatirrc t't yh < '.Thco.-Y*@ E&rgF whetc /.' aiftrcncc bctvrircn orF op anrp inprt tcrmi- resPonse is per- Finitc open'Iap gcin . in Ph$ Crnttcrlod) ftom ttc iaprtr ltis dcni€ is ilso "Effiby yirnrc of makhg . by ohnris law wc have f -t:e (2J0) lLEr&Ia (e3r) From &uation (129).& < R.orulcsd'atcan be appliod to anatpc thci&at opcrarioo lnm€scs.ryiseninrcniag anptifierwibg&.b$gg€sts tc.rr"f*f"ri_ of tion with lidc cnor. ctrrent&roughR. a ieal oo amp aoes not.mnfrunorryrosq bogurorhc (+) op. of thcass'mcd olag€ in" finirc impcdanoc.. - RrTh Thn*thcrirrqritdEgnrc?. o sanrnrcs t" *&po.AIVALOG SIGNAL CONDTNOMNG I 83 flGURE226 The op arnp inverting amplifier.. .&/e.**tttuough g. casg thcsum of currsrts atrne. thcinvcrtiagmd.srdranuat:rsis-wiUp-Uao-tn"k"*rltt.p. Bccausc thc summing point potartial is assurned to be zcro.d rtrat baclq dreougutrdjuses toa votagestrctr wirt no focdback and thc (+) goundcd. The dcsign rures prcsentcd herc assume the op amp of course. no voltagb Nonideal Effects Anatysq of op amp circtrits wittr formed by considering thc following parascrer$ l- .oodinstingtcrminals" RuL 2 rtsslrrc q* &ctl-is nA+-AutA.Iz - musbc zero.Sfilrr$* f1+It-g i (-) dP i€ltcdth lchrdcdBEg ryPlicd Y*bPl* b€dlcd& lMYm rc hrrc rP Etf &sn +Wr btrte hrcdrdl itsc?fr^ elEPqGs atfi*trltI c bwrYbr.Err bigL qrF E-GGlfilg FffiFHiF ru f"oOn *U hiosshi$ffi b' msirfcrfu llng inPtut mon cf (22e' c. ihatisstriftcd rg0.$mniagpoint 1[#l. wi& fcod- r. Thc dcsign nrhs uc: -Tyopenpcitcttit RuIe t Asstrm rhat'no cuneat floqrs qrygh 6c op amp input tcrrninals-that ----' is. . . \ d r. IhltryP.. .mp inprsbrrclzcro inrhis casc. V+ += -::''V-.vr is ca[cd rhc summing poinc wc cao sce v. .

*c find vo:-*(*) u" (237'.6c toltsge I.'i.crct cnned'cal bc iecmfcC Yo can fq Ir: Sis ctcunt Sumndng tlic .. + Irf fficn..aThcgainisdcfrrrcdasorcslopcofthc /' vdugslngctfue' .200'000! arqp harafnitc ilPtrimp€dancc and' con- f rat op s |nd €tt€|il lbrcugb its inE* tcnnfuuls alvoltrgp r fiilc rowcoy. . lror{dealdraaaerisucsd anop anp trcfude Figwc2z5aaodagailioFigtt'G2..i e : In moct lns ia4 modcrn #trffi ffi$e 6cF"+ t"pd .r{-.rytas e.d. e4op. I I Foreqpicalopan$'Vr-t0VlndAy-l00pV'so.d{A f.'rr€n* 1t O inEms of ttrc cirqrit parametca to givc ..Poiu gitts . and offsets.w tip"t ue"a* is tninllv ontv r @ Z. Nolego -q.od oSil fu rurnrirring. c$cg^carr bc igooroA in dcsigning op tc tbarod o thc op rmp Srro rs 'h vo=Av-(ry)" Now' combining &c cquatiom.z' firfte gsrfL finiteimp€dance..vr-V*h-V-E=o' R1R2 Fnelly.t.s4 | cHl\FrER 2 rl ilor{rtcC !} tnnfirg rnrptrrstnot{dorl fPrrlbrfnr dnnacfiflc op rynp prgtrsrtee FG-UNE2. n * W iiii.noryoorylt impedancc' 3.

t wlnga yio.t" *t ich $e tae f *w ougut cftan&s to tte raturation value Ttris. t llfond unity gahfuquatcy (253. [f wc use r foodback rcsistarcc R2 of t00 k0 aad nrbEinrtc thc aforcmcotioncd valucs into Equatior (233I *c find r. t ". Somc. = o. thc ougut will satur:rrc to thc maimum. "o "rrl... wtkt shoffi tu t" g*o a"* eq.6csc dutlactctisticE are as foUows: prng .e" tcristics may bc asormcd.| dtc otput voltaga Sucfr a cuncnt is refctrod o rs igp."t . htpw bias anrratt this is thc rvcragc of &c tulo inputcurcnts rcquirpd todrivc uteco drc bnfind lrrats .rt . This is stmm in Figurc2gra hw oiba a.f. generatpurposc IC op amp shows \€ can sto*v z{ = trt for-ic p << r.io.ti.vi-* il" .& u.@32) f{w9 rcdtrccs to thc casc giv-cr by Equation e3l).' ."*. ror a $ep input...o n su!fi a . tlrc ioput brminalsto-dritc rtrc ouqut t9 zcro is e. no.omr. "p "*"roprc r oonunon. )! 2.r i" 3y am ru ilJn""rr"* ro"-puro"ular op ampe togcrhcr wirh ec opcn-loop earn ya ineut . pcr Gxpr€6scd as votts mi- fundwidth rhc frre4ucncy rcsPorsc of an6p amp is typi_ aerinca by a Bodc plot of opcn-toop voltsgc g.dr.nent rust as r vottage dt rw bc requirod rcKx* ttrc input to zcro thcoutpttt toltage' ro I nctcuilGat m4rt" t iuinoc i**rc* m inputs ti zo..ftX' . edo. ir.r_p cittttitsth'lrrccmplqyc4 hniamoetcascsasimnrrrtiarnls-ffiItatrtcidcalchanc"..."d previously dcfi ncd.' Irw ofu wltage oP rcdarc ra rrc cGcs.trr. W.p. ticocu.irpri"d il. op.It is be_ yond the qcope of this book to considerthe details of dcsigns $tr .(Xl0 4=75f) a '' 2M(l 5.tl..ls arC$nfy appl.*) . ttrc ratc d* .il1trli.icd to rlrc input of eo gp amp. SIcw a vOagc. irtypioi'rot ro ideat for a casc wtrc* R2lRr = r00.cry srmlt comparod wi& unity.42 d. rhc op rnp oostr rottr& Eay not bc zcro rorqgc rcrocs rti inp* is r.$ (e33) {".ANALOG StcNAL @NDtnoNtNc t 85 where r. "f. of ormc sry of thc . Tb"sc charactcrisri.* (gz) ar_ fcts trom rhc idcal bl ooty OIE*L lhb iB.plot js. gfi." ".*.vcry imporant for thc dcsigr of circuis dr"r-d*t signals.fihp9d. con- Thsc : ffi-al- Op Amp Specificaiion" are claractcrisics of qp enpc oecr rhan gose gim in thc prcviors scction that cn_ tcr into dcsign qprcanons.d.) assumc thatp is r. drca Equrior.r.t takcn as tlrc dfrctcoeof Sc two inputcunrcats.. of."* s t t t thc outprtr volt4gc to zcro. 2(X}. qi"*i "r"pr.pically h (vlps).'d. ihc 6ltr9.

if fu i4lut ls sct'lo m. .86 I C#APTER 2 HGUNE2. *yr'end -t1. In tlres€ cascs.2E srrdtetrlil rcsstaonced b filo tctminals if rbe op lnp. which * . no morcthan.TLb rtdsrlccd bc r{uScd oeily orrc timc arrd not .aod b tc ropply roltage.-loop gafin of &c op anp hrs bcomc unity. efeofme hpe'oectcrnd €opcls. . r'i FqEurc2rS rbowlthcbvctdqgrnd[fcrwittthcpcncrnrpgly oourcctiom. qgcocy kacdcd bsuca Tbcrcare:crcralfirdcrf isncs asociatcd with op amp appli- dcr tb rgpcq. but it vill notbcbccius of inps ofta roltagc.e wi& many otlrcrsupply rcqdreocs.ninat nluc R2 fu pralht dnoa thrt b rhc ctrocrive rcsistsncc sccn by thc Cmpclsdm fc'irry oGA rolage cu bc prwid€d in orp of tuo waya Many nodctnlC qP rngc potdile tcronnrb to dlffi inpot oft4 oornpensarion This bs bccn $o*l b tgnrc 2. Ahc fo|lwfug parlgrql|rs surnmarizc the is$rcs" In geocol. 3 smdl bils vottagc mustbc placcd on itt" input to providc tlr icquild oompcasalion Frgrrrc 229 drows one way o do rhis in the casc of the inverting amplificr.doo can bc em!. udcss thc prdmlrop rup usod b chragod.Th$. : "'' TbffiPthccb&r0ernnsfcrfrnfu fcthcoprnpcirtuitr Eqrration (231) in tfriscrscdlbchsrcclfordcdg!.Gencral-pttrposclCop'ampccansoucc.orsink.rcsrraoryilffi iE qi rrydrtuic hnrrhfoh do mt oontiburr ro 6e drd tnnsfcr fnaioo. Arcthcr practical issltc in thc apptication of op amps involvcs thc currcnt drive ca- pability. dbcr +V ot :V.idod by naking tlrc rcdstare fcofing toth lryi unhrts lpgo:drn*cty rtc sroa b Figprc 2iE fq thc invc(&. V5 = Q 6co tc atput ty gqd6on (23 l) shogld bc zcro.npffict dir Uc tm gruridca b r re*sta si ec $nbverdng tcrrrinal ufuc fo drc rem'as 8s gd invqting lc.3. h.b if &crcb inptil-otrsctvoltaga n tlriscasc. tlrc valtp of rbcsc supplj voltages is h thcrargc of 9 o t5 volt* d@gh op rmpc rrc lailabl.rnl zcfo.about20 mA. qgrin. op anpe reguirc bipotr ponrcr nryflics. ec yuiibtc rcsistor is adjustcd urtil tlc ' ou{.A some €r?afrFs pro*itte connect*)fxi for an lnput offset compensatSon tirrmer r€$istor. Tfic lipcrof &c rrd$lcrtd*or lr ood. of cqual magnitudc. rosdfqgpec Socffifu ofthcop rry. frlla Instca{ thc orcrrll eoqococry bchavia crn bc scco ty dctcnnination of drc ftcI rfricb tfrc opco.tctttyonpasatngfu hputoftctvdtrgaNow:thc tnnsfcrfrrrrction of EqarlionegD rfll bcqrcclArbog rctteop qb mtrcpled or drcircuit conrponcots !rc notctrnge4 fiutlpr adjustmcos of rtc rcsistorsre not rcquired Soncop ange do notPwidc tcrnrinals for inp*ofrsctoompcnsation in the mannq dcscribcd. wtrich rre coonccbd !o dqNigeatcd pins of 6c IC. I i qt . ttrus dcfining ec uniV gda fuqu#y baodilidth. fypically.

t t_tt-poqop lglcanpmvidcooly about2OmA so ttcUrcuit-worriC o6inrcrf. wc 6inlc mArnd kO rnd rcloct. ?x ittdttdcsthcctnentinthcfccdbackcfucsitThis lcadstoegcncratdcsigncdtcdontobcaF flicdrodcdgnwidroprnrps: Trtfu*naarrdtdrwhcndesig. *y = -.7 spGdry 6e dmrft rnd Solufron 'qioad. i" ic ocgilit'G. tfs wqild mcan rhat rhc fdback trali to u r.iio**o. howcvcq cu''mt xr [n tu dt s" ii Mctof thc op ampcircuis shown in this book will not includcpowcr supply conncaions orcompcnsati<rh oofliponcn$. I.Uin"_ tion wirh trrriorif+S..ringartlrritstt ot on i-6" thc foUositrg cxemptc ittustnrcs rhis point F ffi. : i+yl+. {rc catr usc gn invcrting amplificr. This is donc to simpnry *lc circgits so A"'iti*tar ulo*ing pinciplcs can bc unicrstood" You shontd rcatizc. to providc sp eolution' From Equation U *t:" : -45 .teasoo-Suppcc thc input crcca0YThco drcotrgutwouldtccxpccredto bed = "ott"i.-. * J.ri. as in Figrrrc 216. it is much casier to develop a circuit for a specific r"*i"" using op . sI) E"t un lh ifir G G Efr nin iG Cf- rfttu* Ir5 OP AMP CIRCUITS iN INSTRUMENTATION As thc op amp bccarrc famitiar to thc individuals working in process-control and instrumencation tcchnology.itrus.r Suppose uc pilckcd Rr = I O and Rr 4j It Thi.Unt in *ft .fiml-E E [-il.hcrE rhc praaftrr issuc T*:gimoqpley.-{i f.sot.5. $i*ics F S b = drc d"Sg. it is ingactical for thc foltowioB. *7.J(iQj = -9.ANALOG StctUALCONDmoNNG I s7 FIGURE22g lnput offset can also be compensated using extemal connectkrns and trimmer resistors. 8"T I h F ry for a op rmp cinrft wirh r gria of *f.. cqttalioo. . that a pnaaical" *o*ing cirrnit will usually nccd ttrcsc compcnsation elcmenc. &r = I kO ard Rr 45 tc(L o.0V. L *oo. a largc variety of circuits weudeveloped with direct application to this field. is u. -4. for cxamplc. ntio of 45. In general. ttowcvi.

opdrne Ina siinrfs sanrarlon v<ittagc otrputs. fire average call bc found by making Rr .16. Ranc Arcunt Or rtb rndifr66 is sbown in Fgurt 225.It is importmt o notg tc6ciryutirycUarcofeb&cuft bcssartiatty cqualto R1. rndbcre &cinputimpcdanac is notlargaTho orqut inr podanocislw."t o op rmp volage folioqrcr wh€ fccdbaek is providcd intcrecSeeGd for rary higb Pqlt itPcdal"a frc unity -nV. it is also disadvantag€s b thcrcqufuwrcnt of a bipolar porcr enumbcrof typncalci'.ltils ad&cir basic ampc than discrctc comFm€nts.p.followec This circuit tras writy gain but \€ry high lrput fo - impedance.c.t&b circoit in Gta thc inpr signal 1od-m4l trtl cir&crlncoornmc grnq dcecodirg o tbc raiooflpurylg1cq Xp rndfccdback rcsisanoc.Rr and R2 : Rrl2.5. lowlost IC op amps. thc lnEnrcsistam.rrp inim Anpceap is cs.hAafty 6c inPut *ryd"ttractrs tt}c inprt ovcr a pngc &fincd by drc plus orrrp.ss I CHAPTER 2 FTGURE 230 The op arrp voltage. In gcoc3gt Urisrcsirfi. 2.rgcdrcrqrtrhadcrivarionofthccircuitresponscasurminganidcatoPtmp. So* r ulit b o$lilly *.' fnes€z30$ffit.. Yr.it"* i"ppfi f*ruop rmp.] of this amplificr is givcn by (234) Thc sum can bc scatiTd by propcr sctcAion of rcsistors.mcdly geiircftdgs follorrcrb cscndally anirnpcdancc trandormq in thc ecnsc of convcrting a votgge utfgt iryodancc o thc sarc voltagc at l'ow irycdane- zsz tJ]'$NilN tnverting Amplirier TIt Tto hvcrdng rqlificrhs iready d discusscd irn onnidioo with orr trcatrtr€ot of oP rnp Ar*aieAir f4u*n gf t) sbgur &. .& = Rr. ttrcn thc orput is simply tbc (invcrtcd) sum of Ys and V2.lt rotiagc fbc d[|1 1OSM{L G. Foi cxample.t ""d9r ryscoq di1fortg.oeb nchrgp.Tlris pcdraps gror". ad oupot ilripcoancc is t}. Summlng Amplifier Acommonmodifrcarioo of tbc invrcrting amplificr is anan' plificr rhu arns c eAis't*o or mse rppliod votage ftis !inq! is Sown in Figuc 23f iir O" 59 oendng trc irsn reecrlhc trr&firmioo u&--[*n -*v. with ttlc levctopmentof op oitt pr.bich can bc "A"oit*lO itsclf' thc of ap. Crrreot orput is limitcd torbc short circuit current oio" ogLnp.ically mrrcb lcss tbT t00 (L In many cascq a cranrfairnci *nf nari. if we malc Rr .1 Vottase Follower "d\W -i'VE"f qtry$ryc' The -ttttv !i8b tgr u.

4Yi* 5.mptificr wiu bc rfod wie e to ll'"t dr.:fi. *T:Iga=Z3ZSclociooof6cvilucs. ro votragc differcne Io d'"t appcars across tlrc input tcrminals Ir* Iz-0 D r h B whcrc 4: - 12 h- cuficnt&rcugbn.H.oft"*sl" of kccping dlc curr€nts in miiliamperes. 253 on ooe tJer."dil?. r".tJiil :lmd..rsshowuinFrgure2_33.. .1g.ffi ffi. il.g3i a-scooryA e. and using thc point vottagc rt?. il..ii.1 Sotution Tbcrc rrc'_muy rnys tof o\ s gxtl $ *+s ousa surihing rnprificrwirt rcrcca o b -ro ls also aa intstcq :tT31111gg11... t er vr y2 ff* @( Dqrclopuoprdpcircuirelr-"p-i U*.AtuAroG stcruAl.ib. . p o".1tgg pgg *n re inI gd.. @NDrnoNtNc FhGURE 231 'l-Fe op amp surnrning anrplifier.3. si.?}. Noniriverring a*pfifier Filstt) engoiavediagl$iflcrn vbcoastnrctcdftromanqranp. eain of onb rray b fff_1.The saiaofttiscitciffisrouubystrranring &ccuncntsattbcsurnnringpoinqs. curent through rt2 h r 3t3 u ls & cil* FIGURELSa {" The op amp circuit for Exarnple 2..

'.At\tAroG stcr{At. | gl Yr v.!g* nilb nI& F23t ii6tru {r3e ttc ffi tn8Fil e".ffercooc appcars ac'oss thc 0 : .tmE 231 "ilin op arnp surnrning amplifier. b nEr rrie Etr i eruutrt-E &su ffin Tb Itc pb T@ tnr f iF- ly &ga : a53 NonirivertingA-pfifier Plsttl Wffif"r.rs : cuncnt ttrough R1 Iz: throtrgh 82 wbcrc 4 . inputtcrminals rdry Ir * Iz - dsl !fid . FIGURELSa <D' The op amp cirorit for Example 2.TffiHilt: d..ffiP'*.q. Io $ lrmming point vortagc i... no voragc di.1g. CONDTnoMNc ffifr.

A good example is thc Wheastone bridgcVa. garn can rcwr bc uscd for volagc -fquadoo e35) aucnualio bccirs tbo re b rddod to l.Rp h* rhi.8 A nonirnertiU amplifter Yost uot^= (r * frrn" I But thcc cmcnls can bc iFormd fibm Ohn's las sirch &atdris cquation bccotllc 3*u.*] 42.so I CHAPTER 2 f{GURE 2. Bccarsc tbc bput is rakcndircaly inothc noninv€rdnginpttrofrbco0anntcinButimpodarebvcryfrign.are many instanccs in measuremcnt and control systems in s'hich the diffcrencc bctween two voltagcs nccds tobc conditioncd.sinocitiscficeiivclycqual to ttc op mp tprtinp*ana-Thc otput irycdancc is vcry !ow.I +& Rl " fre: 4l n.= t kO..5. is the quantity of intercst. EI(AMPTE Dcsign rhigl'iotrrcdaoacrrylificrwith rwltagspin of42 219 sofution Wc usc thc minwriag circuit of'Figurc 233 with rcsistors sclcdcd eiom . LV : - .It-:o Rr' & SolYing lhil oqtndoo f& Y. ux"=[r. *t find (435. Vn where the offset voltage. rbows ttat thc no*ctlerdry anglifrcr bas a pin tlut dcpcods oo tb ratio oe-ff5q*rssi*r & rnd gordnceistor .4 Differential lnstrumentation Amplifier Therc. 3o wc could choosc 81 . which rcquircs Rr : 41 k(L 2.

J".1. -.V) g236) rtc ditrctcathr-gr" boff.ng i.#"?T "r. v'taut_V* Vt Q3n z Anidcaldiffcrcotialampllficrwillaothavcaayorguuhatdcpcndsonttrcral'eoftbacorn. .r" ii imdat* m€asurcm.-r"ffi an . : is sornc gein tinrcs input voltagcs: A(V.iei.ANALOG SIGNAL CONOMONIIIIG I 91 An i&aldifrcrcntiar amprificrprwidcsanouputvortage wirh rcspcct to ground &at dr difcrcncc bd.p circ. ."or.. Y.il'r5tr*nru sdffiffitrffi# Itctwoio$teminats. rhc ouput _V.its fordiffcrcntial amplificrrrhcmostoomnpncirqritforthisampuaRissrroliiirre.or* and the eppo. r.dffi. citcuit n:.'nst ntmcntation anplifier ff ". (r35) ec nslo rrnhr8P &sF *t€$la[ Hffi .f: iffcrencc UlrSo$e t'ri'dglr* -. y^tT1|rrod'.. (238) 2Otog.:.. if thc gain wcrc fOail Og alJ?: oJ V. or" aircr"r.pedancc ir ll::j. eati*rtrcdnilitgin r**rin*-q9*.:. :{o. Ttlc cot*'"Io*rejoaioo raEo (CMRR) wi[bczcro."-n. difrcrcotial anrplificr.od suct ra rmprificr phys ur"fimporani. .d.'. (2.40i rhc circuit of Figurc 2.Wtrcn tlrc ry1 y9 pafus ormarcrrca op lmp is idcal rhc rransfe frrnction for rtris'amprrril r. '' nm'ao&$tgg'.ff rnl"r. Dpical rralucs of t'strerectialiAmplifier thscarc inurlorop *.nL ""a Common Mode Refection Nodoc ggu voltagc as givcn by Equa_ tion (236) docs not dcpcad on thc valucs c {". ".tu nglgrV gfcn'ncr'iopoi"of*gc but only on thcir dificreoca Thus.Tf bc poor....Ndficcrhatrhe Fq"* ii. g."y 1xi..lffimpcdarlceinput f The result is calted :1.Eodc gaia (CMR) is ec CMBR cxpreicd io dB. el liG input im. % ud v5 ari tortagcs wirt rcspoct to gru.o(ClvfRRi ltc bcficr &c e3g.ai."*o". .:.t*".cianrptificr is dcfincd as lhc rrrio of drc difictcntid gai! to thc cdnnon..".ilra. ! -V racrce ie ffffi#. ."* lt#"X*:f." cMR wiu *T:111t3i::1gjj" SI:I*.. CMR rurgc ftrom 60 to 100 dB.rrmxffi.ffi .. CIr{trR 'd-FrP Thc rejocrion A : Aon CMR = 'Clcarly' tbc hrgcr thcsc numbcrs..33 has r.

t rr$itlerop rrnpooolnp€ntatc fcovcralloftcts of dl tuec op arrys.nr' xage initid tlr principally ""C A"a .ppii"i-" in proccss-mcasnrerncnt systems. a.tnpqlcompcnsafoncanbe *+t*tyt"Aifcand.q.sc. EI(AMPLE 228 Arcosororqurs r rrngp of 2OO to 250 mV rs r vrriablc v6ics ovcr iS rangc' Dcvclop ..|'rl llGUNE235 r.L.mmon. duptifictlioofcbddgccitutits if$re 2.iationofthccquation. O"o &Uiiinnt$ of rhf. .35 $Nrs c ty[r of iostrunrennado anrplificr in a.Tbc cirqrit muet bavc vcry high input trycdam Solution in Atogical way-to appoach probtcms of this sort is ro dcvclop an e4uation for the output to dcveloped bc i"por.Thcquation isthat ofa straightline.-drt*irrg ro Uier rhb bccolncg O !o5 V.1..nerner inctfes an *Y try for toput lsolation- lnsarnnentatlon Ampllftcr iyrnrcnril rmplificn sfib bigb ingrt impcdancc ThgV f* *ent inPcdanca ercgivcn drc sPcciat rume of instrumentationas amplif. volt4ge fOo.Irl HGURE2I^g Ths baiic differentlal arnplifier conftguration" (x-fatrr .A citcuit can then ii"ri r*rite " then wecan piJa"it"*.18..s2 I CHAPTER 2 ta tsc. rredryly dpe o cicA iopnt fneThc tnmfcr ftrnction is still givcn by Equatwo rcto tZrlOl. ir"t as eiat strown in Examptc 2. w-&.t is rlrat cfranging grin rcqufu6 changingprotidcd *rn i -it ti'tgtcocrridfyndtodhvdtd..t rme"trtio. iit V*: mV^ + Vo - .rciltnrf.-*r"r.

urhichisnscdopovilcecO. Thc choicc of *&icf. This circuit allows for selection of gain. ec rchcndc i! Iigurc 2..36 etor& noqv tii ootrio ue aorc withan ip stumeilelionmplificcNoa&crcttrgsdvidc{. ' ff* aE is fsm Vno 2lX (Ur - O. howeveq is thc circuit shown in Figurc 2.37.ibl'... oh"i comcs down to trc numbcr of parte _ orm.{. It can bc shown that the CMR of this circuit. by adjustment of a single rcsistor.I. sine thcy are in srdt oommon usa Mrny usc drc circuit syrncm in Frgure 2. ATUALOG SIGfUAL CONDtTtONtfuc I e3 '. - rytnr pal m tT!tr Manyintcgrrtodcircrritmanufa4urcrspackagcinstnrrncntationamplifieninsinglelCs. R6. althougli still .2l. 6c vatuc lz.O2)+Vo 5im(025)+V3 wc gct ns .gl"Vbias. in sonl cascs withfixcd gait! d in odrcrs providingforuscrsclaionof rcsistonL garncan bcctrangcd.3i.43{ v usiag standard algcbra Thc cquuion lL-2llUr- F ttry rr[3 O-49- In this foem' loucan sccthatesunrming rmplificrcould be usc4 suchas thc onestrown in ngureel:t.i V o l*** .rd yo .ias rlftagccoostant againsrc*rarrgesof Arc srpply vottaga This cxampkiltustratce an importint point-{at morc thanonccignif-conOiAoqing circtit can oftco bc usd to sali$ frc glquisncnts. urcuU Uc vo if yr O Fordrctrconditions ia thispeablcn. fcmtwooquations to s6trcforrn and yo 0-m(0. within certain limits. Lt:a-r *a. onc to u..Tt1g lp g dc # F zencrdiodc is rrod tokcgpthcb. This also'can be qrificn in thc rrrF F b!!- .O2) This lodcs like a ditrcnmtial arnplificr wilh a gain of 21.? anda fi:rcd innn of 0.. A more common configuration of ins&rmentation arnplifier.02 volts to 6c inrcdng dda lbus.\ / TTGURE236 Sofuson for Exanele 2ZA stiere rn is tte dqPc of &c lirc end rcpcscos rbc gain (n > l) or rficauarion (n < l) rc+drc4 and Ys is thc intcrccpq tba b.

docs not dc'pcod Rp.} is vcty higlr."o by "rornro i.r*td. ad rlbougut oa (L41) impodare rrcry low.?: .b{ttdlo*rthctscttoinscrtcxron"f E. irntt r*uo"r.-Y..bcn&:lo2fl'&ctxidgcofrsctvolt4c is foud from Equaiios (2.aAif"r"ori"tgaintndRt. Many [C rnanufac- '3oto mdcsipdgain can bcsclcCcrtThcy can &us cnsurclhighCM11 "i**.v.e4 | CHAPTER 2 FTGURE2.3' fnrcinsrunretttaionanpfifterallovra tre gein @ iitift fil ioput oo tobel*tq rx*U a $ngle reslstor' crl!fr| llatcbiog of drc dificrcnrial rrryrifiaresistors. .p"a"* rL: ('-*){t}tv.Ihc transfcr &rnction of this amplificris e'."ryruur*"rhcinFrgrncz3?cod{bcrsodoprovidcenotrqrutofoo 2:n 25v'Assunrethat& = Rr = 1 lOanddrar Rl = 100 k0' Soluion Ctcaruthchidgeis*nullvihcn&=t00ll.msr*rcuitslt6.3sdrowe rbridgecircriitfawlfch &YsicsAom l00Oto 102{LShowburan . ] ^v:(u-vct:r[#Al :'-2A:15 RGURE238 Bddge for F-xample mV 5V 221.j1qMpLE FigurE2.

'"p aop "iai*dt-iltic.1.'e t" rtso q v.ji'.n t*J'e..o"&l.[. .39 A voltage-trcu*ent @nverter using an op amp.Juo *.ffi. as requircd by a partictrlar apptication. ftrnction is rhonro h ttssc 239.42' RrRr providcd thctlrc rceistaaces are rclcctcd ro *rat brro ld0n &(Rc + The circuit cao'$irrr orrem Rt = Rz& (a€) in cirtcr direaioo..o* circ'it rh"..fr& FIGURE 2.TT} r ffi nurnbcr o" ut*r..fr'ffiil*n bctrrocn currutand *icqgc{oo'oGat voltagp b givpn Uy fSo" mc- lpp"rrd*-O I __ R.o"r. tt* r- -rfi6n ir (ir + irl ."a:n" Jrrr .i.*."ogin. .h.il.AMTOG STGNAL@NDmoNilUG I ss *"'HT:ffffiT.'n Eftg"- (2.: wehave ror-{ry}(i#) solving rhis' Trc ffieffi e55 rdm trd J(6- 2000 (L Notc tbd-trrc irput of ttrc amprificr bc con*it '=%-o"".*.*1 :[. I +"" I v*z .: x. prcvid* this "r.e.nxilfi . must thc porarity ""d Vottage-todrrentGonverter frrl nnrst bc crpablc of dakiqg a arrent into €. fr *.

r:450O 2.aL Ascosaonprrc 0 o I V. mA Spcs.s6 : I CHAPTER 2 Thc maximum load rcsistane and maximnm current are rclated and dctcrmincd bv rhc condidon ttrat &c amplifieroutpu sanrrat€s in volagc. Tlne.in Figruc 2. tlrcn Equation @42) lcduccs to rnusr hatr.6 V/10 rnA - t00J/200 Gurrent-to-Voltage Converter At thc receiving cod of rhc proccss-coaaof signal transmission sysrcrn. To satisfy l00O e Q l.R*: *'hcrc R.+ns)[?-ftr] . Astudy of Equdioo g)(AMPTE .tr: R-r : 100 [ tg 8.o &4{) Rr+&+R5 = rnaximumledrcsisUnce lL : f-: oparnp sa$ration on voltagc maximumcunrent C2'44r.R.contpnt \rclragc givcn by ! U&: -tR (L4sl provided thc op anp saturation voltagc has npt boen reached. & in the no*' invenin-e terminal L" cmployed to provide temperaturc stability to the configuration.4O. The maximum load resisancc is fourd 6 ftom Eqtration (Z4.39. -that curr"nt are rcizucr! br t (R. . atiainlaln lordresisrm is zcro.oo s'hen thc op amp otrtput voltagc saturateq thc rnaximum load rcsisrance and ma:cimuu . Analysis of thc circuit.f. n"rrfop.6t fu maximum I€d rcsistanoe if ftc Solution ffwc malcc 8r : l0 mAar I V.. wc oftcn ncod to oonrrcrttbcctrrcattrack ino avoltege.5. Rr. thoun ftd t$c nrcrtmrlrin led rcsistanoe is alwap UJ I 7.R5 f- tcss th11 V.10 . Tbis circuit providcs . The resistor.Thigcanbcdonc rnostcasilywidr thccireoitshowr in Figure 2.rticlr is rtlqrcd) so rhat Equarion @43) also spccifics &:&=looo This oomplctes tbc toltagc+o-anrrent cowcrtcr.lVllOnALct tts takc . se op amp satirratcs at {. V6/&r.

Thiscircuitrcnrptoyeainnanycaiesu.--i REf U. - rpdm *$$m (3.r bru notT**."ior"gd*Jr"t This rcsult rhorys duccrotrput isdcsirod. lfurcar ramp a "rrrvolaga Ii thc (2.4?) r!duc6- .t.nrioo (2. &ff$ HGURE L41 Ar integrator c*rcuit using an op arnp.ANALOG SIGNAL CONDTNONING le7 FIGUREL1n A cunent-to-roltag€ snverter usirg an op arnp.ffi' b ec ti@ fiNffi" O6cr ftnctiods atso_can be implcmcatcd.p. 919 wc can sum ttc onrcnts at fu strmming po. (L47' tat Eoryn---tolage varics as en integnl of the inpts volagc with scal'efactorof-l/SC. I I@ 'Om 25.46. bc solvcd by inagrating both tcrms so that frc circuit rcsponsc is .'T.Us"gthcidcalanalpis.is onsanq It .7 lntegrator upcrcfut to be omldcred is tfu. int4ntoarbis cmfigurlrit tL rhown in lfeq Figtuca4l'oorisseuinptrircr*snorendafccdbJk". f---t$rr.int rs *n +cgk=-e -dt which T (2.Ot-. Somc mcchanism of resa tluough discharge of thc capacior must bc providc( bccausc othcrwisc V6 will tisc to trrc outiut saturation value and remain fixcd there in time. Care must be taken *rat the o*rrent orrsut capability of $€ op arrrp b dbs hil.49) which rs a-tincar nrrnP. rtrch rs a highly input voltagc. .4-Eq.:--g-. a ncgadvc slope of tr?lRC.

ilh oNhcrcircoiry b dc0rcss lhFlDt*itity.r. ft:*:: l (L4e' Sotving for &c ouput volragc.or rne aeilrgtc G.Hdi&drcofitshibiuccrticorcvenmqtabt€rcsponsc"oC .8 It b Cvc Differentiato / t also pocsiblc to coostnrct ur op of Ol a.i$oc.rit takes $e tirie derlrntlve of the inPut voltage.-1a€\r : sill pffiidc lhc rrtich b e nnp 1!1fug rt l0 v/ns.IfwcmakcRc-lmsandI/"=-|QV'thcn webavc . ramp " T :r:?: or whcrrrhcinputvoltagcisconstarrt. io !* c|t to strn cutrc"a * fhc omming poiot givcs 6c G$addn f . c {F.E at 10V pcr ms' Usc an intcgrata to prodrrcc e lincarramp voltqgc risltrg ?-. r.put wltddThb tmP-ggtrt ci*iit *hidt titi rn oipot to thc dcdva- L4Z is tl€iliTpd with only of tbc iil4ratoc Using idcat analysis is sbown ln Figurc rno4r clprd.Itcrcforq &c o$puttoltage varics s thc dcrivuircof thc io6ntvoltagc' iniCcrffyti.*rows &at &c circuit responsc is . r"q**cinnir as $ow.*:-Rc+' (2so) . Achoie of B I ko rod c'= l rF rcquitcdfrCpmduct U.r -.monrdrft* -- gP ry"Grb ryl fIGURE2/j2 'This circr. Soc{oo 1032 crn.bc nodfod fc usc in oootiollcr implmrtation d..> .23 to!'ttion A.na -fy U cinih"Ooi'r. .H(AMPI. (t0'10+r)r Vt=-rrr.

44.:E(cV.a -cqlffiiel€ostslt FIGUREz*s 3.ifediodcisptaccdin&efccdbackas tion - I(l(. FIGUREL4H A diode in &e feeclback as a nonlinear element produces a krgarithmic amplifier rd 9-r' ltl|/J .ANALOG STGNAL CONDmON|NG | 99 2.sm A nonlinear arnplifier uses a nonlinear fe€dback elerirenl ilb m3:..) wttcr" . 16 (2S3) = ampliUdcooostant .Hlffi* of curreu wi& vottage ff Equatioo (251) ispohre fin pindplc) for U*.g.9 Unearizarion Thc op ampcan also implcrrcnt tincarizatioru C*ircrattn 6is is achicvcd by placing ar. t{%): o wherc Vin - (2sr) input voltage rffj : ffi. d! rs IJffi cttcit Y.wc gd 3 ua_c(*) -{- ml.aIhtarefuwtin thc fcodback loop of thc op !mp. rhc ftrnc- t(VJ . .s2) ouqntvolagc (*) = mmT " ** input voltagc [acruallv rtc inrrcrsc Thu* Talcrloptc. as sbocrn io Figure zi3. rtc irnnation of cunents providcs *..{c.- (?.) is arr cxponcnt'rat sbouminFigure2.5.

nl rcsistancq ctc-? I r I I i' I iL I FIGURE 2.-.onlythcsignatonditioningwiltbc&vctopad. srch as ttn togarithmic amplifier- 2.r. wtrich thus ooeiurtcs a logarithmic amplifrcr.l - |r'*ani ar-. so sonrc will not bc applicabla In maayecs.45 Model for measurement and signalonditioning obiectives. voltagg onrr.Paranutcr What is thc naturt of thc mcasured variable: Pressune' tctrtpcra$rc.Tbcgui&lincs arc gc&ralizad-Sinethcrcnsoris sclcctcdftomurbatis availablc tho actnt dcsign brcally fc thc signal ooodttioning. Dcfite ttu-r^"-ffi a. and thus Equation (253) becomes un = lrei(v. flow. lotcoqrgh infornation will bc availablcto rddcsspr issttc plopcd:n tttco lhcdgsigncrnuscrcdi$gpodtccbnicaljudgtrcntinaccoutingfqrhrtprtofthcdcsigu nggcZ*S Ebows thc mcasnlcmcntand signalcoiditionring &odet In sorc cascq thc eotinerystcrnis tobc &vclopc4 ftoosclcaing tbc scnscto dcsigning ttc signatbonditiooin&Ino6crcascs. tcvel.Itpggidefinccnsutrrbattcproblcmisdculyundcrstoodad&atScinPortant issucsareincftdcd.6 ' frnlincr DEstcN GUtDEuNEs this scOoa aiscussis tlpical issucs that shottld bc oqrsidcrcd whco dciSning a analog rigpat oonOiAmingryUco"ltccxanrplccshorrhovlbcgridclinsc. Dificrcnt fccftack dcvi6 can podtra amplifrcs that"only smocth ot$ variatlors or provi& spccificd opcrations.!bcuscdtodcvcloP recsngn'. i CHAPTER 2 Tlrc invcrsc of this is a logarithnr. Notorcry gpidctinc wilt bc important in wcry dcsign. Guidelines for Analog Signal&dditionlng Deslgn t. .

approachisto dcin{a m oquarioo for dudh srns ioprtr Ron 6i8 sF.? c- :' . and 6) on scnsorq nuny other cryinples will p'roblcmsprescnted. ' ooc*ant. ic#c- Sclea a sarsrlr (if appli<frtcl a. Aeuet What is thc requircd eerracy: 5S FS. wb* orqut impedancc .ougn fu-rtcisirc ac6oc b. sudr loading is a dircct cnor in thc mcasurcrnent Thc follodng cramplcs appty thcsc guidclincs to mcasur€mcnt eignalconditioning In latcr chaptcrs 5. gr+nicat cqurdon.$ge$c-cdc$t. b. EloS dry nb &dt!.o.with relisbac rnd the cftct of crnrcm Ou. cta? auW dgd udtiahg (S/C). 3. ctc. .-This cqu.? a. ..furunaer lvtrat is drc nen''e of thc ccaca outpnc rcsistanoc "oltagc.i\lo[r? Whd is thc noisc l€vcl rrtd frequcncy spcctruE of rhc mcasurcrncnt 5{t cnviioancnt? 2- .2to4Vctc.? k thc rangc | 101 of thc measurcmen[ r00e to z)O"c.ffi Cmbxra brerlW5' b. scooodordcr damging.. O to 5 4 V ro 20 mAr j to l0 kHz)? .45 to g5 psi.Raagc' What is thc d*ircd range of tte oleut pararnctcr (aif. T*FoprnppoOonofecd. crnrcnt dng.adE Mustthcnrcasriwrtoutputtctincar? e.tioo rcn6pscots &c static rrrnsfcr ftrncrioa of rtrc sigaat ooditioiing. rnd fuquency? Rangc wbat b trrc rengc of sarsor paranraa otrput is cascsr coavcsioa to voltqgc b sti[ oftcn a first stcp. (t d . mlsululcotilUe? fc &c givcn ' t hwer Xthrtb&cporrcrqaifrcadon ofttrcscnsor: rcsisitcdrssipation mllimura. twu ww iqput srFd lorr*?Tlrfis is rcry irqcrant in prsvcnting rheing or" lngr. crc.voltagctignrt u'w n*te. Notcsananalogtignatanditianingdesign a : If the inprr is e resistrne drange and e txidgc or dividcr must bc uso4 bc surc to ooosiclcr both thc ctroc of orgut voltagc goalincadty. 3% of rceding. .ANALOG StcNAL OONDTflON|NG b- Rangc what . Pamt*r whdbftcnrtrcof&cdcsfuEdo4ut?rbcno*oommon Desrgn t E troltqgghreaentend&cq'cocyrresorccncsspocrurntclaftcr . . Iitu.doq it wiu b€ dca rftl typcs of r:ircuits may bc usod.cprcscctothc c. loweqt ctc? c.otrpqtledcircuit? gostd drc sE otrcr to &c 4.uttetiryrnirnpcoau&uH6cs. c. Tmn{crfoatoa Whrt b tftcrclaioruhip bctsrccn thccctrscolput and thc msnrred vui$lc Sncr. .Tnu rapa* whrtisrhcdmcrcryonscofthcscosor: r*.t"rt * d- !QF. c" Alnrayr ooridcreny pcibtc loading of volugc soucs by ttc signl 'oonditioning.

Ttrc 'l(X}-Orceietrvrs*loctcdto&ecploadngbyrhooprmpcircuitsmatl. it b casicsr o dsvclop en oquation for drc ouqput in tcrms of ec iopr& Ron dfs. Moct 'ADCs havc iopt fnpcdanoca of rr lcest tcns of tiloh$.4) . tbl€) t€sistor h. thc mca$r€m6t arvircnmcnt.s bm usF4 ro bo6 loading of thc dividcr by tbc op amp circuit and variuioa of thc rupply ftom cxactly 15 V can bc compcnsatcd for by adjusting untit thc bias iscxacly2"4V. rnd thc output impcdancc of op eopcircuieisquitcloq so rhcrcis norcalenocrn for thcorput impcdancc of thcSrc.trn*Vd' Clcarly.tcstrnniqg rmglifrcinvcns. .bcco essurncd for tb dividcr reeistancc caliutations.l V For intcrfacc to an analog-todigital convertcr.pe of F*lco. we form trro oqu4tioos for thc unknowl slopc Gain). Ttre dcsigB oould also bc aeomplished by a diffcrcntiat amplifier.g23 fbc urnsfcr frrnaion cquaion is thtrs Vq: l?23V' + 4'615 . ra" andoffsa(bias). Wc er rimply askcd to providc a voltagc-totultagc convasioo. m:zslel-l. dm{c caa bc covisioood. Yc / : mVy* Vs Using thc spccificd iofomation. or thc scnsor.wegct = L4ttt and whcn this is substitutcd into the 25 --f. If thc I . eoryoltagcfollowcrwotrld bc nccdcd et rhc input" Also.923 in the transfcroquarion is ectorc{ wcget Vo.-L4m * Vo 25:-l.923(Vin*2. fulution fiorthis typc of prcblcm' no iofomration is providcd about thc mcasurcd variablc. 8ysc0" For this t. Sincc thc rouroc inpodancc is not known.kn *2.g4 2 A scnsor ouguts a volagc ranging ftom -2. thcrc rrc prny wryr to sati$ this e4rerioo" A nnnmingamptifier coutd bc uscd.4 3o -t. from rhc first cquation we havc Vc ecood cqudbo.. A f+V suPPly has. solving for rn.ts7 I CI{APTER ffi 2. !t is good design practicc to rsumc it is high rnd to dcsign a higbinptimpcdance systcrn to