SUBJECTS 1st year, 1st semester

I. Embryology
1. Spermatogenesis and blood testes barrier
2. Spermiogenesis. Sperm characteristics
3. Oogenesis and arrested prophase
4. Follicular cycle
5. Ovulation. Corpus lutheum. Corpus albicans
6. Endometrial (uterine) cycle
7. Trial of gametes in the female genital tract
8. Insemniation. Capacitation. Acrosome reaction
9. Fertilization. Superfecundation. Superfetation.
10. Cleavege. Implantation. Decidual reaction.
11. Second week - the evolution of the embryonic disck
12. Second week - the evolution of trophoblast
13. Third week – development of the intraembryonic mesoderm and
formation of the notochord
14. Third week - evolution of trophoblast
15. Formarea and evolution of neural plate
16. Embryonic layers- main derivatives
17. Somites – formation and development
18. Formation of blood and
circulatory system. Formation of
intraembryonic and extraembryonic cavity.
19. Fetal period - general features
20. Amniotic cavity –development, evolution, role, characteristics of
amniotic fluid
21. Fetal annexes: umbilical cord, yolk sac, allantois
22. Placenta- formation, external configuration
23. Placenta - structure
24. Placenta - functions
25. Development of the limbs. Malformations.
26. Classification of joints. Fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints
27. Structure of a synovial joint. Synovial fluid.
28. Movements in joints. Guidance of the movement in joints. Axis of the
movement. Functional classification of joints (according to the number of
the axes)
29. Atlantooccipital joint– anatomy (general knowledge). Median
atlantoaxial joint- anatomy (general knowledge). Biomechanics of
craniovertebral joints (general knowledge; behavior in sudden
acceleration and deceleration)
30. Intervertebral joints. Intervertebral disc. Biomechanics of vertebral

4. 32. Clinical implications 7. Knee joint. 33. Radiocarpal joint . Congenital hip dislocation-general knowledge. II. osseous landmarks for the vertebrae. location. Anterior muscles of arm. Location of vessels and nerves. relations. Clinical implications.anatomy and biomechanics. Pectoralis major muscle. sternum and costal margins. Triceps brachii muscle. 9. Landmarks for articular puncture. 34. nerve supply. Clinical implications (recognition of paralyses). back. 37.anatomy and biomechanics. Hip joint. nerve supply. Palpation of the articular elements. capsule. Numbering of ribs. Palpation and anatomical landmarks. Transversal section through the middle arm.anatomy and biomechanics. Clinical implications. Biomechanics of knee joint. Elbow joint – anatomy and biomechanics. 10. . relations 3. Transversal section through the middle third of the arm. pectoralis minor muscle and serratus anterior muscle. Palpation and anatomical landmarks 39. Shoulder joint. Biomechanics of costovertebral si costosternal joints. ligaments. 31. Shoulder muscles. talocrural. Extrinsic back muscles (superficial and intermediate back muscles) – definition. nerve supply. Tibiofibular. Palpation and anatomical landmarks. 36.-location.column. Notion of sentinel lymph node.location. Upper limb. Thoracic puncture and intercostal nerve block (anaesthesia). Plantar arch. Costovertebral si costosternal joints. Lymphatic drainage of mammary gland. Anatomical substratum of scapulohumeral periarthritis. Palpation and anatomical landmarks of the vertebral column. talocalcaneonavicular joints. Palpation and anatomical landmarks. 6. 2. Palpation of the regional elements. Structure of mammary gland. 38. 8. Nuchal region-topography. thoracic walls 1. Thoracic landmark lines. Intercostal space. 35. subtalar.general knowledge and biomechanics. structures involved in disc herniation. Clinical implications. relations. Deltopectoral groove. Palpation and anatomical landmarks.articular surfaces. menisci. concepts of topography. 5. relations. Palpation and anatomical landmarks. Anterior muscles of forearm. External configuration and stratigraphy of mammary region. Means of sustentation of gland. Sternoclavicular si acromioclavicular joints – structure and biomechanics. General knowledge. Axillary lymph nodes.

Axillary artery – course.course. III. relations. Flexor retinaculum. extensor retinaculum. relations. Arterial periarticular anastomoses of the upper limb. Topography of the anterior region of the forearm in its distal third. Groove of the pulse.location. Nerves of the upper limb that are directly related to the bone. relations. nerve supply. relations. 13. Palmar region – topography. branches 21. relations. Deep palmar arch and carpal arches 25. 18. innervation territory. description. Synovial sheaths. Abdominal wall. Landmarks for venous denudations at the level of the upper limb 33. Posterior muscles of forearm. Clinical implications.course. Palpable osseous landmarks of the trunk and limbs 34. Lateral muscles of forearm. Clinical implications. Brachial plexus– formation. lower limb 1.location. Anatomical snuffbox. Clinical significance of this relation. Clinical implications. 19. branches 20. branches.course. aspect of paralysis 29. relations.11. Axillary region-description. relations. 27. Palpation and projection of the arteries of the upper limb. 14.course. Axillary and radial nerves. 12. Sheath of rectus abdominis. branches. Clinical implications. internal oblique muscle and transversus abdominis musclelocation. External oblique muscle. Cubital fossa (anterior region of elbow). 16. Clinical implications. structure. Radial artery . 15.course. nerve supply. 28. Rectus abdominis muscle. 32. Brachial and antebrachial cutaneous nerves. Carpian tunnel. innervation territory. Clinical implications. aspect of paralysis 31. branches 22. branches.definition and biological significance. Clinical implications. Ulnar artery . Brachial artery – course. Clinical implications. relations. 2. Clinical . Cephalic and basilic veins 26. Median nerve. innervation territory. Superficial palmar arch 24. Fasciae of the upper limb. nerve supply. branches 23. Ulnar and musculocutaneous nerves. parts and relations. Clinical implications. Bicipital grooves. Sensitive nerve supply of the upper limb. relations. aspect of paralysis 30. 17. relations.

Neurovascular routes in the anterior abdominal wall. relations. Anastomosis between epigastric arteries. branches 22. appearance in aortic coarctation) 9. Clinical implications. Clinical implications (difference between inguinal and femoral hernias). Clinical implications (differential diagnosis of adenopathies) 28. communications of the region. enumeration of branches .course. 17. Lacunae vasorum and musculorum. Anterior and lateral muscles of calf (leg). relations. Clinical implications 5. branches 23. Clinical implications 4. Linea alba and linea alba externa. 8. Clinical implications.location. Course of the epigastric vessels at the level of the abdominal wall. Lumbar plexus– formation. Anterior muscles of thigh. 14.location. Types of paralyses. Clinical implications.location. relations. Inguinal fossae on the deep surface of the abdominal wallclassification of hernias 6. Palpations. Internal and external pelvimetry 10. branches 25. 18. Clinical implications. Clinical implications.location. contents 16. 20. 27. Inguinal canal – delimitation. Posterior muscles of thigh. Popliteal region. direction of muscular fibres) 3. relations. relations. Adductor canal and hiatus of adductor magnus-delimitation. Inguinal canal – rings. branches 24. Clinical implications (injections in gluteal region. Dorsal artery of foot (dorsalis pedis artery). relations. Clinical implications. Clinical implications. Femoral triangle. relations. Clinical implications 19. Medial muscles of thigh. Great and small saphenous veins. 13. Weak points of the abdominal wall. nerve supply. relations. relations. branches 26. Anterior tibial artery – course. Clinical implications. Popliteal artery – course. possible injuries associated with fractures) 11. nerve supply.implications (neurovascular routes. Medial and lateral retromalleolar grooves 21. relations. Femoral artery – course. Posterior muscles of leg. Inguinal lymph nodes. Corona mortis. Posterior tibial artery and plantar arteries – course. Clinical considerations (surgical protection of vessels. paralyses. relations. nerve supply. 15. 7. 12. Osseous pelvis. Gluteal region – topography. Femoral canal. walls.location. enumeration of muscles and their nerve supply. Clinical implications. nerve supply. contents.

Femoral nerve. relations. branches. Aspects of paralyses. Gluteal nerves and posterior femoral cutaneous nerve 34. Deep peroneal nerve and sural nerve.29. aspect of paralysis. Common and superficial peroneal nerves-course. Clinical significance of its relations. Sciatic nerve – course. . 32. ilioinguinal and genitofemoral nerves.course.S1. Tibial and plantar nerves. Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. branches. Clinical aspect of compression at L4-L5 and L5. relations. Sensitive nerve supply of the lower limb. Aspect of paralysis. relations. 37. iliohypogastric. Palpable osseous landmarks of the lower limb 38. 30. Clinical aspect of paralysis 36. Clinical significance of the relations. innervation territory.clinical significance 33. 35. branches. 31. Clinical significance of their relations. General knowledge. Landmarks for the arterial puncture and venous denudations at the level of the lower limb. Sacral plexus– formation (general knowledge). relations. innervation territory. Palpation and projections of the arteries of the upper and lower limbs. Obturator nerve.