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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.

672-674 (2014) pp 446-452

Online available since 2014/Oct/08 at
(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

Submitted: 13.08.2014
Accepted: 16.08.2014

Wave data analysis for wave energy power in Namae coast

Byung Ho Kang1, a, Kyu Han Kim2,b

Waterfront and coastal research center, Republic of Korea


Kwandong univesity, Republic of Korea,

Keywords: wave energy, hydrodynamic pressure, fourier transform, discrete wavelet transform,
discrete wavelet packet transform

Abstract. In order to install the wave power facilities in ocean and coastal area, it is very important to
determine the properties of wave data. Discrete wavelet packet transform was applied in this study
and was used as a tool to find out the basic properties of waves around Namae coast. Important
features of hydrodynamic pressure such as frequency and magnitude were investigated in different
observation time. Also the idea of measuring the noise rate was introduced and applied to both
stationary and non-stationary time spans for the comparison. These methods would be useful to check
the feasibility of wave energy extraction in various types of coasts.
Fourier transform is one of the most commonly used methods for analyzing the data obtained from
the field observations. As it can provide the spectral information from the observed data, Fourier
transform showed advatages on analyzing the stationary signals. On the other hand, most of the real
signals in the nature are non-stationary signals[1]. If the Fourier transform is applied directly to the
non-stationary real signals, what can only be obtained is an average energy of the span on the
frequency spectrum, which means the instantaneous energy information cant be dealt appropriately.
On the other hand, wavelet transform is a relatively new method for the signal analysis. Since 1970s,
wavelet transform have been improved and become one of the essential analytical methods in various
fields. Generally speaking, wavelet analysis can be classified as continuous wavelet transform and
discrete wavelet transform. Also, discrete wavelet analysis could be categorized into discrete wavelet
transform and discrete wavelet packet transform. However, since the frequency spans of discrete
wavelet transform grow as the power of 2, it is improper mehtod for determining the precise
frequency information [2]. Meanwhile, discrete wavelet packet transform has the arithmetical
divisions of frequency bands which can be applied to have much more detailed frequency information.
In this study, discrete wavelet packet transform is applied to the hydrodynamic pressure. Some useful
information of wave properties in Namae coast can be derived from the results. Additionally,
Comparisons between the characteristics of both stationary and non-stationary signals have to be
Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform
The discrete wavelet packet transform of a measured time series X={xn : n=0,1,2,.,N-1} can be
derived from simple modification of the pyramid algorithm for the discrete wavelet transform. Fig.1
is a discrete wavelet packet tree of level J0=3. The doublets (j,m) were adopted to denote each node.
By using the low-pass filters { , } and high-pass filters{ , }, the process of the decomposition of
time series X is simply illustrated in the figure.

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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 672-674


Fig. 1 Flow diagram of discrete wavelet packet transform

In this figure, 2 denotes down-sampling by two. Calculation of the discrete wavelet packet
transform coefficients can recursively be conducted by filtering the discrete wavelet packet transform
coefficients obtained from the previous stage. The elements of , can be produced by using two
part rule[3]. Let , , be the n-th element of , . Then it is possible to write j-th level discrete
wavelet packet coefficents as:

, ,

. 1

, ,

. = 0, , /2 1. 2



. 3

In these definitions, modulo is used for the circular filtering of each coefficient.
Field observation
The observation of water pressure using Wave Hunter 301 was carried out at the Namae coast(37 56'
N, 128 48' E) which is located at the East sea of Korea. In order to improve the accuracy, water
pressure itself was used for the analysis, instead of using wave heights processed from water pressure.

Fig. 2 The observation area of Namae coast in the East Sea


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Fig. 3 Wave Hunter 301

Table 1 shows the specifications of Wave Hunter 301.
Table 1 Specification of Wave Hunter 301
Water pressure

445H 120
Range 0 to 5kg/
, resolution 1g/
, precision 0.5%/FS
Range 0 to 359 , resolution 1
Range -5 to 40 , resolution 0.1
1.0, 0.5, 0.2,0.1 sec

In this observation, the sampling interval(t) was preset to be 0.5 seconds. For each time interval,
wave pressures were obtained and recorded on the memory of the Wave Hunter 301. The observation
was carried out from 23rd of July, 2011 to 19th of August, 2011. In order to lighten the computational
burden, 6 time spans were selected for this study rather than entire time span.
Table 2 Observation time for each span

Observation Time
July 24th 13:00 to
July 27th 13:00 to
July 31st 13:00 to

0 to




Observation Time
August 3rd 13:00 to
August 6th 13:00 to
August 13th 13:00 to


At span A, the depth of the Wave Hunter 301 was increased from 0 to 16.36m for the installation.
Except for the span A, the depth of the observation point was consistently around 16.3m to 16.5m . As
the depth of the sensor is known, the hydrodynamic wave pressure was obtained and was used for the
analysis. Fig 5 shows the power spectrum of pressure values for each time spans. The values of each
spectrum were depicted in the log-scaled graph.

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 672-674


Fig. 4 Power spectra of hydrodynamic pressure

It is possible to find out that, the peak frequencies of each span are located around 0.1-0.2 hz. Also, it
should be noted that the noise values around the 0 hz is considerably higher than the other frequency
The discrete wavelet packet transform of level 5 were carried out for each time spans. Hence, the
width of each pass band is fixed to 0.03125hz (
) and the width of the time (t 2

is set to 16 seconds. As from the previous studies [4], Coiflet filter of width 30 was proven to have
good resolution in terms of both time and frequency information. Thus it was constantly applied for
this study. Following figures from Fig. 5 to Fig. 10 shows the absolute values for the wavelet
coefficients of the wave pressure.

Fig. 5 Discrete wavelet packet coefficients of hydrodynamic wave pressure in span A

Fig. 5 denotes that the values around 0 hz are dominant especially for the non-stationary sequence
(from 16-592 seconds). Also it was possible to find out that after the non-stationary sequence, the
pressure showed stationary elevation and has the peak frequency around 0.156-0.187hz.

Fig. 6 Discrete wavelet packet coefficients of hydrodynamic wave pressure in span B


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Fig. 7 Discrete wavelet packet coefficients of hydrodynamic wave pressure in span C

Fig. 8 Discrete wavelet packet coefficients of hydrodynamic wave pressure in span D

Fig. 9 Discrete wavelet packet coefficients of hydrodynamic wave pressure in span E

Fig. 10 Discrete wavelet packet coefficients of hydrodynamic wave pressure in span F

For span B,C,E, the peak frequencies are located in 0.156 to 0.187 hz. In case of D,F spans, the peak
frequencies are located in 0.187 to 0.218 hz. However, it is clear that peak frequencies changed very

Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 672-674


little inside each span. Thus, it can be said that the pressure fluctuation are stationary for each span.
Also, the magnitude of span D is considerably higher than those of other spans except for the span A.
By considering this result, it is evident that the magnitude of the hydrodynamic pressure is not related
to neither frequency nor the depth of the water.
Furthermore, we can derive that values around 0 hz of Fig. 5 are much higher than the below ones.
Here, noise ratio can be determined by assuming that coefficient values around 0 hz are the results of
non-periodic noise. Noise ratio can be achieved by calculating the rate between the sum of wavelet
packet coefficients around 0 hz and the total sum of the wavelet packet coefficients.

Noise ratio=

Fig. 11 depicts the noise ratio calculated from each time span.

Fig. 11 Noise ratio of each span

We can easily found out that span A, the non-stationary condition, shows significant values of noise
ratio comparing to the others.
Discrete wavelet packet analysis was applied to find out the properties of hydrodynamic wave
pressure in Namae coasts. By comparing each results of the discrete wavelet packet transform, it was
possible to derive some meaningful results.
1. Except for the installation period, it has been found out that the frequency of hydrodynamic wave
pressures in Namae coast are shown to be stationary throughout each observation span.
2. Frequency as well as the water depth didnt have much influence on the alteration of hydrodynamic
pressure magnitude.
3. The idea of obtaining the noise ratio was proposed and was applied to each span. It has been shown
that the noise ratio of non-stationary condition showed higher value than that of stationary conditions.
Throughout this study, discrete wavelet packet transform showed its great potential for analysing the
basic properties of the ocean waves. This analysis method is expected to be a very useful tool for
understanding the stochastic property of wave energy efficiency.


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[1]Li-Chung Wu et al. Applying the wavelet transform to study the features of freak waves, Coastal
engineering, 2010
[2] Kang Byung Ho, Numerical analysis of non-stationary floating body response in waves, Tokyo
University of Marine Science and Technology,Masters dissertation, 2014
[3] Donald B.Percival and Andrew T.Walden, Wavelet Methods for Time series Anslysis, Cambridge
University press, 2000
[4] Byung Ho Kang and Toshio Iseki, Application of Discrete Wavelet Transform to Ship Motion
Analysis, Asia Navigation Conference, 2013

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Wave Data Analysis for Wave Energy Power in Namae Coast