# FM

FORCE and PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
UNITS OF FORCE
Pound Force

- lbf

Newton

-N

Kilogram Force

- kgf

1 lbf = 0.454 kgf = 4.45 N

TYPES OF FORCE MEASURING DEVICES
Mechanical Balance

a

b

W2
c
W1
W3
From simple statics,

=
W3

=

or

1

. the maximum deflection.79 E b t3 where: E = Elastic modulus of the ring material.FM 2 Proving Ring b F δF r t Dial Gauge F RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFLECTION (δF) and LOAD (F) F r3 δF = 1. δF ≅ of the ring diameter. For the above equation to be valid.

ε = 6Ld E w t2 .FM 3 CANTILEVER LOAD CELLS LOAD CANTILEVER CABLE MECHANICAL STOP STRAIN GAGES LOAD = L CROSS SECTION d w t STRAIN GAGES At the location of the strain gages. M = L d ε The surface strain. = Mt Ld t = 2EI 2 EI w t3 I is the moment of inertia and is equal to: I = 12 Substituting.

FM TENSION OR COMPRESSION LOAD CELLS LOAD = L AREA = a POISSON GAGES ACTIVE GAGES LOAD 4 .

FM Load Cells with Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT) (Electronic dial gage) LOAD DISPLACEMENT OUTPUT TO LVDT SPRING Used for measuring small loads LOAD Equilibrium Position SPRING Vibration 5 .

FM Spring Deflection Time Response with Underdamping Spring Deflection Time Response with Overdamping Spring Deflection Time Response with Critical Damping 6 .

N τ r 7 .FM USE OF PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS [sensors] (to measure loads) LOAD MECHANICAL GAGE DIAPHRAM (or Piston) LOAD PRESSURE TRANSDUCER ELECTRICAL OUTPUT TORQUE MEASUREMENT T τ T Units: ft .lb or m .

FM RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHEAR STRESS (τ) AND TORQUE (T) τ = (T r) / J On the surface of the shaft: τ = (T R) / J where J = Polar Moment of inertia = π R4 / 2 shaft of radius R for a solid circular Shear Strain (γ) γ=τ/G γ substituting. Relating γ to T: = TR / GJ T = (G J γ) / R Torque measurement using strain gages T 1 2 45 4 o 3 T Strain Gauges 8 .

896 x 103 Pa and Atmospheric pressure = 14.Atmospheric Pressure 9 .) 2 R3 γ Vo PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Fundamentals of Pressure Pressure = Force / Area Commonly used units are: psi or Pa 1 psi = 6.FM R2 R1 V o + ΔV _ R4 ΔV = (G.7 psi Gage Pressure = Absolute Pressure .F.

FM 10 Manometer Atmospheric Pressure Pressure Gage Pressure = h ρ g h h = height ρ = density of fluid g = gravitational acceleration Example: If h = 10 in.6 g / cm3 (or 13.7 = 19.4) (13.6 times greater than H20) Then gage pressure = (10) (62. & the fluid is mercury.6) / (12)3 = 4.9 psig The absolute pressure = 4.6 psia . what is the gage and absolute pressure? ρ = 13.9 + 14.

FM Manometer connected to a vacuum Atmospheric Pressure + applied pressure Vacuum Absolute Pressure = h ρ g h h = height ρ = density of fluid g = gravitational acceleration Use of a Diaphragm and Spring DIAPHRAGM SPRING P OUTPUT (To dial gage or LVDT) 11 .

FM Use of a Capsule OUTPUT CAPSULE STACK PRESSURE Use of Bellows OUTPUT SPRING BELLOWS PRESSURE 12 .

FM Bourdon Tube OUTPUT PRESSURE Tube Cross-Section USED IN PRESSURE GAGES PRESSURE Bonded Strain-Gage Sensors Active Gages P Cable Socket Dummy Gages 13 .

14 .FM Strain Gages P + Excitation Voltage _ DUMMY ACTIVE + DUMMY _ + Amplifier Output _ ACTIVE Pressure Transducer Using Strain Gages Bonded to a Diaphragm Strain Gages Diaphragm P Silicon diaphragm & semiconductor strain gauges are used for better response and increased sensitivity.

15 .FM Completion Resistors P Diaphragm with embedded strain gauges Cross-Section of Pressure Transducer Piezoelectric Pressure (or load) Sensor F F + _ + F F _ Lateral Piezoelectric Longitudinal Piezoelectric Effect Effect Only for dynamic pressures or loads.

25 % at FS ± 0.05 % FS ± 1% FS ± 0.005%/°F 16 .005 %/FS/°F ± 0.15 % FS ± 0.FM Circuit: C C R Output Piezoelectric Sensor ***** SPECIFICATIONS FOR PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS Example: Full Scale (FS or FSO) : Excitation: Sensitivity: Accuracy: Linearity: Hysteresis: Repeatability: Zero Balance: Thermal Zero Effect: Thermal Sensitivity Effect: 100 psig 10 V DC 3 mV/V/FS or FSO = 30 mV ± 0.25 % FS ± 0.05 % FS ± 0.

S. Δ P V1 Δ Vo S= ΔVo ΔP Full Scale P (Null) PRESSURE VS.FM Vo F. OUTPUT VOLTAGE Vo Max Nominal Min P SENSITIVITY ERROR Vo Best Fit Line Actual P LINEARITY ERROR 17 .O.

This simulates a certain amount of applied load or pressure. . By applying a known load or pressure.FM 18 Vo Hysteresis P1 P P2 HYSTERESIS Vo Data Scanner in successive applications of P = P1 P1 P REPEATABILITY REPEATIBILITY Vo Max Nominal Min V1 (Null) P NULL ERROR SHIFT Calibration of Load Cells or Pressure Transducers Two Methods: 1. By shunting a resistor across one of the strain gages (or resistors) of a Wheatstone bridge. 2.