Describe Wave Data Analysis for Wave Energy Power in Namae Coast

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Describe Wave Data Analysis for Wave Energy Power in Namae Coast

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Online available since 2014/Oct/08 at www.scientific.net

(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland

doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.672-674.446

Submitted: 13.08.2014

Accepted: 16.08.2014

Byung Ho Kang1, a, Kyu Han Kim2,b

1

2

a

kbyungchan@naver.com, boceankd@chol.com

Keywords: wave energy, hydrodynamic pressure, fourier transform, discrete wavelet transform,

discrete wavelet packet transform

Abstract. In order to install the wave power facilities in ocean and coastal area, it is very important to

determine the properties of wave data. Discrete wavelet packet transform was applied in this study

and was used as a tool to find out the basic properties of waves around Namae coast. Important

features of hydrodynamic pressure such as frequency and magnitude were investigated in different

observation time. Also the idea of measuring the noise rate was introduced and applied to both

stationary and non-stationary time spans for the comparison. These methods would be useful to check

the feasibility of wave energy extraction in various types of coasts.

Introduction

Fourier transform is one of the most commonly used methods for analyzing the data obtained from

the field observations. As it can provide the spectral information from the observed data, Fourier

transform showed advatages on analyzing the stationary signals. On the other hand, most of the real

signals in the nature are non-stationary signals[1]. If the Fourier transform is applied directly to the

non-stationary real signals, what can only be obtained is an average energy of the span on the

frequency spectrum, which means the instantaneous energy information cant be dealt appropriately.

On the other hand, wavelet transform is a relatively new method for the signal analysis. Since 1970s,

wavelet transform have been improved and become one of the essential analytical methods in various

fields. Generally speaking, wavelet analysis can be classified as continuous wavelet transform and

discrete wavelet transform. Also, discrete wavelet analysis could be categorized into discrete wavelet

transform and discrete wavelet packet transform. However, since the frequency spans of discrete

wavelet transform grow as the power of 2, it is improper mehtod for determining the precise

frequency information [2]. Meanwhile, discrete wavelet packet transform has the arithmetical

divisions of frequency bands which can be applied to have much more detailed frequency information.

In this study, discrete wavelet packet transform is applied to the hydrodynamic pressure. Some useful

information of wave properties in Namae coast can be derived from the results. Additionally,

Comparisons between the characteristics of both stationary and non-stationary signals have to be

made.

Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform

The discrete wavelet packet transform of a measured time series X={xn : n=0,1,2,.,N-1} can be

derived from simple modification of the pyramid algorithm for the discrete wavelet transform. Fig.1

is a discrete wavelet packet tree of level J0=3. The doublets (j,m) were adopted to denote each node.

By using the low-pass filters { , } and high-pass filters{ , }, the process of the decomposition of

time series X is simply illustrated in the figure.

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP,

www.ttp.net. (ID: 130.194.20.173, Monash University Library, Clayton, Australia-26/11/14,14:02:03)

447

In this figure, 2 denotes down-sampling by two. Calculation of the discrete wavelet packet

transform coefficients can recursively be conducted by filtering the discrete wavelet packet transform

coefficients obtained from the previous stage. The elements of , can be produced by using two

part rule[3]. Let , , be the n-th element of , . Then it is possible to write j-th level discrete

wavelet packet coefficents as:

, ,

. 1

, ,

. = 0, , /2 1. 2

Where

,

,

,

. 3

In these definitions, modulo is used for the circular filtering of each coefficient.

Field observation

The observation of water pressure using Wave Hunter 301 was carried out at the Namae coast(37 56'

N, 128 48' E) which is located at the East sea of Korea. In order to improve the accuracy, water

pressure itself was used for the analysis, instead of using wave heights processed from water pressure.

448

Table 1 shows the specifications of Wave Hunter 301.

Table 1 Specification of Wave Hunter 301

Dimension

Water pressure

Orientation

Water

temperature

Sampling

interval

Weight

15kg

445H 120

Range 0 to 5kg/

, resolution 1g/

, precision 0.5%/FS

Range 0 to 359 , resolution 1

Range -5 to 40 , resolution 0.1

1.0, 0.5, 0.2,0.1 sec

In this observation, the sampling interval(t) was preset to be 0.5 seconds. For each time interval,

wave pressures were obtained and recorded on the memory of the Wave Hunter 301. The observation

was carried out from 23rd of July, 2011 to 19th of August, 2011. In order to lighten the computational

burden, 6 time spans were selected for this study rather than entire time span.

Table 2 Observation time for each span

SPAN

A

B

C

Observation Time

July 24th 13:00 to

14:00

July 27th 13:00 to

14:00

July 31st 13:00 to

14:00

Depth

0 to

16.36m

SPAN

16.51m

16.55m

Observation Time

August 3rd 13:00 to

14:00

August 6th 13:00 to

14:00

August 13th 13:00 to

14:00

Depth

16.38m

16.34m

16.53m

At span A, the depth of the Wave Hunter 301 was increased from 0 to 16.36m for the installation.

Except for the span A, the depth of the observation point was consistently around 16.3m to 16.5m . As

the depth of the sensor is known, the hydrodynamic wave pressure was obtained and was used for the

analysis. Fig 5 shows the power spectrum of pressure values for each time spans. The values of each

spectrum were depicted in the log-scaled graph.

449

It is possible to find out that, the peak frequencies of each span are located around 0.1-0.2 hz. Also, it

should be noted that the noise values around the 0 hz is considerably higher than the other frequency

band.

Results

The discrete wavelet packet transform of level 5 were carried out for each time spans. Hence, the

width of each pass band is fixed to 0.03125hz (

f

) and the width of the time (t 2

is set to 16 seconds. As from the previous studies [4], Coiflet filter of width 30 was proven to have

good resolution in terms of both time and frequency information. Thus it was constantly applied for

this study. Following figures from Fig. 5 to Fig. 10 shows the absolute values for the wavelet

coefficients of the wave pressure.

Fig. 5 denotes that the values around 0 hz are dominant especially for the non-stationary sequence

(from 16-592 seconds). Also it was possible to find out that after the non-stationary sequence, the

pressure showed stationary elevation and has the peak frequency around 0.156-0.187hz.

450

For span B,C,E, the peak frequencies are located in 0.156 to 0.187 hz. In case of D,F spans, the peak

frequencies are located in 0.187 to 0.218 hz. However, it is clear that peak frequencies changed very

451

little inside each span. Thus, it can be said that the pressure fluctuation are stationary for each span.

Also, the magnitude of span D is considerably higher than those of other spans except for the span A.

By considering this result, it is evident that the magnitude of the hydrodynamic pressure is not related

to neither frequency nor the depth of the water.

Furthermore, we can derive that values around 0 hz of Fig. 5 are much higher than the below ones.

Here, noise ratio can be determined by assuming that coefficient values around 0 hz are the results of

non-periodic noise. Noise ratio can be achieved by calculating the rate between the sum of wavelet

packet coefficients around 0 hz and the total sum of the wavelet packet coefficients.

Noise ratio=

Fig. 11 depicts the noise ratio calculated from each time span.

We can easily found out that span A, the non-stationary condition, shows significant values of noise

ratio comparing to the others.

Conclusions

Discrete wavelet packet analysis was applied to find out the properties of hydrodynamic wave

pressure in Namae coasts. By comparing each results of the discrete wavelet packet transform, it was

possible to derive some meaningful results.

1. Except for the installation period, it has been found out that the frequency of hydrodynamic wave

pressures in Namae coast are shown to be stationary throughout each observation span.

2. Frequency as well as the water depth didnt have much influence on the alteration of hydrodynamic

pressure magnitude.

3. The idea of obtaining the noise ratio was proposed and was applied to each span. It has been shown

that the noise ratio of non-stationary condition showed higher value than that of stationary conditions.

Throughout this study, discrete wavelet packet transform showed its great potential for analysing the

basic properties of the ocean waves. This analysis method is expected to be a very useful tool for

understanding the stochastic property of wave energy efficiency.

452

Reference

[1]Li-Chung Wu et al. Applying the wavelet transform to study the features of freak waves, Coastal

engineering, 2010

[2] Kang Byung Ho, Numerical analysis of non-stationary floating body response in waves, Tokyo

University of Marine Science and Technology,Masters dissertation, 2014

[3] Donald B.Percival and Andrew T.Walden, Wavelet Methods for Time series Anslysis, Cambridge

University press, 2000

[4] Byung Ho Kang and Toshio Iseki, Application of Discrete Wavelet Transform to Ship Motion

Analysis, Asia Navigation Conference, 2013

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.672-674

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.672-674.446

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