Isocrates and the Epicureans

Author(s): Harry M. Hubbell
Source: Classical Philology, Vol. 11, No. 4 (Oct., 1916), pp. 405-418
Published by: The University of Chicago Press
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the idea which he unfolds is that before the time of Socrates the philosopher and orator were united in one person to form the perfect statesman. That Cicero was closely following the ideas of Isocrates in formulating his doctrine is proved." Thus the principles of education expressed by Isocrates became a natural rallying-point for those who were dis- satisfied with both the philosophical sects and the rhetorical schools.198. Cicero was followed a generation later by Dionysius with his treatise on the Attic orators. with philosophy serving as the handmaid of rhetoric in the training of the ideal statesman. This influence is most noticeable in the first century before our era in the revival of Atticism. October. The ideal of the movement is well summed up in the introduction. To a restatement of this Isocratean ideal in education. HuBBELL Any study of ancient rhetoric has sooner or later to take account of Isocrates and the influence exerted by him. that Socrates and all his successors had made an unnatural division between philosophy and rhetoric. Briefly stated.62. one who combined with instruction in the technicalities of speaking a study of the social and political relations of man. Cicero addressed him- self in the De Oratore. which had fallen into disuse after the death of Alexander and which was being revived under the [CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY XI. long obscured by the predominance of the philosophical sects. not only by the general similarity of their educational systems. The theorists of that period were not content to study the style of Isocrates in the attempt to restore the classic purity to the debased Greek .72 on Tue. it is to restore X apXata Kal X6t Oos --ropLO4. but found in him a model teacher of rhetoric. 1916] 405 This content downloaded from 187. the whole being infused with a breadth of view and seriousness of purpose which made it not unworthy the name "philosophy. but also on the style of much of later Greek literature. and that the time had come to reunite the two disciplines. but also by the large number of passages in the De Oratore which so closely parallel passages in Isocrates as to preclude the possibility of their being mere coincidences. not only on the technical study of rhetoric.jstor.ISOCRATES AND THE EPICUREANS BY HARRY M. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about.

KaOa7rep ev. which for the most part we know only from reflections in the works of its champions.62. Admirably edited by Sudhaus in the Teubner series more than twenty years ago. Exception must be made for von Arnim's Dio von Prusa. it might safely be conjectured that his work was prompted by the contemporary revival of interest in the larger and broader views of Isocrates among the rhetorical schools. so that one can improve his character as well as his style by a study of Isocrates' orations.a. It is in the belief. Kat This content downloaded from 187. for Schneidewin's dissertation on book v. But there is still a crying need for a fuller treatment of the many questions arising from this work. I refer to the Rhetorica of Philodemus. Isocrates is the model teacher. Kalt qVULKrS EvKX'qpLas 6elTal. A careful examination revealed that these references were not mere obiter dicta. so with Dionysius. and a few briefer articles.72 on Tue. that this article is offered. In fact. it has remained almost ever since an unworked mine. Such are: i. and at the same time shed some light on the obscurities of the history of rhetoric in the period between Isocrates and Cicero.ue/eLa q5WV7S Kalt /P6LyEfO Kal TOVOL Kal 7rvev/.jstor. but were intimately connected with the principal points of his polemic. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. 196.406 HARRY M. in which he utilizes considerable material drawn from Philodemus. HUBBELL inspiration of Rome. Most of the evidence in regard to this period comes from the avowed supporters of the new movement. Still Philodemus remains an important figure in that here we have an example of the hostile criticism of rhetoric.198. Much of the neglect of Philodemus is undoubtedly due to the obscurity of many passages even after the patient work of Sudhaus and to the comparatively barren results even of intensive study of many others. 18: Tva 6& XV 7-rapayye`)XXoxvv oV-ot. In tracing the influence of Isocrates on later rhetoric I was impressed by the abundance of references to him in Philodemus. As in the case of Cicero. Some of the references to Isocrates present familiar biographical material. then. that a consideration of his judgment on Isocrates will reveal the essential points of his . But we have an important document from an opponent that deserves more thorough study than it has received. Philodemus has the added interest of throwing some light on the traditional attitude of the Epicureans toward Isocrates.

Pseudo-Plut. Photius 260. 8. 5. ii. Dion. 55. and line of Sudhaus' edition. .org/terms . ii.198. Vit. aroXWpEZ. fXa/3cv a\XXa 6EKa do not square with the statement in Pseudo-Plutarch that he received one talent from Timotheus after the capture of Samos. 19b) or have engaged in practical politics (ii. 111). el 7rpO6TEpOV E6'3a&YKE avT7v.jstor. seems more probable. OTt Twv 7rap avTrw Ta p7qTOpLKa KaTa. ii. In connection with his denunciation of Aristotle. 50. In Philodemus it is a prelude to an attack on Aristotle for deserting philosophy and imitating Isocrates by teaching rhetoric when he might have chosen political science (ii. Cf. o 7rep' 'AptooTEoAovs avay'yAXOVolv. 9. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. Os iqV vlOs EEvayoypov. ii. bt a Kal TOV JIOKpaT7vP eLKOTwS Obaal TqrS 7OXLTELas as'rooT-vat.72 on Tue. 59. This content downloaded from 187. Ep. 12: 2Ltw7rlw yap. The smaller sum.a Kal ToLavT' aXXa. both of which. Phil.62. and so represents a tradition which is inherently more trustworthy than Philodemus. would have been preferable to teaching rhetoric after the manner of Isocrates. ii. 59. 1. Philodemus' words: 7rapa Tt/ioOsov . . The latter statement is probably derived from Caecilius. 10. Philodemus says.. 21: Nvv 6' E'r EKElVO O3a5l6colev.Ia%ovTwv OVK fE5vaT' OV&lS E'v OV'ETE'p( KaTevTvx?7oaL Twv TEXvPw Kal 7rapa To0t 3t50OKEtP. Isoc. Hal. ib: ['IhoKp&Trqs rapa] TOV) KvnrpLo[v TaXavTa f]'Xafev ELK[onl Kal ra]pa TLMoOf[ov TO' K6]vwevos OV[TOS . Ant.ISOCRATES AND THE EPICUREANS 407 7rpoa0&rOV Kal XELPWPV Kal TOV' XOLtrOv ow/AaTos aLW/A TE Kat pvOMl. e'r1% T7nv ?7oUvxtlwTEpaV Kal a. As Sudhaus has 1 The references to Philodemus are to volume. aIcoKpaTqv 6' eav ElVyev. for the booty of Samos must have been very much reduced after paying the expenses of the ten months' campaign (Isoc. etKoaL TaXavTa Xao36v. This anecdote is preserved in Cicero and Quintilian. frag. Vit.' With this compare Isoc. 7. Decem Orat. OTE Kav. 81. Philodemus remarks that Isocrates took the opposite course. 16). Panath. 178. and turned from rhetoric to philosophy. OTt T'S 5E`X?7S E4yuMva?ev E Pt2v7oas alaxp&v ouanrav.iXaf3Ev aX]Xa 3'Ka K Sudhaus' restoration of 'Io-OKpaT-qs may be regarded as certain in view of the confirmation of the gift of twenty talents from the Cyprian Nicocles afforded by Pseudo-Plut. Decem Orat. IYOKPaTOVS Kat 7rov TOtS XpovOtS 7rpoKo6'avros. too.tAo- vzcorepav WO7rEp rE qLXoo-oq5Lav. 838E. 837A. . page. 55. 838A: KaL rapa NlKOKXe'OVS TOV Kvrptov 3aolXeos. 59. Kal ToX).

198. 7rOXlTlKOV. After a lengthy refutation of the views of others he presents his own definition. but co-o4TTlKi pV7ropKl. pV7TOplKV 1 "Aristoteles bei Epikur und Philodem. 561. generally called by him simply oo4UYrLKj. otop O/. are not the ordinary divisions. it is necessary to consider the principles which Philodemus adopts. was strongly in favor of a union of Greece under Macedonian leadership for a war with Persia. In order fully to understand the meaning of these passages.d 6ta& 7rXet6Jwp &S7KEL TW' b /Jpov0. Mus. it produces this result regularly and surely. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. From Philodemus (ii. which he claims is sanctioned by usage. is a conditioln resulting from the observation of certain fundamental principles which apply to the majority of cases. HUBBELL shown. was not in doubt as to the real content of Isocrates' "philosophy. 5lKaVlKOV. XLVIII (1893). 15) we learn that Aristotle opposed the Persian expedition: EK faanXEtas rapEKaXEl (DI?L7r7rOV TOTE Kal T?7S IIEPTLK?S 3ta3oX?s. This content downloaded from 187.8dvovLTda T Kai 01v1TrXoPa TOLOVTOP.jstor. The rEXqvq produces a result that is beyond the power of those who have not studied it. 2=Suppl. In several places Isocrates is called a sophist.72 on Tue. These three . as those of his opponents have been. as his Philippus shows. Isocrates." Rh. A rEXVZ1) he tells us. From these biographical details we now turn to the passages which treat of his doctrines and of his activity as an orator and author. and not formed. 69. for the purpose of proving the doctrines of some school. as we shall see later. but it is a deliberate misrepresentation designed to belittle Aristotle by making him inferior to Isocrates. For Philodemus.62. 61. he says.' this statement does not imply that Philodemus considered Isocrates' teaching as philosophy because of a few superficial resemblances to Epicureanism. 35. His discussion of the value of rhetoric and its place in the educational system is concerned first with the definition of TEXvP7. KaraXalf. nor can it mean that he misunderstood Isocrates' use of the terms oLXoo-o4la and 4nXoaooELv. 1: 'Eorlp TOLlfvP Kai XhETaL TrXVv 7rapa TOSS EX'X. and not at random.408 HARRY M. Moreover.. 'rav-qyvpLKov.2 On the basis of this definition he examines the claims of rhetoric and makes a threefold division. 2 i.OTp 9tv 6SdOeaov a7r6 7rapaT71phlewss TLJ'P KOLVW' Kai oTOtXctUw w'.olws TW' gh /aO6 61rw ." In the same article Sudhaus has pointed out that we learn from Philodemus for the first time of political differences between Isocrates and Aristotle. oMels oT27jK6TCwS Kai 8ef8alws ObU 0TOXaOTLKWI.

The development of meaning has been worked out by Brandstaetter (Leipziger Studien.jstor. and made the distinction between this and practical This content downloaded from 187. 78. 85. with special reference to epideictic oratory. which apparently originated with the Epicureans and is restricted to the study of the principles of composition. The successful public speaker may be compared to a good merchant. 19-85.72 on Tue.62. and that it became a part of the technical vocabulary of the school in the writings of Hermarchus and Metrodorus. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. 2-19. o0v 7OXLv 6e K=aa7rep o0vJE r 7v oTLK7z'.ISOCRATES AND THE EPICUREANS 409 in the strict sense including forensic and deliberative oratory. of course. 78. The term ao04o-TLKr is used in a technical sense. and need not be repeated here except so far as it affects our immediate discussion. as a result of their own skill based on experience. Of these three only aoqo4- OTlK7) is granted the position of an art. .7rEpl TE Tr ras ELEL oias avrol 7rotolvTaL.198. They lack the essential characteristic. 245. The passages are in some parts hopelessly corrupt. 22) will show that Philodemus nowhere quotes from Epicurus an example of this use of the word. pv)'roplKv) in the narrow sense. namely a definite set of principles which can be imparted from teacher to pupil. This meaning of ao5to-r's is. It seems that Epicurus recognized epideictic oratory as an art. 120. he denies the position of an art. and oao4LcTEv'eLv means to teach or practice epideictic. Katl Tas rwCv X0ywYv &a6ffels. 12: . 19. To the other two branches. 6). 1894). and 7roXLTrLK7 or political science (ii. rhetorical and political ability is the result of practice and experience. 27-89. a hunter. a teacher of epideictic oratory. and their occupations cannot be called arts in the sense in which we speak of music as an art. and by a natural enlargement of its semantic area.r pK)TOplKro TE7Vj X lS EioL. 61. . or even a successful thief (i. But an examination of the passages on which he based his conclusion (i. Similarly o-oq5to-qs means an epideictic orator. and -7rOXlTLK1. O'l'v av'Jrol ypacJovalV TE Kal oXe a'aovcTLv. Kar' a'XrE70 Eav a ooqLatoLK. It is placed on a level with poetics. 10. quite different from that current down to the fourth century. 4baptyv TOlVVV rO EGO&lKO6V 1' Elv aurmv. and might be called the art of prose writing. 120. Quite the contrary. 10. i. 122. however. All . . 29= Suppl. 74). Brand- staetter infers from the fragments of Philodemus that Epicurus was the first to use aoOto-r's and related words in this sense. but the general sense is clear enough.

At the same time he granted the This content downloaded from 187. the tendency of the age was to find some one discipline which should form a com- plete education.72 on Tue.198.jstor. seems to point to the conclusion that the statement was not to be found in Epicurus except by . and is known chiefly from entries in biographical notices. p7rTOplK7). 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. In this struggle the Epicureans had a unique position. practical or theoretical.410 HARRY M. As von Arnim has pointed out in the introductory chapter of his Dio von Prusa. x. He is arguing against an unnamed opponent who claimed to be unable to find in Epicurus a statement that sophistic was an art. While principally concerned to prove that all forms of rhetorical activity. but which has otherwise perished. With this distinction between oo4UYrLK7?. are of little value compared with Epicurean philosophy. and roXlTlK?jl in mind it becomes easier to follow the thread of the argument through the maze of the fragments of Philodemus. in which aof5tor's probably had the meaning which it bears in Philodemus. so that the whole training of a youth could be placed in the hands of one man. We might conjecture that this work was the first in which the word was regularly used in the technical sen--e. To this tendency was due the absurd attempt of Nausiphanes to prove that a study of 4vooXoyia would produce oratorical ability.62. As to Metrodorus the case is simpler. instead of quoting a short sentence that would settle the question definitely. That he applied the term ooofOrtlK7 to epideictic oratory cannot be proved from Philodemus. 24). HUBBELL oratory which Philodemus makes. While the other philosophical sects in general agreed with the rhetorical schools on the desirability of training the youth for the 7oOXlTlKO'S jOos-the point of difference being the method to be employed and the relative importance of rhetoric in the scheme of education-Epicurus rejected public life as beneath the consideration of a philosopher. for we know the title llpo6s rTos oooarais (Diog. Laert. It seems like wasting energy on a very small point of purely academic interest unless we realize the practical bearing of such discussions on pedagogical questions. But the mere fact that Philodemus is compelled to argue that Epicurus meant this. To this same tendency was due that mass of polemical literature of which we have ample evidence in the pages of Philodemus. he devotes considerable space to opposing the claims of the sophistical rhetoricians that their schools produce practical public speakers and politicians.

r OTl Tfl /eV (oYo/loTlKfo 0V (1Je/3KE /eXfXT&7 7rOXlTlK?)VP (X i.198. points to a contemporary revival of the Isocratean tradition and the raising of rhetorical study to the plane of a philosophy or general discipline. Kal KaT' OMJOV 0/oXoy7oV4EV T& ^XEyo/AeV TlOlV 7r0oXlTlK?n vrapxeuV oTvU4E/37)KEVal T7 p)ToplKnPV. But it was one of the cardinal principles of Isocrates' philosophy that training in rhetoric is a sufficient preparation for both public and private life (e. with its frequent mention of the name of Isocrates.ISOCRATES AND THE EPICUREANS 411 value of study in the rhetorical schools as an aid to literary composition. 15) he says: lHMe?s o'v 7rp6s r&s avt7)Tr?aeLs airavvcrPTes ovCrws lOTaieOa XE7OvTE. o'V6 Kaac7rEp KaTa ur7ravLcwTepav UVP?7OELav irapa TOl`S appXaLoLs ras o Xeywz CV . OTl Ta lAiz KaT4//Evo-Tal. 222.. 240. In a passage in the Hypomnematicon (ii.lAw p7)Twp EKaXElTO. Ant. Of this revival we have further evidence in the De Oratore of Cicero and the rhetorical works of Dionysius.jstor. But the polemic of Philodemus. OiVi' ebVal 7raVTws a/AEp rOXlTlK6P eV 6So TOV p7TOpa &XXa Kal 0v0 oXW ELPCL 7OXlTlK6V TOV pTropa.62. Isocrates' doctrines were thus diametrically opposed to the doctrines of Epicurus. To this summary of Philodemus' position we may add one more statement which shows still more clearly the nature of the pretensions of the rhetorical schools: i. To the statement that sophistical rhetoric does not produce political ability Philodemus returns again and again.g. C7 raiie raL. /l?r7' OXWS a7rb TWM' P7)TOplK&K' Wa6l6Ka- Xe'ltW a&rOTEXE^LOOlal Upa/pUP rOXlTlK7 KaC roXTTlwls a&vpapas 7rpoEX.qov avX 0SyoLs 7rpOX&JPELV.72 on Tue.t6' elZvaL TaVT77P Kal 7rOXlTlK7)P. It will suffice for our present purpose to give a few typical passages to show the drift of his . 4: 'A7roTrE0EwpyUdVCWV ToVyapoVV. Hence his sharp division between epideictic and other forms of oratory and his denial of any connection between rhetoric and the conduct of the practical affairs of life. /I7 aWV/4ef37Kepal TO rOXlTlKp Jvac Kal VrapXelV avTp 7ravTrc Kl XTlK?P KaC TOP pKTOpa 7OXlTlKO' Kc 7 677py6pOV. eS (rpaKTq p7)TOpEVELP KaC (V E' KKX)alS Kal TOlS aXXols TOo 65. Kal KaO p77ToplK7. Ta 6' ov6Ep XpqlaylvTO Tots IA7 ra This content downloaded from 187. afid his insistence on the impossibility of fulfilling the Isocratean ideal of education.- &. 275). The Isocratean conception of a broad education based on rhetoric had suffered eclipse in the third and second centuries. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. 231. a7ravPTwP a 'Iep?7 4aOl TlVeS Kal 6a&y/AaTa T?7s pk7TOplK?1S vwapXeV.

by which Isocrates means. The first is a short fragment which evidently belongs to a passage discussing whether or not rhetoric is an art. Panathenaic. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about.yoUvePwP TOvs tOKpcLTEtOUS X60yovs Kal ToVs AO qOlOS OVK a0EoO6sW KaL axe&6aaeoOaL KaA yp6xekoOaL KaT' Kpap Xf VK7lKOP fOTl To "6OKELP E7rtlKOVp'P TEXP77P OvXl /EP vrapxcLPXElP o6XcV This content downloaded from 187. KaP 60 .yeratL Ka't &6ai&rcs. KaL X4'yovn rTOV 'IIoOKpaT7fV Kat TOP rOpylaP Kal TOp AvUOla Op OAOoEl^ OVK 'XEUP' Eto7rLOT . Cf. . oL be prTOpEs lKapOVS rolo7alEP. and ao0to-r's of the professional writer of epideictic orations and teacher of rhetoric. To support his claim that there is an art of epideictic oratory he cites the Panegyric. 122. 48..AdTrwv KaC Trv TEXPW^p eLpaL KaL Tlp' f'V07KfV Kalt d5er'ploV T?1 p1TOplK KaL AtaXdov eTL rerA T^s 7relOos Xa. HUBBELL pflTopLKa IocoUYTevOvaL..lrn' Ov EpOl Tv7XapOvalP -xOpTES. As applied to Isocrates the statement that he did not claim to possess ei'oru 'A77 probably refers to Ant. 20: .72 on Tue. iv: .T?s Kai rExVaS KaraXlrO/. 5b=Suppl. Kaca7rep Ka' 7rap&a IIXarw'L ropnyias. The unnamed opponent does. All any science can do is to develop the natural gifts of the pupil. ii. I hope. frag.. wrest the plain meaning of Isocrates. l' 7' av Ol AP &X7ratS ovs 3oVXt1GEZEZ'.jstor. Xoo-60ovs. as Philodemus indignantly asserts. After this extended digression. which.62.198.. 99. that there is no science which can by itself produce orators. The statement that Philodemus criticizes is based on the prin- ciple enunciated in his definition that an art must rest on a definite set of facts and laws which can be called scientific knowledge (E'lrL- 0777/L7).. 'Art06os be xe'.. 185: &KElP77P 6 T2) ErtoT. Busiris and Helen of Isocrates as examples of speeches which show yobos. 'O 6b 'IaoKpa.Ev2v.avo. 15: ToO 6be E'v Tj LXoao440 T^ KaG' 7as aPeorpa/4LEPOV Kal Twp ?7. let us return to the passages in which Isocrates is classed with the sophists.uaOf. E7re6?7 rEXvPtraL re e "rqyyXXoPro ez'Iat KaL bLba'ELp aXXovs. EL An' rov' llavry7vpWod e-q77 X6'yop rTOV looKpaarovs 77 Irov llavaGr'aiKO6 X Tr&' BovcLpLw Kal i' tEXE'P7p' a&eMo' .EpOs daOXXoL r iroXXoA oooral O avOao-IrAv7P aVr2)P eLPaL TeXP?1P a7rofaLPovPraL. as he explains farther on..412 HARRY M. 127. i.. i. 31Xov ortL 7ro/7rEveraL irap' avcrots TO r qr4'pa TWPz . has made clear the point that Philodemus uses oroq$uTTlKv in the sense of epideictic oratory.

org/terms . A77t5' aZv iroV Kal 4LXoo-oq5Lav riv eavTrc7v avva/lV Kal TrXv77v elvaL. El a' 4O3oXovro jev rexwqv elVal. 10: lapao-X77. Two more passages in which Isocrates' name appears illustrate Philodemus' distinction between practical orators and epideictic orators or sophists. in support of his theory that sophistical training does not produce political ability.198. ii: 7rEpaL- 'eoOatL vo/uLRovaL.. to the use of OtXoo-oqLa by Isocrates in the older sense of study or intellectual pursuit.cvWv refer to Zeno and Philodemus. A general criticism is aimed at the sophists that their speeches are not suitable for public delivery. Further. Another fragment is particularly baffling: i. Specific criticism of Isocrates is quoted from Demetrius.ISOCRATES AND THE EPICUREANS 413 7reuarLK?)V 7ravTws ov5e rXeovavoPTcws KfTX. rOXlrlKOUS Xe"yeL KaOa Kac (I?WKlWPa Ev 6' o-OKpaT77V Kal Ma^pLV E4t7. The technical meaning was given the word by Plato. 250. but a philosophy in the broad pre-Platonic use of the word adopted by the Isocrateans.TwlK77v [AOvov a"peaL]v ? This seems to mean that the rhetoricians claimed for themselves a kind of art or philosophy not like that of any sect.LOV77P 71 /LaXUTT' EzV XP770-hL OWv. . AEpOS T rEplo1arTaLa KTX. TWPV b6 O-OqfLOa7 V AIOKpaT7 .72 on Tue.OttwV e'Ka'XoUV. he comments on the weakness of the Isocrateans in practical politics: ii. . . The roV .jstor. The reference is. 2VVW'KL?OV 'YOVV eKELv77v rCp O'Xw yEVEl Kal OVwL TO llEptrarTp7lKO'v X 2. 97.gaKrovraL 6' rC^Ov jIAzv 4A7rpaKrwv A?7o-OOEP7 Kal AVKoip7oS. of course. 23: iroXXoL c$ Tz'V EV r TOoqToLK7' Tr7V Kar' JooKpaT7p 7rEplt7rE7rOL7Evv SaOEatlv OVT evrplav EXOUOL 7rOXLTLK77v O`iTE XO'yovs El'bv 6b7'w I Tal rOLEUal Kall &Kaolrt7pl(P Kav apa 7ror el'rWL. 147. This content downloaded from 187. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. Kal HEplKXEa. aveorpaguguevov and rT)V 7t-yov. 233. 77'v 5' aVriV Etro'' /. Isocrates is contrasted with Demosthenes and Lycurgus. T) 'YEXTl TOVS aKouovras IOLOUvLK eKOV-qKEKV .62. Themistocles and Pericles.. ii. Unfortunately the passage is too corrupt to permit us to fix any definite limits to the duration of this form of teaching under the inspiration of Isocrates. col. while the Isocrateans kept the word in its broader sense. who found his long periods hard to deliver.. 1 1: 6rav rolvVV O ol-rTOKEa .u/ Tf V TW I(TOKpaTlKWV Kal TWV 61.." Here Philodemus is answer- ing an opponent. ii.

ii.198. HUBBELL and from Hieronymus in a passage which is also quoted by Dionysius of Halicarnassus.' In a passage discussing Xe'~ts the KaXos X6'yos of Isocrates is con- trasted with the oq.]W.72 on Tue. rlus 5i 4ao-l A776' aVTroV rTOV X6oyop' hToKpaorovs 6o'Aoo 4t 7rao-L 'yez 4 -v6al rolS av aApAao-Lv.I0PoV-Kal rTOV X'yotsO ? One might conjecture that this was a part of a passage showing the impossibility of passing from the sophistical school to a successful political career.voWv X'yov o'Lov TOV IOoKpaiTOvS Kal Twv oluolwv v~ TOV 7/La0eVOVS Kal Twv 4PaXv v oU8EPos OVTE arpOS &KO2V n iauOo6cE0' o. 13 (i. 19.wv6s of Demosthenes: i. 197. 12. but the former is incredible and must be due to the desire to belittle Isocrates owing to the growing influence of the Isocratean revival. 33. [Iravrws a']7rtavov aolrv. 27: . T7s IooKpArovs [Kal 1]Vplo[l r]pOs roVTros [ETEpOl. The latter statement was perfectly natural. De Isoc. The preference of some for the style of Thucydides to that of Isocrates is recognized in i. .org/terms . ovirE rpOs lYavoPav xpogevovs OewpoVAeZv aVroVs. 5 if. 20=Suppl.jstor. This comes at the end of a long list of statesmen and generals whose careers are cited to offset the Stoic argument that only the sapiens is a good general or statesman. 151. frag. 18. .Aaros. although the meaning is very obscure. vi: [El be] Kal oavv T? 6vPa['LeL rcavdTro] qooa7 'IooKpaTr-v 7roi7oaaL Tl rolOVrov. and the first thought is to supply T. The sentence might then be paraphrased as follows: If they say that with the ability to write epideictic orations Isocrates was able to exert any influence on the course of politics. [OV oyap 7rp&i]rovtrs ra KOlva OV'] o 'xoVres Loro[pLav . and anonymous authorities are cited to show that Isocrates had no uniform style: i. and the fact is noticed by Dionysius (De Isoc.62. ie]pl XV [X][. without mention of Isocrates but with evident reference to his style. This content downloaded from 187.uAot.tA60eos I A similar criticism is found in i. Two more passages may be added at this point for the sake of completeness. 213. 70. 5: Ov AtE'VTOL KaTa /2CV T7OV KaX6v T'?JV oe. In discussing style he goes so far as to say that Isocrates had only two or three imitators.). 20). 13=ii. ii. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. . The context requires the name of some general or statesman. this is quite incredible. 257.yo]vra [AICfvGEv aKat[po]v aortv.414 HARRY M. 150. 153. 14: 'IoKp-aEl tap i1 iravra7rwav OEIS X 8b i TpEts OlAooTpO7ws 8ercaocav 4otpov.

Isocrates claimed to make his pupils better men in their private relations (Ant. 216. a reappearance of these doctrines after a period of eclipse by the philosophical sects.uacOt before r7 'IOOKPpTOV. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. If we turn from the definite references to Isocrates to the treatment of his successors we find the material scarcer. 11: 61Xov 6STt iOro7rEvUTar& 7rap' avrots TO J. Without seeing the papyrus it is impossible to judge the possibility of filling the gap with these words.WV (T%Xvci) E'K Xovv. taken in its context with the contrast between the philosophy of the Isocrateans and the Peripatetic or Stoic philosophies.ISOCRATES AND THE EPICUREANS 415 . Ma^rptv n . as nothing new about Isocrates can be derived from the passage.)V TEXPWP etPvat Kat TLP EpG?Kt1V KaL ao4TtipLOv T?17v77rTOpLK7V Ka#t Aa^XXov ETrL LrTa T?7 7rS6tOVs ?ap. 148. 84.v . 19 the sophists are criticized for perverting public morals by their encomia of bad men. But the precise restoration is immaterial.a3voA -V?7.yp 0EAolTOKXS Ka#Z llEpLKXS Ka TOTE Kal VVV aKpoTaTOL VOOUVTa& This content downloaded from 187. Matris is coupled with Isocrates in ii. a polemic implied in Philodemus' division of rhetoric and his denial of the position of an art to any branch of rhetoric except epideictic. Apparently there is a considerable gap in the papyrus before ris lToKpaTovs. Ed 6' `IaoKpacT7v Ka. 10: Tf TPv `IOKpaZTLKWV Ka#l rcIV O. the former evidently referring to the famous encomium of Isocrates. US oL TV P71T0pLK`7 1rpO&laTpdL/av'rTEs agELvovs ylVOVTaL T&oa v 6/uoyEVP&v. and i. 223. We have already presented two passages which belong here: ii.o. iv.72 on Tue. Philodemus has such a statement in mind when he says in .jstor.pcLpTUpEO &lwL & v T& `7V corrOT-ErXE-IoTwv. Moreover.62. Ep.LtTepa T&)v /. 99. The examples given are Busiris and Polyphemus. which is probably nearer the truth. . for Isocrates claimed to prepare his pupils for public life. Of more specific references we have only one.. points to a continuance of the doctrines of Isocrates in a definite group of rhetorical schools. 5: T&wv a`+' IroKpaTovs tr' (ALwV a&XXWv o4lofo-T&v. In i.. 11: 6rap TOL v Ov 0c/lLOTOKXE'a X9'7 Ka'L I1plKXEca.Mpos TL 7rEpLA. 2). 57. 7rOXlTlKOVs 'XE'EL KaOa KaL cIwK'twva.L#aZ?7/. There is. and that one is doubtful. 233.rT o /L apTOL /. of course.Ec-a q$IUKOvTrs.198. In several other passages one can see an attack on Isocrates and his successors by reading between the lines.a#TWV KaL T&.TaTaL Kat . The last passage especially. or. &aOTEX- X6j.

198. appar- ently overlooked by both Schmid and Holzer. This content downloaded from 187. is quite separate from statesmanship. This he intended as a correction of the view of Holzer. to assume. On this principle Isocrates and Matris are classed together simply because they are e-minent examples of sophistic in the Epicurean sense. as at first sight we are tempted to do from this passage in Philodemus.jstor. In so doing Philodemus passes no judgment on their style. atl aOLv eMeLlV XV Kal eV aXX /UEPEC f7EALV?70T077/. 25. The other reference in Athenaeus is merely a bit of gossip about his diet. that Asianism is the literary descendant of Isocrates." we must be careful to define our terms. HUBBELL KaX cEOPTZl E l XE7OPT#l PnTOPES Kal 600L oo. Ol XE7OvTa& T?1V rOXlTlKj)V KEKT?foOal &'Pcl/. Themistocles and Pericles. the art of writing epideictic orations. On the basis of this passage W. It seems doubtful.. The difficulty will be cleared up. seems to be the most valuable evidence of his style. Schmid has proposed' to consider Matris as an imitator of the style of Isocrates. 2Matris. which Holzer has shown to be the source of a part of the fourth book of Diodorus Siculus. A passage in Pseudo-Longinus (13). 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. But it is clearly impossible. he says..2 who classed Matris as a representative of the "Asian " MaTpwa ?l7av s TAfYCV.72 on Tue. Ein Beitrag zur Quellenkunde Diodors.416 HARRY M. whether such a positive statement as Schmid's can fairly be deduced from Philodemus' words.00f04V7V Ka#l KaXXtoTpaToV.62. 1899. I think. We learn from Athenaeus that he wrote an Encomium Heraclis. I Berliner philologische Wochenschrift. OLVK W$4etlXe TOUrOvPoLa Tl6OVaL TOls rOXlTrKOLs aaXXa TOlS (K OaTrpOV Us K&P p?1TOPOS TOVS lrEpl ^pA7. if we bear in mind Philodemus' underlying thought that sophistic rhetoric. i. though. form one .e. p. The same name ('n'Topes) cannot with propriety be applied to both classes. p. In speaking of the " Isocratean tradition" or the "Isocratean school. Matris is a shadowy figure at best. but noticed by Susemihl. 235. Isocrates and Matris another. There he is classed with Amphicrates and Hegesias as one of those whose strained metaphors became ridiculous. This would seem to fix his position definitely so far as placing him within the somewhat indefinite boundaries of Asianism is concerned. This is merely a restatement of Philodemus' favorite doctrine that sophistic rhetoric has nothing to do with statesmanship. as Schmid has pointed out.

Of examples of his influence on historiography there could be no lack. it is true. . who appears to be the only direct irrmitator of Isocrates of whom we know in this period.. the per- fecter of the style peculiarly adapted to epideictic oratory. Philodemus mentions no names. or he may be con- sidered. We have one hint of the activity of the rhetorical schools along lines other than purely rhetorical instruction from ii. Griech. 19.. in which case his influence is to be traced in the historians..72 on Tue. and that only. Isocrates' course of instruction undoubtedly contained some study of the theory of government. something to Isocrates.jstor. Dionysius) is almost as meager.g. 23. Philodemus' estimate of Isocrates is distinctly unfavorable. Of imitators of his style we hear more. It was as a model of encomnium and of style that he had his greatest influence in the centuries immediately following his death. we may point to Crates of Tralles (Diog. "Some imitate the style of Isocrates. there are two elements in his teaching to be considered. We must understand Philodemus to refer here to the lack of imitators among the orators. more This content downloaded from 187. Blass. a teacher of something more than rhetoric. and these No6yot and HoXvrc-Eat look like a continuation by the rhetoricians of the practice of Isocrates of broadening the scope of his instruction. is subject to the rules of art-concedes. 101). Bered. and our information from other sources (e. in a movement which is reflected on more than one author of that period.C. His main thesis-that epideictic rhetoric. and through him on the literature of Western Europe. To this may be added the passage already quoted above. IV.uovs Kat ras 7roXTreLas ypafq5oTres ri'v ao/to-i-c3v. that there were at the most only two or three who imitated his style. He may be regarded simply as a stylist. Laert. These different phases of Isocrates had different destinies. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. by which Isocrates belongs with all epideictic orators.ISOCRATES AND THE EPICUREANS 417 Beside the classification of Philodemus. others that of Thucydides. ot roVs vo..198. and that it was doubtful whether there was a distinct Isocratean style. The broader view of rhetoric as a universal discipline had to await its full appreciation in the first century B. which seems to refer to the Atticist revival of the first century. a complete philosophy of life.62. 151. cf.. 11: ." we read in i. as he considered himself. in Cicero.

This clearness which Epicurus considered the sole virtue of style was the quality in which Isocrates surpassed all others: Dion. Diog. His reason for adopting Isocrates as his model may be found in the quotation from the HIp'L P'TOrptK'S in Diog. HUBBELL perhaps than we might expect from an Epicurean. it wXv a)v paiXLOTa ye'vOLTO &AXeKTos aa/s-. his words. 18: KaOape'vet re (r 'IooKpanrovs XE'~ts) 'yap e' TLS KaL aXX-q. The solution of this problem was indicated by Usener (Epicurea.uaot KaU Tr?7v LaXeKTO'v fotv aKptl3?s7. a-v-y. We may wonder why the Epicureans did not reject the rhetorical schools in their entirety instead of making a distinction between the art of writing and practical eloquence. Here we have a satisfactory explanation of the interest in Isocrates as a stylist. by implication. Laert. In all the philosophical schools there was a stylistic difference between esoteric and exoteric . he acknowledges the position of Isocrates as a master of encomium and.ou 7ra'yyvpe?P 63). Laert. Sudhaus in Rh. 119: Ka.198. and even the Epicureans recognized the importance of literary form in works designed for the general public. x. are vigorously combated. For if eloquence is robbed of the privilege of guiding the destinies of nations the kernel is gone. That he was attracted by the style of Isocrates we may safely conclude from the striking reminiscences of the orator's style in the Epistle to Menoeceus (cf. and no farther (cf. however. p. 4avepa T' E'c-TT KaL KOLt) Kat Tas aXXas &peras araas 7repLeLX7c/0ev. YALE UNIVERSITY This content downloaded from 187. Tots ovo6. then. XLVIII [1893]. Hal. 12 Jul 2016 02:52:52 UTC All use subject to http://about. x. as study in the rhetorical schools tended to improve one's style it ipet with the approval of Epicurus. De Dem. and nothing but the empty shell remains. XLII) and has been supplemented by Sudhaus. 337). This is sufficient to account for the slight degree of favor accorded him by Philodemus. But to grant this and nothing more is to deny the essential characteristics of Isocrates' teaching. So far.jstor.418 HARRY M. Mus.773 aXXo X7 aackhvetav aaPoKeELV.72 on Tue.uara KaraXe4/Iew.62. his influence on the historiography of Greece. The main claims of Isocrates. whether put forward by himself or renewed by the rhetoricians of the first century.yp&/u. 13: oaf's 6' 7'v [Epicurus] oViiwS USKat El' ip IIEp pt1TOpLKn1S aitot /.