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T

w

o

H

ACSL

Contest #1

Contest 1 Topics

Intermediate:

Computer Number Systems - two bases - 2

Recursive Functions - Not nested - 2

What Does This Program Do? - Branching - 1

Senior:

Computer Number Systems - multiple bases - 2

Recursive Functions - Nested - 2

What Does This Program Do? - Branching and Loops - 1

**Computer Number Systems
**

●

●

●

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**Computers use numbers with different bases such as base 2
**

(binary), 8 (octal), 10 (decimal), and 16 (hexadecimal).

Base 10 is what regular, everyday numbers are in

Examples of different bases will be represented as 10100102,

1018, A3116, and base ten is written without a subscript.

When the digit is above 9, letters are used

A=10, B=11, C=12, D=13, E=14, F=15

**CNS-Base to Decimal
**

●

●

●

●

**Each digit place represents the
**

base to a higher power.

Multiply the digit in the column

with the base raised to the

correct power

Add up all the products to find

the number value in base ten

(decimal).

Binary to Decimal is shown on

the right, but the same process

is used for any base

**CNS-Decimal to Base
**

●

●

●

●

**To convert a decimal number to
**

a different base, create columns

with the base to increasing

powers.

Start with the base to the 0th

power for the last digit

Write how many times the value

of that column fits in the decimal

number and subtract it from the

decimal number

Put a 0 if the column value

doesn’t fit and move onto the

next column

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

**CNS- Base to Base
**

●

●

To convert from base to base, you can convert the first number to decimal and then

convert the decimal number to the second base.

To go straight from binary to hexadecimal, break up the binary in chunks of four digits and

convert each chunk into decimal. So break up 1001010000112 as 1001 0100 00112 and

convert each chunk to decimal to get 94316.

●

**To convert hexadecimal to binary, represent each digit in binary. So 72516 would equal
**

0111001001012

●

**To convert binary to octal is a similar process. Break up the binary number into chunks of
**

three digits. Example: 1101001001 becomes 001 101 001 001. This becomes 15118. The

same process works in reverse: 73328 becomes 111 011 011 010

Recursive Functions

●

●

●

●

**Given a function with different outputs for ranges of inputs
**

All but one output call the function again, one output is a

constant

Keep solving the function until the output does not call the

function again.

Substitute value in preceding equation to find output for

original input.

Recursive Functions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

**150>100 so use the first output: f(150)=f(150-20)+10=f(130)+10
**

Now solve for f(130)

130>100 so use the first output: f(130)=f(130-20)+10=f(110)+10, solve for f(110)

110>100 so use the first output: f(110)=f(110-20)+10=f(90)+10, solve for f(90)

90<100 so use the second output: 3(90)=270

Now that we know f(90)=270, substitute it in the previous equation

f(110)= f(90)+10 = 270+10 = 280, now substitute in previous equation

f(130)= f(110)+10 = 280+10 = 290

f(150)= f(130)+10 = 290+10 =300

Recursive Functions

Senior division topics:

Nested recursion:

f(f(f(54)))

Multiple variables: (2014 contest)

Word Problem: (2015)

**What Does this Program Do
**

●

●

**This question will just deal with reading a program and
**

figuring out the end value of a variable based on the function

The function may include arithmetic expressions, loops, conditional

statements, and string manipulation

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