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178, STRAND.

THE Hibbert

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PREFACE. were simple But As : regards these two. as we know from the Lectures he himself prepared for the press. Of these he had cor rected six. with some corrections in his own hand. Before his death. the was much more arduous and responsible. The Lectures had indeed been delivered a year and a half before. &quot..What came into the editor s hands was a series of note- . A work continuous MS. the one into which he meant to work his finished material. were found among his papers. with the connections orally supplied. while the Lecturer did not always follow the order of his notes. or even a connected outline of any one of the Lectures. could not be said to exist. Hatch had written out and sent to press the first eight Lectures. but the delivery had been as it were of selected passages. Dr. THE fittest introduction to these Lectures will be a few words of explanation. . while the proofs of the seventh and eighth. the duties of the editor he had only to correct them for the press. or. as regards the remaining four Lectures.

and. now complete. a suspicion as to the validity or accuracy of a statement. now now a doubt as to position or relevance. a simple query as of one asking. but at once a wilderness him who had no hand to discover the in its making. were the note-books Have now I not said this. rewarded the editor and his kind helpers. or In a word. of reflections and references. or with a sign of interroga tion which now indicated. what we had before ? of the scholar and the literary work man. with an now incom with passages marked as trans posed or as to be transposed. in pencil . speaking of sections or fields meant to be further explored equal multitude of erasures. The clue was found. books. as it with abrupt beginnings . . with pages crowded with were. But it and out of patient. which seemed at first sight but an amorphous mass or collection of hurried and disconnected jottings. way through by research and experiment. loving and sympathetic work. I will add. followed by pages almost or entirely blank. the work proved more connected and continuous than under the . now in with a multitude of cross references made by symbols and abbreviations whose very significance had and to be laboriously learned still more abrupt endings successive strata. perhaps. . well ordered.VI PREFACE. as a garden to him who made it and had the clue and a labyrinth and who had it to to it. something like a simple suspense of this. plete. judgment. now cancelled. now ink.

each was meant to prove. Another difficulty was to connect the various references with the paragraph. headings. In the body of the Lectures most scrupulous care has been taken to preserve the author wherever tences. and most serious difficulties was to of the quotations.With One of our earliest find whence many the foot-notes ito has been different. had to be added . often no clue it The author s name was the book or chapter. considerable proportion of the material for the ninth Lecture had been carefully elaborated. the be allowed a little more free connecting words. ipsissima verba. dom . but in no single instance has a word. was it. in every case successful in tracing the quotation to its source. and. but have been. structure and form of his sen possible. but some of and the whole of the material for the other three. sentence or state ment. and the result A is now presented to the world. phrase or sentence been inserted in the text without warrant from some one part or another of these crowded note-books. Vll conditions could have been thought to be possible. to the responsibilities than to the labours of the editor. especially in the ninth Lecture. in This of course added even more the state just described.PREFACE. came. and even here and there a transitional sentence or explanatory clause. the But from the very hand had now and then s to necessities of the case. &quot. This involved a new . I think. We given.

too. to the editor that. all though s. without him He laboured at . made a discreet not only possible but compulsory... Bartlet the s my The labours. the notes to Lecture IX. had to be consulted alike for the labour. to little unworthy of the scholarship scrupulous accuracy of the author as it was in his and power to do. Professor Sanday. in the region where the state of the use of freedom This s. viii the sources. in algebraics.A. part has been the heaviest work could never have been done. while all but the notes to Lecture X. laid at the proper door. the second. as it were. are largely the editor order that making authorities a result. Mr. for the press. The pleasant duty remains of thanking two friends who have Vernon greatly lightened Bartlet. and and corrected. purposes of verification and determination of relevance and The place. . they had frequently to be expanded while the search into the originals led of excerpts. inaccuracies may be responsibility for errors he could do text what the author would have by own hand prepared his make the book as It little to made it if it is and seemed make the had been he was bound. first is M. given. references. .PREFACE. and now which now to the new to the discovery of seemed a pity not it As to use. are mainly the author as verified were MSS. in the note-books often of the briefest. by other hands and in part stated in also XL.

especially in the He be followed. I am fulfil the sent out with a sad gratitude. suggestions. and has furnished him with most helpful criticisms. which. every Contents and the Index. or represents all . supplemented from other sources. but sad because s serve the cause he loved so well. The work grateful that author it has been possible so far to design. Sanday has kindly read over Professor the Lectures that have all passed under the hands of the editor. illustration of his judged aright. to way of determining the order has indeed been most unwearied and diligent co-worker. and then he transcribed the black and bewildering pages into clear and legible copy He had for the printer. IX the broken sentences became whole. owe the Synopsis of way a To him we also in. in historical development. ought to be judged within the limits he himself has drawn. method It is a study an analysis of some of the . that in this field he The book is in order to be had it an admirable in him to do. is he no longer This is lives to not the place either in criticism or in praise of him Those of us who knew him know how or little a book like this expresses his whole mind. and had happily taken a few notes. to say a word his work. and emen dations. the MSS.PREFACE. it . and till the disconnected paragraphs wove themselves together . proved most helpful. heard the Lectures.

FAIRBAIRN.by which such a Deism the region of early ecclesiastical history. formal factors that. and beyond his conclusions was a positive and co-ordi nating conception of the largest and noblest order. conditioned a given process and de termined a given result . OXFORD. 1890.X PREFACE. Behind and be neath his analytical method was a constructive intellect. . that he might prepare the way for the and a society that should be worthier still lives in it was only coming of a faith of the Master he loved and the Church he served. iind assumptions . A. or of the result pronounce on the value or validity on the other. M. July. it ought to be studied and criticised. but it deals throughout solely with these formal factors and the historical conditions under which they operated. He never intended to dis cover or discuss the transcendental causes of the process on the one hand. like his method. To mind every species of mechanical Deism was alien and if his method bears hardly upon the traditions his . His purpose. of the evolution and establishment of usages within the Christian Church. was scientific. and of the to as an attempt at the scientific treatment growth and formulation of ideas.

5 : as to process of change scanty. Respects in which evi .gt. LECTURE I. 14 14 .. To under-estimate opinions no longer accessible or known only through opponents Hence method.. but of fourth century Christianity .. but representative post-Nicene Christian thought. 5 10 and consequents 11 13 . changes in original Christian ideas and usages 13. first three centuries A. The Problem How the Church passed from the Sermon on the Mount : the Nicene Creed . and usage Every permanent change in religious belief rooted in historical conditions roots of the Gospel in : Judaism. dence defective resulting tendencies ample and ante-Nicene Greek thought and as to Two the key .. 1&amp. the Antecedents Consequents : : correlation of antecedents sketch of the phenomena of Hellenism .SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS... two preliminary considerations A religion relative to the whole mental attitude of an age hence need to estimate the general attitude of the Greek The need 1. INTRODUCTORY.. 4. 1..... 3.. . in Hellenism to historical The Method Evidence ..D.. a change in soil of caution : : mind during the 2. to the change in spirit coincident with &quot.. : overrate the value of the surviving evidence..4 . To 2.

.......SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.. ... GREEK EDUCATION.. ..lecture-room&quot. 15 1.. Need (a) to observe under-currents... 21 24 II. .... Social position of 4.. To the Greek the mystery of writing.. 25 27 .. Its .. 35 37 37 40 40 42 persistent survival up to to-day in general 42 education. gave the ancient poets a unique value 50. The dualistic hypothesis. 2... the belief in inspiration... the reverence for antiquity... ... all literary . .. ... Its influence Philosophy shown by : 1.. baptism ... .. e. Direct literary evidence 2.. 49 III.. particularly The contemporary Greek world an educated world literary sense I.. e...g. in a special . profession Into such an artificial .. . Xll PAGE A tti tude of mind required . . 17. as literary.. . 48 &quot. in special terms and usages .. 18 3...g. Its forms varied.. . Grammar but . The nature of religion. . 51 . Recognized and lucrative position of the teaching 3. History as a scientific study .... 48.. its bearing on and exorcism (b) 16 . . Personal prepossessions to be allowed for . its relation to LECTURE 20 21 conscience the true apologia in religion : 1 9... habit of its .. professors mind Christianity came LECTURE ... 32 35 . . . . The first step a study of environment. . 3032 Rhetoric A II... 28 30 : ..... 15.. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS... Demand upon attention and imagination ...

. 88 94 94 99 reaction led by Stoics like Epic. 1. 1.75.. 82 . especially at Alexandria Philo ... especially the Antiochene of allegory Alien to certain the poetry of drifts of the 79.. . 99-105 .. 80 80 against Christianity Here hampered by dogmatic complications Use and abuse .. 5257 . 86 .. . 82. Recognition of the living voice of .. . .. ... 74 the Gnostics Application to the New Testament writings by . old and new culture. among the Stoics The Allegoric temper widespread... . Certain Christian Schools. life .. thought. 84. Hellenistic Jews.. in harmony with Greek chiefly as regards the Prophets... ethics....85 LECTURE IV. 81.. but also Sophistic largely pursued the old philosophized and preached professionally Its manner of discourse.. . The period one of widely diffused literary The Rhetorical Schools.. its rewards Objections of earnest tetus . The Apologists polemic against Greek mythology 2. especially in 7779 Origen Eeactions both Hellenic and Christian : in viz... The Philosophers polemic 3. &c. 84 ... viz..76 and the Alexandrines Its aid as solution of the Old Testament problem.. Adopted by 64 particularly in things religious..... in allegory. 88 lines of Rhetoric.. .. modern .... Xlll PAGE his place in moral education Homer. .. ..SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.. Historic handling of literature 2.. God . especially Apologies for this use culminate 57 . 82 . 6569 .... GKEEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC... . men.. used by the Sophists in . Continued by early Christian exegesis in varied schools. and as a main line of apologetic 69 .... physics. 83 spirit. metaphysics.

AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY.. . 134 answer to the main question The Greek mind seen 1... e. A... hence dogmas Dogmatism. 126 128 in allegorism and 128. its &quot.&quot.. who were hardly aware different degrees Tendency to define strong with them.126 Explanations of this from both sides Philosophical Judaism as a bridge.. philosophy &quot... 120 123 123... Alarm of Conservatives sition The issue. 118 - 120 reaction towards doubt.124 Fusion of these in the Old Catholic Church achieved through an underlying kinship of ideas .e.... Preaching of composite origin fourth century. partly speculative.. CHRISTIANITY Abstract ideas among the Greeks..138 . Summary and 3. 129 cosmology Christian philosophy partly apologetic. i. . 125.. . .. ... criterion..&quot.preaching. ..g. D..g. e....... &quot... a complete contrast .. . in 133 133. .... Significance for Christianity Primitive Christian .. : later v. . .. apart from any ... : conflict 134 : to define . The tendency 2. preachers sometimes itinerant : conclusions ... ... . .... .... originality . Summary and ..... PAGE 105 . .. Orthodoxy Further development in the West.. The tendency to speculate The point of emphasis... of the of precision possible in mathematics Philosophy. . the true damnosa hereditas But Greece the source 135 136 137 of 137. amid decay of yet Dogmatism regnant Palestinian and 116118 . the second century one of tran 130 compromise.. in 105 113 113 115 LECTURE V. essence and form. and a certain habit of mind .XIV SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. : .prophesying&quot.

philosopher&quot. within the the : . ....Follow God&quot. &quot.. its A . i. . a religious Follow . Bk. .. life : Ways Puritan ideal .Two ... idea of sin difference earliest Christian writings permixtum ticism 2..e.. . Chrysostom (2) 2...170 .. based upon most . Epictetus ... Dio or moral reformer . The &quot. Resulting deterioration of average ethics .. ..&quot. .. . show agreement amid command Tone of marked by Epictetus two maxims.. 147 148 150 150 152 .. .. agreement empha the importance of conduct . Apostolical Constitutions. 142 143 147 . 159 later corpus 1...... first. Christian ethics the Divine sized at 1. Philo. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN The average morality An of the age: age of moral reformation 1. &quot. practical bent of Stoicism (1) Askesis (ao-K^o-ts) : . 2.. . ethical teaching.... 140 moral philosophy Relation of ethics to philosophy and Revived ETHICS. 158. 1G2 v. LECTURE VI.. moral gymnastic cultivated PAGE 139. The contents of reference. 162 164 : Church : asJcesis. 169 Complete victory of Greek ethics seen in the basis of modern society . 140 142 life . . : Monas- 164168 Ambrose of Milan 168. :&quot. i.. &quot.. 159 .... Epictetus... Further developments due to Greece Church 152155 : Place of discipline in Christian A Nature...XV SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS... 169....

Moral Governor..widely accepted Origen s cosmogony a theodicy. .) 188 : The ultimate solutions __.. 200 at once recognized The Creator s contact with matter thesis (iii.... THE CREATOR. of the is 180188 world Early Christian -idea of a single supreme Artificer took perma nent root . 175 natura naturata and naturans : God : : : ... but questions as to mode emerged.. and the first answers were tentative Evolutional type Creational type accepted There remained (i. Abso 171174 Being Growth 1.) : relation of matter to though not the Logos solution : God : 190 194 .. . . Monistic and as Creator : his terms for the Forces in their plurality .201 especially Marcion s But the Divine Unity overcomes all position of Irena3us. LECTURE VII.) 190 Basilides Platonic theory the basis of the later doctrine. even Father.... Platonic : creation recognized these as to process Syncretistic blending of Hence Philo s significance Dualistic aspects and unity : 174.. . PAGE The One God.. Creator. of the simpler view seen in Monarch ianism : : Results .. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.. supplemented by idea of a lapse 1.. : Imperfection and evil: Monistic and Dualistic answers. 208 . 175 177 . Prevalence 202 . I. 2. (ii. begotten idea of of the unity and order of the and mind... 194 Dualistic 194 198 Mediation hypo 198 .SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. .... God after all. of idea of a beginning Monism of the Stoics Monism and Dualism : a beginning not necessarily involved 2. . 177 180 Logos idea common. and connected with the ideas of personality Three elements in the idea lute Creator. world. 200. 207 207. Dualism.. &c. .

212 .. 215217 God The problem of evil emerges attempts at solution... Lawgiver and Judge .XV11 SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.. comprehensive theodicy by aid of Stoicism 233237 and Neo-Platonism Origen s 6 . 220 : s dualistic : result 228230 Free-will.) 223 _. 227. 225 ... Forgiveness and Law Marcion s ditheism Solution in Irenaeus. Positive work done Law God Difficulties in fusing the (i. &c. number. Its relation to Universality of Providence : 220. The Greek Idea. .. The Christian Idea. of Providence denied (Platonic and (a) Universality : 217 Oriental) 217 of apparent evils denied (Stoic) (b) Reality (c) This not pertinent to moral Theory of human freedom hence evil. (ii. Tertullian. Tatian. two types... THE MORAL GOVERNOR.) a : two main conceptions. Goodness in connection with Providence : 215 Thus about the Christian era we find Destiny and Providence.. for Wages 2. 221 the Stoical theodicy exemplified in Epictetus 221 B. 231 231. view of moral Justin Martyr. 232 ... GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Primitive Christianity a contrast 1.. Irenaeus Tertullian and the Alexandrines evil . and a tendency to synthesis through two stages in the use of the term 3. II. LECTURE VIII. A.. .. necessity and destiny : will : and order intelligent force 209211 and law The Cosmos 2.. New conceptions of the Divine Nature Justice and 21 3 . Unity *6fUWL Ibd Unity of the world Order. 228 The Moral Governor and Marcion . 230.. 1. PAGE 209 as a city-state (n-oAis) 211.

) : e..) 3. . Here the idea of Transcendence Present in the Apologists 2.257 Theories of model manifestation Dominant idea that of modal existence : so among certain Gnostics (i.. its Development in Greek Philosophy.g. a vital problem 256. Mythological (i. .. (ii.. 245 Blending religious feeling. in Philo Distinctions in the nature of God. 258 259 .. especially The Idea and .. . 1. Its 2....... though on a Jewish 238.. Through intermediaries Philosophical. 254 256 Revelation) of the Transcendent...247 first empha . History of the idea before and after Plato 240243 ..... PAGE Christian Theology shaped k by Greece.) As manifold As .. XY111 LECTURE IX. GOD AS THE SUPREME BEING. 250 250 at first absent 252 252. 246 246. . Philo s 247.253 (v. .. 248 Logos Conceived both nionistically and dualistically in God tion to But B.. (ii.. supra-cosmic) by Basilides and the Alexandrines Mediation rela Development in Christian Theology. . transcendent proper and supra.258 .g. III... under metaphor of generation its But God sized is as transcendent ( = . Transcendence of God. Parallel to Christian speculation in three stages. GEEEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY..) constituting a unity : 257.. 244. 249 ... 239 basis The Idea and A. 1... two forms..cosmic 244 with in Philo .SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. Revelation of the Transcendent. . . e.

The nature Conclusion 272 273.268 in the contro and but a stage Origen marks a stage 268. Their absolute truth.) in God based on 262.. 282 . need definition by a third term of the use of these terms. issue is the Logos doctrine of Irenseus Distinctions in the nature of (i.) 267 Theories of the nature of the Logos determined by either the supra-cosmic or transcendental idea of God 267.. thus endangered... with homoousios : need of another term also Hypostasis - it 269 .. 263..260 forms Its Gnostic the of logoi to the Logos. Ousia . 265 culminate in Origen s idea of eternal generation (ii. 278 dogma 278280 tism Three underlying assumptions 1.. Theories as to the genesis of the Logos.. . 264 logous to those as to the world Theories guarding the &quot. The importance 2. 274 . its Difficulty felt in applying As Comes to God : to Kesume its . 269 versies Greek elements in the subsequent developments.&quot. the Logos. especially 260262 Justin The 3. (TrpocrwTrov) the reign of 277 277... PAGE Kelation 259.XIX SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.sole monarchy... history 274... 275 .. history of a legacy of the Greek spirit 280. God s perfection.. 263 .. . 3. 275 . 281 of metaphysical distinctions. ana ..

300303 teries&quot.. of nature and Other religious associations fice and common meal Wide : 287..) Change Change of name of time &amp.) (ii.. 307 307. .g. &c.. 288 296. Stages of extra-biblical development... Cults... . 291 . : 295.. 290 condition of entrance. Initial Purification.. .. sacri extent of the above B. . ... . and conception Minor confirmations of the 2... religion. e. LECTURE X. . 288 . . Transition to the Christian Sacraments influence.... 1..g. Realistic change of conception Conclusion 305 305.XX SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.. at 283.292 The Mysteries and the Church. . its the offerings as &quot. Const. associations side by side with ordinary Mysteries and religious Greek 1. 303 viz.. 309 309 . with procession. 291. (i.) Mystic Drama.. Culmination of tendency in The tendency strongest in fifth the century in Dionysius most Hellenic Secrecy and long catechumenate .. 295 .. 308 308. 298 parallelism.. . human life 290.. . THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES.) Eleusis e. (ii.lt. 284 . PAGE The Greek Mysteries and Related A.. 300 : in Didache. . and 292294 special Baptism : Its primitive simplicity Later period marked by (i. 306. The Mysteries. . (iii.mys &quot.) Sacrifices.. 306 Gnostics Anointing circles. 297 . 296 . through confession and lustra 285287 tion (baptism) 2... Apost.The Lord s Supper 294.&quot.. general .altar.

.. . then the latent 2. &quot... 1. ment Canon .. THE INCORPORATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS. .. assumes the sense it had .. Yalue of written tradition and : Old Testament influence of * common idea of prophecy apostolicity : &quot.... 320. 324 32G .SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.. 311 In Philo... . AS MODIFIED BY GREEK.rule as 319... At .317 317319 and the Bishops interpretation. 315 test.. its .Faith&quot. ethical purpose .320 limit Marcion and the idea of a Canon active upon the yvoxris alongside TTMTTIS. INTO A BODY OF DOCTRINE... . in Old Testament = trust trust in a person. at of faith:&quot.. Testa . 323. especially 321323 Origen : (1) Identify a fact with speculations (2) 312 Related question as to sources of the Creed and the materials for 3.apostolic teaching&quot... Creed&quot.. 321 321 in Philo But the speculative temper remained &quot.. .. New ... . though not uniformly The baptismal formula becomes a The on fact (1) the Creed. ..Apostles ... in the Holy Writings Contemporary longing for certainty based Here we have the germs of ..... .. LECTURE XI.. i. 324 Check individual speculations in favour of those of the majority . PAGE &quot. emphasis on its basis .Faith&quot. In Greek philosophy = intellectual conviction 310.. these blend into trust in God in His vera city. . 316... (2) the first Expansion by 311....e. 313 and revealed intellectual element emerges. &quot.... Alexandria Hence tendency to : .. 312 upon it .

Const...342 Intercommunion (o. ) formally as interpretations the importance attached to (ii. charac i. according to the genius of Chris tianity 334.. . if admitted. 337... &quot.). views on points of metaphysical speculation of the stages of belief .330 . 329. .&quot. but not : it &quot. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION DOCTRINE IN THE PLACE OF CONDUCT. Development. minority&quot... : Association at first voluntary. (2) Political belief in a majority.333 LECTURE XII..331 (1) Philosophic regard for exact definition.. (3) Belief in the finality of the views of an age so ascer tained..339 upon the intellectural element realistically conceived relation to the ministrant 341..328 . primary and collateral 339.. and 327.. Also a the 335337 Elchasaites common Hope : its changing form .. Resume in the Creed. ..XX11 SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. belief changed.... 341 Importance given to Baptism its (2) 338. ... 338 Coincident relaxation of bonds of discipline and change in idea of the Growing Church stress also Causes for (1) this. moral and spiritual: Holiness Two Ways. Underlying conceptions to be noted 329 . mula Didanlu . 330.. 340 340. its Apost. majority&quot. . .335 Its basis primarily teristic the : &quot. cannot be arrested 332 Place of speculation in Christianity 332. (Bk.) Distinction between at a meeting.. Results PAGE : Such speculations formulated and inserted (i. g. : ).. : the necessary test at subsequently a first doctrinal moral for 343345 .

XX111 PAGE This elevation of doctrine due to causes internal to the Christian communities but an external factor enters with case of Paul : of Samosata : its results .. 350 permanence of the primitive. 352. broken . 349.....353 .......351 development: no logical third . ..SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.. : .. .. .. 350.. .. 352 the Christianity . ... On theories either theory.. 345 .. .. assimilative . . 349 : The Greek Churches: the spirit still lives in Christian vital question is its relation to Christianity Two 347.. 351 our study a necessary preliminary and ....... the The problem pressing truly conservative New ground here of the future : largely go . Lines of reaction against this transformation or conservative (1) Puritan tendency Novatianism esoteric (2) Formation of class : : 348... . a pioneer s forecast . Greek element may : . 348 with higher moral ideal Monachism Conclusion 347 : ..


LECTURE I. the theological conceptions which underlie it belong to the ethical rather than the speculative side of theology The Nicene Creed absent. that the question why an ethical sermon stood in the forefront of the teaching of Jesus Christ. ethics have no torical facts place in it. which claims but it investigation. to fail to notice a difference of both IT is form and content between the Sermon on the Mount and the Mcene Creed. any one thinks that it is sufficiently explained by saying that the one is a sermon and the other a creed. is a problem It claims investigation. The Sermon on the Mount is the promulgation of a new law of conduct . the meta terms which it contains would probably have physical been unintelligible to the first disciples . whether he be a student of history or no. has not yet been inves- . The one belongs peasants. . is metaphysics are wholly a statement partly of his and partly of dogmatic inferences . it assumes beliefs rather than formulates them . impossible for any one. and a meta physical creed in the forefront of the Christianity of the fourth century. the other to a world of The to a world of Syrian Greek philosophers. it must be pointed out in reply If contrast is patent. INTBODUCTOBY.

or of the theory of a Catholic attention is antecedent question to which I invite your It asks. The first is. It will appear from the Lectures which follow Their general subject is. that the change in the centre of gravity from conduct to belief is coincident with the transference of Christianity from a Semitic to a Greek The presumption is that it was the result of Greek soil. for example. and many points in mind I will begin considerations. that the religion of a given race at a given time is relative to the whole mental attitude of .2 INTRODUCTORY. as to the causes of par ticular changes or developments in Christianity the doctrine of the Trinity. the first point that is obvious to an inquirer is. which in some cases tigated. the interest. and the importance of the incumbent upon us to approach it with subject make it It is necessary to bear caution. not how did the Christian to all such inquiries. In investigating this problem. as we enter attention to upon two it . by asking your which. of the But the main Church. of Greece upon Christianity. consequently. influence. us. societies come another. that this presumption is true. may be presumed to be true of the particular all phenomena before 1. I. The Influence The difficulty. There have been inquiries. being true of analogous phenomena of religious development and change. but one proposition rather than did they come to the frame of mind to believe how which attached importance to either the one or the other. and made the assent to the one rather than the other a condition of membership. development. have arrived at positive results.

I will ask and him him. and its changing characteristics of . in the same way that you can separate a vein of silver from the rock in which it is embedded. not in but only in thought. of its love of literature. philanthropies varied its its enterprises. but they still remain part of the whole complex life of the time. learning.We may concentrate our attention chiefly upon them. its noise. It is impossible that time. its climate. we must endeavour to realize to ourselves the whole mental its Greek world in the We must take account attitude of the of our era. its shifting its eestheticism.I. depth of its education. fact. its to take the instance that lies nearest to hopes. the tertiary system differ from those of the chalk. of the com mercial activity. of its scepticism and philo and its . They are as much determined by the general characteristics of the race as the fauna and flora of a geographical area are determined by its soil. flora of They and they vary with the the race as the fauna and cultivation are separable from the whole mass of phenomena. and they cannot be understood except in relation to that life. of the of the inductive sciences expansion of literature. &quot. to 3 separate the religious phenomena from the other phenomena. with the problem before us. INTRODUCTORY. how he could understand the religious our own country in our own time its to consider phenomena doubts. In dealing. If any one hesitates to accept this historical induction. and unless he took account of the growth and the mechanical arts. therefore. of the many first three centuries of the breadth currents of its sophy. of the social stress. of the general drift of society towards own improvement. of its enthusiasms.

4 INTRODUCTORY. 1 is applicable to a race as well as to more than Aristotle an individual. TTpovTroKeipevrjv yvuviv (Schol. &quot. his note on the passage. not determining the existence or measuring the extent of drifts of thought by their literary expres of the testimony of the monu sion. but taking note also ments and of art history. we must be content. The religion which our Lord preached was rooted in Judaism. The inscriptions and laws. It came &quot.not to destroy. are not necessary for our immediate purpose. . mysticism. post.&quot. that all intellectual teaching is is previously known to enun based upon what to the person taught. 71). existing elements. even like a physiological change. p. rate for the present which the precise study of history requires us to draw between the state of thought of Greece proper and that of Asia Minor. A religious to beliefs change is. i. It took the Jewish Troura SiSacrKaAia KCU Tracra /^a^crcs BtavorjTLKrj ex yvwcrews (Arist. but to fulfil. and may be left to the minuter research which has hardly yet begun. and until the problem has at any been more fully elaborated. of paintings and sculptures. with the broader features both of the Greek world and of the early centuries. p. 17 John Philoponus. of the nature of assimilation by. in antithesis to sensible knowledge. ciated. 1. Anal.We must gather together whatever evidence we can find. 2. The second consideration is. that no permanent change takes place in the religious beliefs or usages of a race which is not rooted in the existing beliefs and The truth which usages of that race. and knowledge. and absorption into. of In doing so. points out that emphasis rj. and between the age of the distinctions Antonines and that of the Severi. 1966). I. in is laid upon the word yap ala-6r)riKrj ed. Brandis.

motives mingled with the waters of existing currents and it is only by examining the sources and the volume . We have ample evidence in regard to the state of Greek thought during the ante-Mcene period.Been&quot. and ample also in regard to the effects. but scanty in regard to the process of change.I. The meaning and the applica had already been anticipated in some degree by the Jewish prophets. 5 conception of a Father in heaven. The method of the investigation. like that of all inves tigations. The special feature of the evidence which affects the method is. that it is ample in regard to the causes. . INTRODUCTORY. they received them. must be determined by the nature of the evi dence. find that the was rooted in Greek Christianity of the fourth century Hellenism. It took existing moral precepts. but there was a continuity between fheir present and their past. their lesser importance in the scale of genius rather adds to than diminishes from their importance as representa- . the new ideas and new &quot. of the previous flow that we shall understand Mount has formed the how it is Sermon on the that the Nicene Creed rather than the dominant element in Aryan Christianity. There were Jewish minds which had tion boon ripening for them and so far as they were ripe for In a similar way we shall them. The Greek minds which had ripening for Christianity had absorbed new ideas and new motives. and gave them a new application. The dim and pallid light when put side by side with the master-spirits of the Attic age but writers shine with a . and gave it a new meaning.

in gion of the whom Greek world of his protests against the morality and the reli find their sublimest expression. Philo- . and whose conversations and lectures at Mcopolis. as in a photograph. probably in short-hand. the satirist and Sextus wit. who was raised above of Prusa. but works. in whom the cold metaphysics of the Academy are transmuted into a glowing mysticism. the prose Aristophanes of later Greece. They are consequently better evidence as to the currents of its thought than men who supremely transcended it. by a faithful pupil. the prolific essayist and encyclopaedist. INTRODUCTORY. They were more the children of their time. the lame slave. as the clouds float and drift in uncertain sunlight or in gathered Lucian. sostom. hope that you will in course not only with their names. Socrates of his time. Dio tion. I will mention those from whom we shall derive most informa familiar. the imperial philosopher. of time also become with their commonly known as Dio Chrygolden mouth. gathered under his name are the richest of all mines for the investigation of later Greek philosophy.&quot. the political unrighteousness. down. valuable to us than the edifices which he erects with them. but also by the nobility of his character and the vigour Epictetus. the eloquent preacher. Marcus Aurelius. the interior life of a great Plutarch. not only by his singular literary skill. in the Dio &quot. Maximus of Tyre. whose writings writings gloom before the clearing rain. in losophies are whose mind the fragments of many phi lit by hope or darkened by despair. of the collection or Empiricus. taken reflect exactly. of the the class of travelling orators to which he belonged.I. t) lives. whose materials are far more moralist s diligent school.

&quot.I. 7 author of a great religious romance. If we look at the literature of the schools of thought which ultimately became dominant. Bd. on the one hand. Miltiades. Valentin. 1 It tells us about some parts of the Christian world. Proculus has entirely Justin. It stratus. state of Chris The Fathers of Nazianzus.We have ample evidence also as to the tian thought in the post-Mcene period. only a few fragments remain . Proculus. . die Ueberlieferung der griecliischen Apologeten des zweitenJahrhunderts). Gregory change which Greek influences had wrought. Justin survives in only a single : Harnack. Philo of Alexandria . and to be the only survivors of the Judeeo-Greek schools which lasted on in the great cities of the empire until the verge of Christian times. the many will hardly be an anachronism if we add to these the great syncretist philosopher. Gregory of and of Nyssa. enable us to form a clear conception of the Athanasius. INTRODUCTORY. we find that it consists for the most part of some accidental survivals. on the works which are gathered together name seem to belong to a generation subse other. of Miltiades. but not about others. But the evidence as to the mode in which the causes operated within the Christian sphere before the final effects were produced is singularly imperfect. 5) singles out four writers of the he regards as standing on an equal footing Of these. the decrees of general Cyril and local Councils. the apocryphal and pseudonymous literature. Basil. i. for. and. Irenseus. 1. several of the under his quent to his own. (see A. Texte und Untersuchungen. Jerusalem. It represents a few phases of thought with 1 Tertullian (adv. and of sketches of the lives of contemporary teachers. c. he was more Greek than Jew. previous generation whom MS. perished . and the greater part of Irenseus remains only in a Latin translation.




adequate fulness, and of others

presents only a few
In regard to Palestine, which in the third and
fourth centuries was a great centre of culture, we have

only the evidence of Justin Martyr. In regard to Asia
Minor, which seems to have been the chief crucible for
the alchemy of transmutation, we have but such scanty
fragments as those of Melito and Gregory of Neoceesarea.

and most important monuments are those of
Alexandria, the works of Clement and Origen, which



represent a stage of singular interest in the process of
Of the Italian writers, we
philosophical development.




lican writers,



genuine besides Hippolytus. Of Galhave chiefly Ireneeus, whose results are

important as being the earliest formulating of the opinions

which ultimately became dominant, but whose method is
mainly interesting as an example of the dreary polemics
of the rhetorical schools.

Of African


we have

Tertullian, a skilled lawyer, who would in modern times
have taken high rank as a pleader at the bar or as a
leader of Parliamentary debate ; and Cyprian, who sur

vives chiefly as a champion of the sacerdotal hypothesis,
and whose vigorous personality gave him a moral influ

ence which was far beyond the measure of his intellectual
The evidence is not only imperfect, but also
insufficient in relation to the effects that

were produced.

Writers of the stamp of Justin and Irenseus are wholly
inadequate to account for either the conversion of the
educated world to Christianity, or for the forms which
Christianity assumed when the educated world had






look for the literature of the schools of




thought which were ultimately branded as heretical,
look almost wholly in vain.
philosophers thought,


we know, with

significant exceptions, only


the earliest Christian

comparatively in

from the writings of their

They were subject to a double hate that
of the heathen schools which they had left, and that of
the Christians

who were saying Non possumus
The little trust that we can place in




accounts which their opponents give of them is shown
by the wide differences in those accounts. Each oppo
nent, with the dialectical skill which was common at the
time, selected, paraphrased, distorted,

and re-combined

the points which seemed to him to be weakest.
result is, naturally, that the accounts which the several
opponents give are so different in form and feature as
It was so also
to be irreconcilable with one another.

with the heathen opponents of Christianity. 3

Marcion, in the sad tone of one


With one

bitterly felt that every

man s

hand was against him, addresses one of his disciples as my partner
in hate and wretchedness" ((TV/A/UO-OV/ACVOV KOL vvvraXaiTrupov, Tert.

adv. Marc.



are the accounts of Basilides in Clement of Alexandria
and Hippolytus, compared with those in Irenseus and Epiphanius ; and
the accounts of the Ophites in Hippolytus, compared with those of
Irenseus and Epiphanius. The literature of the subject is considerable



see especially A. Hilgenfeld, die Ketzfirgescliiclite des Urchristenthums

202); E. A. Lipsius, zur Quellenkritik des Epiphanios ; and
A. Harnack, zur Quettenkritik der Geschichte des Gnosticismus.



The very names


most of the heathen opponents are

tantius (5. 4) speaks of


et multis in locis et




non modo

Gratis sed etiam Jatinis^p^ut for the ordinary student, Keim s
remarkable restoration of the work of Celsus from the quotations of
Origen, with
losses (Th.



wealth of illustrative notes, compensates for

Wahres Wort, Zurich, 1873).





important exception, we cannot tell how the new religion
struck a dispassionate outside observer, or why it was
philosophers outside its fold. Then,
as now, the forces of human nature were at work.


it left



tendency to disparage and suppress an opponent



"When the
peculiar to the early ages of Christianity.
associated Christian communities won at length their
hard-fought battle, they burned the enemy s camp.

This fact of the scantiness and inadequacy of the
evidence as to the process of transformation has led to



which constitute


and dangers in

our path.

The one


the tendency to overrate the value of

the evidence that has survived.


of a great


only two or three

movement remain,

appreciate the degree in which those


tend at almost


it is difficult




times to attach

an exaggerated importance to individual writers
writers who have moulded the thoughts of their contem

poraries, instead of

being moulded by them, are always

few in number and exceptional. We tend also to attach
an undue importance to phrases which occur in such




any, writers write with the precision of

a legal document, and the inverted pyramids which have
been built upon chance phrases of Clement or Justin are
monuments of caution which we shall do well to keep
before our eyes.
2. The other

the tendency to under- estimate the
importance of the opinions that have disappeared from
sight, or


which we know only in the form and

extent of their quotation by their opponents.


to the

we were


to trust the histories that are


should believe that there was from the
doctrine of







a body of

which certain writers were the recognized
and that outside this body of doctrine there

was only the play of more or less insignificant opinions,
like a fitful guerilla warfare on the flanks of a great




what we

that out of

really find on

examining the
a mass of opinions which for a

long time fought as equals upon equal ground, there was
formed a vast alliance which was strong enough to shake
off the


extremes at once of conservatism and of specu
but in which the speculation whose monuments

have perished had no less a share than the conservatism
of which some monuments have survived.
This survey of the nature of the evidence enables us
to determine the method which we should follow.


trace the causes

and we can see the




we have

only scanty information as to the intermediate processes.
If the evidence as to those processes existed in greater


the writings of those

who made

tive efforts to give to Christianity a




Greek form had been

preserved to us, it might have been possible to follow in
order of time and country the influence of the several
groups of ideas upon the several groups of Christians.

This method hasbeen attempted, with questionable success,

by some

of those

who have

particular doctrines.


investigated the history of

it is

impossible to deprecate

too strongly the habit of erecting theories



quicksands ; and I propose to pursue the surer path to
which the nature of the evidence points, by stating the




by viewing them


by considering how

in relation to the effects, and

were adequate in respect of

far they

both mass and complexity to produce those effects.
There is a consideration in favour of this method which
in entire


harmony with

nature of the evidence.


place were gradual and at

that which arises from the

that the changes that took


hardly perceptible.


if we were in posses
sion of ampler evidence, to assign a definite cause and a

would probably be impossible, even

definite date for the introduction of each separate idea.

For the early years

of Christianity

like the early years of our lives.

were in some respects

It has sometimes

thought that those early years are the most important
years in the education of

all of us.


learn then,


know how, through effort and struggle and inno
cent mistakes, to use our eyes and our ears, to measure
distance and direction, by a process which ascends by


unconscious steps to the certainty which



feel in


are helped in doing so, to an incalculable

by the accumulated experience


mankind which

but the growth is our own, the
unconscious development of our own powers.
It was in
some such unconscious way that the Christian thought



in language


of the earlier centuries gradually acquired the form



when it emerges, as it were, into the developed
manhood of the fourth century. Greek philosophy helped

development, as language helps a child ; but the assi
milation of it can no more be traced from year to year
than the growth of the body can be traced from day to



shall begin, therefore,

by looking

at the several




groups of facts of the age in which Christianity grew,
and endeavour, when we have looked at them, to estimate
their influence





shall look at the facts



which indicate the

shall find that it

state of

was an age that was

penetrated with culture, and that necessarily gave to all
ideas which it absorbed a cultured and, so to speak,
scholastic form.


shall look at the facts





which indicate the

was an age

of great lite-

of its ancient


shall find that it

which was proud

state of

and which spent a large part of its industry in endea
vouring to interpret and to imitate them.


We shall

look at the facts which indicate the state of


was an age in which
metaphysical conceptions had come to occupy relatively
the same place which the conceptions of natural science
occupy among ourselves; and that just as we tend to



shall find that it

look upon external things in their chemical and physical
relations, so there was then, as it were, a chemistry and


physics of ideas.
shall look at the facts which indicate the state of


moral, ideas



shall find that it


was an age in which


nature were struggling with
an altogether unprecedented force against the degradation

M;he ethical forces of

contemporary society and contemporary religion, and
in which the ethical instincts were creating the new

and were solving the old
question whether there was or was not an art of life by

ideal of




practising self-discipline.



shall look at the facts

which indicate the

state of

theological ideas






shall find that it

was an age


which men were feeling after God and not feeling in
vain, and that from the domains of ethics, physics, meta
physics alike, from the depths of the moral consciousness,
and from the cloud-lands of poets dreams, the ideas of

men were trooping in one vast host to proclaim with a
united voice that there are not many gods, but only One,
one First Cause by



things were made, one

Moral Governor whose providence was over
works, one Supreme Being


of infinite power,







shall look at the facts




beliefs that

which indicate the

shall find that it


for centuries

was an age


state of

which the

been evolving themselves

from the old religions were showing themselves in new
forms of worship and new conceptions of what God
needed in the worshipper in which also the older ani
malism was passing into mysticism, and mysticism was

the preparation of the soul for the spiritual religion of
the time to come.


shall then, in the case of each great

| endeavour

from the

group of


ments the original Christian ideas upon which they acted;
and then compare the later with the earlier form of those
to ascertain

Christian ideas




earliest Christian

examine the combined result

were at work upon the mental
the Christian world and upon the basis of

of all the influences that

attitude of

Christian association.

I should be glad if I could at once proceed to examine
some of these groups of facts.
But since the object

it is and the imagination of the student. are but The study requires not only inadequately appreciated. state almost ill-informed writer may any propositions he pleases. a well-informed writer may propositions which are as demonstrably true as state any his can be. and to urge those of you who have leisure for historical investigations to explore them for yourselves more fully than I have been and since the main difficulties of the investi able to do gation lie less mind of should in the facts themselves than in the attitude which they are approached in I feel that I did not linger still upon the threshold to say something of the personal equa that we must make before we can become either tion&quot. the In the demand to which I am inviting you. as to invite you to in comparatively untrodden paths.I. that comparatively new. A student must have . which is The and the painful caution required in the forming of inferences. which I have in view conclusions of INTRODUCTORY. because the study of Christian history is no doubt discredited by the dissonance in the An voices of its exponents. but also imagination. with the certainty of finding listeners . nor will there torical proposition contradicted. be until more than one generation has been engaged upon the task 1. is attention. is 15 much not so to lead you to any walk with me my own. required in the examination of the evidence for the facts. There is the more reason for doing so. fail of my purpose if I &quot. study of history The minute care which is scientific. necessary to take account of which the study makes upon the attention first place. accurate observers or impartial judges. is the accurate. with the certainty of being There is no court of appeal.

degree before he can so throw himself into a bygone time as to be able to enter into the motives of the actors. and it is an accurate picture of. having such and such a character. We bring to the former the thoughts. a comparatively blank paper. for example. tend to beg the question study is We before we examine &quot. the series and sequence of its He must have that power in a still greater as in a events. surrounded and by such and such circumstances. ideas and usages of imperial Greece. Most of us come to the study of the subject already knowing something about it. not of one man. but of a generation of men. INTRODUCTORY. It is a comparatively easy task for a lecturer 2.We have before usages of it. moving panorama. to upon the current of their thoughts. the religion of Mexico or of Peru. the associations. on the one hand. he and to would himself have thought and felt and acted. . something analogous to the power of a dramatist before he can realize the scenery of a vanished age. float In the second place. and to pass with them from one attitude of mind into another. the ideas and early Christianity. But the greatest demand that can be made upon either the attention or the imagination of a student is that which is made by such a problem as the present. the us. on the other hand. for a hearer to realize.16 I. necessary to take account of our own personal prepossessions. imagine how. because the mind of the student when he begins the to present. to move with their movements. But most of us bring to the study of Christian history a number of con clusions already formed. or watch. which requires us to realize the attitude of mind.

since our childhood.We in the course of centuries clustered round the old nucleus of meaning. and the new of language. They linger unconsciously in the minds of those who seem most reso lutely to have abandoned them. meaning is different. seem to us to form part of the original meaning. The terms centuries before. by an inevitable flower. the happy dreams. which have been rising up round us. They have in such cases gathered to themselves wholly new meanings. law at to the early cen literature of five are the same. The terms have in some cases come down by direct transmission into our own language. until we con sciously hold them up to the light. I. 17 the sacred memories.INTRODUCTORY. but their Those of us who have studied them the connotation Athens when Greek literature was in to attach to ignore the long interval of connotation which. a similar wealth of which we ideas with and to the Greek turies of Christianity. We bring to which have come associations tion. They are not confined to those of us who not only consciously retain Even if there be some them. c We have in those . which. through our educa have to deal are mostly which are common expressed in terms which they had its most perfect to us had &quot. but also hold their basis to be true. among us who in the maturity of their years have broken away from their earlier moorings. Greek literature tend time. and are with difficulty disentangled. these associations still tend to remain. We bring to both the Christian and the Greek world the inductions respecting made by ourselves and them which have been already by others. one by one. most of us. The the latter.

INTRODUCTORY. while the question of the and such categories is one of the main points which our inquiries have to solve. Every age has such under-currents. moulds. into the texture of our of of of We To them the mass our thoughts are relative. and every age tends to be un conscious of them. beliefs. and stages in our own and we arrange find ready to hand. other generations increases in proportion as those genera In dealing with a country tions recede from our own. or a period not very remote. ourselves have succeeded to a We Behind us are the thoughts. In the third place. as historical facts in the categories edu which we Jewish or Gentile. or a remote period of time. the splendid heritage. but of the past ages with which we have to deal. we may not go assuming that its inheritance of ideas is far wrong in cognate to our own. &quot. The importance recognizing them as an element in our judgments of nature. But in dealing with a remote country. cannot transcend them. so to speak. orthodox or heretical. it becomes of extreme importance to allow for the difference. cation .We assume the primitiveness of distinctions which for the most part inductions so many represent only the provisional conclusions of earlier gene rations of scholars. men of earlier The days had other mental scenery round them. 3.currents. of mental longitude. for the most part. Catholic or Gnostic. not only of our own age.18 I. . so to speak. the habits of mind. and by them the thoughts other generations tend to be judged. into which we press the plastic statements of early writers. which have been in process of formation since the first beginning of our race. They are inwrought. it is necessary to take account reality of such distinctions of the under.

T(o/A&amp. upon spirit or of spirit upon therefore. . as times. I will briefly illustrate this point (a) We tend to we take with us. we measure ancient rites of baptism. 1 common view Anaxagoras or his school ovSev of the earlier conception of matter cf. of the Stoics. It was stated by Chrysippus. for example.aTi c2 crco/jta . 33) cruymTi cr^Tracr^et rj &amp. uv/XTracr^et (rw/xart ovSe aa-w/xaro) (rw/xa Se TW . are They and 1 an outflow spirit as varying This was the (Diels. the we find expressions which seem to attribute a virtue to the material element. understand them until we have been at the pains to find out the underlying ideas to which they were actually relative. ap. Consequently. the dualistic hypothesis by two which hypothesis.oju. de Nat. to another phase of thought than our own. aAAa apa orw/xa YI by Zeno. de Plac. p. probably following Plutarch [Aetius]. They belong.lt. and spirit upon spirit. . When. Horn. though we readily con act upon matter. many ideas which were in entire harmony with the mental fabric of their time. 3 387).INTRODUCTORY. in studying. but an axiomatic truth instances : travel into to bygone most of us is no of the existence of an unbridged chasm between body and soul. a&amp.lt. in I^X 7? Cic. such expressions by a modern standard. are unintelligible Fewer streams when of referred to the standard of our own we nor can ... Nemes. to the idea of spirit is such. Fragm.. 19 thought had converged upon them. matter and The relation in our minds of the idea of matter spirit.xTov forms of a single substance.lt. ^V )(r) (Chrysipp. that ceive matter to we find it or impossible to conceive a direct difficult action either of matter matter. and regard them as containing only an analogy or a symbol. Doxographi Greed. in reality. 4.r&amp. Philos.lt. I.

. Tertullian. aqua3 perennis per Deum sanctum et Deum verum qui te in principio &quot. exorcizo te fons Mabillon (de Liturgia Gallicana libri tres. but it it is was Mind said. 73 (in Muratori. exorcizo te creatura aquae vivum adjuro te per Jesum Christum filium ejus unicum diately followed per Deum &quot.&quot. subtlest form of body. &quot. The body nevertheless.quicquid facit corpus some Christian writers. ot STUHKOI irdvra ra curia crco^artKa 7TVf. . exaudi nos omnipotens Deus Lituryia Romana vetus. p. what is known as the Gelasian Sacramentary. vol. e. 117. a ration It is. de Anima. a^ua benedicta. Plutarch [Aetius]. Epist. et in hujus aquce substantiam immitte virlutem ut abluendus per earn simul et vitam mereatur aeternam. dominum nostrum ut efficiaris in eo qui in te baptizandus erit fons aquse salientis in vitam aeternam. that demons might be the direct causes of diseases. in &quot. 11. outgrow. conception of a direct action of the one the is upon the other It was imagined. This prayer is imme et sanitatem by an address to the water. Whatever acts. so to speak. to exercise a malignant influence upon. among so yap. by their followers. 1 The conception tismo : it underlies the whole of Tertullian accounts for the rites of est. 362). . presented no difficulty.&quot.&quot. . which the world was p. 1. 594). dePlac. 2. 1 The conception of the process as symbolical came with the growth of later ideas of the relation of matter to spirit. for instance.g.&quot. 5. s treatise. Philos.g. the oil e.&quot.20 &quot. regenerans eum Deo Patri et Filio et So in the Gallican Sacramentary published by Spiritui Sancto . because the extreme tenuity of their substance enabled them to and enter. alizing explanation of a conception to tending Academ. &quot. 39. p. sis .vfj. when exorcized from all the evil influences which might reside in it. actually cleansed the soul. 1.I. 11. ab arida separavit et in quatuor fluminibus terrain rigore prtecepit aqua sancta.ara by Seneca. the bodies of men. so de Bap- exorcism and benediction of both and the water which are found in the older Latin service-books. is INTRODUCTORY. So water. i. alluens sordes et dimitttns peccata. 4 (Diels. 310).. i. : . .. body.

emperor who in the second century of our era. 193) Tr/awra #eovs : and in the Neoplatonist Porphyry (ad Marcett. a great was it should hold those have deliberately per secuted Christianity.g. e. It was a matter which also a great philosopher should not between the soul and God. 16 Kara : in Epictet. lectual opponents of Christianity laid stress upon its desertion of the Minucius Felix. quotes more than once the Delphic oracle. Nauck).lt. Orac.$ eixre^Scus av iroic. crTrevSeiv Se KCU Qvetv KOU drrdp- irdrpia eKacrrois Trpoa-rjKL repeatedly in Plutarch. 1.lv.INTRODUCTORY. &quot. T. : : Aureum Carmen vofjiw cos of the later Pythagoreans. because they ultimately rest upon the same conception men were so profoundly convinced : of the truth of their own personal beliefs as to deem men supreme importance that other of But we beliefs also. 1074 Xecr$cu TO. de Comm. dOavdrovs SiaKcivrcu. Philos. 1. Mem. 5. 3. 12. p.quanto ancestral religion. i. Notit. We can understand. Octav.We the bond cannot believe any virtue in an act of worship in which the conscience has no place. 31. OVTOS yap The intel //.eyuTTos KapTros ewre/^et as rt/zav TO Oeiov Kara ra Trdrpca. 18. Ench. The difficulty arises from our over looking the entirely different aspect under which religion presented itself to a Eoman mind. Ccecilius in . 3. 416. p. and who again 4. Conscience had no place in it. Grave. find it difficult to understand why. how that there ever is much we may deplore. 31. ed. The neglect of it. e. such persecutions as those of the sixteenth century. 1. Worship was an ancestral usage which the Sta|. sanc tioned and enforced. 286. (&) We 21 take with us in our travels into the p underlying conception i$t of religion as a personal between God and the individual soul. and still more the disavowal ] 1 These conceptions are found in Xenophon s account of Socrates. &quot. in the de Defect. p. p. It was one of the ordinary duties of life.gt. f] re yap HvOia vouip TroAews dvatptL 7roiovvTa&amp. but between the indi vidual and the State.g. lay. TLfAa (Frag. /xei&amp. Xen.

The materials for such a study are available.. c. by they are whose imagi the mountain. that we shall be likely with success the great problem that lies to investigate before us.&quot. but he him to It is not until we have thus realized the fact that the study of history requires as diligent and as constant an exercise of the mental powers as any of the physical sciences. . 35 j 8. personal we equation.22 of I. I have no desire. The difficulties of venerabilius ac melius . full of fancy sketches of early Christianity. An emperor might pity the offender must necessarily either compel obey or punish him for disobedience. written.tops which enthusiasts by an easy flight to the historian can only reach by a long and rugged road . for the most part. traditas colere. by those who give them nation soars only the attention which they would give to a shilling hand-book or to an article in a review. for his obstinacy.. 25. to add one more The time has come for a precise to such fancy sketches.. was a crime. Cels.cur rents of thought in past ages widely different from those which flow in our own. they are read. disentangling ourselves as far as can from the theories which we have inherited or formed. 5. religiones and Celsus in Origen. search. The method of such a study is determined by canons which have been established in analogous fields of re study. it. and I am sure that you have no desire. and recognizing the existence of under. because the interest of the Literature is subject tends to obscure its difficulties. such a study come almost majorum excipere disciplinam. 57. for the most part. and until we have made what may be called the &quot. INTRODUCTORY.&quot. I lay stress upon these points.

as the physical sciences the firm tread of certainty. is it is with We may the study with confidence. to conquest. but also of supreme importance. from ourselves. and even with con In front of it. &quot. and entirely 23 INTRODUCTORY. into the domain of Christian history. guide of our lives. is no foothold. have marched. For the study one not only of living interest. The study the complement of the other .I. with It meets. is no &quot. who venture flanks. as the physical have met. we must what it first know both has been. but the latter only that we have at present to do. almost time. that we cannot set aside its claim unheard.We may hear. it is a duty to begin by recognizing them. The from them to its documents and to its history. nulla But the retrorsum. marching slowly. and issue.Yestigia It marches. as in front of the physical tumely. is gratify our curiosity and to add to the stores of our But Christianity claims to be a present knowledge. but marching marching in our day. as sometimes into morasses where there into ravines science is from which there marching on. sciences . Other history may be more Its ultimate result may be only to or less antiquarian. the solemn tramp of the science of history always for the first Upon its sciences.&quot. Neither can we admit it until we know what are each of Christianity appeal lies In order to what know what it is. It has been so large a factor in the moral development of our race. It is upon the flanks of the physical there are scouts and skirmishers. because it is a scien jpter upon tific inquiry. professed to be and it of the one A thousand is. with opposition. if we will. dissonant voices them professing to speak in its name.

may march progress. it will confirm the divinity of Christianity be in harmony with its results will all else that take their place we it to believe to be divine among burn in the souls of men with a by showing . and light up the darkness of this stormy sea with a light that is never dim. it will add a new chapter to Christian apologetics. it is We order. is chaos in its behind . may show some with the confidence of Christian things to be derived which faith. those truths which fire that cannot be quenched. we thought and some things to be compound which we thought to be incapable of analysis and some things to be phantoms which we thought to be realities. . not only with the confidence of scientific certainty. but also It INTRODUCTORY.24 I. But to be original . . sciences.

and no single element of it is in absolute isolation.LECTURE II. The political and economical features of a given time affect more or less remotely its literary and philosophical features. it would be necessary to examine tianity that environment as a whole. many other studies. The most general summary of those features is. to deal also mainly with those features of the age which were literary also. in a sense which. and a complete investigation would take them all into account. For a complete study. and in dealing. not without some though just demur. that a study of the growth and modifications of the early forms of Chris must begin with a study of their environment. an educated world. with literary . that the Greek world of the second and third centuries was. as in content with something less it is than ideal completeness. It will be found sufficient in practice to deal only with the proximate causes of the phenomena shall into which we inquire mainly do. as we effects. has tended to prevail ever since. GEEEK EDUCATION. But since life is short. to be necessary in this. It . In some respects all life hangs together. and human powers are limited. THE general result of the considerations to which I have already invited your attention is.

if not exclu sively. GREEK EDUCATION. and why knowledge should not have had for its little chief mean meaning in earlier times that which tending to now. But power. The tendency to collect and colligate and compare the facts of nature appears to be no less instinctive than the tendency to become acquainted with the thoughts of those who have gone Greece on the one hand had before us. It was natural that she should turn to letters. or of the ancients. She could acquiesce with the greater equanimity in of letters she lost political political subjection. to practical wisdom. which in earlier times had been applied to one who was skilled in any of the arts of life. in the Greek assuming one who was shrewd with who knew The the thoughts and sayings which lay deep original reasons. character. had come to be applied. the knowledge of the phenomena and laws of it is the physical world. was still because in the domain supreme with an indisputable supremacy. yet at least chiefly.26 II. or to be practised in The word the use of arms. and on the other hand possessed in her splendid literature an inalienable heritage. the sown. circumstances of later reason in the nature of things why Greece should not have anticipated modern Europe in the study of nature. who could string a bow or tune a lyre or even trim a hedge. . 0-0^)0?. new elements know of ledge and cultured speech had begun to enter largely into the simpler elements of early become no longer enough to for men Greek to till life. It had the ground. was reaping the harvest which many generations had Five centuries before. or pursue their several handicrafts. for the element of knowledge had been accentuated by the Greek history. There seems to be this special form.

not so much analogous to our own as the cause of it. these tendencies had spread themselves over the large surface of general Greek A kind of literary instinct had come to exist. Though the public life out of which orators had grown had passed away with political freedom. They reflected to were a nation They were almost the slaves of cultivated expression.GREEK EDUCATION. It was natural 27 also that the study of letters should be upon speech. it covered the same field. should have corresponded in kind to must be shown to have been adequate it it to account for them. which has ever since been commonly spoken of as education.&quot. It is: certain effects amount I. when real was blossoming century of our era Like children playing at &quot. II. For the love of speech had become a large proportion of Greeks a second nature. on that acquaintance with the literature of bygone gene rations. had behind left it a habit which in the second new spring. Our own comes . make-believe. The mass of men in the Greek world tended to lay stress society. la the absence of the distractions of either keen political struggles at home or wars abroad. and secondly at its mass. It was. and that habit of cultivated speech. The education was almost as complex as our own. indeed. we except only the inductive physical sciences. it of talkers. into a speeches in real assemblies became impossible. Two points have to be considered in regard to that education before to the look main subject which we are examining we must at its forms. the Greeks revived the old practice of public speaking by addressing fictitious assemblies and arguing in fictitious courts. If can be regarded as a cause in relation first not enough that in it .

Lehrluch der giiechisclien Antiquitdten. 2 and writing.. which until It set a fashion recently has uniformly prevailed over the whole civilized world. Erziehung und Jugendunterricht bei den Griechen und fiomern. 3te aufl. 4 and Grammar itself had come to include 1 The following is designed to be a short account. which was taught by the ypa/x/zartcrTrys. ap. says Sextus Empiri- from childhood. but only of its more prominent and important features nothing has been said of those elements of the : which constituted the mediaeval quadrivium. Corpus Legum. EDUCATION&quot. Erziehung and Unferricht in classischen Attfirthum. ed. 1054. Wurzburg. p. iv. Haenel. In &quot. 44. No. study literature rather than nature because We the Greeks did Roman the so. 1 By Grammar was meant the study of already indicated. 1885. 1.&quot. Blumner the most important of them is Grasberger. 4. they employed Greek teachers and followed in Greek paths. . The two arts is indicated by the fact that in the Edict of the former is two hundred : p. 2.&quot. ypa^ariK^ : Quintil. Berlin. Dioclet. another name. ypapnaTiKr] was taught by the y/xx/z/zcmKos. while that of the latter rises to Edict. among ourselves. 1864 the shortest and most useful for an ordinary reader is Ussing. 4 y/aa/x/xarto-Ti/cry. 178. But this elementary part of it was usually designated by &quot. The two main elements were those which have been Grammar and Ehetoric. the Latin for 1. i. 302. relation whereas between the of Diocletian the fee limited to fifty denarii. The works bearing on the subject will be found enumerated in K. yKVK\. Bd. from direct tradition by GREEK it.Los TrcuSeta : : 2 3 Litteratura is Adv. cus. 1. and almost from our baby-clothes. F. not of all the elements of later Greek education. Gramm. Bd. Her mann. original sense of the art of reading its it began We 3 as early as that art begins literature. and because when the Eomans and provincials resolved to educate their sons. are given over to Grammar.28 II. and ii.

This is The third quoted as being most representative of the period with which these Lectures have mainly to do. . and the exegetical elements. and which will most free sufficiently indicate the general limits of the subject. who utter a barbarous or awkward or unmusical phrase.II.my habit laid owe &quot. 1. in writing to his old teacher Libanius . 4 sqq. The substance There is of Basil s letter. the legends and his which were mentioned. all GREEK EDUCATION. &quot. The was the study correctness. a charming irony in Libanius s torn. 455. the truth is. the historical. : It is continued to this classical authors. the distinction barisms. With it may be compared the elaborate account given by Quintilian. answer. 29 that in later times has been designated Belles Lettres. I have been in letter. 2 3 1. 339 (146). 250. down of diction. to Alexander. who tell us no doubt what is true. iii. day in most notes 1 Adv. the art is variously denned and divided. the company of Moses and Elias. the laying Upon of canons of between Hellenisms and Bar much this as these first of stress was laid as was upon academic French in the age of Boileau. upon 91 sqq. ib.&quot. p. division which Sextus Empiricus 1 speaks of as from objection.&quot.. ibid. is into the technical.I of not and of not using abusive language to those finding fault. 3 your instructions have quite gone out of The second element of study of the antiquities of an author Grammar was the the explanation of the names of the gods and heroes. Ep. 340 (147). Ep. 10. I must apologize for the style of this says the Christian Father Basil two centuries afterwards. 1.&quot. and men of that kind. cf. 2 &quot. says Marcus Aurelius. The . Gramm. tories. &quot.&quot. so that my head. This comprehensive view of it was of slow growth con sequently. but in a barbarous dialect.

f&amp. The conception The two were not sharply distin and had some elements in common. 3 2. 2 They were read They were committed men were to saturated with them. tells Greek colony of the Borysthenitse. Delphian priestess to her inspiring god.30 GREEK EDUCATION. and that they did not care to hear about anything else. of the one no less than of the other had widened with time. partly by example. not only for their literary. Or at. 1 standing to them in the same relation as the . adv. 1. how he came to the on the farthest borders of the empire. A we quotation from Homer or from a tragic poet was apposite on all occasions and in every kind of society. and Ehetoric. like Grammar.gt. The main subject-matter of this literary education was They were read. Grammar was succeeded by Ehetoric the study of literature by the study of literary expression and quasiforensic argument. 2 3 Strabo.- . and gave Gramm. i^iX^js aXAa crd)(f&amp. The selected 279. was It was taught partly by variously defined and divided. xxxvi. guished in practice. 7rpo&amp. Bind. or between true and false readings but chiefly exegetical. 1. the distinguishing between true and spurious treatises.lt. It is spoken of as the prophetess of the poets. Emp. the explanation of an author s meaning. as The memory. lists of vol. Dio Chrysostom. p. II. but also for their read the Bible. 51.rJTi&amp. the poets. in an account of his travels. and partly by professor either dictated rules 1 Sext. precept. 2.lt. practice.gt. minds of moral value. element was partly critical.s. ii. ov i/or^aywycas ^apLv SrjTrovBev Dio Chrys. 3. and found that even in those remote settle ments almost all knew the inhabitants the Iliad by heart. ed.

130). being a formal treatise.II. or he read such passages with comments upon the style. He began by committing to memory both the dent. xvii. : the account mainly that of the Progymnasmata of Theo of Smyrna There is a letter of Dio Chrysostorn.D. 23. I . with appropriate modula tions and gestures. . Rhetores Grceci. From this. in the University lecture. 1 The in the hand-books second survives as an institution in modern times. sisting of advice to a late in life.&quot. Dind. 279. i. i. gives as good a view as could be found of the general course of training. he made his comments upon them. is a short example which is embedded in Epictetus student reads the and makes bilia. ed. . first sentence of his criticism upon s Xenophon it Here 2 : the Memora- : have often wondered what in the world were the grounds on which Eather the ground on which It is neater. he was gradually led to invent the 1 These are printed in Walz. &quot. and on a large scale. . GREEK EDUCATION. the student pro ceeded to compositions of his own. gave birth to an institution Each of these methods was followed by the stu times. and rules professor s also selected of passages good the latter he recited. . in the presence of the professor. . . or concurrently with this. and it has &quot. Orat. literary monument The first of these methods has its which remain. . TTC/DI Aoyov aovojcrews. . monuments in the Scholia The third method which also survives in modern also left important literary upon Homer and other great writers. 3. con here followed is man who was beginning the study of Rhetoric without which. his speeches. . or he delivered model speeches of his own. Beginning with mere imitation of style. . 31 passages of ancient authors. printed among (circ. 20. . . In authors : the next stage.&quot. A. 2 Diss. vol.

10. and to avoid all words for which an authority could not be quoted. a large number learnt. &quot. in addition. 2. and those antitheses of yours.&quot. GREEK EDUCATION. 2 Lucian. he had to construct his periods according to rules of art. 81. 3. a considerable extent there prevailed. . Sometimes he had the use of the professor s library. &quot. pared speech or spoke off-hand. 1 Philostr. 3 Hermotim. and regaled his mother of the old school. and strange expressions. You must of sentences that is the rhetorician who strip off all that wrapped round is boundless length you. structure as well as the style of what he wrote. and speech (or you will To the other heavy weights of all make my boat too 2 heavy). 10. a teaching of Philoso phy. V. he was expected to show the same artificiality of structure and the same pedantry of diction. 1 and though writ ing in his native language. and to vary both the style and the subject-matter. in the form of Dialectic.S. Dial Mart.&quot. and balancings of clauses. was common to Philosophy and Ehetoric. in addition to Belles Lettres and Ehetoric. just as if he were an The English undergraduate writing his Greek prose. : Lucian 3 tells a tale of a country whose nephew went home gentleman from lecture night after night. Logic. crown of all extempore. It was the highest element in the education of the average Greek of the period. of Proclus. says Charon to just stepping into his boat. 21. the technical terms of Philosophy and the out Every one learnt to argue lines of its history. was the acquisition of the art of speaking A student s education in Ehetoric was finished when he had the power to talk off-hand on any subject But whether he recited a pre that might be proposed.32 II.

worse than that. It had shared in the common degeneracy. 33. it was almost natural to a Greek mind: Dialectic was but the conversation of a sharpwitted people conducted under recognized rules. and fallacies &quot. the professor read a passage from a philosopher. apart from their contents. prcelegere. 10.&quot. Diss. It was degraded to a system of lectures and disputations. the professor eTravayvwi/ai. It had come to take wisdom at second-hand. The Discourses of Epictetus have a singular interest in this respect. was not the evolution of a man s own thoughts. and gave his interpretation of it .that GREEK EDUCATION. but It an acquaintance with the recorded thoughts of others. but goes about among stocks and stones and such-like. and of the latter in Epictetus. As far as Logic was concerned.&quot. talking about mental presen comprehensions&quot. Dissert. 7 relations tations. saying. and the professor afterwards pronounced his opinion upon the correctness of the rea 1 soning or the interpretation. nay. or interpreted a passage of a philosopher. legere. 8. for they are in great measure notes of such 1 There is a good example of the former of these methods in Maximus of Tyre. Sometimes place. It was divorced from practice. and jargon &quot. It was taught in the same general But lectures way as the studies had a more important which preceded it. and 33 and dilemmas. where the student is said dvayvuvai. does not live in heaven. and himself with &quot. and the following sections are the professor s comments . 1. in the presence of the professor. D . God &quot. But it was a of new that it phase comparatively Philosophy should have a literary side.II. sometimes he gave a discourse of his own. where 1 is part of a student s essay. of that sort. Sometimes a student read an essay of his own.

and educated as 21. The other kind they call sometimes education. they think the education to be as worthless as the man himself. p. not only the Cynics. literature is Syrian and Phoenician and then. men of old used to call those who had this good kind men with manly of education 1 Encliir. 3. I a litterateur am Homer.&quot.&quot. i. iv. ed. great and powerful and easy mean and weak. 2 &quot. and think that a man who knows most and Greek it an amusement education (TraiSiav). vol. on the the wisest and best-educated man Persian and . 49 : souls. his life and teaching alike were in rebellion it. other hand. . Chrysostom. I suppose. of call people as being. and though he followed the current usages of professorial teaching. when they vicious and cowardly find a man of this sort to be and fond of money. &quot. &quot. a photograph of a philo it Against this degradation of Philosophy. as s lecture-room. and form. the other . a professor. but the only difference Chrysippus instead of he is.If I study Philosophy. 1 says. GREEK EDUCATION. 69.with a not a philosopher. that I interpret They sometimes pro tested not only against the degradation of Philosophy. sopher were. and sometimes It was thus that the manliness and high-mindedness.&quot. but also against the whole conception of literary educa There are two kinds of education. 2 Oral. but almost all the more serious philosophers pro Though Epictetus himself was tested. Dind. against view only &quot. lectures. says Dio tion. and has many dangers and no small divine is The mass deceitfulness. to its literature.34 II. see also Diss. (TrcuoWay). human the the human is the one divine.

and that I kept away from and poetry and foppery of speech. he that I formed the idea of the need of moral refor mation. There were other : Antioch and Alexandria. or to write treatises on philosophical subjects. from a University..II. Education was no longer in the hands of private tutors&quot. It it. its of the old aristocracy had broken down. and that I was not diverted to literary ambition. 1.I owe it to Busticus.. at Rhodes and Smyrna. at Bordeaux and great schools at D2 . sous of And God. Herakles was GREEK EDUCATION. But it ment became a common practice this by attending the for youths to supple lectures of an eminent pro They went. 7. or to make rhetorical exhortations rhetoric II. : &quot. are evidence. school to 1 i. in the houses of the great families. is the deprecation as of by Marcus Aurelius it 1 &quot. says. at Ephesus and Byzantium. may be inferred from the extant evidence that there were grammar-schools in almost every town. 2 The students who so went away fessor elsewhere. 2 This higher education was not confined to Eome or Athens. At these all youths received the first part of their education. but was found in many parts of the empire Marseilles in the time of Strabo was even more frequented than Athens. it had shown by many kinds of shown by the large amount of literary scholars and the modes of obtaining edu The exclusiveness cation.&quot. pass from the forms of education to The general diffusion of and the hold which it.. It entered public life. and in doing so left a record behind &quot.&quot. 35 not less significant an indication not only of the reaction against this kind of education but also of its prevalence. upon the mass of men.&quot. as we might say. I . They are evidence as to extent. at Naples and Nicopolis.

12. 9. among the Christian Fathers. the other had to stay at home There is poverty of : in bed (Eunap. 76. 3. 24. 24.the schools of the rhetoricians are alive with the din of crowds of students. vol. one of whom afterwards became famous.&quot. they went practice of resorting to such schools lasted long. and the baths were bad^ and young sybarites of Borne or gymnasium was the bad. Some of them went because it was the fashion. and mo thers weeping over their absence. Basil and fourth century and In the Gregory^ Nazianzen. 12.bettel- had sometimes of the mediaeval Universities. 4 Then. says Augustine (de utilitate credendi. You are a miserable some students Epictetus have eaten your fill of this kind. as now. p. &quot. Ib. 78). Augustine and Jerome. The Athens complained bitterly that at Mcopolis. and &quot. : an interesting instance. II. lodgings were bad. 22. and letters that were looked for but never came. 2 poor. 21. and letters that brought bad news . like the to 1 &quot. of the two students. and. Then. 54.&quot. 2. studenten&quot. . The as now. 24. to the community.society&quot. so that while one went to lecture. 4 Jb.&quot. viii. where to-morrow s dinner will come from. 15. says &quot. 3. 3 hardly existed. rent educational system 1 &quot. Prohmres.when you down whining about to-morrow. from home were drawn from Some them were very of beg their bread. all classes of race. 3 19. and young men of promise who were expected to home as living encyclopaedias. sit &quot. but who only raised doubts when they did return home whether their educa return tion had done them any good. 1. 21.&quot. there were home-sick students. Prohajresius and Hephaestion they had only one ragged gown between them. where they had gone to listen to Epic tetus. 2 Dins. 7. 13. Autun. Migne). are recorded to have followed it the general recognition of Christianity did not seriously affect the cur : Through the whole world. you to-day. at a rather later time. ed. 2.36 GREEK EDUCATION.

1 the consequence says Epictetus. the instances of individual teachers.&quot. &quot. followed the fashion their manner that they You should sit upright.. or fixing your eyes on the ground instead lolling. 45. vol. &quot. ii. Verrius Flaccus.&quot. 3. 9. who Ib. A of statues. learning. p. 3.&quot. but in order to be able to draws a picture of one show who looked forward logic at a city dinner. ing of hearers in general.&quot. p.37 GREEK: EDUCATION. heres. some students went. 26. in his advice to hearers in general. but go wandering about outside. private affairs. thinking ten thousand things about ten thousand different subjectsfamily affairs. and the professor talks to an audience. or on the of In a similar way Philo. other people s affairs. audiendo. . not of men but 2.&quot. 3 De 4 Quis 5 U. 4 also speak speaker. as now.Many persons who come to a lecture do not bring their minds inside with them. ii.that you don t get out of your old habits or make moral progress.&quot.alderman&quot. 2 showed by were there against their 3 off. as it were. div. 1.. This is shown not so much by 1 Ib. 13. who had will. who sat of hypothetical syllogisms.and is. rer. &quot. the father of the system of prize who received an annual salary of 100. voL i.000 sesterces from essays. or yawning as if you were asleep. Then. &quot. 16. those by attending lectures says Plutarch. or smiling. 5 2 15. not for the sake of &quot.. as now. For example. says: &quot. 474. The passage is abridged above.not whispering. which have ears but hear not. astonishing the next to him with the puzzles And then. second indication of the hold which education had upon the age is the fact that teaching had come to be a recognized and lucrative profession. . from the lecture-room to athletic sports or the theatre . Epictetus to airing his &quot.

Gramm. Gottingen. de Athenarum statu politico et literario inde ab Achaiti foederis interitu usque ad Antoninorum tempora.38 II. the Academic. Gottingen (Programm zur Sacularfeier). with ample accounts of additional facts relative to the same subject. and the Stoic. L.000 sesterces from the imperial treasury. Glogau. 1843. H. der Akademie der Wissenschaften). and had returned rich presents to their native cities. Seidel. will be found in F. de Minor furnish to teach in enough to illustr. The recognition by the State took the double form of endowment and of immunities from public burdens. might be regarded as exceptional. who founded two to have been that of chairs in each of the four great philosophical schools of Athens. 1837. P. 0. Hadrian founded an Athenseum or University like the Museum at Eome. . make 1 The evidence for the above paragraph. Miiller. who endowed teachers of Ehetoric at Eome with an annual grant of 100. 17). C. the Peripatetic. (a) Endowments probably began with Vespasian. and one of the old or forensic Ehetoric. Ahrens. several instances of teachers The inscriptions of Asia who had left their homes other provinces of the Empire. but unnecessary for the present purpose. GREEK EDUCATION. with an adequate income. Zumpt. . the Epicurean. Ueber den Bestand der pliilosopliischen ScJnden in Athen und die Succession der Scholarchen. Berlin (Abhandl. gave large sums to the professors at Athens in this he was followed by Antoninus Pius but the first per also : : manent endowment at Athens seems Marcus Aurelius. Quam cumin respublica apud Grcecos et Romanos liter is doctrinisque colendis et promovendis impendent. and added one of the new or literary Ehetoric. recognition of teachers by the by the as fact of the State and by municipalities. 1 Augustus (Suet. G. L. de scholarum quce florente Romanorum imperio Athenis exstiterunt conditione. 1838. 1829 K. or University at Alexandria. and with a building of sufficient im He portance to be sometimes used as a Senate-house.

1 The edict of cusat. and three of literature . an interesting Roman inscription of the end of the second century A. There is : &quot. if they ludorum publicorum regimine. aedilitate. 2. see G. 188. mars 15. five teachers of rhetoric. et magistri at Yipascum in Portugal : cf. ab emtione frumenti. who was at once 1858.GREEK EDUCATION.gt. the ludi olei. 1884. et ConstantinopolitancK . that assize towns might so place seven physicians.&quot.g. and that metropolitan cities might so place and five of lite ten physicians. de studiis liberalibus urbis vol. three teachers of rhetoric. 5914.&quot. is 6. The nature of the philosophantes. 14. Grcec. 1 : the Antoninus Pius number and sunt qui philosophantur inde iarn manii esti fient non :&quot. which almost seems to show that the endowments were sometimes diverted for the benefit of others besides philosophers canon of Serapis. see Cod. three teachers of rhetoric. Boissier. the later empire.gt.lt.a)i/. 185. receptione militum. 8 described. 39 The immunities of the teaching classes began with Julius Caesar. ^instruction puUique dans I empire JRomain. and appear to have been so amply recog (#) nized in the early empire that Antoninus Pius placed them upon a footing which at once established and limited He enacted that small cities might place upon the free list five physicians. them. de &quot. 9. iii.a)v areXcov /xeya[Aoi&amp.iAocro&amp. 1 They exempted those whom they affected from all the Weber. and entitled to it is to an athlete. free TWV commons at the museum.&quot. in the Revue des Deux Mondcs. Corpus Inscr. not prescribed. D. &quot. contained in L. Commentatio de academia liter aria Atheniensium./&amp. and for a good popular account of the whole subject.a neque judicare neque legates esse neque in militia numerari nolentes neque ad alium famulatum cogi. pp. but that these numbers should not be exceeded. rature . 27.quia exrari make stipulations about pay. vecoKopov TOV tv TW Moweiw [o-eiTov]/Ai&amp. ibid. II. Romce . 2apa7ri5]os KCU &amp. a a sacerdotio. Marburg.D.lt. immunities ab is of philosophers is : &quot. Theodos.gt. e. Hiibner and Mommsen in the For the regulations of Epliemeris Epigraphica. The immunities were some times further extended to the lower classes of teachers. and three of literature . These immunities were a form of indirect endowment.

They were consequently equivalent to the gift from the municipality of a consi derable annual income. A 3. near Milev. 1 Lucian s Convimum is a humorous and satirical description of The philosopher reads his discourse from a small. is made to a drawing of the pavement in Bousset. No. They were petted by great ladies. Hammam by the mosaic pavement in North Africa. (The inscription is given in the Corpus Inscr. where reference is room&quot. to read a discourse upon any theme which and the professor upon morals. and near it is a lady (the mistress of the house ?) sitting under a palm-tree. Les Bains de Pom- peianus.sermonette&quot. . from one of these professional philosophers after dinner was as music much is in fashion as a piece of vocal or instrumental with us. by virtue of their they also profession.written and the Qucestiones monuments 2 An Conviviales of Plutarch. burdens which tended in the later empire to impoverish the middle and upper classes. the philosopher s apartment. interesting corroboration of the literary references is afforded of a large villa at Grous. The Deipnosopliista of Athena?us. If a dinner of any pre tensions were given. II. chaplain s (filosophi locus). nized class They were not only a recog mingled largely. c. Lat.40 GREEK EDUCATION. But the philosophers were even more in fashion than their brother professors. where &quot. the professor of Belles Lettres must be there to recite and expound passages of poetry. such a dinner. 1879). A of Philoso &quot. life. Constantino.&quot. finely. 2 They were &quot. viii. 17. or &quot. manuscript. with ordinary .&quot. 1 All three kinds of professors were sometimes part of the permanent retinue of a great house hold. vol. They became domestic chaplains. the professor of Ehetoric to speak might be proposed phy to him. third indication of the hold of education the place which is contemporary society its upon professors held in social intercourse. specially marked. are important literary of the practice. 10890.

32. and asked as an especial favour. and the discourse on temperance is suspended an answer to her lover. had also become degenerate. One is of a philo has to accompany his patroness on a tour waggon with the cook and the lady s: put into a is maid.&quot. 1 Another is a philosopher is of who summoned by is his lady and complimented. tailor or shoemaker is meanwhile wait be paid. 3 Ib. 41 sometimes. . It afforded an easy means of It was natural that some of those who adopted livelihood. 34.GKEEK EDUCATION. 38. cond. &quot. 3 Another until she has written of a philosopher who only gets his pay in doles of two or three pence at a time. 2 Ib. has some amusing vignettes of their who sopher he life.You are so very kind and careful will you take my lapdog into the waggon with you. and see that the poor creature : 2 does not want for anything Another is of a philoso pher who has to discourse on temperance while his lady is having her hair braided her maid comes in with a ?&quot. 4 It is natural to find that ing to Philosophy. * 11. de mere. : lillet-doux. which had thus become a profession. indeed. it it should be a disgrace to their profession. Lucian. is 1 Lucian. II. in his essay &quot. singularly like the chaplains of whom we read in novels of the last century. and is thought a bore if he asks is for and whose it. so that even when the money comes it seems to do him no good. 36. And although would be unsafe to take every description of the great yet it is difficult to believe that there not a substantial foundation of truth in his frequent satirist literally.On Persons who give their Society for Pay. and there but a scanty allowance of leaves thrown in to ease his limbs against the jolting.

and the butler offers him a : large goblet of wine. be maintained that the prominence which them in literature. Nay. talking solemnly to himself. as fact that such which the professional philosophers occupied in contemporary society.&quot. with a Titan-like look in his eyes.42 II. GREEK EDUCATION. until he is so dead-drunk that the servants have to carry him out. and wears a sober gown. and inveighs against the votaries of pleasure then he has his bath and goes to dinner. besides this. and he peers into the dishes with as keen an eye as if he as if it : and he goes on Virtue herself in them the time about temperance and moderation. as Zeuxis painted them. and impudence follows after in fact. and also the men as he describes could exist. their 1 endowment by the Timon. But nothing could more conclusively prove the great hold which these forms of education had upon their time than the fact of their persistent survival. man who in the morning dresses himself simply. 51. and . The caricatures. The following is his to the large place picture of Thrasycles l : He comes along with his beard spread out and his eyebrows raised. and preaches long sermons about virtue. there is not a man to beat him in the way of were likely preaching to find . the very &quot. 50. strengthen the inference which other facts enable us to draw. fact of their frequency. and he drinks it down with as much gusto were the water of Lethe and he behaves in exactly the opposite way to his sermons of the morning. It might 4. all lying and braggadocio and avarice he is the first of flatterers and the readiest of perjurers chicanery leads the way. and walks the sedately. he is clever all round. is given to State. and elbows his neighbour out of the way. This is picture of Boreas or Triton. doing : : : to perfection whatever he touches. for he snatches all the tit-bits like a hawk. with his hair thrown back from his forehead.

But when the product of one generation spreads its branches far and wide into the generations that succeed. 43 their social influence. is The other important in itself. : We we feed them upon ancient rather than upon English literature.promise. though Greek educational system.profess&quot. proba it own country and our own time. &quot. by simple continuation of the first branch of so the mediaeval trivium. to our has come. by promises to promise was the with : whom Greek education began. &quot.II. and many of technical terms in their original less It is that we retain its scholastic Greek form or still its usages.) point. roots its generation from which of civilization must be deep and firm it No springs. Two things especially have come The place which literature holds in general edu (i. was who drew to their pupils &quot. represented only a superficial and passing phase. in the lasting element Greek education grows upon the surface. It had an especial hold first on the Eoman and then upon the Celtic and Teutonic populations of Gaul . The designation comes to us from the professor&quot. bly by and from the Gallican schools direct descent. in the schools of the West. which was itself a continuation of the Greek habit which has been described above. either as translated into Latin and modified by Latin habits. in the The title . and the West. Greek sophists. and It passed from Greece into Africa for similar reasons.&quot. and to characteristic of the class of teachers fourth century B.) educate our sons in grammar. GREEK EDUCATION.C. and in doing cation. has been almost as permanent as Christianity itself. even more important as indicating the strength of the (ii.

that &quot. vol. : e. &quot.grammarian. e. The &quot. lector. &quot. p. 8. which Diss. chiefly of logic or rhetoric : a writer of the of the third century draws a distinction between 8wa/xets and classes rhetoric under the former Menander. ending by being the synonym of The practice of lecturing. doctor. 172 a. p. word chair&quot. 196. 15. rhetorician. 8. are similar survivals of Greek terms.. ra Se TroAiri/ca eTrayyeAAovrcu juev SiSaa-Kcw ot TT/Darret 8 currwv ovStis.ro&amp. 10. &quot. and apparently rovs 7rayyeAAo/Aevovs is used absolutely for in Soph. pras- 2 The use office.&quot. lost its original force.lecture&quot.g. Rhett.faculty&quot.lt. eTrayyeAia the latter words are found as early as Aristotle in connec tion with the idea of teaching. this sense is 13. : of the and word of the to designate the teacher s &quot. end . phi titles. 1. 13. comes to us from the shorter schools which a passage of Homer or Plato or Chrysippus was read and explained. Licinianum in Sicilia 2 See note i^Aabove Quintil. judgment was not so much it whence the existing title of &quot. is its meaning of an art or a found in Epictetus and elsewhere. 8 is teaching an early use of prcelegere in rhetoric. 3 1. and became the general designation of a public teacher. to denote the branch knowledge which he teaches. professio. losopher. 10. Arist. &quot. He/at and in Walz. : &amp. is the translation of Si vaps in branch of knowledge. was probably in the in first instance a student s exercise was teacher to make remarks the function of the : or to give his upon the explanation that was given leg ere as prcelegere. profited.sophist. Elendi. Gr. Etll.g. 4. are the Latin translations of l7rayyeAAecr#ai.i(TTCu 1180&. in an absolute sense in Latin is probably in Pliny.professors&quot. 3 of 1 Profiteri. ix. tit.44 GREEK EDUCATION. superseding the special 7 &quot. &quot. Facultas : 1. 11. N. The first use of profit eri &quot.lt.&quot. audistine V.&quot. &quot.&quot. and 1 of giving instruction is by reading an ancient author.&quot. Ep. with longer or comments upon his meaning. II.&quot.&quot.

5783. Corpus Inscr. as in subsequent times for similar reasons it put limitations In the of the Christian clergy. when the clauses relating to &quot. &amp. . at Chaeronea. the Emperors seem to have exercised a certain right of nomination. sometimes with the name of the school added. 2 1 Instances of this practice are (1) grammaticus. &quot. Cordova. Corpus : Saguntum. maticcz. as in our own country the Crown nominates a &quot. ibid. rhetorician. p. ibid. add. ibid.A.S.&quot. 3872 . The State guarded against the abuse of the privilege. ibid. : e. 1 The most interesting of these designations The long academical history of the is that of sophist. or D. 5079 . at Trier. in Egypt.ov pliilosophus Epicureus. Inscr. 2. Corpus Inscr. magister grammaticus Grcecus. 3198. 1628 . in Asia Minor. 4366*2.lt. but he entrusted the fessors of Philosophy to Herodes Atticua. : &quot. &quot. at ibid. &quot.&quot. in Hispania Tarii. 3. The former and the mode of have come us to probably a result of the fact which has been mentioned above. 2892. or philosopher&quot. 1253. at 2236 . JRhenan.II. Marcus Aurelius himself nominated Theodotus to be Regius nomination of the Pro Rhetoric. Grcec.D. in Greece. ibid. 3865. magister ariis gramraconensis. Professor of &quot. as in later times he would be designated M. that the is teachers of liberal arts were privileged and endowed. Philostrat. ibid. 3163 (dated A. Lat. upon the appointment case of some of the professors dowed from the imperial at Athens who were en chest. word only ceased The at restriction of the right to teach. 2 IIAaTwviKoi/.g. 45 The use of academical designations as titles is also Greek it was written upon a man s tombstone that he or was sophist.lt. 245. p. testing a man s qualifications to teach. 2.&quot. 12.&quot. Oxford a few years ago. 4817. grammaticus Grcecus.Regius Professor. and Commodus nominated Poly deuces. GREEK EDUCATION.iAdcro&amp.gt./&amp. 211). from the same source.sophistse generales&quot. &quot. 258. grammarian&quot.D. at Bruudisium. V. were erased as obsolete from the statute-book.&quot. 801 (2) pliilosoplms.

/j&amp. . or the City 1 special Board.g. that as is. which. 59). Justin. &quot. 74. 28. the right of approval of a teacher was in the hands of the City Council. Euuap. especially In the case of Libanius. p.&quot. but the nomination was still sometimes left to the Emperor interest officer. 3 This is mentioned in a law of Gordian clecreto ordinis probatos. states a concession on the part of the Emperor quia singulis civitati&quot. si non 5. note 1. and apparently without exception in later times. optimorum conspirante consilio. i. ab eodem ordine reprobari posse incognitum non reasons for other removed sometimes was A 10. II. The 1 testing of qualifications preceded the admission to Lucian. This has an especial a request was sent in connection with the history of St. Zumpt. professor besides incompetency. Ambrose. being a Christian. grammaticos seu oratores se utiles studentibus prsebeant. p. Aug. Prohceres. 92. TWOS aAAov avTiKa^icrracr^cu SOKI/ACUTOtvroL rwv a/otcrrwi/. Augustine from Milan to the prefect of the city at Eome for the nomination of a or his chief : magister rhetorics: St Augustine was sent. the ordinary body for the adminis tration of municipal affairs. it as : bus adesse ipse non possum. : and so came under the 13. either the Areopagus. vol.a&amp. 5 .lt. Eunuchus. after mentioning the endowment of the chairs. lation of Athenian usage in his time to that which points to an assimi which is mentioned in the following note. Says. Cod. de fort. S. a Elsewhere. jubeo quisquis docere vult non repente nee temere prosiliat ad hoc munus sed judicio ordinis probatus decretum curialium mereatur.46 GREEK EDUCATION. e. but in the case of others of those professors. 52. 2. p. there was a Ahrens. sua.&quot. 38. influence of St. 2 ferred the right might also The authority which con take it away a teacher who : 3 proved incompetent might have his licence withdrawn. the nomina tion was in the hands of &quot. Prohaaresius was removed by Julian for est. Confess. e Set Se diroOavovTos dvrtov r/&quot. however. which last words have been variously understood see the treatises mentioned above. p. the prefect of the city. 13. : i/^icryua (Liban. 3. Theodos. 2 This was fixed by a law of Julian in 362. or. some have thought. 3. denuo Cod.&quot. Council. p.the best and oldest and wisest in the city.gt.

i. Liban. 5 : the fullest account 3 4 Eunapius. vol. grand might claim to be escorted home by the In the fourth century Vice-chancellor and Proctors. VTTO TTJS paprvpias. 7. 15.&quot. i. Prohceres. 14. The admission p. which in our own country and or the City Council. Eunuchus. appear to have come restrictions not only upon teaching. II. by the proconsul and the &quot. p. gown order. S. 79 sqq. ibid. p. The successful candidate was sometimes escorted to his house. as indicating 1 Alexander of Aphrodisias. as in a modern University a tion to learning the leave of student must be formally enrolled before he can assume the academical dress. 43 (20).GREEK EDUCATION. Theodos. whence he came out with his : It was something like initiation into a religious guild or There was a law against any one who assumed the philosopher s dress without authority. Olympiodorus. but also upon studying a student might probably go to a lecture. de fort. is that of Eunapius. as in Oxford. 3. 3 compounder&quot. d elire 47 was sometimes superseded by a sort of conge from the Emperor * but in ordinary cases it con It . 4 The survival of these terms and usages.&quot. sisted in the candidate s giving a lecture or taking part in a discussion before either the 2 Emperor s representative was the small beginning of that examination&quot. Bibliofh. . 3. until the present generation. 84. but he might not formally announce his devo : by putting on the student s gown without the professors. a just &quot.indebite et insolenter. vol. Cod. was probably the occasion of some academical sport the novice was marched in mock procession to the baths. Greg. Phot. on. 782 . 13. as a mark &quot. office. sua. de Fato. of Severus and Caracalla. Naz. ap. It system of time has grown to enormous proportions. pp. of honour. 1. 80. examiners. 2 The existence of a competition appears in Lucian. &quot. Orat. says that he obtained his professorship on the testimony.

&quot. V. who . 182. ed. Carm. Martini. Martini. ccxxxiv. 30. It had been Its at work in its main outlines for several centuries. the main elements in which were the knowledge of literature. quicquid grammaticalis aut palsestrse est : &quot. by the sheer persistency of their original roots. e.La . fused. Carm. 1 The last traces are in the Christian poets for example.doctor apostolicus vacuans ratione sophistas. belonged. but there are traces in the same poets of the antagonism.&quot. Yogel. Ennodius (t521). between 2 classical periode benedictine. Leo . the strength of the system to which they originally emphasized by the fact that for a long 1 interval of time there are few.&quot. ed. They is are found in full force in Gaul in the fifth and they are found again when education began to revive on a large scale in the tenth century they then appear. and in Ep. xxiii.quicquid rhein toricse institutions. Fortunatus speaks of Martin as disappearance &quot. which is a letter of thanks to a grammarian for having successfully instructed the writer s nephew in Venantius Fortunatus (t 603). Les ecoles episcopates et monastiques de I Occident. There was a complex system of education. V. p. i. This education was widely dif of literary expression. but as terms and sixth centuries : : usages which had lasted all through what has been called the Benedictine era. not as new creations.&quot. speaks of himself as Rhetoric! exiguum praelibans gurgitis haustum. Leon Maitre. GEEEK EDUCATION.48 II. 139. Parvula grammaticae lambens refluamina guttae. &quot. 29. 173. the cultivation and a general acquaintance with argument. &quot. 2 without special nurture and with &quot. p. in Sidonius Apollinaris (t482). traces of them. out literary expression.g. if any. i. 211. ed. 94. the rules of and had a great hold upon society. This tianity is the feature of the Greek came to which life into which Chris I first invite your attention. Luetjohann. &quot. and Christian learning which ultimately led to the of the former.

it incorporated Christianity with the larger humanity from which it had at first been isolated. 49 second century of our era had been to create a certain habit of mind. And if. change the rushing torrent of the river of broad but feeble stream. but in its by the habit was impossible of turn mind it was itself of those it profoundly modi who for Greeks. forces it tended to stem the very which had given Christianity its place. which has already burst its bonds. and by laying more stress on the expression of ideas than upon ideas themselves. educated as accepted It it. instead of being the laboratories of the knowledge of the future. When Christianity came into effect in the mind contact with the society in which that habit of existed.II. on the one hand. they were with an education which penetrated their whole nature. its : own I will not say like our own world. it modified. E God and to into a . recognize its a world which had created an and which was too own artificiality artificial to artificial be able to a world whose schools. the ideas contained and the motives which stimulated it . had it its had become complex and arti fixed ideas and its permanent categories necessarily gave The world form. elevated. but like the world from which we are beginning to be emancipated type of life. to receive or to retain Christianity in its primitive sim ficial it : own Their plicity. on the other hand. yet. GREEK EDUCATION. life something of to Christianity of the time was a world. by crushing uncultivated earnest ness. which to action fied it it reformed. were forges in which the chains of the present were fashioned from the knowledge of the past.

the Greek world was nearer we are now to the first wonder of the invention of than writing. and their literal meaning at the time of their own. their utterance. threw a kind of glamour over It gave them an importance and an imwritten words. and glamour perhaps had been preceded. man felt or thought. The mystery that certain signs. especially Homer. They came in time to have. Two thousand years ago. by two other feelings. as it were. fuller note came from the age divinities. not only but also to the generations that came afterwards. the primitive types of noble life and the simple maxims of awakening reflection. an existence of Their precise relation to the person who first uttered them. the .LECTURE III. become sounded with a It for antiquity. GBEEK AND CHKISTIAN EXEGESIS. to the generation of his fellows. of of it still little could communicate what a seemed divine. It The voice than that of the of the heroes who had expressed the national legends and the current mythology. The fact or no meaning in themselves. of this The one was the reverence of the past present. tended to In the case be overlooked or obscured. written words was accompanied. of the ancient poets. pressiveness which did not attach to any spoken words.

tended to give the writings of the ancient poets a unique value.gt. 7rpo&amp. itself The other was the belief in With the glamour of writing was blended taken the place of religion. wisdom GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. i. limitations of place The Homer were not simply the utterances of a particular person with a particular meaning for a par1 &quot. but was found in the best minds the glamour of : of the imperial age. e E2 d^avous Aa/ 0etas . /ecu TTOV rts eTrwri/oia : re KCU aArjfletas KaOdirep avyr) irvpos Dind. 22. impulse of a divine enthusiasm. P. of the 51 which has sometimes ancients. verses of It lifted them above the common and time and circumstance. Dicta? per carmina Hor. they spoke in verse. A. 127(118). ed. &quot. p. Cant. Muses. Orat. Whatever wise and true words were spoken in the world about God and the universe. 3 To the poets sometimes. from the 2 eyw 3 4 title sortes. ii. xxxvi. . Orat. &quot. 403.&quot. 59 p. of Plutarch s treatise. Dio Chrysostom. rhythm and melody. 12. the belief in inspiration. ^Elius Aristides. the reverence for antiquity.f&amp. 2 The belief was not merely popular. Frag. Id. It was a god who gave the words the poet was but the interpreter. of these three feelings. a kind of inspiration of the divine nature and truth.lit. When the gods 1 The poets sang under the spoke. in later times. like a flash of light The combination from an unseen 4 fire.&quot. Cf. inspiration. i.g. I mean the very there came a brief utterance from the &quot. that the practice had ceased in the second century.&quot. iii. /mvreveo /AOUTO. ed. but it may be inferred Hepl TOV p? XP^ V epperpa vvv r-qv HvOiav. Pindar. ancient poets. came into the souls of men not without the Divine will and intervention through the agency of divine and pro phetic men. vol. vol. vol. e. p. the mystery of writing.&quot.arV(ru 8 and.lt.

truth and The was wisdom could not have existed by G. it was inevitable of the current standards . 1 It was a natural result of the estimation in which he was held that he should sometimes have been regarded as being not only inspired. 1 When the unconscious imitation of into a conscious philosophy of that philosophy should be current beliefs. Cuper. in the sense in which the term has ever since been understood. Thesaurus). but divine the passages which refer to this are collected in G. Dordraci. a universal validity. in the Platonic 2 that the chief part of a dialogue which bears his name.g. man be skilled in epic poetry and this means that he should be able to understand what the s education is to . ofjL-rjpos much There is. Geschichte der griechischen Plastik. : Apotheosis vel consecratio Gronovius to bas-relief by A Homer i (in vol. the conception of education. p. that the ancient poets should be the basis of that educa Literature consisted. the voice of an undying wisdom. &quot. a treatise e/2/3cuos sive historia nominibus ac sententiis conscripta in Odyssea et Iliade. with so to speak. 333). Plat. Protag. which endeavours to prove both that the name Homer is a Hebrew word. 1704. of the ancient poets. titled. &quot. 72. of them. ii. idea has existed in much more recent times. s is in Overbeck. 339 a. says Protagoras. Croesus. . divine. III.I consider. of the Greek races. in effect. that the Iliad is an account of the conquest of Canaan. which ii. heroic ideals passed life. not indeed that he e. soon afterwards. Literary education necessarily meant the understanding tion. of Polenus s Supplement primarily a commentary on the rchelaus of Priene. it shown They were They were the Bible was necessary that to be consonant by being formulated. in terms and when. but that so outside Judsea. They had ticular time. arose.52 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. and that the Odyssey is a narrative of the wanderings of the children of Israel to the up 2 death of Moses. now in the British Museum (figured. en Hebrceorum ab Homero Hebraicis for example.

was a Homer was &quot.W. and the 6jU. lite Questions of Porphyry. sophist. or not. disputations as to to own sake which the schools of textual by at educating be taught. 2 Cf. 3176 : for him men had to less than of the become For so. 1873. educators recognized in Homer one of themselves he. kind of education no Nor was it difficult though the thoughts of 1 Ibid. It and had aimed s ground. 53 poets have said. H. It was imagined that virtue. 1 the grammar-schools It was the beginning of that study until far Homer and solving them : still holds its on in the Christian critics. posing of these disputations some by difficulties relics sur vive in the Scholia. and to : too. Literary education was not an end in itself.oAoyw re O-CK^IOT^S etVcu KCU TrcuSevetv d For detailed information as to the relation between the early O.&quot. of literature for its was continued men. Ham . no than literature. 1872. uber die porpliyrianischen Hias-Scholien. The end was moral training. 22. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. far on into The study of him branched out in more than one direction. partly and partly by the suc who sharpened their wits meaning. era. burg. Halis. and whether they have said it rightly know how to draw distinctions. and Homer was the less basis of the one other. and to The give an answer when a question is put to him. printed in the Dissertationes philologies Halenses. It was impossible to regard Homer simply as literature. especially such as are based upon the 2 But in the first conception. reference may be made to a dissertation by &quot. sophists and Homer. Friedel. Schrader.III. p. rary and moral education had been inseparable. but a means.&quot. new changed. the as long as common text-book of Greek continued imperial times. cessors of the first sophists. de sopliistarum studiis Homer ids. could be taught.

The method Greek lasted as long as literature.It he says again. &quot. &quot.&quot. 2 &quot. and not a The Hippias Minor rival. and the sophists could easily directions. 3 Dio Chrys. Homer was a force which could easily be turned in new All imaginative literature is plastic when it used to enforce a moral . between Philip is is it. and teaching us in a pleasant way the characters and feelings and actions of men. 2. texts. of Plato furnishes as pertinent instances as could be mentioned of this educa tional use of Homer. had to be taught by told tales with a moral purpose. 1. was from Homer It 2 1. the ancients looked upon poetry as a :&quot. : Id. introducing us early to the facts of life.&quot. Or at. of the prominent writers of the time supply instances of its application. He thus became a support. vol.In the childhood of the world. and Homer has been contended.imaginary and Alexander. like children. &quot.that poetry was meant only to please on the contrary.&quot. is preach sermons of their was no fixed own upon Homeric traditional interpretation . that moralists drew their ideals : were quoted.How Homer is it was Strab. &quot. 19. 8. It is found in full operation in the first centuries of our era. tales. education was bringing in new conceptions of morals. us.men. to Dio Chrysostom 3 conversation&quot. says Strabo. 3. i. pp. 1 &quot. form of philosophy. There and they were but following a current fashion in drawing their own meanings from him. It was and most explicitly recognized. 2. like verses a charming &quot. in said the father. the only poet you care for 1 his verses that the Bible with of There enforce moral truths. 2. III. 20.&quot.that there are others .54 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS.

TJieat. but all the varying theories of physics and metaphysics. not if all the either of himself or of others Greeks the barbarians join in calling him king. 2 Zeus reminded Hera of the time when he had hung her trembling by a golden chain in the vast concave of heaven. 2 Plat. had that staff and those rights. that no bad man can be a true master no. a moral meaning. to matter p. for example. 152 times. moreover.III. not for their own gratification. and some day rule over Homer many fit And Dio men. Cur. i. but only poet speaks of the son of those who have a special gift of God. who ought GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS.&quot. 2. but for the general good . 9. Because. Grcec.it son. is noble and splendid and regal. . 1 the Kronos having given the staff and rights of a chief that he might take counsel for the people. he meant to imply that not all kings. for one who will himself reads into When. It was not only the developing forms of ethics that and all were thus made to find a support in Homer. for example. not to be &quot. and Tethys their mother. he meant to say that all things are the offspring of The Platonists held that when flow and movement. he meant. Orat. Affect. it was God speaking 1 Dio Chrys. the birth of gods. same verse was quoted the theory of Thales. 1. which he had 2. 201302. in fact. just as it is not every kind of dress. as having suggested . 3. quoting Horn. that is fitting for a king . and that they had them. 55 said the not every kind of poetry. vol. one by one.&quot. 9.&quot. p. Irenseus. The Heracliteans when Homer held. In later and supported Theodoret. 14. that spoke of &quot. neglected?&quot. Ocean. 14 II. the d. and the poetry of Homer is the only poetry that I see to be truly &quot.

4 Ps-Plutarch. 6.ut suspicati sint. painting also. 164. Horn. vol. who could repeat Homer by heart. gymnastics and surgery. 1056 sqq. 15. III. 2 Sometimes Homer was treated as a kind Xenophon. and politi detail that the later 4 When men deep-voiced and women highvoiced. philosophical. who had really no suspicion of such things. lisec 18 sqq.&quot. to have been Stoical philosophers. in his Banquetf makes of encyclopaedia. calls he shows his knowledge of rhetoric. say the wisest of mankind had written about almost that &quot. 3.. He knew and taught astronomy and medicine.&quot. chapters . 1 much into the poets so humoured Stoics read Stoicism. &quot. human all and there by an unknown imperial times which endeavours to show in things author of . in good- banter. he style of speech. ne quidem videantur. The taken and bound by the chains of laws.56 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. is He is the father of military democracy. pp. : Gels. that you would think the old poets. He the father of political science. 192. 5. N. Stoici fuisse etiam veterrimi Xen.nor would a man be wrong if he were to say that he was a teacher of and siege-works. Sympos. 42. 1 Celsus in Origen. 3 4. pcefcse. v. in having given exam ples of each of the three forms of government monarchy. de vita etpoesl Homeri. referring to &quot. 2 Cic. D. 6 . 1. science. in the information which he gives about tactics aristocracy. 148. 15 c. This indifference to the actual meaning of a writer. that Cicero says. 216.&quot. qui II. he shows his knowledge of the distinctions of music. is a treatise he contains the beginning of every one of sciences. When he gives to each character its appropriate cal. one of the speakers. 182. historical.

the dreamland of achieved aspirations. meant by it all actually mean.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. were. though common and permanent. adv. ists who words should be taken as they and that some of the words as they stood were stood. There were.riv HcrtoSos T ovei Sea KCU i^oyos rrt.lt. We ourselves what the wonder of we simply ask We interpret it by our own emo with a personal and with a thousand memo picture speaks to us individual voice. were not universal. 1. on the other hand. which twice quoted by Sextus Empiricus. adv. by Madonna and are. the ing as it Cecilia or the Sistine St. Gramm. carried off our feet must be cold meant by Eaffaelle The tions. 288. We stand before some great masterpiece of paint own fancies.7roi&amp. which rebelled against them. There was an instinct in the Greek mind. and to read philosophy into it. as there is in modern There were literaltimes. ries of the past It links itself and a thousand dreams translates us into another world of the future. the tender and half -tearful heaven of forgiven sins we : are ready to believe. critics if it. 193 : Trdvra $eois ooxra Trap ave^Kav O/x^pos 6 dv6p&amp. .lt. draw a moral from all that Homer wrote.gt. and for what he did we have but these tendencies to little care. Phys. It the world of a lost and impossible love. that Eaffaelle means to us . apolo- 1 is 9. The earliest expression of this feeling is that of Xenophanes. insisted that the 1 clearly immoral. and the habit of reading him by the 57 light of the reader s have a certain analogy in our own day in the feeling with which we sometimes regard other works of art. But that if it only for a moment. III.t&amp. it.

The chasm they made mistakes when if. the between the older religion which was embodied in the poets. 2. de and. the good would be found 1 There were other apologists who largely to predominate. 4. 25. and sometimes that the existence of immorality in Homer must be allowed. which spoke divinity 2 through their mouths had gone away from them. 24.&quot. A reconciliation had to be found which had deeper roots. who GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. But all these apologies were insufficient.58 gists III. clearly made a distinction elements: their own between the divine and the human the poets sometimes spoke. poet. and some was not: the Muses sometimes &quot. led men some of those in comparatively early times to find a meaning beneath the surface of a record or representation of actions. might be symbolical. on account: some of their poetry was inspired. and the unseen working of thought which by an instinctive process causes actions to be symbolical. Men who retained It might contain a hidden meaning. Lucian. Jujpit confut. it was said. no than the actions themselves. It was found in a process of inter pretation whose strength must be measured by its per manence. . c. but that if a balance were struck between the good and the evil. was widening day by day. and they may very properly be forgiven left them: being men. pp. The process was based upon a natural tendency. said sometimes that Homer reflected faithfully the chequered lights and shadows of human life. and the new ideas which were marching in steady away from the Homeric world. The unseen working of the will which lies behind all progress voluntary actions. A narrative of actions. less 1 2 Plutarch.

101. yap TO VTTOVOOV- Sio /cat TO. but they were.o/3e/oo)TaTOV ecrrt /cat aAAos 1. 25. p. sical where. ptvov /zeyaAeiov TI /cat &amp. . iv. the general intellectual It is method this its movement It was part of of the fifth century B.ppiKr)v so Macrobius. notwith standing. The mysteries were representations of passages in the history of the gods which. 721. Rliett. It is possible that no words of ex planation were spoken in them . /Aixm^ua AeyeTat irpos K7rAryiv /cat &amp. by Theodoret. 1 The connection Heraclitus Ponticus. &quot.g. ix.lt. Affect. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. They were assisted in doing so by the concomitant development of the mysteries. . whatever their origin. Gr. i. TraV . who explained forms in Hecatasus.lt.sic ipsa mysteria figurarum cuniculis operiuntur ne vel hsec adeptis nuda rerum talium se natura prsebeat. after an account of the way in which the poets veiled ev aXXrjyopiais Somn. 1 It is uncertain began to when be applied found in one of of interpretation to ancient literature. It of allegory with the mysteries was recognized : c. the story of Cerberus by the existence of a poisonous snake in a cavern on the headland of Tsenaron. p. began to search for such meanings. 2 It was elaborated by the sophists. 47. Walz. Cur. aAAo TI . in 2. 2 Pausan. habituating the Greek mind both to symbolical expression in general. Homer. without being connected with the allegorical explanation of the poets. K sun. 6. was deprecated by Plato. &quot. justifies his interpretation of Apollo as the TGJV /zwTiKtov Aoytov ous at aVo/a/oryTOt reAerat ps-Demetrius Phalereus.C. had become symbolical. 3. Scip. That a phy explanation lay behind the scenery of the mysteries is stated else e. . and to the finding of physical or religious or moral truths in the representation of fantastic or even immoral actions. : truths in symbols.&quot.&quot.III. de interpret. vol. op. rj c. or who their reverence for 59 were not pre at least pared to break with the current belief in him. dXXrjyopia ei/ca^et 0oXoyov&amp. Grcec. .ri : 99. . 46.lt.

Resp. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. 407 b). Delphian precept bids me. 149 c) could be trusted. ) . we with allegories or without But the them. and the fightings of gods which Homer shall not admit into our state. p. . 2. seems to have been first formulated by his disciple Metrodorus. But the method which. that Oreithyia who was caught by playing on the a strong wind and was a girl carried off while but it would take a yonder long and laborious and not very happy lifetime to deal with all such questions and for my own part I cannot cliffs . Cratyl. Nor will he admit allegorical interpretation as a sufficient vindication of Homer: 2 &quot. If I disbelieved it. method seems direct line of begin with Anaxagoras and his school.60 &quot. though it is found in germ among : earlier or contemporary writers. d. . /T/^t#*rTTH 11. goras was the first c. phers do. as the myself. and the flinging forth of Hepheestus by his father. . The chaining of Hera. quotes Favorinus as saying that who showed that the AawuuJ poems of Homer had virtue and righteousness for their subject. 229 378 Diogenes Laertius. Chronogr. : investigate I first them Know until. Phadr. p. he makes Socrates 1 say. Plat. I should not be unreasonable then I might to the story of &quot. If the later traditions (Georg. . p. in reference as the philoso Boreas and Oreithyia.y Syncellus. was not ethical 1 2 3 Plat. : say.&quot. talking like a philosopher. In Anaxagoras himself the he found in Homer a allegory was probably ethical historical tradition of the to 3 : symbolical account of the and moral virtues movements of mental powers Zeus was mind.&quot. and which Athene was vovv tried by a fanciful etymology to re KCU Stavotav (Plat. whether all has described.Opripov Scivoi. Athene* was art.&quot. the disciples of ^2^enagoras were the authors of the explanations which Plato attributes to 01 vvv irepl prove that &quot. III.

Wichmann. Schovv in Dissertatio H. the powers of nature their gatherings. their movements. 1782. in Clem. C. and their battles. Gb ttingen. to be that of the philoso p. /xeraywi/. were the play and inter religion. 11 : one was and of the other Cornutus or Tatian. Aglaoder klassischen pp. III. it was largely current among the scholars and critics of Its the early empire. that of Schow. p. It seems probable that the treatise is really anonymous. their loves. 1851 Latin translation. Gesckiclite It has been unnecessary for the present Philologie. 2.lt. 211. personally known that there most detailed exposition 6. 1 By a were treated as a symbolical The gods were representation of physical phenomena. ed. Doxographi Graci.gt. below L. and a critical letter by Heyne. Halse. phamus. Lobeck. p. Laert. 767. ed. 61 remarkable anticipation of a modern of memories of an earlier science. 1 contained in two writers. phi. 1785 . 987. Strom. On the general subject of allegorical interpretation. 3 : K and that the name Heraclitus was intended pher of Ephesus : see Diels. possibly by a survival but physical.g. 95 n. Bd. purpose to make the distinction which has sometimes (e. 3 Xiav Aa]Ji\l/aKrjvo&amp. son of Basilides. E. ei&amp. The most recent edition is Heracliti AUegoritz Homeric^. 105) been drawn between allegory and symbol. p. 21. 844. losophica de allegoria Homerica. Lauer. 2 of both of is whom so little is a division of opinion Be 6 Diog. mentioned Heraclitus Ponticus Jacob. ii. 155. ad Grtzcos. Litterarischer Nachlass. i. Alex. Grafenhau. Bd. it lay beneath the whole theology of the Stoical schools . contains a Mehler. especially in the edition of regard to Homer. c.gt. A. reference may be made to N. . A : Isidore. 2 of the vr)6(D$ SieiAeKrcu Travra eis Trepi O/A ty/oo U later tradition used the name of Pherecydes TO&amp.GEEEK AND CHKISTIAN EXEGESIS. Orat. a good essay on Homeric allegory. had for many centuries an enormous hold upon the Greek mind . Leyden. the Homeric stories : The method action and apparent strife of natural forces.5 ahXyyopiav is whether the name Heraclitus or Heraclides.

is the sun sending forth his rays meant that there was time. 2. 69. came. More help is afforded to an ordinary student by that which was edited from the notes of de Yilloison by Osann. 1. Athene is his arrows. far-darter&quot. 66. 6 yap fjikv 7ra)i/7^u(os rjo-efirja-ev yap a\Xa p.rjy6pr)(TV aAA^ycyna KaAeirat. allegory. shaped like a wise old : 5 The story man. (n^cuvwi/ 3 C. there is the &quot. TravTCos 5. but both were Stoics. Lang. and best critical. 4 came man unquestionably 2 but as it is. of unholy fables in his words: they from impiety.62 III. and sat by his side. a pestilence in the heat of thought : when when : it is it is summer said that Athene* meant only that the young reflect upon the waste and pro to Telemachus. s 5 . 61. : he defines ayo/oevwv T/OOTTOS ere/aa Se C. . 7 1 The most recent.&quot. Gotin tingen. from the charge of impiety. that is by many : water. 6 C. c. edition is by C. both are most probably century of our era. Teubner s series. Heraclitus begins by the definite avowal of his apologetic purpose.ev et fjirjSev a\X. oil/ Xeyet . allegorical. of Proteus and Eidothea is an allegory of the original 6 the story of Ares shapes and Aphrodite and Hephaestus is a picture of iron sub dued by fire. 2 C. as it were. be impious if he were not &quot. assigned to the early part of the first and in both them the physical of blended with an is ethical interpretation.&quot. men with said that Apollo slew it is He would no stain and are pure &quot. it is then first to began fligacy of the suitors a thought. and restored to its original hardness by formless matter taking Poseidon. ed. 3 Apollo is the sun free . l GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. Phornutus . His work is a vindication of Homer 1. 1844. 4 C 7 c. 1881.

The following are examples science of religion : Hermes (from &quot. calmed by words.conductor. from The s His winged He is the &quot. liver . He is called the &quot.&quot.&quot. speak&quot. and harmony.awakener action. as upon etymology. its 2 2 C. 63 much Cornutus writes in vindication not so of the piety of the ancients as of their knowledge they knew as much as men of later times.&quot.shiner. souls. feet are leader of and the men to serpents twined round his staff are a symbol of the savage natures that are their discords gathered into Prometheus (&quot. 2. the symbols of winged words. speech makes dark things clear. an extension of the science of philology. because words &quot. by petty cares.) the power of speech is which the gods sent from heaven as their peculiar and distinguishing gift to men. 16. because speech conducts one neighbour s soul. He is the man thought into his because &quot. because words rouse sleep. 18. is of it : was the forethought of men found out its use he is have stolen it from heaven. but they expressed it : He and by means of symbols.). because it came down : said to in a lightning-flash : and his being chained to a rock is a picture of the quick inventiveness of human thought chained to the painful necessities of physical gnawed at unceasingly 1 C. because clay.forethought&quot.&quot. III. &quot. it has been to some persons in modern days. at greater length of those his interpretation The rests to a large extent symbols was to him.to epeiv.&quot. 1 The who made a story of man from an allegory of the providence and forethought the universe he is said to have stolen fire. soothe the soul to rest.bright. life.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS.

Sallust. is sees not the other the soul in Powers in the world. to The one of our era. man who way and tossed is upon the its is the but uncertain age. Sallust. 2 pleasure may knock at their doors in vain. because the world itself is the play of opposing forces and different qualities . of Paris. Two other examples of the method later writers. c. J. 1745.64 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. 2 vol. The other He of a is from a writer of a late deals only with the Odyssey. are given to the world win the world to sensuous life. in Mullach. de diis et phorum Gr&corum. 4. each trying and Paris . iii. 1 that. by adverse winds of fortune and of passion the companions who were lost among the Lotophagi are pictures of men who are caught by the baits of pleasure that : and do not return to reason as their guide are the pleasures that tempt and allure over the sea of charm is to fill all : the Sirens men who pass and against which the only counterone s senses and powers of mind full of life. and says that the world 1 property of Love. as Odysseus filled his ears no part of them being left empty. show the variety from is given from of its application. Incerti Scriptoris Greed FdbuUz aliquot Homericcz de Ulixis erroribus ethice explicate. Columbus. by for itself which different Powers. III. is who are always in each the world. Its hero is the picture sea of drifted this life. . other may be The apple s society. with wax. 32. Fragmenta Philoso- p. a writer of the fourth century thus explains the story of the judgment The banquet of the gods is a picture of the He vast supra-mundane Powers. Leiden. which is thrown from the banquet by Discord. ed. but only Beauty. divine words arid actions. mundo.

aivr)Tai TW eTrm?- /ifovAo/xei fj) rots Atai/ croc^ois SoK6/zao/Aevos Trapa TOTTTOIS . 2 The use saidDidymus. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. the method to which had from the sphere of but in so passing. 2 Marcellinus.lt.he The same kind likely to be divine. and that a plain man could not know what symbolical of the a great writer meant.lt.f&amp. /3aro&amp.s dAAa [JLrjSf which had been felt on a 673.&quot. &quot. 8. Vita Thucydidis.&quot. the great grammarian and the explanation of is &quot. Augustan said by age. eirreAr)s a&amp.lt. It many men that religious truth especially must be wrapped up in symbol. Even Thucydides have purposely made his its meaning. and that symbol must contain The idea has so far descended to the religious truth. c.ws Se Aeywi/ avr)/o Trai/rt &amp. persons who think that a truth which is obscurely stated is more worthy of respect. of difficulty 1 Clem. that there are. even now.ra&amp. it it had given it rise. Strom. p. 1 he might not be accessible except to tended to become a fixed idea in the style obscure that minds characteristic of the wise his biographer to the truly wise. and more which that runs &quot. took The habit of trying to find an arriere pensee beneath a man s actual words had become so inveterate.&quot.III. that all great writers without distinction were treated as writers of The riddles. Alex.gt.lt. been designed The mythology which to vindicate passed religion into that of literature with it 65 . present day. literary class insisted that their functions were needed as interpreters. than a truth may read. 5.is of of man. 35. speech. The method survived as a literary habit long after its original purpose failed.

C. The around them. no less than to Homer. quoted by and extracts . Greek world in regard to Homer. no minds into the less less of men than Homer.66 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. Strom. III. 22. was with morality. so in Egypt it was helped by the large use in rical monuments earlier times of hieroglyphic writing. 14. nor immoral. 15. Alex. : chapters 4 and he 6. purpose it enabled educated Jews. 2 150). in a higher sense than sacred books. Homer. just as in Greece proper the adoption of the allego method had been helped by the existence of the mysteries. It. was a degree by those Jews who had become large scale in the felt in no less students of Greek philosophy in regard to their own The Pentateuch. 1 The analogy 2 It is is 170 us. contained some things which. this school of whom any reputed to be Aristo- is In an exposition of the drawn by Clem. 3). seemed inconsistent To it. is 7. the which were had ceased. was so that it could not be than Homer. impossible not to mention Aristobulus Clement of Alexandria (Strom. at least on the surface. inwronght aside. and. show to the educated Greeks with they associated. on the one hand. whom to to convert. 5. It may be conjectured that. applicable the theory that the words were the veils of The application fulfilled a double a hidden meaning. 1. nor unmeaning. was regarded as having been written under the inspiration of God. set no It. 5. and whom they frequently tried on the other hand. that their literature was neither barbarous. to : own reconcile their adoption of Greek philosophy with their continued adhesion to their ancestral religion. though the writing all of itself 1 earliest Jewish writer of remains have come down to bulus (about B.

of which an account will be p. contour. and half con within. a robe spiritual. But they carry us into a new world. Moses.hand&quot. and the purpose which chosen because it was designed it I will give only one passage.using the figures of visible things. The &quot. 2er Th. 12. 13. Geschichte des jiidischen 760. by far the most considerable monument of this mode of interpretation consists of the works of Philo. perhaps even to amuse you.gt. thrown over ceals it which marks its and half reveals the form &quot. but metaphysical and The seen is the veil of the unseen. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. meant His power. They are based throughout on the supposition of a hidden meaning. But the stability of the world. Pentateuch which he is have addressed said to to 67 Ptolemy Philometor. he boldly claimed that. The anthropomorphisms of the tells 7 Old Testament were explained on this principle. he said. F2 242. found in Schiirer. i.feet. us the arrangements of nature and the constitutions of important matters. to serve. which I have shows as well as any other the contem- from him are given by Eusebius (Prcep. by quoting some of the strange meanings which Philo gives to the narratives of familiar incidents. &quot.&quot.Judceus. Drummond. The hidden meaning is not physical.&quot.III. 8. .&quot. It But which has sometimes been I deprecate the injustice done to him by taking such meanings apart from the historical circumstances out of which allegorical inter pretation grew. so far from the Mosaic writings being outside the sphere of philosophy. 10. of God. Volkes&amp. for example. Evang. would be easy to interest you. Philo. His &quot. but the genuineness of the information that we possess about him is much controverted and has given rise to much literature. the Greek philosophers had taken their philosophy from them.

vol. of who rise superior to money and pleasure and fame are ready. not the houses they live in. return to their of the sacred word. porary existence of both the methods of interpretation of which I have spoken that of finding a moral in every and that of interpreting the narrative symboli the former of these Philo calls the literal. But the passage has a further meaning. after spending their days in doing injuries homes and upset them I mean. heat and cold their lives who : : and whose bedding : grass and leaves. words are wonderful. thirst. 20. &quot. The text is Gen.&quot. eager anxieties whole life These are and who rivalries. to endure hunger whose costly couch is a soft turf. Of such men. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEOESIS. lovers of tempe rance and sobriety and modesty. who imitating those are called fortunate. i. p. and at night lie down in soft and costly beds. but also because of their literal gorical of trouble and endurance. xxviii. took the stones of that place and put them beneath his head the commentary is 1 latter the &quot. He : . Its disciples are real men. i. but the body which is the home of the soul by immoderate eating and drinking. 20). The writer does not think teaching that a student of virtue should have a delicate and luxurious &quot. as it wer. Jacob is is an example while afterwards (v. de somniis. 1 Philo. one who : is him asking only find he for : a little nature s the archetype of a soul that at war with every kind of effemi is nacy.68 III. are in whose the Divine Lawgiver describes as a sleep and a dream. for the sake of acquiring virtue. the narrative. who make self-restraint and contentment and endurance the corner-stones.The life. men who. not only because of their alle and physical meaning. cally : deeper meaning. : he put a stone for his pillow we wealth of food and raiment disciplines itself. 11. 639. whose pillow is a heap of stones or a hillock rising a little above the ground. . Such men are not the disciples to others. which is conveyed You must know that the divine place and the holy in symbol. but reality full of misfortunes.

In Philo was following not a all this. but in reality to find repose in the Intelligence which he has chosen.&quot. the earth.&quot. who 69 are immortal one of these that Jacob takes and puts close to his mind. the sea. They tinuations of the methods were employed on the same subject-matter. the sun that rests not. f. 144). c. 483. and to place all the burden of his life upon it. see Draseke. 2 When he tells us that Hephaestus represented on the shield of Achilles &quot. . II.&quot. p. body and soul. 17. is ground full of incorporeal Intelligences. 1 The rule of many is not good let there be one ruler. and the moon 3 full-orbed. 18. pro- //. He addresses his hearers by the name which was given to those who were being of the He initiated. as it were. he is teaching us the divine 1 Horn. in the Jahrb. testant Theologie. Just as the Greek philosophers had found their philosophy in so Homer. He does so under the pretext of going to sleep. 3 Horn. which is. And in this bids way it them be purified before they listen. III. the heaven. The earliest methods of Christian exegesis were con which were common at the time to both Greek and Grseco-Judeean writers. &quot. 2 Ps-Justin (probably Apollonius. 1885. he means to indicate that there should be but one God theology. expressly speaks of it Hebrew but as the a method Greek mysteries. 204. It is souls. Christian writers found in him Christian When he represents Odysseus as saying. was possible for him to be a Greek philosopher without ceasing to be a Jew. : . He Greek method.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. and his whole poem is designed to show the mischief that comes of having many gods. the head of the combined person. 2.

II 14.rjns = (by a : pavTeias evcrroxov) the Son of God. the writer to whom the name Simon Magus is said to is given. interpreted in whatever way he wished both the writings of Moses and also those of the (Greek) poets. have &quot. Philosophumena. 5.70 III. Al. 3 II 22. p. a god. 6. 2 and he holds Homer. Al. of the Father and the Son.divination&quot. 4 and the Ophite writer. Clement (Strum. 8. 9. 21. Why fruitlessly pursue him. meant to show that the &quot. 1 So Clement of Alexandria interprets the withdrawal of Oceanus and Tethys from each other to mean the separation of land and sea. c. 6 But the main applica tion was to the Old Testament exclusively. 14. which = //. combined with the story of the garden of Eden.&quot. /ATJTIS = pjris . the Cyclopes say to Polyphemus : et /xev 8rj /^ rt ere vowrov y ov TTWS /?6aercu ofov Idvra. . 206. For example. evolves an elaborate cosmogony from a 5 story of Herakles narrated in Herodotus. 719. 4 5 Hippol. For example. Herod.&quot. in Odyss. that 3 divinity cannot be apprehended Some of the philosophical skirts by the bodily powers. Clem. 14. schools which hung upon the of Christianity mingled such interpretations of Greek mythology with similar interpretations of the Old Testament. 5. but it sometimes required a keen eye to see the Gospel in Homer. apparently. Justin. 410. but pjrts = Adyos therefore the vdcros Aids. Clem. The reasons given for believing that the Old Testament had an gorical 1 2 meaning were precisely analogous Ps-Justin. Strom. 708. 14) makes this to be an evident &quot. Strom. Hippol. 14. p. ecrrt Atos /xeyaAov aAeacr$ai. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. 5. order of creation which he learned in Egypt from the books of Moses. Horn. His argument is. 810. when he makes Apollo ask Achilles. to those alle which 28. 4. 5.

But the answer did not generally prevail. Be genuine money-changers. p. 71 had been given in respect to Homer. and Clement of Alexandria. who judgment ? and if He if who makes them wise? and who makes them to see ? whose then are a fruitful hill. Maker though and firm in wants the savour of needeth nothing? and it as does foreknow? and perfect in thought He if men tempts earth. 3 Clem. Alex. that there in the was a human Old Testament some were false : and as well as a divine element some things in it were true. and this was indeed the very reason : &quot. that the Master of the universe. the and hardens &amp. all and things who is delights in lamps. There were many things in the Old Testament which jarred upon the nascent Christian consciousness. 2. if He that set the stars in heaven sacrifices. Strom. mentions as analogies not only the older Greek poetry. like a similar answer to difficulties about the Homeric mytho logy. them. 2 testing the Scriptures like coins. . &quot. The more common solution. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGSEIS. as also in the case of Homer. 7 men blinds desires He it from us to s hearts. who then for is Far be 1 says the writer of the Clementine Homilies. 51. the Master said. 43. of heaven He did not know He repents.lt. in an elaborate justification of this method. 2 237.III. Horn. but also the hieroglyphic writing of the Egyptians. 1 Cl&mmtin. believe. 2. 3 The Old Testament thus came to be treated allegorically.&quot. &quot. and separating the good why bad. One early answer to all such difficulties was. was that Moses had written in symbols in order to from the conceal his meaning from the unwise . II. ? it if He if and that who is ?&quot. 4.&quot. 44. 5.

his school had dealt mainly with the Pentateuch. vol. Legat. 2 The prophets. the Christian writers endea voured to show that the writings of the Hebrew preachers and poets contained Christianity and whereas Philo had been content to speak of the writers of the Old Testament. Historia Interpretationis librorum sacrorum in ecclesia Christiana. ad. 2 e. Dio Chrysostom spoke of the Greek poets. not in plain words. 63. : . as having been stirred by a divine enthusiasm. G. i. The coincidences of mystical interpretation between Philo and the Epistle of Barnabas show that such interpretations were becoming the common property of Jews and Judseo- But the method was soon applied to new Exegesis became apologetic. but in pictures. The 1 These are given by J. Whereas Philo and Christians. He He saw visions and dreamed dreams. wrote. an especial sense the messenger of God and an interpreter of His will. the came mainly with the prophets and poetical books. large part of such interpretation was inherited. and whereas Philo was mainly concerned to show that the writings of Moses early Christian writers to deal contained Greek philosophy. the Christian writers as soon came to construct an elaborate theory that the poets and preachers were but as the flutes through which the Breath of God flowed in divine music into the souls of men. 19 ps-Justin (Apollonius). p. Athenag. Cohort. Rosenmiiller. even more than the selves easily to this allegorical method poets. lent them of interpretation. 1 data. .72 A III. uses the 8. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. analogous metaphor of a harp of which the Divine Spirit the plectrum. is c. Grcec. But his message was The nabi was in often a parable.

Greek world. be interpreted of their own times.&quot. The interpreters wandered. Hence Tertullian speaks of Hebrew prophecy as a special form of divination. writings came to be read in the light of this conception. the interpreta tion of it became linked with the growing conception of it was be the foreknowledge and providence of God all that should He not knew lieved that things only : come men. The Greek word prophet&quot. explained the riddle of his message. sometimes properly belonged. also was also the channel through whom He The prophetic intention as to the future. as it were. Those who read the Old Testament without accepting Christianity. Jacob s song was a foretelling of Dionysus the virgin s : son of Isaiah was a picture 1 Tertull. to the present. &quot. When the message passed into literature. but of events The Shiloh of recorded in the heathen mythologies. They went on infer the divine ordering of the present cidence of its to from the coin features with features that could be traced in the hieroglyphs of the past. divi- So far from being strange to the natio prophetica. : the Psalmist s- . 1 many forms of divination. A similar conception It lay beneath the prevailed in the heathen world. it was accepted. but to those who. 73 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. 5. along vast corri dors whose walls were covered with hieroglyphs and They found in them symbols which might paintings. 3. not to the nabi himself. meaning of the pictures was often purposely obscure. The nabi. not of Christianity. revealed His communicated His knowledge to through whom He revealed His will as but to pass.III. &quot. adv. in his own time or in after time. of Perseus Marc. found in its symbols prefigurings.




strong as a giant to run his
Herakles. 1



was a prophecy

was an accepted method

fact that this

pretation enabled the Apologists to use


became one


of inter

with great


of the chief evidences of Chris

of the

meaning of historical events
and poetical figures which sound strange or impossible
to modern ears, so far from sounding strange or impos


sible in the second century, carried conviction





on the cross

with them.


The government shall be upon his
was meant that Christ should be extended


garment in the blood



of the





shall dip his

was meant that

human origin, but, like the
from God 3 when it was said that

his blood should be, not of

red juice of the grape,
He shall receive the power of

that the


of the evil


was meant

Damascus," it

demon who dwelt



should be overcome, and the prophecy was fulfilled when
the Magi came to worship Christ. 4 The convergence of


of such interpretations

upon the Gospel
history was a powerful argument against both Jews and

a large

I need not enlarge


upon them.

They have

formed part of the general stock of Christian teaching
ever since. But I will draw your attention to the fact
that the basis of this use of the Old Testament


was not

the idea of prediction as the prevalent practice

of treating ancient literature as symbolical or allegorical.

The method came


Justin M. Apol.
II). i



be applied to the books which







Tnjph. 78.





were being formed into a new volume of sacred writings,
side by side with, the old. It was so applied, in the first
instance, not

by the

Apologists, but

was detached from the idea of
method was


was linked

This extension






with the idea of knowledge as a
of the

by the



of Christ

presented as many difficulties to the first Christian philo
sophers as the Old Testament had done. The conception
of Christ as the Wisdom and the Power of God seemed
inconsistent with

and that



resolved itself into a series of

bolic representations of

record of

was written


common human

the meanness of a


superhuman movements, and the
in hieroglyphs.

When Symeon

took the young child in his arms and said the Nunc
dimittiS) he was a picture of the Demiurge who had

own change of place on the coming of the
and who gave thanks to the Infinite Depth. 1

learned his


was a type of Achamoth,
the Eternal Wisdom, the mother of the Demiurge, whom
the Saviour led anew to the perception of the light which
raising of Jairus daughter

Even the

passion on the Cross was a

setting forth of the anguish

and fear and perplexity of

had forsaken


The method was

the Eternal


rejected with contumely.
Irenseus and Tertullian bring to bear upon it their bat


It was a blasphemous
irony and denunciation.
invention. It was one of the arts of spiritual wickedness
But it was
against which a Christian must wrestle.

teries of

deep-seated in the habits of the time


was writing,
1. 8. 4,



of the Valentinians.


and even while

establishing a lodgment

Ib. 1. 8. 2.




Christian communities which

inside the

ceased to hold.

had grown up as the recon
Greek philosophy and Hebrew theology.


The methods



of the school of Philo

were applied

New Testament even more than to the


The foxes have

not where to lay his



has never

It did so first of all in the great school

of Alexandria, in






but the Son

to the

When Christ
of Man hath

he meant that on the believer

separated from the




from the

wild beasts of the world, rests the Head of the universe,
the kind and gentle Word. 1
When he is said to have
fed the multitude on five barley-loaves and two fishes,


meant that he gave mankind the preparatory training

of the

wheat, and
in the

Law, ripens sooner than
philosophy, which had grown, like fishes,

for barley, like the

waves of the Gentile world. 2

the anointing of Christ

ing and his passion


s feet,


When we

read of

read of both his teach

for the feet are a


of divine

instruction travelling to the ends of the earth, or,
be, of the Apostles




having received
Ghost ; and the oint

so travelled,

the fragrant unction of the Holy
ment, which is adulterated oil, is a symbol of the traitor
Judas, "by whom the Lord was anointed on the feet,

being released from his sojourn in the world
dead are anointed," 3



for the

reasonably be doubted whether the alle
gorical method would have obtained the place which it
did in the Christian Church if it had not served an other


than exegetical purpose.

Clem. Al. Strom.


Ib. 6. 11, p. 787.

1. 3, p.

It is clear that after the first



2, 8, p. 76.




with Judaism had subsided, the Old Testament


formed a great stumbling-block in the way of those who
approached Christianity on its ideal side, and viewed it

by the

light of philosophical conceptions.

Its anthro

pomorphisms, its improbabilities, the sanction which it
seemed to give to immoralities, the dark picture which
sometimes presented of both God and the servants of
God, seemed to many men to be irreconcilable with both


the theology and the ethics of the Gospel. An important
section of the Christian world rejected its authority alto
gether it was the work, not of God, but of His rival,

the contrast between the Olcjj
the god of this world
Testament and the New was part of the larger contrast

between matter and


Those who

darkness and light, evil and
did not thus reject it were still con

scious of its difficulties.

those difficulties.


There were many solutions of
them was that which had been

the Greek solution of analogous difficulties in Homer.

was adopted and elaborated by Origen expressly with
an apologetic purpose. He had been trained in current






to have studied the books of Cornutus. 2


expressly said
found in the


hypothesis of a spiritual meaning as complete a vindica
tion of the Old Testament as Cornutus had found of the

Greek mythology. The difficulties which men find, he
us, arise from their lack of the spiritual sense.


"Without it

he himself would have been a



This was the contention of Marcion, whose influence upon the
Christian world was far larger than is commonly supposed.
By far
the best account of him, in both this and other respects,
Harnack, Dogmengeschichte, ler Th. B. i. c. 5.



6. 19. 8.


that of




What man



he asks, 1


will suppose that the first

and the second and the third day, and the evening and the
morning, existed without a sun and moon and stars ? Who is

husbandman, planted a
and placed in it a tree of life, that might be
seen and touched, so that one who tasted of the fruit by his
bodily lips obtained life ? or, again, that one was partaker of
good and evil by eating that which was taken from a tree ? And
so foolish as to believe that God, like a

garden in Eden,






said to have

walked in a garden in the evening, and
tree, I do not suppose that any one

have hidden under a

doubts that these things figuratively indicate certain mysteries,
the history being apparently but not literally true
the Gospels themselves are filled with the same kind of narra
Take, for example, the story of the devil taking Jesus up


into a high



show him from thence the kingdoms of

the world and the glory of them what thoughtful reader would
not condemn those who teach that it was with the eye of the

which needs a lofty height that even the near neigh
bourhood may be seen that Jesus beheld the kingdoms of the
Persians, and Scythians, and Indians, and Parthians, and the
manner in which their rulers were glorified among men


such narratives, on the one
hand to reveal mysteries to the wise, on the other hand
The whole series
to conceal them from the multitude.
spirit intended, in all

of narratives


constructed with a purpose, and subordi

nated to the exposition of mysteries. Difficulties and
impossibilities were introduced in order to prevent men
from being drawn into adherence to the literal meaning.

Sometimes the truth was told by means of a true narra
tive which yielded a mystical sense
sometimes, when

no such narrative of a true history existed, one was
invented for the purpose. 2
In this way, as a rationalizing expedient for solving

Origen, de princip.










the difficulties of Old Testament exegesis, the allegori

method established




for itself a place in the Christian

largely helped to prevent the Old Testament

from being discarded and the conservation of the Old
Testament was the conservation of allegory, not only for

the Old Testament, but also for the


Against the whole tendency of symbolical interpreta
tion there was more than one form of reaction in both
the Greek and the Christian world.

was attacked by the Apologists in its application
With an inconsequence which
Greek mythology.




remarkable, though not singular, they found in it a
weapon of both defence and offence. They used it in


defence of Christianity, not only because it gave them
the evidence of prediction, but also because it solved

which the Old Testament pre
sented to philosophical minds.
They used it, on the
other hand, in their attack upon Greek religion.
some of the


gories are an after- thought, they said sometimes, a


Even if they were
pious gloss over unseemly fables.
true, they said again, and the basis of Greek belief were


good as its interpreters alleged
wicked demons to wrap round

able fictions. 2

it to

be, it

was a work

a veil of dishonour

The myth and the god who


if the
vanish together, says Tatian
myth be true, the gods are worthless demons if the
myth be not true, but only a symbol of the powers of
nature, the godhead is gone, for the powers of nature


be behind





Clement. Recogn. 10. 36.


Clement. Horn.

6. 18.




are not gods since they constrain no worship. 1
In a
similar way, in the fourth century, Eusebius treats it

as a vain attempt of a younger generation to explain


the mistakes of their fathers. 2


was attacked by the Greek philosophers in its
There are some persons,
application to Christianity.


says Porphyry,


who being anxious

to find, not a


being rid of the immorality of the Old Testament, but
an explanatiom of it, have recourse to interpretations

which do not hold together nor fit the words which they
interpret, which serve not so much as a defence of Jewish
doctrines as to bring approbation


credit for their



difficulties, said

It is a delusive evasion of

your sacred books narratives
which shock your moral sense ; you think that you get
rid of the difficulty by having recourse to allegory ; but

in effect Celsus

you do not

find in

admit of being so interpreted

it is





eyes, that I


than the narrative







Origen is weak:
worse than Genesis,



would not have

see the


Tatian, Orat. ad. Grac. 21.


Euseb. Prtzp. Evang.

nical term in this sense

im Altertlmm,





2. 6, vol. iii.


Gels. 4.

there had been no



things of




thou mine



became a tech

Grafenhan, Ge-schichte des Mass. Philoloyie


Porphyr. ap. Euseb. H. E.


partly that,



in the second place, the

The answer

secret, the Psalmist



allegory will not explain the latter, neither will

the former





partly a

your scriptures do not

in the first place,




19. 5.

als Exe- Breisg. positive fact given in the light of interpretation was the outcome school. 94 . Reliyuicz Sacra. 81 The method had opponents even in Alexandria itself. iv.A and Eusebius surface. 2 Euseb. p. Hist. p. p. G.&quot. literal inter of the contain in all a Allegorical history. Theodor von Mopsuestia und Junilius Africanus geten. 3 Kihn. 24.GKEEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. 3. Horn. Rosen mill ler. has of &quot. letter which has been said &quot. the other of logic and system tion was but the earthy foothold from which speculation realistic : : might soar into infinite space to the other. vol. Interpret. vol. of the one Emmaus. a scholar who shares with Origen the honour 1 Origen. his wells below the &quot. Eevelatery. vol. E. 4 J. with the other remains of Julius Africanus. it . ii. The letter is printed. 7. ii. chief antagonist in the school of interpretation which arose at the end of the fourth century at Antioch. 13. 13. Eefutation of the &quot. was Antiochene left behind a its two short the commentaries and chief founder of the school was Lucian. 161. The dominant philosophy of Alexandria had been a fusion of Platonism with some elements of both Stoicism and revived Pythagoreanism : that of Antioch The one was be Aristotelianism.&quot. in. was coming to the other idealistic. in Routh. 3 The precursor pretation of the other.&quot. in Gen.digging mentions a entitled found lost its work of the learned Nepos of Arsinoe. The . 10. Freib.&quot. 1 Origen more than once speaks of those who objected to 3.to pages more true exegesis than homilies of 4 Origen. 178. 1880. III. in Joann. the one was a philosophy of dreams and mys to the one. I G . p. im 7. Horn. H. 2 But it Allegorists. Julius Africanus.

and the Christology of the Antiochene school was so completely outvoted at the great ecclesiastical assemblies by the Christology of the Alexandrian school. His period. and whose which was cut short by martyrdom in 311. many results of the controversies into physical tendencies of the which the meta Greeks led the churches of the fourth and fifth centuries. and to wear an grew out of a aureole round its head. a hundred years afterwards. torical sense The 7 as the true sense of Scripture. to postpone almost to modern times the acceptance of the literal grammatical and his &quot. The greatest of Greek the with question of orthodoxy. in the same path but in his day also questions of canons of interpretation were so entangled interpreters. with questions of Christology. that his reputation for scholarship has been almost wholly obscured by the ill-fame of his It has been one of the leanings towards ISTestorianism. But by the irony of history. by which the dominant It has been the chief instrument beliefs of every age have con- . side : Theodore of Mopsuestia. just preceded the great Trinitarian controversies of the Nicene lifetime. of being the founder of Biblical philology. followed. . GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. disciples came on the Arian to be leaders among them were Eusebius of Nicomedia and Arius The question of exegesis became entangled himself. of Christianity. allegorical method the circumstances of its its of interpretation birth has survived and the gathered forces of It has filled a large place in the literature opponents. it in later times to be vested like a saint.82 III. though it has come tendency towards rationalism.

ed. G2 an historical stand or fall . 324 (2nd ogether. it has a history and a value which rather grow than diminish with time.&quot. of life books immediate purpose of noble and inspir even more to art than would have been infi without it. we should not have had that sublime symbolism of their structure which is of itself a religious education. and when moreover it was bound became traditional. are yet monuments It has contributed ing thoughts. espe Newman s &quot. It survives because it is based upon an ele ment in human nature which whatever be its is not likely to pass away : value in relation to the literature of the the expression in relation to the present that our lives are hedged round by the unknown.&quot. III.It may almost be laid down as act that the mystical interpretation and orthodoxy will cially p. It has given to literature of little value for the which. The poetry to literature. it is at least 1 See the chapter on &quot. he would not have painted the and though without it we should have had . &quot.Scripture and its Mystical Interpretation&quot. 83 it on became autho when the idea prevailed that only that poetical ritative. Cecilia Gothic cathedrals.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS.). It was the play was harmless so long as of innocent imagination But when the surface of great truths. became at once the slave of dogmatism and the tyrant of souls. Outside its relation to dogma tism. he would not have might written the Divine Comedy . For though without it Dante have been stirred to write. 1 was it It free. that past. though of interpretation. St. so that one generation to accept the symbolical interpretations of its it predecessors. structed their strongholds. and though without it Eafnitely less rich faelle would have painted. sense was true of which the majority approved. in Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine.

The glamour of writing has passed away. at the time at which he used it. But two modern beliefs militate against 1. God has not yet ceased to important for us to know. and that not only what what He tells He it is told the us now. relative to the past. but they have formed an infi in the sense in nitesimal minority. and must be interpreted by it. there is GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS. but such cryptograms have only a temporary and transient allegorically lest The idea use. a haze about both our birth and our departure. The one belief affects all literature. have written open speech should betray them. has passed for ever away. A written word is no more than a spoken word and a spoken word is taken . which the speaker used it. The study of nature and the study of history have given us another maxim for reli fifteen . it. which it is that ancient literature consists of riddles the business of modern literature to solve. men of other days. There have been writers of enigmas and painters of emblems. We can believe in religious as in other progress. facts of life are linked to and that even the meaner infinity. as well as of the past. There have been those who. religious and It is that the thoughts of the past are secular alike. The other belief affects specially religious litera It is that the Spirit of ture. but we find it hard to believe that it has died away to an echo from the Judean hills.84 III. 2. as Cicero says of himself in writing to Atticus. but we find i hard to believe that that progress was suddenly arrested hundred years ago. Interpretation We is of but also the present can believe that there is a Divine voice. speak to men.

the servant and interpreter of nature. 85 gious conduct and another axiom of religious belief. the servant and interpreter of the living . God. is of our also. They apply to that which is divine within us the inmost secret knowledge and mastery of that which is divine without us: man.III. and is thereby. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN EXEGESIS.

or the early Georges. the point of view of literature in from literature in such a standard its of itself. Nor can it be doubted that from &quot.LECTURE IV. This are dealing. for example.&quot. the period with which writer of the first spontaneous. It Its literature activity. and to measure the literary excel is lence of one age as compared with that of another by the We highest products of each of them. was born. or the Augustan age at Eome. It we rank.&quot. silver. or the Elizabethan age in our own country. life. &quot. GEEEK AND CHEISTIAN BHETOBIC. The former are golden the latter. as distinguished relation to history or to social measurement is correct. look. there has been a of literary culture. though the high-water wide diffusion mark has been lower. as higher than the ages respectively of the Ptolemies. when there is but no . It was is the case with produced no rather than It artificial was imitative more than was appreciative rather than constructive. upon the Periclean age at Athens. But the result of its application has been the doing of a certain kind of injustice to periods of history in which. IT its customary to measure the literature of an age by highest products. . the Caesars. not of the enthusiasm of free rather of the passivity which comes original.

Leipzig. some details. Roman und seine Vorlaufer. but they had a practical object in view. vol. birth and chief development in that part of the Empire difficult to find &quot. The cases were necessarily supposed rather than actual. and came as ble to real The life. In those schools the professor had been in the habit of illus trating his rules and instructing his students by model Such compositions were in the 1 compositions of his own. IV. 1844. . 1871. and the increased devotion to the literature of the past. silver Its is an object of study most characteristic feature was one for which it is any more exact description than the a viva-voce literature. der griechische 1876. close as possi large growth of the habit of studying Ehetoric as a part of the education of a gentleman. It had its paradoxical phrase. It was the product of the rhetorical schools which have been already described. which came partly from the felt loss of spontaneity national pride. 87 as to a student of science the after-glow is an object of study no than the noon-day.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. in which Christianity and Greek life came into closest and most frequent contact. differ in modern summary of Greek usages is that of Preface to his editions of Philostratus (Zurich. 2 and partly from ii.). Kayser s The best what Eoman is true writers. 297. Eohde. though in the main agreeing with it. and accusations or defences of real persons. first instance exercises in the pleading of actual causes. 1 2 caused these compositions in the rhetorical I have endeavoured to confine the above account to of Greek Rhetoric : the accounts which are found in especially in Quintilian.&quot. p. so to a student of the historical development of the world the less age of a nation s literature no less than its golden age. E. Leipzig. But hope.

2 The latter were the more common.gt. i&amp. caussae a nostris.lt. IV. SlKOLViKOV /A6V (TO(l&amp.gt. 2. . according as a subject was argued in general terms or names were introduced. 5.s. and on the other to be directly imitative of From the older Ehetoric. p. there was sometimes branched out the new Ehetoric.S ) a litterateur to be a good lawyer. Sext.gt. 3. 50 1 1. -i&amp.lt. prooem. first of There is Their subjects were sometimes taken from real history. 103.gt. &quot. in quaestio videtur circa res personasque consistere. 23. i. rot and TO. who gives the equivalent Latin terms.OS 8t (TO(f&amp. still the were though they (yueAeVou). infinite (quaestiones) sunt quse rernotis personis et temporibus et locis cseterisque similibus &quot. 5.&quot. Cicero propofinitae autem sunt ex complexu rerum personarum temporum situm . 2 0ecris is defined Progymn.gt. 3. 108. p. these there is a distinction between a good example in Lucian s SiKaviKa. . S. a/ and both 2. Theses and Hypotheses. which necessarily still went on. . They were divided into as two kinds. .TpO&amp. and too good litterateur. Elsewhere Philostratus speaks of a sophist as being 20. actual pleadings. caeterorumque his omnis : hae {&amp. TroAirtKa in Philostratus. 1 hand They began on the one to be divorced from even a fictitious connection with the law-courts.lt. The Geom.TTlKWTe/&amp. which specially known as Sophistic. 4. exercises&quot.rs a Graecis dicuntur. sometimes Of the 1 fictitious. the styles of ancient authors. Philostr. in utramque partem tractantur quod Grseci Qkviv dicunt. schools to take a wider range.l(rTOV &quot. BiKaVLKU&amp. : adv. are distinguished from TO. V. by Hermogenes as Walz. Emp. the study of forensic logic and speech with a view to the actual practice in the law-courts. Sophistic proceeded for the most part upon the old Its literary compositions preserved the old lines. S.7ro0e&amp. distinction 4 : is much tOO HlUCh of of a lawyer to be a a/z^io /^T^/xeVo vn-oQea-is as TUV ort so ras cts ovo/ta best formulated by Quintilian. p. V.lt.&quot.88 GEEEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. rehearsals of name.

to Philostn V. The word 29. 3 Dio Chrysost. e. 2. 4 The speak in an appropriate style. 49 . 176. 8. 2 Ib. 9. their comrades &quot. was The 1. if I were likely to get In the treatment is the polite reply. stabs himself: the man claims the reward as a Of the second kind of tyrannicide. Quintil. of subjects &quot. of both kinds of subjects. 1. 3. 7. there are Demosthenes defending himself against the charge of having taken the bribe which and 1 brought. was required to exercise&quot. VTTOJC/H- was sometimes applied. such instances as &quot. stress consistency. Would you like to hear a sensible speech about Agamemnon. whether real or supposed. 16.&quot. 5. laid on dramatic character. subjects. for ii. ?&quot. Ivi. 89 Tyrannicide: the situation is.rdat &quot. : asks Dio Chrysostom in one of his Dia u I should not take amiss even a speech about Atreus son 3 logues.8. do. see Theon.g. that a man goes into the not citadel of a town for the purpose of killing a tyrant the finding the tyrant.&quot. &quot. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. 4 Trpoo-coTTOTroua. c.lt. Adrastus or Tantalus or Pelops. Yes. of Scopeaction in subjects taken from the Persian wars was so whose lianus. V. the man kills the tyrant s son : : tyrant coming in and seeing his son with the sword in his body. S. of Ajax. had &quot. be recited with an appropriate into- 25. to death. vol. vehement that a partizan of one of his rivals accused him of beating a but my tambourine is the shield he said . which p.&quot. 115 : ii. 5. Progymnasmata. 10. 2.&quot. vol.The who Athenian wounded Demades at Syracuse are returning to Athens to put then 2 The Homeric cycle was an unfailing mine the Persian wars hardly less so.&quot. I ve&amp. good from it.IV. 3. 21. ed. . or are you sick of hearing speeches about Agamemnon. Philostr. tambourine. 1 Spengel.

betray their later origin by either the poverty of their thought or inadver tent neologisms of expression : for example. apart from its relation to contemporary It life. Bd. 1 Sometimes the dramatic by the introduction of effect was heightened two or more characters: for 2 example. and the significance of his look. in Life of Apollonius to the writings in the style gave birth also It of ancient authors which. by study of the turns. 508) imitates Thucydides. latter is afforded &quot. pp. 208. p. 1875. gave Greek romance. 336 sqq. Hermes. A good by Arrian. It was sometimes their voice sweet with musical cadences. Dionysios von Halikarnass und die Sophistik. 3 Kohde. whose chameleon-like style&quot. one of the surviving pieces of Dio Chrysostom consists of a wrangle in tragic style. IV. nation. 2 Orat. 4 it But though Sophistic grew mainly out of Ehetoric. though commonly included in the collected works of those authors. Philostr. 1 &quot. 7. . &quot. s . diction. :&quot. p. Herodotus. and modu and echoed resonances So Plut. and the cadence of his sentences :&quot. 7. the Eryxias of Plato. (Kaibel. xx. 4 This trained habit of composing in different styles is of importance in relation to Christian as well as to non-Christian literature. Philostratus of Tyana. S. 41. p. which is the progenitor of the medieval romance and of the modern novel 3 a notable birth to the : example ture is romance in Christian of such a sophistical litera the Clementine Homilies and Eecognitions non-Christian literature.They made lations of tone. This kind of Sophistic has an interest in two respects. 1.90 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. V. de and. and Xenophon. and with tragic between Odysseus and Philoctetes. charmed even those who did not at Eome Favorinus is said to have know Greek by the sound of his voice. had its roots also in Philosophy. lix.

lt. On the philosopher s dress./)(ov TOVS OVTTW SiaAeyerat &amp.gt. vii. S.lt. (xAAtt Kttfc vv evpoLa. remained partly as a generic name. TraAauH o TraAcuos 7rcoi/o/xa^ov Kdl XafJLTTpOVS. by wearing a special dress. p. cises&quot. pr) a Se 1.lt.iXoo-o&amp.iAoras epcoT^creis uTTOKa^/xevot KCU TO.lt.j)Ovo-av. Lecture VI. &quot. (r/UKpa rail/ &amp. and partly as a special name for the new class of public talkers. A ^/ life.&quot. 4. sophist. 91 It threw off alto defined as Bhetoric philosophizing.f&amp. 1 Philostratus. They were a notable feature of their time. discourses&quot. and profess their devotion to a 3 higher standard of living. (&aXeet?). but also a new profes of men against whom Plato had inveighed It created not only a sion. but were not Its utterances 2 &quot. Some of them had a fixed residence and gave discourses regularly. new literature.lt. The class had become merged in the general class of educators they were specialized partly as grammarians. 7r^)o/3t/?a^ovTes &amp.lt. cro^io-rd? Se OV JUOVOV TtOV pfjTOpMV TOVS TWV cro(j)io-TiKr)v yap wrep wv ot &amp.IV.gt. epfjLrjvevovras. to which the invectives failed to attach a permanent stigma.os 202.lt. and discussed in continuous speech the larger themes of morality or theology. see Kayser s preface to his editions of Philo stratus. 3 Philostratus. p. 2. S. 1 a fiction of or an the law-court gether assembly. p. 3.acrt /xey yiyvuio-Keii/ ib. 245. the distinction. and the pleasures of music into his see below.(j)VOVVTais T ot ravra. p. but that when he passed into the ranks of the sophists he brushed off his squalor. ryv ap^jaiav like VTTp&amp. V. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. partly as : rhetoricians had : the word &quot. . and brought luxury &quot. says that the famous sophist Aristocles lived the earlier part of his life as a Peripatetic philosopher. exer It preached sermons. e/cctvcu etSws Aeyei : 2 (pi On Aocrd&amp.&quot. They differed from philo sophers in that they did not mark themselves off from the rest of the world. squalid and unkempt and ill-clothed.f&amp. F.

speaks of OvpOKO-n-^aravra KCU eTrayyei Aavra TOIS fv acrrei pipaKLOi&amp. 23. Vienna might be asked 1 Epictetus. . 2. Cf. Lucian. probably containing extracts).lt. programme. Synesius. 342).&quot. stated them of GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. Dind. 6 (of invitations to recitations). the in if. 360. &quot. vol.&quot.&quot. 23. 3. Diss. his professional dress. Hcresset. Orat. 23. &quot. et libellos commodum motimus. whether from the senate or the circus. S. 10. 2 Philostratus. The audience of a minister&quot. &quot. modern . the people rose up. non per next concert with to play at the 3. two were pitted together just as times. where a sophist is represented as hanging up a noticeboard over his gateway. Dio (in Dio Chrys. made sometimes by a times by word of mouth &quot. ed.card&quot. 18 codicillos (cards of invitation). the people clustered round him like iron filings 3 If there was a sticking to a magnet. : or &quot. They were . and no bells consequently the invitations were personal. doors and promise them a fine discourse. a stranger appeared who was known by and whose reputation had preceded him. 6. a famous violinist from Paris or resident sophist. 28 non per : so Pliny. sed si si valde vacaret admoniti. . V. 3. says Themistius. 11. 2 The audience of a travelling sophist was what might be expected among a people who lived very much out of people s When doors.92 the IV. p. Come and hear me some lecture 1 Sometimes a messenger was sent round some^ times the sophist would go round himself and knock at to-day. 5. says that the enthusiasm at Rome about the sophist Adrian was such that when his messenger (TOV rrjs ax/Doacrcws dyyeAov) appeared on the scene with a notice of lecture.s 3 OLKpoapa eTriSe^tov. No lecture to-day. Dind. ii. ed. travelled was usually gathered by : There were no invitation. 21. and flocked to the Athenaeum to hear him. newspaper advertisements in those days. &quot.&quot. Epist. (programmes. modern congregation some from place to place.

Herodes.We sophists. the leading violinist in London.&quot. p. and an inflammation set in which killed him. 5 sqq. Alexander sud arrived. but also of obligation. and he arranged with a confederate that 1 De 2 F. . in a and waited a long time for when he did not come. 5.are compliments: &quot. Mger had. a and could not fish-bone in his throat easily speak . & 2. denly changed his style sang tenor. him by the 13 L 3 Pseudolog.&quot. sanit. of &quot. It 93 was a matter not A only of professional honour. so to speak. There is a story in Plutarch 1 man about a sophist named Niger who found himself in a town in Galatia which had a resident professor. His of to the an was it as ex object delivering gain glory tempore oration. Lucian tells a story of one who had plucked feathers from many orators to make its subject should be the subject selected for a wonderful discourse about Pythagoras. could not refuse. and insisted on Alexander coming forward to discourse before Herodes And when Herodes did arrive. they grew theatre in the Ceramicus. prove. such as that of Olympia. but he had either to speak or to lose his reputation he spoke. Sometimes they went to show their skill at one of the 3 great festivals. all of us only slices of you. instead and Herodes followed him. 3. unfortunately. The resident made a discourse. and there was a of bass charming interchange said Alexander.IV. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. Herodes to appear : angry and thought that it was a trick. There is a : much 2 longer story in Philostratus of Alexander Peloplato going to Athens to discourse in a friendly contest with The audience gathered together Herodes Atticus. 16.

&quot. He often professorial cushion. The professor sometimes entered already robed in his &quot. and their stupid compositions. Epist. says of Isseus. 2 Epict. 3. 3. elec&quot. saepe etiam partes. &quot. IV. 7 Of the manner of the ordinary discourse there are many indications. . and the sophist himself at last joined in the universal laughter.rToXiw&amp. ten thousand rhetoricians twisting law-suits. incipit. i. It was given sometimes in a private house.94 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. dulces : graves interdum et erectse. S. as they call them. of : ferent passages to their several authors . 2. : tioriem auditoribus permittit. amicitur.&quot. sometimes in a theatre. and many writers of books reading and many poets singing their poems. some times he proceeded at once to his discourse. and no small number of traders driving their several trades.lt. You might hear many poor wretches of sophists shout ing and abusing one another. and many soothsayers giving the meaning of prodigies. But the imposture was too barefaced some the hearers amused themselves by assigning the dif audience. presence of and took his seat upon its ample sometimes began with a preface. li/ KO^O) &amp. Philostratus.&quot. rj Tpiflwviw dvaf^dvra e?rt TrovXflivov : but Pliny. and sometimes put it on in the his audience. Poscit controversias plures.gt. 1 Oral. graciles. 3 Pliny. viii. vol. Epist. squabbling. 23. as though he robed himself in the presence of the audience. 35. 2. sometimes in a regular lectureroom. Diss. says of Isseus prsefationes tersae. 2 chair. and many jugglers exhibiting their marvels. He mounted the steps to his pulpit-gown. 3. V. which he alleges to be as true of the time of Diogenes as of his own : &quot. He 3 gave the choice of a subject to his audience. He was 145. 2. Dio Chrysostom And 1 draws a picture of a public place at Corinth during the Isthmian games. surgit. and their disciples.

&quot. 3. 20. never minding &quot. V. cf. tells a story of Mark of Byzantium going into Poleino s lec ture-room and sitting down among the audience some one recognized him. in his satirical advice to go straight at it and say without hesita tion whatever words come to your tongue. His disciple Dionysius of Miletus had so wonderful a memory. or so to turn subject as to bring the &quot. when Polemo : asked for a subject.and will discourse myself.. 18. Plutarch. as to be suspected of sorcery 22. 2 in effect. adultery. 4. rhetoricians. 24. 7. 2.&quot. I will both give shaggy beard . : Philostr. &quot.IV. says he repeats by heart what he appears but he does not falter even in a single your audience have chosen a subject says Lucian.&quot. is have passages about Marathon and Cynsegirus that And Athos must always be turned indispensable. &quot. 2. 4.. Pliny of Isseus to say word. said Polemo. so that.&quot. 1 . and the Hellespont into dry land. about the first point coming first and the second second : is to go right on and not have any to talk at Athens about have you pauses.&quot. p.When which he had in something His memory is incredible. .prcec. and not to ask for a discourse on the bisection of unlimited lines. S. 3..&quot. de audiendo. you a said Mark. and 95 was part of it his art either to force the choice of a subject.feast of words&quot. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. 1 you. and the whisper went round who he was. for &quot. Epist. referring to Mark s he will not. subject. bring in the customs of the Hindoos and Persians above the great thing If : all. and the sun must be darkened by the clouds of Median arrows into sea. already prepared.&quot. &quot. 1 Plin. What is the use of looking at a rustic like that?&quot. all eyes were turned to Mark. extempore . . . &quot. give you a subject. F. to propose a subject that will be useful. and Salamis and Artemisium and Plata3a. and so taught his pupils to remember. advises those who go to a &quot. &quot. 2 Rhet. ready to discourse on any theme . 42. Philostr. 1. and so 1.

ful replied the sophist. forth.by a serious-looking audi ence and tardy praise and no clapping. These were the and Wonder &quot.. S. &quot. says Lucian in his them pay the your friends see you breaking price of the suppers 2 you a chance 1 V. they move always in the direction of the clapping and the shouting. xxxiii. 21. by you my philo praise?&quot. p. 23. and. 4 Unapproachable They were accompanied by clap ping of the hands and stamping of the feet and waving &quot.&quot.&quot..let you give them by stretching out their arms and giving 2.. like men walking in the dark.s. satirical advice to a rhetorician. vol. &quot. whether (depouthen) those little Attic words I told they are wanted or not for they are pretty words. I want you to say Bravo sopher. IV. 4G. 8 Epict. prcec. even when they do not mean anything. ! &quot. 15. ! others were not infrequent &quot.s 5 Orat. is sophist he was not interrupted put out in an extempore if 1 says Philostratus. 24. 3.aV KCU KCU rov . : It by was a disappointment &quot.gt.&quot. words which had thus come into d7rporriTa&amp. i.&quot. Rhet. KaAcos being no longer strong enough.oprjrojs ( cro&amp. de audiendo.&quot. I want your praise.lt. !&quot. Divine!&quot. Inspired!&quot. &quot. &quot. above all. 5 flei cos* KCU KGU rov and extravagant 0o&amp. 1 d\f]0w&amp. says speech. Oh. p. of the arms.&quot. They are all 2 Dio Chrysostom.96 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. down. of 422.lt. you about must blossom on the surface of your speech arra (atta] and ^TrovOev must be sprinkled about freely. 4 Plut. rov use. 3 u What do asked the mean &quot. &quot. 3.lt. Diss. If &quot.&quot. must come in pretty frequently. speaks of the strange 26. the old words. crowd . said one of them to Epictetus.A applause.for the murmur of the agape. common cries .

eminent of them were among the most distinguished men can I They were the the time. 1. the professor would go round What did you think of me to-day? says one in : &quot. that he does not howl out like a dog which he disapproves. of . says Eunapius of the sophist Julian. V. says Plutarch. but the end of the discourse. \Vit. pcur&cioi 8e avrov Kat Kat fj. The more They made both money and reputation. p. at everything of waits until at any rate After the discourse. Diss. &quot. the much professor. nonsense it could not have been less than a thouIsand. Epictetus. 11. I What Oh.v. Tvpdwi 2 4. 24. it life.S. i admirable. Julian. there were It is the mark of a good hearer. too. Yes. 2. c : it was : they appreciated what i I said. i Which was that? Nymphs. 97 thinking of something to say in the interval between the rounds of applause. 23. of Polemo Philostr. 5 They were times its masters.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. 4 pets of society. yap TIS dyady Tv^rj vvv)KO\. Beauty. 25. A &quot.&quot. ( : : 2. JIT. Why that is more than Dio ever had I wonder | 1 . 2 Upon my &quot. p. 5 1. 68. move even a stone. 1. signs of disapproval. IV. 5. at (state 1 De 3 Diss. 21. says Again. 1 &quot. &quot. from Epictetus: 3 to quote another anecdote larger audience to-day. of course. 3. 23. 3. 39. Alexander Peloplaton.&quot. I should guess. 6. ye rwi/ Atfr/vwt/.OvOfi Trpeo of Mark of Byzantium 2. petai TroAAcu 1. p. larger. 19. Sometimes. sir. and some- 4 audiendo. j you were did you think of my best passage ? Where I described Pan and the I think. Oh. of Scopelianus. )f They were employed on affairs of home and on embassies abroad. 5.&quot. I thought was excessively well done. much Five hundred.

7TOV AoAAiai/ov TrA^^v? evyevewv Jrapwi/. S. A. SO of Polemo. and some remain: &quot. : : and a monograph by Kayser. as we might say. Rhein.a 7rar/3os avrwv T ovvopa StV/cos ^et. ye/xicras etKO(Tt p.lt. to the House of Lords at the and sometimes governors died. P. p. was of inscribed on the statue of Prohseresius at Borne.lt. not one of the wonderful temples of that city would have been thought too great for his burial.The Queen of Cities to the King of Eloquence. iii. S. avrov ovK TW VOVO-L KCU TOIS ev 22.&quot. &amp. MoSecrro? ex//. C. and lived public expense. No. 625 see also Welcker.lt. sometimes placed on the free list of their city. because there was no monument to him there . 23.lt. vol. i. It is followed by the epigram : prjryjpa SIKUV /xeAeT^crt T a/oe&amp.&quot. 90. .ro(f)i(TTr)&amp. F. 25. They were sometimes made senators raised. One Seven Wise Men. 1841.gt. Polemo died at Smyrna. S. public statues were erected in their honour. 1886. Prohceres.!&amp. was found a few years ago near the Propylaea Dittenberger. beneath a representation of 1 //. Vit.s efs JJLTOL TWI/ eTrrot cro^tov firj Bulletin de correspondence Hellenique. The inscription of one of the statues which are mentioned by Philostratus. 1. AS/navos o-arpairyv 1. whereas if he had died there. discredits the story that &quot. 2. V. as having been erected to Lollianus at 2 Athens. 210. Philostr. 1. 4 and. 2 The some inscriptions of them are recorded by historians. F. I. and sometimes before When of provinces. 1 they their death. Heidelberg. ib. N.&quot. etcrt 8a7y^evat ovvofj. iTTTre- 25. ct $eAas 8 Kai Ttvcs 7raT/)7ys. Hordeonius Lollianus.gt.Tt. 1. is inscribed on an existing base of of the a statue at Attaleia .98 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC* IV. Philostratus.\vovo~a Pw/^ rov /3acrtAevoi/Ta TOJI&amp. F. though he had not fulfilled twenty-five years. Eunap. a7r(j) r)Vv d(j^av(t)v Wvwv eyKareAe^e Se rots Moucreia) (riTov/xevois : Srjjjiocriijt. Aoywv. Mus. 8 rj /3a&amp. of Dionysius of Miletus. 3. 157. 26. 3 &quot.

1. crowning. ibid. 5 Philostratus. to kings as not inferior. 1. noting But the real grounds on which the more earnest men aXafyv objected to Jjected I them were those upon which Plato had to their predecessors: their making a trade obof knowledge.&quot. narrates the incident with graphic humour. 35. H2 eVAarrovTO iv VTT . Mittheilungen des deutsches arch&ol. There are many stories about them. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. the words. equal.&quot. but he returned from his journey at night. It was said of the same sophist that he used to talk to cities as a superior. It on the Emperor s arrival to be away from home . p.IV. 1 &quot. de a cross between a braggart and a mountebank. quence. turned the 2 The common epithet for them is Emperor out of doors. 2 . and with loud excla mations against being kept out of his own. 228. 25.He They naturally sometimes gave themselves great airs. &quot. was a thriving trade. Philostratus tells one of the Emperor Antoninus Pius on arriving at Smyrna going. V. 61. 99 subjects all things to elo are found on a similar base at Parion. 3. and their unreality. 71. to spend the night at the house which was at once the best house and the house of the most distinguished was that of the sophist Polemo. ira[iir\r)deis c/uAoo-oc/jeu/ f IUTOU TrAovTiCtoi/Tfti. whether literary or moral. a word with no precise English equivalent.. in accordance with imperial custom. The making of discourses. 2. and adds two anecdotes which show that the Emperor was rather amused than annoyed by it. who happened in the city man. p. ~ to gods as an Dio Cassius. Institut. 4. 1884. 3 The fees given to a leading sophist were on the scale of those given to a prima donna in our 1 o? TrdvTa Aoyots vTroTcuro-ei. S.

I do he says. 8. the father of Herodes Atticus gave Scopelianus a fee of twenty-live talents. 5. the irre of good morals who wished to air But the tendency divorced from practice. 2 Dio Chrysost. Aul. cavtov TO Trpay^a. makes more candid than for himself is effective: &quot.&quot. Gell. p. 33. Musonius. Or at. They had 2. do. were 4 itself &quot. It is not necessary to suppose that they all charlatans. Maximus apeT ^s. to moralize had become They preached.people give me sometimes one money.If if it the all. p. p. says of Tr/DO/ceirat quam ap. 3 Or at. which the profession had fallen. there they do much being a trade at was not it fact of its thriving. repute into 4 xxxii. for the sake of their but own personal gain and glory. vendunt:&quot. mina. to which Atticus himself added another twentyfive: Philostr. as philosophers. poets and rhetoricians. I charge nothing it is : for having a voluntary contribution.as . as now. and not for the sake of benefiting The defence which Themistius 3 you. V. of Tyre. 21. 1. his opinions. let me ask you make : Did any one ever come away the worse this me ? heard Mark. Epist. There was then. IV. ayopa 403 : so Seneca. objection to they do what they &quot. young man pressible seem unreal.&quot. &quot.&quot. 1. The whole speech 351. sometimes as much as a talent but. 222. made philosophy but philosophers.&quot. 1. 7. Diss. The stronger ground of objection to them was their unreality. They are not said the sturdy old Stoic fiddlers. They had lost touch with life. them. since I must speak about myself. there is harm. so says Dio Chrysostom. not because 1 For example. &quot. 1 own But the day.S. as the fact of its no harm perhaps is 2 &quot. 29. sometimes two. xxiii. philosophiam honestius neglexissent is a plea against the dis .&quot.100 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC.




they were in grim earnest about the reformation of the
world, but because preaching was a respectable profes
sion, and the listening to sermons a fashionable diver


mass of


says Plutarch,


and admire a philosopher when he is discoursing about
their neighbours; but if the philosopher, leaving their
neighbours alone, speaks his mind about things that are
of importance to the men themselves, they take offence

and vote him a bore
listen to


for they think that they

ought to
a philosopher in his lecture-room in the same

that they listen to tragedians in the theatre.
This, as might be expected, is what happens to them in


regard to the sophists; for


a sophist gets


from his pulpit and puts aside his MSS., in the real busi
ness of life he seems but a small man, and under the


of the majority.

They do not understand about


philosophers that both seriousness and play, grim looks
and smiles, and above all the direct personal application
of what they say to each individual, have a useful result
for those

tion to


are in the habit of giving a patient atten


Against this whole system of veneering rhetoric with
philosophy, there was a strong reaction. Apart from the
early Christian writers, with whom "sophist" is always
a word of scorn, there were men, especially among the
new school of Stoics, who were at open war with its


I will ask




It is clear that the

audiendo, 12,

as in both earlier



to listen to the expostulation

p. 43.



later times,

had under the Early Empire,

two separate streams of meaning.





which the great moral reformer Epictetus addresses
rhetorician who came to him

to a



First of

all, tell



what you want
what we see done


this is

to be,

and then act

in almost all other

Men who

are practising for the games first of all decide
what they mean to be, and then proceed to do the things
that follow from their decision
So then when you say,

Come and


listen to



of all consider whether

your action be not thrown away for want of an end, and then
consider whether it be not a mistake, on account of your real
end being a wrong one. Suppose I ask a man, Do you wish
by your expounding, or to gain applause?
upon straightway you

to do good

applause of the multitude



his sentiment is right


for in

the same way, applause is nothing to the musician qucb musician,
or to the geometrician qua geometrician.

You wish



in what particular
do good, then," I continue
me, that I too may hasten to your lecture-room.



was used

as a title of honour, e.g. Lucian, Rhet. Prcec. 1, TO (re/xvorarov
TOVTO KCU TravTi/xov ovofjio, cro(j)icrTr] s
Philostr. V. $. 2. 31. 1, when
^Elian was addressed as O-OC^IO-TTJS, he was not elated TUTTO TOV oVo/jaros


oimo jueyaAov OVTOS
Libanius great


Eunap. Vit. Liban. p. 100, when emperors offered
and dignities, he refused them, crjo-as rov cro^Lcrr^v

But the disparagement of the class to whom the word
tlva.1 fjid^ova..
was applied runs through a large number of writers, e. g. Dio Chrys.
Orat. iv. vol. i. 70, ayvoovvri KOU aXa6vL O-OC/HO-T^ ib. viii. vol. i. 151,

they croak like frogs in a marsh; ib. x. vol. i. 166, they are the
wretchedest of men, because, though ignorant, they think themselves
vol. i. 214, they are like peacocks, showing off their
the number of their disciples as peacocks do their tails.
M. Aurel. 1. 16 ; 6. 30. Lucian, Fugitiv. 10,
20. 23





compares them to hippocentaurs, crvvOerov

TL /ecu JIUKTOJ/ ev fiecr^)



Tyr. Diss. 33. 8, TO TWV
KGU TroAAwv yu,eo~Tov
/j-a^/z,aT(ov, KaTTT^Aevov Tavra Kal aTre/^TroAovv TOIS Seo/zevois.
oveias KCU (/uAocro^ms -rrXa^o^vov.


the Christian Fathers, especial reference may be made to Clem. Alex.
Strom. 1, chapters 3 and 8, pp. 328, 343.



But can a man impart good
received good himself ?
No just as a man


tering unless he

Would you




to others without having

of no use to us in the


of carpen

himself a carpenter.

know, then, whether you have received
Bring me your convictions, philosopher. (Let
good yourself
us take an example.) Did you not the other day praise so-andso more than you really thought he deserved ?
Did you not
Hatter that senator s son
yet you would not like your

like to


own sons to be
God forbid

would you

like him,









Then why did you flatter him and toady to him ?
He is a clever young fellow, and a good student.
How do you know that ?









the real reason.

But don t you think that these

I mean that
very people despise you
when a man who is conscious that he has neither done nor
in their secret hearts

thought any single good thing, finds a philosopher who tells him
that he is a man of great ability, sincerity, and genuineness, of
course he says to himself,



man wants

to get

something out

not the case with you), tell me what
proof he has given of great ability. No doubt he has attended
you for a considerable time he has heard you discoursing and



(if this is




but has he become more modest in his estimate of

or is he

Yes, he



looking for some one to teach
some one to teach him.

To teach him how to live ?
how to talk which also is the



[The truth



looking for




No, fool

like applause







to live, but

he admires you.

more for that than
come and hear you.]
come and hear him ?


doing good, and so you invite people to
But does a philosopher invite people to
Is it not that as the sun, or as food, is its own sufficient attrac



tion, so


the philosopher also
are to be benefited


people to come and let




sufficient attraction to

by him ? Does a physician invite
them heal him ?
(Imagine what a







genuine philosopher s invitation would be)
come and be told that you are in a bad way


everything except what you should care for


I invite



care for

you do not
know what things are good and what evil and that you are
unhappy arid unfortunate. A nice invitation and yet if that is
not the result of what a philosopher says, he and his words alike
are dead.
(Musonius) Kufus used to say, If you have leisure

my teaching has been in vain/ Accordingly he
used to talk in such a way that each individual one of us who
sat there thought that some one had been telling Eufus about
to praise me,

him he so put his finger upon what we had done, he so set
the individual faults of each one of us clearly before our eyes.
The philosopher s lecture-room, gentlemen, is a surgery



when you go away you ought to have felt not pleasure but pain.
For when you come in, something is wrong with you one man

has put his shoulder out, another has an abscess, another a
the surgeon then, to sit down and give you
a string
fine sentences, that you may praise me
and then


go away the man with the dislocated arm, the man with the
Is it
abscess, the man with the headache
just as you came ?

young men come away from home, and leave their
their kinsmen and their property, to say Bravo!
to you for your fine moral conclusions ?
Is this what Socrates
did or Zeno
or Cleanthes ?
for this that



Well, but is there no such class of speeches as exhortations ?
denies it ? But in what do exhortations consist ? In


being able to show, whether to one


or to

many men,


contradiction in which they are involved, and that their thoughts
are given to anything but what they really mean.
For they
mean to give them to the things that really tend to happiness ;

but they look

for those things


the true





necessary to place a

come and
the pulpit


elsewhere than where they really
but to show this, is

of exhortation)



and dress yourself up in a



invite people to


gown, and ascend

and describe the death of Achilles


Cease, I implore

you, from bringing dishonour, as far as you can, upon noble
words and deeds. There can be no stronger exhortation to duty,




I suppose, than for a speaker to make it clear to his audience
that he wants to get something out of them
Tell me who,

you lecture or discourse, became anxious about or
reflected upon himself? or who, as he went out of the room,
I must not
said, The philosopher put his finger upon my faults
after hearing


behave in that way again ?
You cannot the utmost praise you get is when a man says
to another, That was a beautiful passage about Xerxes, and the


No, I liked best that about the battle of Thermo

other says,



a philosopher s sermon


I have dwelt on this feature of the Greek


of the

early Christian centuries, not with the view of giving a

complete picture of it, which would be impossible within
the compass of a lecture, but rather with the view of

which you will find amply
justified by further researches, that it was sufficient, not
only in its quality and complexity, but also in its mass,
establishing a presumption,

to account for certain features of early Christianity.

In passing from Greek
you, in the

life to

Christianity, I will ask

instance, to note the broad distinction


which exists between what in the primitive churches was
known as prophesy ing," and that which in subsequent

times came to be

upon the





I lay the


distinction for the accidental reason that,

in the first reaction against the idea that




was maintained


with a certain reservation the contention was true






meant a

that the prophet






was not merely a preacher but a spon1

Epict. Diss.






taneous preacher. He preached because he could not
help it, because there was a divine breath breathing
within him which must needs find an utterance. It is
in this sense that the prophets of the early churches were

They were not church officers appointed to
They were the possessors
of a charisma, a divine gift which was not official but
No prophecy ever came by the will of man
but men spake from God, being moved by the Holy

discharge certain functions.



They did not



practise beforehand



they should say; for "the Holy Ghost taught them in
that very hour what they should say."
Their language
was often, from the point of view of the rhetorical schools,
a barbarous patois.

They were ignorant of the rules
both of style and of dialectic. They paid no heed to
refinements of expression. The greatest preacher of them
all claimed to have come among his converts, in a city
in which Ehetoric flourished, not with the persuasiveness




Of that

but with the demonstration which was

spiritual power.



not certain that


of the primitive churches

possess any

representatives of



as the Second Epistle

perhaps a representative of the form which
took in the middle of the second century but though
is inspired by a genuine enthusiasm, it is rather more

of Clement


Jude are perhaps

the canonical books of the

New Testament. The work known

The Second


Epistle of Peter and the Epistle of

it is



artistic in its

likely to

form than a purely prophetic utterance


have been.

In the course of the second century,

this original spon-




taneity of utterance died almost entirely away.



The domi
against it. The

almost be said to have died a violent death.

nant parties in the Church set their faces
survivals of it in Asia Minor were formally condemned.
The Montanists, as they were called, who tried to fan

the lingering sparks of it into a flame, are ranked among
And Tertullian is not even now admitted into


the calendar of the Saints, because be believed the
tanists to be in the right.

was inevitable that


should be


communities necessitated

of a confederation of Christian

the definition of a basis of confederation.

The growth

and the further necessity


Such a



inconsistent with that free utterance of the Spirit




had existed before the confederation began. Prophesy
ing died when the Catholic Church was formed.
In place of prophesying came preaching. And preach
ing is the result of the gradual combination of different

In the formation


of a great institution it

inevitable that, as time goes on,


should tend to unite.

To the

different elements

original functions of a

were added by degrees the func
which had originally been separate of teacher. 1

bishop, for example,

In a similar way were fused together, on the one hand,




the tradition and exposition of the

functions are clearly separable in the Teaching of the Apostles,

15, avrol [sc. eTTiV/coTTOt KCU SICXKOVOI]



KCU 8iSacrKaX(j)v


yap eio-iv ot Ten/xry/xevot iy/,wv
but they are combined in the

second book of the Apostolical Constitutions, pp. 16, 49, 51, 58, 84,


It is probable not only the earliest example whose writ ings have come down to us. certain natural by practice. could be learned charged habitually at regular intervals without waiting for the fitful flashes of the prophetic quently find that with the growth fire. not only a fusion of teaching and exhor tation. but also one of the earliest who took into the Christian communities these methods that Origen is of the schools. For it : its form came was natural that when addresses. as that of the rhetoricians and sophists by his side was Homer or Chrysippus : his . they should be affected by the similar addresses which filled a large place in contempo It was not only natural but inevitable rary Greek life.108 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. IV. exhortation men that to a higher level of of these is. seem to He lectured. and dis aptitude. came to prevail in the Christian communities. Each of them was consequently a function which might be discharged by the permanent officers of the community. they should follow the which they were accustomed. sacred books and of the received doctrine other hand. whether expository or hortatory. . on the the endeavour to raise moral and spiritual was a function which. but also the gradual restriction of the liberty of addressing the community to the official class. We conse of organization there grew up also. as the contemporary teachers have lectured. It was this fusion of teaching and exhortation that constituted the essence of the homily from the sophists. and. every day: his subject-matter was the text of the Scriptures. that when men who had been trained in rhetorical methods came to methods make such to addresses. assuming a Each life.

H. i. p. iii.&quot. 5. 8. addresses. 1 : When the Christian 109 told. schools tinction to direct personal addresses of between the two kinds The of terms is clearly dis shown by a later writer. 5. and the voice of the preacher had large scale The begun. speaks of Origen s Eusebius. c.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC.tou. sermons as 8iaAeeis. the influence of the rhetorical schools upon them begins to be visible on a and with permanent effects. 118. 1. 719. or speeches. be called by the technical terms of the 3 discourses. 1. 2 Sozom. before communities emerge into the clearer light of the fourth century. E. The voice of the prophet had ceased. 3 36. Evang. Ixxxix. and had themselves taught rhetoric. 6. who. speaking of a particular volume of 1 Euseb. They had originally been called to word which was unknown in this sense in pre-Christian times.E. disputations. H.if the : still the Christians had not stolen discourses came him. 6. 13. and of his own Trad. . Augustine 36. 2 The be called by the same names as those of the Greek professors. greatest Christian preachers of the fourth century had been trained to rhetorical methods. we are he preached an extempore sermon. //. in Johann. 2. who on his death-bed him that he would have been his worthiest suc cessor &quot. and which denoted the familiar in homilies a tercourse and They came common life. Basil and Gregory Nazianzen studied at Athens under the famous professors Himerius and Prohseresius said of Chrysostom studied under more famous Libanius. were carefully prepared he was sixty years of age. whereas the original designation was 6/uA. E. So in Latin. vol. vol. like those of the best professors. uses the term disputationes of Ambrose s sermons. pars 2. Confess. IV.

Ivi. . i. Chrysostom s addresses. Horn. i. sed sub illo Pastore vobiscum oves sumus. iv. ad pop. adv. ii. and frequently interrupted him with shouts of acclamation. Adv. analogy to the remonstrance of Epictetus which was quoted just 1 now : Phot. but they are more like homilies. &quot. says. 157. Cone.110 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. xxix. vol. Augustine makes a fine point of the analogy between the church and the lecture-room (schola) tanquam vobis Tanquam pastores sumus. non occur. H. vol. cxxvi. The preacher sat in his official chair: it was an exceptional thing for him to ascend elaboration of phraseology. Horn. 671 . 1 discourses tended to be the side a discourse of same : if you examine side by Himerius or Themistius or Libanius. and a similar They were delivered under analogous circumstances. ed. 790 . 4. that he again and again addresses his hearers The form of the as actually present before his eyes. vol. vol. c. Horn. 25 . in Psalm. in cap. 523. liv. but also affords a singular is. Jud. 2 Sozomen. BiUiotli. IV. vol. the audience him. vol. Antioch. &quot. prof. eos qui ad Collect. the modern crowded in front of 2 &quot.&quot. and one of Basil or Chrysostom or Ambrose. 172. ii. vii. 8. iv. Genes. iii. They are called speeches (Ao yof). adv. eos qui ad lud. in cap. illo Magistro in hac schola Enarrat. 541. xxvii. 3 7. Genes. iv. for this reason. the reader s ambo. 6. you will find a similar artificiality of structure. circ. 5. : vobis ex hoc loco doctores sumus sed sub vobiscum condiscipuli sumus :&quot. 1429.pulpit:&quot. above others. E. but the fruits of his preaching in their lives. Ben. vol. The greater preachers tried stem the tide of applause which surged round them again and again Chrysostom begs his hearers to be silent to what he wants : : not their acclamations. 3 There is one passage which not only illustrates this point.

Chrys. and not to better your conduct. to please and not to to profit. There are many preachers who make Ill long sermons : if they are well applauded.RHETORIC. fine combinations and harmonies. I go home and reflect that the people who have been applauding me have received no benefit. Believe me. I am not speaking at random That my child cry. It is this that ruins churches. c. I could not bear to hear . I am sore at heart. they are as glad as if they had obtained a kingdom if they bring their sermon to an end in silence. We act like a father who thing else that is it gives a sick child a cake or an ice. but sermons that will delight your ears with despondency worse. 238. and I say to myself. to delight and not touch you. Apost. then what we do when we elaborate beautiful sentences. to be admired and not to instruct. xxx. just as if you were listening to singers and lute-players.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN . in which the human nature of there is which Chrysostom speaks bursts forth with striking force after the famous peroration in which after bid: 1 S. . their : almost say. Horn. &quot. than hell. is : when you applaud me natural for a man as I speak. and urging you And anzen s down a rule absolutely prohibiting all to listen in 1 silence. seeing that your hearers to reap any fruit out of all that you say ? And I have want often thought of laying applause. make moment a clean breast of as it. IV. that you do not seek to hear sermons that touch the heart. vol. 3. And we preachers humour your fancies. or some merely nice to eat just because he asks for and takes no pains to give him what is good for him and when the doctors blame him says.&quot. . and indeed that whatever benefit should I not ? I am they might have had has been killed by the applause and praises. I feel at the I will to feel. What don t is the good of all your labours. and I lament and fall to tears. ix. I is their intonation may and the structure of their phrases. instead of trying to crush them. a passage near the end of Gregory Nazigreatest sermon. to go away with your applause in our ears. it is Why And then when delighted and overjoyed. in Act. and I feel as though I had spoken altogether in vain.

great and Christian &quot. ye are nearly all of you unfaithful to God. Severianus of Grabala and Antiochus of Ptolemais (St.112 IV. The historians Socrates and Sozomen^-fcell an in structive story of two Syrian bishops. preach ing frequently in the churches. and to the multitudes who had thronged to hear preach. /. Sozomen. and making a good deal to Constantinople. H. ding farewell one by one to the church and congregation which he loved. exalt your orator address. like the sophists. to the several companies of his fellowworkers. 8. shout aloud. : &quot. resolved to follow his example he waited for some time. 6. were churches. hearing about the money. applause.) to heaven your malicious and chattering tongue has ceased it &quot. exercised his rhetoric. princes and palaces. They were both famous for their rhetoric. though Severianus could Antiochus went not quite get rid of his Syrian accent. : to Constan10. E.&quot.) city ____ K^L I. Jean d Acre). Severianus. and stayed there a long time. . sometimes peripatetic.Socrates. (Then will not cease for long : it writing and ink the peroration is resumed. and he interrupts his peroration with an impromptu Yes clap your hands.&quot. got toge ther a large stock of sermons. Farewell. H. of money thereby. the royal court and household whether ye be faithful to the king I know not. went 11. delivering their orations and making money by delivering them. he turns to the court and his opponents the Arian courtiers him Farewell. I will add only one more instance of the way in which of the sophists flowed into the Christian the habits Christian preachers. On his return to Syria. and then 2. E. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. (There was evidently a burst of &quot. : : will fight (though I am absent) with but just for the moment we are silent. they went from place to place.

IV.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. nor of taking the lead in public worship. It created the It added to the functions of church Christian sermon. age or country. The fate of many preachers and court favourites he excited great jealousy. in short. 113 He was kindly received by the bishop. you If you look more closely will find that Ehetoric killed Philosophy. Such are some of the indications of the influence of Greek Ehetoric upon the early churches. exegesis of the sacred books as the Sophists gave of Homer. not because they were bursting with which could not help finding expression. because for all but a small minority it from the sphere of thought ceased to be real. or such elaborated discourses as they also gave upon the speculative and ethical aspects of religion. Philosophy died. but that of either such an of discipline. nor of the simple tradition of received truths. Its and conduct to that of exposition and literature. : and only by the personal intercession of the Empress Eudoxia was he received back again into ecclesiastical favour. of heresy and banished from the city . It died. It passed preachers preached. and soon became both a great popular preacher and a favourite at tinople. But sophistry is of It is indigenous to all soils i no upon . was accused overtook him court. but because they were masters of fine phrases and lived in an age in which fine phrases had a value. truths because special it had become sophistry. The result was more far-reaching than the creation of either an institution or a function. into history. a function which officers neither that of the exercise is nor of administration of the funds.

if Chrisutterance rather than truths of their lives. But of reality. by the subtle bonds of its brotherhood. and try- like the voice of the the echo of the past sound So of than there by the genius of a great writer of men who cultivate the style of literature created arises a class form has been with Christianity. because many of its preachers live The truths they set forth are truths of unreal world. But the power that it was in its earliest tianity is to be again must renounce its costly purchase. The hope that the class which was artificially is. Christianity created may ultimately disappear . and that the sophis- . purchased conquest at the price There has been an ele progress stopped. culed it : a class of rhetorical religionists is A class of to be ridi only less ano of malous because we are accustomed to it. IV. talkers who persuaded thronged the race of eloquent it it its language to their change its dress and to assimilate own. so far has the . it With that ment of sophistry in it ever since its and so far as in any has been dominant. sooner is any new to philosophy or to religion men who copy to make present. rhetorical chemists would be thought of only ages. It seemed thereby to win a speedier and completer to victory. It won its its life. which literature grows. No sooner is any special No style s sake. It came into of the educated world in the simple dress of a Prophet that world by the stern reality of Eighteousness. age that element of Christianity been arrested. by Around divine message of consolation and of hope. it it for the impulse given either than there arises a class of the form without the substance.114 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. Its progress is progress in an arrested now.

GREEK AND CHRISTIAN RHETORIC. as a transient mist. as the Spirit gives . will speak only them utterance.&quot. who. 115 tical element in Christian preaching will melt. like the prophets of the that ages are long gone by.IY. before the preaching of the prophets of the ages to come. I 2 &quot.

begins the construction or synthesis. Thi peculiar feature of the intellectual history of the Greeks the rapidity with which the power was developed. tion or analysis reaches its The process limit in the point. process of formed by the addition of one simple idea to another. is The elaboration of one class of such ideas. Complex ideas are that limit the mind. from all forms are regarded in themselves. and having been so formed can be precisely defined. and the strength of the grasp which it had upon them. CHEISTIANITY AND GEEEK PHILOSOPHY. of abstrac and from making a new departure. or at least different among races is and of forming abstracl exercised. those oJ form and quantity. sciences is The geometry. and The fixed upon the single characteristic of their form. Their constituent elements can be distinctly stated. earliest In it.LECTUKE V. They can be so marked off from other ideas that the idea which one clear . THE power of generalizing ideas exists. and most typical of these the attention is drawn away the other characteristics of material things. and a boundary drawn round the whole. led to the formation of a group of sciences. in varying degree* and at different times. which hold a per manent place. the mathematical sciences.

V. are accepted There by no ques tion of mere probability. but one its definitions The : is that there are not two sciences of geo all and who study its it are agreed as to both inferences. those of quality. They are not sharply marked out by lines which would be universally recognized. The phenomena which suggest such ideas assume a dif ferent form and colour as they are regarded from different They enter into different combinations. postulates&quot. The ideas themselves . for example. limits of such an agreement are narrow. The result or at once disproved. man 117 has formed can be communicated to and represented man s mind. Nor is such a definition possible. nor any halting between two The inferences are not only true but certain. When we pass from the abstract ideas of qualities. The elaboration of words which are used to express sensible qualities gest the same ideas to different minds. law or duty. metry.CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. quently no universally recognized definition of them. to such ideas as those. marched at first by a parallel road. to be granted. another class of abstract ideas. which can be tested by the senses. is. on the whole. made by one man. the same ideas to one man as to another. There is conse points of view. by different minds to the same sug are applied They But the objects. The attention of different men is arrested by different features. not all men would uniformly apply the same words to the same actions. To a limited extent such a parallel march is possible. &quot. though the words suggest. assuming in another certain &quot. or generalizations as to substances. of courage or justice. opinions. The inferences which. are another man be true and certain to axioms&quot.

27 (i.g. alleg.f&amp. excerpt. 3 Soy/Aa. which implies An indication of this may be seen in the fact that words which have come down to modern times as technical terms of geometry were used indifferently in the physical and moral sciences. Sta Aoyi/cwv Kai #6(0^77 /Acmov Epictet. 8. 104). it. e. theorem 1 ($eoy)?7/Aa). Diss. of 2. &quot.3.g. Philo. itself properly applicable to the marking out of the boundaries of enclosed land. 9. 3. were supposed to be to also possible in regard to the conceptions of metaphysics The habit of the ideal forms of and ethics. about them vary. Gaisf.vcriKu&amp..g. 1.gt.round each of them. There off into their contraries. e Joann. &c. regarded as equally capable of being of inference which were applicable denned to the . There only . Frag. gives as an example a proof . 1 making definitions. 751. and of drawing deduc was fostered by the habit of discussion. tend to shade The of haze. e.ii. tions from them.118 CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. Leg. e. and as a variant Ench. Damasc.gt.v Soy/zariov /cat 377). icai ?7$iK&amp.&amp. Musonius. EcL.neces sary matter. ^eoopT^uacri rots Trtpl KOCT/XOV 3 ... Discussion under the name of dialectic. op. V. 139. ed.lt. Kai TWV pepuv avrov Epict. 12. &amp. many Greek thinkers do not appear to have Between these two made any clear Ideas of each class were distinction.lt. : So definition (6/0107x05) is 137. 17. Diss.gt. Philo. but was used of all explanations of the less by the more evident . after denning that pleasure is not a good. (ii. 52. So also a7roSeiis was not limited to ideal or &quot. 1. classes of generalizations and of those abstractions. the canons one were con ceived to be equally applicable to the other: and the certainty of inference and exactness of demonstration which were possible in regard geometry. 2 . in Stob. 3. 4. 4. is is a fringe result is that assertions not one system of philosophy there are many. the doctrines of moral philosophy : changed with : sometimes co-ordinated or inter de fort. quantity and those of quality or substance.

V. : seems to me. that is. There was no universally recognized standard of appeal. or criterion. assertions about abstract ideas and wide generalizations! could only be regarded as the affirmations of a personal conviction. the affirmation or &quot. the question of the nature of the criterion was one of the chief questions at issue. words were areas of thought. was like a game of was conducted under speak. it place. Consequently. strict The was definition of terms its necessary preliminary . so to It life. as it was termed. so the affirmations of a thinker . and dialectic helped to spread the habit of requiring defi nitions over a wider area and to give it a deeper root. ation The making of such an affirm was expressed by the same phrase which was used for a resolution of the will seems (good) to me&quot. That definitions less there is to say. The game. were adopted as resolutions of the will of other persons. and recognized rules but it could not proceed unless each card had a determined and admitted value. There was divergence in the definitions themselves than there was in the propositions that were deduced from them. had a large not only in the rhetorical and philosophical schools. but also in ordinary Greek cards. was a verbal agreement which was not a as to real agreement of ideas the found on examination to cover different same.It ((We* ^01) the corresponding substantive.&quot.It itself. there was nothing to determine which of two con trary or contradictory propositions was true. &quot. just monarch were obeyed as the resolutions of the will of a by his subjects. : But whether the difference lay in the definitions themselves or in the deductions made from them. that CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. 119 was but a regulated conversation. Indeed. by But dogma (^o y/xa).

45. 11. &quot. 1 2 o Se vofjios The use /3ao-iAeo&amp. 11. and (b) a . of a philosopher. Diss. (2) assent to the inferences of the several sciences : in either sense it is (a). he is conviction. a strictly personal feeling. of same affirmation gave tion a high degree of probability . Hence Ench. 1. Diss. one case as in the other.&quot. that In the is. See especially. TO cv8oKtv TIVI Trpdypari. feel in man &quot. e. another person. 26. or between the afford it 2 disciples themselves.&quot. the moral maxims which form the ultimate motives of action and the resolution to act or not act in a particular case. 32 3. 1. 3. 16. to to speak adopts the Soy pa of make it his unison with the Sextus Empiricus. V. Diss. 38. in Epictetus i. any guarantee that the coincidence of expression was also a coincidence of ideas either between the original thinker and his disciples. especially instructive Soy para They are the inner judgments of is : a large place in his philosophy.120 CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. might become affirmations of other persons. it to lose its nor did The made by tended to predominate. 21. distinguishes (1) assent to facts of sensation. p. dirb diro If a o-v^TraOrja-ai. word came latter use ordinarily to express an affirmation a philosopher which was accepted as true from the fact of so accepting men in the it. Dind. They are the most personal and inalienable part of us. vol. speak from conviction. 35. own. 1. 12. is opposed to with the lip only.&quot. might be assented to by those who listened to him. Pyrrli. 1. 2. 9. 12 .g. ed.to Soypdrw 1. two philosophical senses of Soy pa. Diss. 11. said. 46.gt. 29. Dio Chrys. Hypot. 17. 2 . (2) a The doctrine. Soypan 3. They fill the if- are the convictions upon which men act. by those who. 4. TWV xetAwi/ AaAeu/. 7. . became The acquiescence formed his school. 7) in regard to both intellectual and moral phenomena.s of the word Soypx. 13. (1) a decree. so as to &quot. mind (Kpipara v^s. AaAeti/. 33. his followers to such but it and number of a large an affirma did not cause original character of a personal conviction. the same word dogma was 1 It thus came to express employed. They are especially relative to the latter. 2.

was simply ibid.x ibid. growth dominated the world It came to be assumed in place of the recognition of it. the unity of the world of objective fact. 1. that certain convictions of certain philosophers were not which grew with a parallel simply true in relation to the philosophers themselves. was thought to These tendencies were strongly accentuated by the decay of original thinking. it was of things. to TO.V. followed that the truth or untruth of a given proposition be determined by its logical consistency or inconsistency with the sum of previous inferences. aSrjXa of them. Philosophy in later Greece was the exegesis of received doctrines.lt. came also to laws of reasoning corresponded exactly with the realities The unity of such a system reflected.?) SoypaTifav they did away. Philosophers had become pro of The what was in itself true had fessors. CHRISTIANITY AND GKEEK PHILOSOPHY. &quot.aivo//. it was in the latter of firm conviction.&quot. that a followed of reason so closely system of ideas constructed in strict accordance with the It truths. question become entangled with the question of what the Master was less thought than It literature. 22 : their attitude in reference I abstain from giving a definition . and of mind. Within these 121 and proper use. Two tendencies of a dogma soon became lost to sight. 197. the word has an indis limits of its original as expressing a fact But the fact of the personal character putable value. and to the state of knowledge in their time. It thought.eva.gt. not with TO. but had a universal validity: subjective and temporary convictions were thus elevated to the rank of objective and eternal be assumed that the processes the order of nature. not a mere vague impression the two senses that the philosophers of research laid it down as their maxim. 1. o###BOT_TEXT###amp;amp. but : : with assertions about them. &amp. opifa. 19. 198. //.

was met by the tendency to doubt and the tendency to . Some 1 be three main groups of 1 writes Sextus Empiricus. and who fused different ele ments together into systems which had a greater unity But these of literary form than of logical coherence. Sext.&quot. men. Hypot. served to They tended on the one hand to bring a literary acquaintance hand to with philosophy into the sphere of general education. came to and another were exaggerated.Words became fetishes. &quot. it. which can with difficulty detail. &quot. and on the other Sect rivalled sect in produce a propaganda. be more important than the doctrine The differences of expression between one thinker doctrine itself. but whose general course be traced in minute described for the ordinary student in the Academics of Cicero. had said. Pijrrh. very facts of the literary character of philosophy. that the ordinary life of later Greece was saturated with philosophical ideas. In the second and third centuries is sufficiently of our era there schools. The result was trying to win scholars for its school. Outside the schools were those who were litterateurs rather than philosophers. . and that the discordant theories of rival schools were blended together in the average mind into a syncretistic dogmatism.122 V. 3. doubt flowed in many streams. 1. and of the contradictions in the expositions of spread it over a wider area. The moral duty of adherence to the traditions of a school was stronger than the moral duty of finding The literary expression of a the truth at all hazards. Empir. CHRISTIANITY AND GKEEK PHILOSOPHY. Against this whole group of tendencies there was The tendency to dogmatize more than one reaction. say had come to &quot.

and the philosophy of research. first 123 . were in possession of the field of educated of thought. Pyrrh.s because He has no admitted ow-ia. spite of his constant formula. Hypot. that those methods and conceptions are found even among the philosophers of research who claimed to have wholly disentangled themselves from them. class consists of those who are specially designated Dogmatics. not of Greece.lt.&quot.lt. were all alike outside the earliest forms of Christianity.ria&amp. . (TKen-TiKiq. a/caS^/mik^.V. Sextus Empiricus. of research. majority. In those forms the moral and spiritual elements sive. 1 But the first of The Dogmatics. the followers of Aristotle and Epicurus. . CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. and some others the second class : consists of the followers of and other Academics : Clitomachus and Carneades. the philosophy of denial. maintains the necessity of having definable conceptionSj TOV evvoov/xevwv rjplv Trpay/xaTtuv rot? CTTtvoeu d^ecAo/xev. 3. especially in the form either pure Stoicism or of Stoicism largely infused with Platonism. 2. 2 The philosophy of assertion. 3. in OTJ^ 6/06^(0. and he argues that it is impossible for a man to have an eWoia of God ov&amp. They were not only supreme but exclu but reflected the philosophy. 1 Ibid. Soy/Aari/ay. the Stoics. 2 For example. the philosophy of denial. 4. It is a convincing proof of the completeness with which that thought was saturated with their methods and their fundamental conceptions. some say that it is impos be apprehended some still search for that they have found the truth sible for truth to The it. as the philosophy and the philosophy these was in an overwhelming of assertion. the third class consists of the They may be distinguished Sceptics.

let him coma . Celsus sar castically declared the law of admission to the Christian communities to be &quot.Not standard which philosophy did not recognize. but they also appealed. with the problems. on the one hand. The forms of Christianity were not only out side the sphere of Greek philosophy. whoever is unintelligent. were called in St. Let no educated man enter. and on the other casuistry. It was content no eye for the with the symmetry of balanced sentences. It had no the sense of system was not yet awakened. It had minute anatomy of thought. Paul s time: and more than a century afterwards. of the this Palestinian philosophy &quot. whoever is simple. no prudent man. of Palestine. it remained still within its the own sphere. on the other hand. the unsolved enigmas difficulties. but of human life. enigmas of the moral world were still its subject-matter. That philosophy was almost entirely ethical. for It had no taste for verbal distinctions. V. many wise men after the flesh&quot. became more self- it had been. and it became in the Fathers of the conscious than Talmud on the one hand fatalism. It was stated for the most part in It dealt short antithetical sentences. no wise man. and not unconsciously. for such things we deem evil but whoever is ignorant. not of being in the abstract. mirror. and. the tradictions. without attempt It reflected as in a ing to construct a perfect whole. to a &quot. system. with a symbol or parable to enforce them.When the con world of fact. It was a philosophy of proverbs.124 CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. * whoever is uneducated. mainly to the classes which earliest philosophy did not reach.

how Christianity and how when in contact both the one exercised upon the other the influence of a moulding force. logical demonstration. The question which arises. is. maxims of a blind belief. : 1 2 Origen. between current philosophy and the lead- ing ideas of Christianity there was a special and real 1 see also the references given in Keini.&quot. 3. c. 1. as to have made it no less a / V J philosophy than a religion. V. in spite of the apparent and certain leading ideas of superficial antagonism. words and wonderful doings of Jesus Christ. it produced living witnesses of the &quot. moreover. c. and filled so large a place in it. 9. Gels. Qrigen. and which should properly be discussed before the influences of particular ideas are traced in particular doctrines. The explanation is to be found in the fact that. I / V ) . the ideas and methods of philo sophy had flowed in such mass into Christianity. 1 125 It proclaimed. Gels. 44 Celsus wahres Wort. that was foolishness with philosophy of the world &quot. It Instead of appealed to prophecy and to testimony. how this result is to be The answer must explain and philosophy came into contact. accounted for as a whole. tion&quot. 11.CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. The from the of of view educa point philosophers worldly &quot.&quot. It is therefore the more remarkable that within a cen- v tury and a half after Christianity and philosophy first came into close contact. pp. 40. made 2 sport of it: Celsus declared that the Chris tian teachers were no better than the priests of Mithra Hekate leading men wherever they willed with the or of .the God. and be welcome.&quot.

46. new which was cognate solution and to the old. testim. and explanations of it are offered by both Christian writers and their opponents. a CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. Y.eTeach the same as the Greeks. to its doubts the certainty of a revelation. T^^inshijp_ of ideas is admitted. he claims on that ground the soberness.&quot. 2. justice. number. nothing in which we have not the support literature. The teachings of &quot.&quot. endurance. u who are versed in ancient alone are hated for what 2 says Tertullian. though not in 1 3 Apol. have composed books by means of which it may be clearly seen that we have embraced nothing new or monstrous. animce. For all . 1 though &quot. i. Plato. sophers. Apol. we Some j)f _our we teach. Apol. 13.126 Christianity gave to the problems of philosophy kinship. of common and public literature. 4 says Justin Martyr. and chastity same liberty for Christians which was enjoyed by philo : . 20. . Elsewhere 3 the same writer founds an argument for the toleration of Chris tianity on the fact that its opponents maintained it to be but a kind of philosophy. . Christ.&quot. &quot. 1. 2 4 De . all &quot. The general recognition of this kinship of ideas is even more conclusively shown by the fact that explana tions of it were offered on both the one side and the other. teaching the very same doc trines as the philosophers innocence. says Justin Martyr. W.&quot.&quot.are not alien to those of respects similar. was argued by some Christian apologists that the best doctrines of philosophy were due to the inwork(a) It ing in the world of the same Divine Word who had become incarnate in Jesus Christ. &quot.

says not drunk at the fountain of the pro thence it is. Whatever 1 Octau. that philosophers &quot. shadow the divine preachings of the 1 says Minucius Felix. 127 the writers (of antiquity) were able to have a dim vision of realities by means of the indwelling seed of the im was argued by others that philo stolen&quot. half-truths.they imitated the poet or sophist. on repentance and temperance and the fear of God:&quot. 2.has phets? From have quenched the thirst of their minds.&quot.From What &quot.CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. either to show that they were borrowed from revelation. 3 Strom. 34. 3 says Clement of Alexandria. 4 understandings of the old doctrine. c. their doctrines from sophers had borrowed or It Word.the chief and knowledge and science. Origen. copy of it. therefore. 16. 2 Tertullian.&quot. so that it is the very things which they have of ours which bring us into They have borrowed from comparison with them. who 4 Apol. the Scriptures. of &quot. in it are being initiated was but a misunderstood was true had been better 2 1. and he goes in detail through many doctrines.&quot. V. doctrines they hold. .&quot. 3. &quot. or to uphold the truer thesis that philosophy was no less the schoolmaster of the Greeks than the Law was of the Jews to bring them to Christ. like hierophants booming round those in Christianity mysteries. Platonism.&quot. by the opponents was a mere mimicry of philosophy a blurred.&quot.&quot. planted &quot.&quot. speculative as well as ethical. They weave a web of mis (b) It of Christianity that it or &quot.and sound them forth with a loud trumpet before men. both on faith &quot. prophets. &quot. &quot. says Celsus. our books. Cels. on hope and love. 47. on the other hand. was argued.

Cels. 15. the poem of philosophical. 2 p. 1 1 smite thee on thy right cheek. 2 was through It this kinship of ideas that Christianity was readily absorbed by some of the higher natures in the Greek world. 6. Ibid. 77. Phocylides. 58. but which in reality bridge : the interval between Philo and the Christian Fathers. Some of that literature was In the Sibylline verses. The two classes of ideas probably came into contact in philosophical Judaism. what had been extremely well said by Plato s Socrates. there is a blending of theology and ethics in some of the writings which are ascribed to Philo. turn to him the other was but a coarser and more homely way of saying also.&quot. V. clear on the one hand that the Jews had a literature. and by means of which both the 1 Origen. very far from the kingdom of God. Keirn. Whosoever shall saying of the Sermon on the Mount. 7.128 CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. 5. 65. 1.&quot. For it is of the dispersion and on the other hand that that litera ture was clothing itself in Greek forms and attracting the attention of the Greek world. 19 : see also the references in . and the letters of Heraclitus. them are &quot. 7. c. Two such elements allegorical method may specially be of interpretation mentioned : (1) the which was common to both Jews and Greeks. there of is a blending of theology and metaphysics. 1 Even the striking and distinctive expressed before. None The hypothesis that they paved the way for Christian philo sophy is confirmed by the fact that in the first articulate expressions of that philosophy precisely those elements are dominant which were dominant in Jewish philosophy.

as an immoral and barbarous atheism. and the Alexandrians 129 who were within. show that it to was necessary to was neither the one nor the other. and they not less naturally sought for points of agreement rather than of and presented Christian truths in a Greek The speculative part of it arose from some of its difference.methods . were able to find their philosophy in the Old Testament as well as in the which earlier (2) the cosmological speculations. scout Christianity when The educated world tended it was first presented to them. Greek thinkers. form. Gnostics CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. the pale of the associated communities. The It defence naturally fell into the hands of those Christians who were versed in Greek . but which were already widening on the surface of Greek philosophy. to a larger circle and which became so prominent in the first Christian philosophies as to have thrust aside almost all other elements in the current representations of them. occupied only a small space in the thoughts of New. men who began to had the same moral communities which and outside those communities were coalesce into aims as the original communities. The Christian philosophy which thus rose out of philosophical Judaism was partly apologetic and partly The apologetic part of it arose from the speculative. necessity of defence. who were without.V. and which appealed K . elements having found an especial affinity with some of the new developments of Pythagoreanism and Platonism. Inside the original communities were men who began to build great edifices of speculation upon the narrow basis of one or other of the pinnacles of the Christian temple .

ed. Strom. and on the other with philosophical idealism. tain twilight. because a fuller account. The tendency to conceive of abstract ideas as substances. of thoughts and utterances about sensible things. The and hung like clouds in an uncer world was indeed not the world real of sensible existences. 2 : 2.of what is dinned in our &quot. but in which the simpler forms of worship were elaborated into a thaumaturgic ritual. : mere thin vapours which had floated upwards from the world of sensible existences. received in them its extreme development. silence not.CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. but a world in which sensible existences were the shadows and not the substance. 1. had been were real beings to earlier thinkers.&quot. with form and real existence. in the main to the same authorities. and students will no doubt refer to the brilliant exposition of Gnosticism in Harnack. i. as they and desire. with the distinctions which must necessarily be noted. ears 1 by the ignorant timidity The above slight sketch of of those who tell us that some of the leading tendencies which have been loosely grouped together under the name of Gnosticism has been left unelaborated. Dogmengescliichte. the waves and not the sea. They were linked on the one hand with the cults of the Greek mysteries. is valuable as a . pp.1: almost the whole of the first book vindication of the place of culture in Christianity. in setting forth the design of his Stromateisf &quot. &quot. unaware. 186 track of the Lecture 226.Wisdom and they were vice. would lead us too far from the main some of the tendencies will re-appear in detail in subsequent Lectures. 130 V. and the solid facts of Scripture history evaporated into mist. says Clement of Alexandria. 1 It was natural that those who held the earlier to I am not forms of Christianity should take alarm.

which vex and detain us in vain over points that contribute nothing to the end in view. some of them go : as for so far as actually to worship him. The history the clash and 1 Adv. fearlessly perverted the divine Scriptures. and set aside the rule of the ancient faith. have believers. These men.V. seeking as they do. give their minds to Euclid : some of them are admiring disciples of Aristotle and Theophrastus Galen. but what form of syllogism may be found to support their godlessness and if one advances any express statement of the divine Scripture. of the second century is the history of conflict 3. for the ruin of simpler-minded. . to 131 occupy ourselves with the most necessary which the Faith consists and that we matters. .lt. 2g&amp. at any rate. of some of the early philosophical schools at Eome. at the mischievous inventor. they try to find out whether it can form .lt. says Tertullian. and ignor ing Him who comes from above.&quot. [the philo sophical explanation of the doctrine of the Trinity]. between these new mystical and HE Q uoted by u 2 Euseb&amp.lt. says a 2 contemporary writer. not what the divine Scriptures say. a conjunctive or a disjunctive hypothetical. K2 5&amp. they study geometry. who always form the majority of are frightened at the Economy&quot.The to say ignorant and unlearned men. deserted the holy Scriptures of And having God.&quot. and have not known Christ.not hands of a men. &quot. &quot. those in : should pass by the superfluous matters that lie outside them. There are others who think duced into that philosophy will prove to have been iotrolife from an evil source.&quot.gt. Some of them. Prax. being of the earth and speaking of the earth. &amp. 1 &quot.&quot. we ought CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY.

The old orthodoxy became a new heresy. philosophical On forms. who would admit of no com conflict was.132 CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. V. The old-fashioned Christians. form. elements of Christianity and its earlier the one hand were the majority of the main the conception of Christianity which probably finds its best contem porary exposition in the first two books of the Apos original communities. a religion of stern and of strict moral moral practice discipline. their Christian colour. conflict state of educated opinion it sible for the original would have been communities as impos to ignore the existence of philosophical elements either in their the On God own body. as it own day to ignore physical science. of the simple love of and the unelaborated faith in Jesus Christ. In the current to speculate side tendency The of tradition. knowledge side by the the new with their conception and with their side with faith. is The true Plotinus. or in new communities which were growing up around would be for the Christian churches of our them. though he repudiates The logical development of the . the name. and maintained the old usages unchanged. Christian. were gradually detached as Ebionites. In the lists of the early hand-books they are ranked as the first heretics. by side with their acceptance was inevitable. and members of of the older communities. but non- outside the Christian lines. Gnostic. The more philosophical Gnostics also passed one by one Their ideas gradually lost They lived in another. holding in the tolical Constitutions. The result of the extreme wing of each of the con tending parties dropped off from the main body. that the promise. other hand were the new communities. or Nazarseans.

. was in reality a victory in which the victors were the vanquished. is shown in the first instance by the which the earliest defenders of the faith&quot. met assertions such a tendency mode in their opponents &quot. . and to test The existence of by philosophical canons. and the supposition that it was instinc from the fact that it was tive is a legitimate inference For Tatian. There was so large an absorption by the original communities of the principles of their opponents as to destroy the main reason for a separate existence. 1 though he ridicules Greek philosophy and professes to have abandoned it. that their opponents vanish from Christian literature and Christian principles seem to It history. is to be found in Neo-Platonism that splendid vision of incomparable which the sun of The struggle and irrecoverable cloudland in Greek philosophy set. The absorption was of the tendency to manent is at speculate. that certain ele ments of education in philosophy had been so widely diffused. ad Grcec. of Yalentinus and the Naassenes. which they embodied.V. as to have caused an instinctive tendency to throw ideas into a philosophical form. 1 Orat. This once a consequence and a proof of the general argu effect ment which has been advanced above. 2. as almost all great conflicts There was apparently so com a of the plete victory original communities and of the end. really ended. in a compromise. and in the course of centuries had become so strongly rooted. less of speculations The residuum than of per was mainly a certain habit of mind. yet builds unconscious. 133 thoughts of Basilides and Justin. CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY.

is there between a philosopher and a Chris of Greece and a disciple of between a disciple expresses Christian truths in philosophical heaven?&quot. of free-will. but had also taught certain philosophical methods.134 up CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. omn. And Hippolytus. and of the nature of spirit. theories of the Logos. out of the elements of current philosophical 1 &quot. the kinship of ideas. 18. been before us main question which has that Christianity came into a ground in short. The answer. penetrating all classes of society and inwrought into the general intellectual fibre of the time. the habit of mind When. V. 2 though he reproves another Christian writer for listening to u Go Gentile teaching. 2 Refut. They had produced a certain habit of mind. Christianity had been absorbed by the educated classes. It had not merely aroused the habit the foundation of philosophy. is himself saturated with philosophical conceptions and philosophical litera ture. though he asks. and so disobeying the injunction. and among all classes of the community. through 1 Apol.&quot.What re Tertullian. semblance tian. Education was widely diffused over the Greek world. 46. 5. not into the way of the Gentiles. against Marcion by methods which might serve as typical examples of the current methods of controversy between philosophical schools. terms. hceres. conceptions. and argues against his opponents for example. . to the is which was already prepared for it. Certain elements of the philosophical temper had come into exist of inquiry which is ence on a large scale.

were found in good works. &quot.E. errors. God to believe in 1 of the latter part of is an anecdote quoted from Ehodon. new philosophizing current. when I 13. But the most uncertain thing of all that he said was what he said about God. 5. and still less as of did they processes of reason that their by But there with approval by Eusebius sialist define one. and in some respects followed the older He refused to be drawn into the Christian tradition. The first of these was the tendency to define. just as we hold too: but 1 H. if only they ciple.V. main points of a short controversy between Ehodon and Apelles was in some respects in sympathy Apelles. i Tell . They thought of no fence But drew supreme. of to their as their Him. For he declared that those who set their hopes on the Crucified One would be inquire too closely into doctrine . He held no doubt that there is One Prin saved. showed itself mainly in three ways The 1. with Marcion. : had been content earliest Christians and to worship Him. so he should remain. They looked up Father in heaven. and Ehodon attacked him He was often refuted for his for his conservatism. they words round their idea idea of to which lay beneath and their worship. It which had preceded it remained and dominated. a controver the second century. said to him. and as Him Him as attempt to demonstrate Him was true. without endeavouring precisely the conception of faith Him beneficent. which furnishes a striking proof of the growing strength at It relates the that time of the philosophical temper. which indeed made him say that we ought not to but that as every one had believed. 135 CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY.

but that nevertheless Then I laughed at him and denounced so he believed. not by the greater or less pro- . said that he did not know. to draw weave the inferences into systems. 2. him. that he did not know how there is one unbegotten God. irre It appealed to men of various it. that inferences from definitions. furnished a basis for the construction of concilable elements in mould. or are able to assert that there is .. It But the result of the ascen strangely diverse edifices.130 us V. The premises of those speculations the conclusions logically followed : the propositions which were contrary or contradictory to them were measured. he swore that he was telling the truth. to is. for that. he that. facts. secrets of the first great successes of There were different and apparently Christianity. of The second manifestation mind was the tendency of the philosophical habit to speculate. he did not know how to prove what he taught. CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. and to test assertions by their logical consistency or inconsistency with those systems. . but that that tion. giving himself out to be a teacher. Their beliefs reflected the variety tians had but of the It little world and of was one of the men s thoughts about the world. When I thereupon adjured him to was tell his convic the truth. sistency of one apparently true statement with another did not vex their souls. how you demonstrate on what grounds you One Principle. but also upon a uniformity of speculations in centuries regard to those were assumed . The earliest Chris The incon conception of a system.. that in the fourth and fifth the majority of churches insisted not only a upon unity of belief in the fundamental facts of Chris tianity. dency of philosophy was.&quot.

The approved opinions was and at last superior to. It . but by the logical certainty of the conclusions and symmetry became a test of truth. from the Greek tendency built about ideas with added such large groups to God has There is They come same certainty They are in reality no more reason to revealed metaphysics than that has revealed chemistry. that in the dogmatic theology of Latin and Teutonic Christendom the content than Eastern. 3. upon a quicksand. indeed from the an element of knowledge in the first means of conception of the The knowledge salvation. 137 bability of the premises. a setting forth of certain facts. The new habit of mind manifested itself not less . of the facts of the life of Jesus Christ necessarily precedes faith in him. But under the touch knowledge had become speculation attached to faith in attach to it was held to in its be not sense less : original sense its new Greek philosophy. which came in the importance to be attached to it. There had been elevated to a position holding of at first co-ordinate with. suppose that He of is underlying assumptions are Greek. but also proceeded to assume in a still greater degree the correspondence of ideas with realities. The Western communities not only took over the greater part of the inheritance. whatever obligation of : the was conceived new form necessary than the of to knowledge old. CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. is. trust in God and the effort to live a holy life.V. The Christian revelation at least primarily. and its But the conception more Western such a theology to attach the to metaphysical as to physical ideas. the sum of inferences It of them. and truths about realities.

CHRISTIANITY AND GREEK PHILOSOPHY. holds the many souls. It has given to Christianity that part of perish. a guarantee of the certainty of the speculations which are built upon those facts. statement of one man s convictions other men may To the assent: but they can never be quite sure that they understand its terms in the precise sense in which the original framer of the statement understood them. itself afford They are simply personal convictions. The this. key to of . has been a damnosa hereditas. while it lives.138 V. is and later it belief that metaphysical theology is the chief bequest of Greece to religious thought. more than and which the prison-house of it which is doomed yet. All such speculations are dogmas in the original sense of the does not in word.

LECTURE VI. who were good neighbours and faithful friends ? who conscientiously . and it is probable. IT has been common to construct pictures of the state of morals in the first centuries of the Christian era the statements of satirists who. and from the denunciations of the Christian apologists. The pictures so constructed are mosaics of singular vices. as there is in modern London. GEEEK AKD CHBISTIAN ETHICS. like all satirists. but from the nature of the evidence vices of ancient Borne which remains. doubt It is It is no gauge the average morality of any age. from had a large element of caricature. which. the might be found to have a parallel in modern London. have a large element of exaggeration. and they have led to the not unnatural impression that those centuries constituted an era of exceptional wickedness. not on merely a priori grounds. questionable whether the average morality of civi difficult to lized ages has largely varied satirists of our : it is own time were possible that if the equally outspoken. a preponderating mass of those who loved their children and their homes. that there was in ancient Eome. like all denunciations.

come into contact with Chris but a strong presumption against the idea that such contact.140 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. if it existed. is is Friedlander. and writer on the yescliichte 2 This subject. and Marcus Aurelius. and were in 1 moral&quot. see especially Bd. men. It is difficult. and con to account for the existence of nobler elements in temporary writers by the hypothesis that Seneca. It has also been common to frame statements of the moral philosophy which dominated in those centuries. to prove the negative proposition that such writers did not tianity . 2 be found on a closer examination that the age in which Christianity grew was in reality an age of moral It will 1 The evidence above statements has not yet been fully too long to be given even in outline here : the statements are in full harmony with the view of the chief modern for the gathered together. sufficiently to be regretted. senses of the word all the current &quot. such contact went so far as to induce a writer in an imi tative age to produce a series of letters commonly printed at the end which are of his works. influenced to any considerable extent their ethical principles. 5te dem Sitten- aufl. VI. Paul. . that in iii. still and which purport to be a correspondence between him and St. Epictetus. is established by the de monstrable fact that those principles form an integral part whole philosophical system. Moms. discharged their civil duties. shown by the fact. 676. the belief in Christian teachers. which is in other respects most accounts of Stoicism the earlier and later elements are viewed as constituting a homogeneous whole. no doubt. Darstellungen aus p. entirely from the data afforded by earlier writers. had come into contact with In the case of Seneca. and that their system in close logical and historical connection with that of of their is their philosophical predecessors.

new system. &quot. and left only its 3 and its squalor. . a belief that of 2 requires amendment. am I to Porphyry. reformation. 141 There was the growth of a higher religious morality. : : hence therefore not be offered to 2 M. had sunk independence of thought and practice in a respectability and &quot. 13). in which it pre purity of life was a condition of membership : pared the minds of men to receive Christian teaching. 13). Aurelius owed and OepaTreia (i.How God. all IvvXov is to Him aKaOaprov. 587. was the reply 1. who rt Traoriv is man &quot. which believed that God was pleased by moral 1 There was the growth action rather than by sacrifice. and forms not the least important among the causes which led to the rapid dissemination of that teaching it affected : of Christianity in that the the development the religious guilds who members of did so accept Christian teaching. But when the philosophical dog-bark descendants of Zeno and Chrysippus had become fashion nobler elements into a &quot. brought over with them into the Christian communities many of the practices of their guilds and of the conceptions which lay beneath them. It had almost faded into insignificance after Zeno and Chrysippus had formed its ism. is vices of the especially seen in the large multiplication of religious guilds. 15). to Epictetus The idea : is &quot. Philostr. The philosophical phase of the reformation began on the confines of Stoicism and Cynic For Cynicism had revived. and &quot. God wants nothing (281.&quot. 7 and iv. 15) the God who is said a eat?&quot.worldly conformity able litterateurs. and should Him. 1 &quot. to Eusticus the idea that life required 8to ii. VI.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. says au Aos . life There was a mind against the reaction in the popular This great centres of population. not even the spoken word (163.So as to please further developed in (Diss.

It is to this moral reformation within the philosophical sphere that I wish especially to draw your attention. or Cynic. The Stoics of the later Eepublic of the Csesars logic and had come literature. to let his sermons speak for themselves. the Stoics but his portrait of an ideal philosopher is the 1 In him. 1 The is Trepl what the great masters was superseding the moral title of Diss. as far as possible. supreme . in the systems of : literature. and its it character. .142 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. contents of ethical teaching. and of the age to give their chief attention to The study of ethics was no longer Logic. to re-assert the paramount importance of moral felt to conduct. which had changed Zeno and Chrysippus had been only its it was both usurping servant. Cynic ism revived. VI. in which the of philosophy practice had which such ideal philosopher is described. instead of endeavouring and comprehensive picture from the available materials. the ethics of the ancient world find at once their loftiest expression tion : and it and most complete their realiza will be an advantage. which the more earnest men be intolerable. whether he be called Stoic portrait of a Cynic. 3. 1. of taught. and to protest against the unnatural alliance between philosophy and the fashionable world. 22. Kwioyxov. and. to limit our view mainly to to construct a composite all what Epictetus says. or rather the earlier and better Stoicism revived. The reformation two points: (1) the philosophy and life (2) the affected chiefly place of ethics in relation to . was becoming its master The study of its place and turning it into casuistry. . He Its was ranked among chief preacher was Epictetus.

452. 2 finitely. The students of his day were giving an altogether disproportionate attention to the weaving of fallacious of and the mere setting traps to catch men arguments in their speech. 1.the preachers of the street. Epictetus was not carried as far as the Cynics were in the reaction against Logic. 17. They were earnest. the squalor was accidental. 1 salon&quot. Epictetus holds to the necessity of the study of Logic as a prophylactic against the deceitfulness of arguments and the plausibility of language. of the . They were the mendicant friars of imperial times. The Stoics of the time could construct ingenious fallacies and compose elegant moral discourses the actual &quot.the preachers of the repulsive. The earnestness The was of the essence. Neither it nor the whole dogmatic phi1 H. of a student when : . former was absorbed by Stoicism and gave it a new impulse the latter dropped off as an excrescence when : Cynicism was tested by time. and conduct of It was at first crude and over literary knowledge. He would restore Logic to its original subordination. 143 study was intended to help and foster. the interpolated remark tfe/octTreveii/. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. Epictetus has begun a lecture upon Logic the addi tion. Bd. but they were squalid.oia.VI. The Cynics would have postponed the study of it inde Moral reformation is more pressing. but they were ceasing to regard living according to of their lives. they said. But he deprecates the exaggerated importance which had come to be attached to it. revival of Cynicism supremacy of ethics over main object a was re-assertion as the logic. KCU ra o/x. 4. i. If the Stoics were &quot. The nature&quot. seems to show that the phrase was a customary one. eTreiyet /zaAAov Schiller. the Cynics were &quot.&quot. 2 Diss. Geschichte der romischen Kaiserzcit.

&quot. not in knowledge.good&quot. evil. 1. must be measured by his progress. and false opinions about good possibility of unshaping. tions of the world as it to disregard the actual condi The is. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. with all the false ideas which they suggest. having learnt from the phi that desire has good things for its object and undesire losophers &quot. whatever might be the place of such knowledge in an abstract system and in an ideal itself. He must begin. 4. He must accept precepts and act upon them before he His progress in philosophy learns the theory of them. with practice. but with his nature as it is shaped already. evil. and &quot. the very evils which it is his object to remedy will be The old familiar names of gathering fresh strength. but in moral conduct. almost beyond by pernicious habits. and &quot. will be best stated in his own words 1 : A man who is making progress. This view. as he must end. will be giving birth at every moment to mistaken judgments and wrong actions. state of human nature upon the threshold of philosophy induce a moral torpor. that to linger is to begin. 1 Diss. to all the false pleasures and false pains which it is the very purpose of philosophy to destroy. which he can fashion to his will by systematic rules of art. which Epictetus preaches again and again with passionate fervour. was impossible it world. . losophy of which it was the instrument was of value in And moreover.144 VI. ing associations of While you are teaching him logic and physics. and beguil ideas. not with unformed and plastic material. The student who aims at shaping his reason into harmony with nature has to is such.

! Will you not show him what the effect of moral perfection that he may learn where to look for progress towards it ? is. he are tells most assuredly making splendid progress. &quot. is. and never to encounter the object of your uude&quot.Look for progress. that while of moral perfection. of the poor friend. fesses is to cause For in professes to secure. my L .145 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. progress This man. the approximation to perfection some one tells us. we effect another. while we admit make &quot. having learnt moreover that in no other way can contentment and dispassionateness come to a man than by his never failing of the object of his desire and never encountering the evil things. And what the of object you have to produce ? Never to be disappointed of your desire. that if he strives not to have things that are without the province of the will. pones it. &quot. things all cases is the effect of moral perfection ? Peace of mind? Who many then is making progress towards treatises of Chrysippus it ? He who not consist in this in understanding Chrysippus then confessedly progress towards moral perfection else than understanding a good deal of Chrysippus. For he knows things which are within the province of the will. You friend. to that to &quot. VI. or at least post while he allows the other to act only in regard to those object of undesire. progress towards of the each one things which moral perfection gress things and so be unhappy. &quot. in the direction which effect the is effect which you have to produce. we admit this to be the definition we seek and show off progress in other then. which perfection How is it. do Progress indeed why do you make game of him ? ? misfortunes his of lead him consciousness from the you astray Why &quot. nothing But as it one thing. : that moral has read Surely moral perfection does ? perfection effects if it is does. he will some time or other encounter some such But if what moral perfection pro and dispassionateness and peace of happiness moral perfection is pro towards of then course mind. can now read Chrysippus even by himself. What ? is progress finally brings the approaching us. banishes the one altogether. my him.

What I want to is just what you do :) Take the and in that examine me it. but must be carried along with the : changes and gusts of things must be at the mercy of those who can produce or prevent them if. then. Slave Effort (you say). then. ? If any one of you. unhindered. &quot.146 VI. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. And what will you gain by it ? Don t you know that the whole book costs five shillings. not what I want to know but rather how you endeavour to treatise is my me ask you to show athlete. . begone. On ! . do or not to do how you desire to have and not to have how you form your plans and purposes and preparations for action whether you do all this in harmony with nature or not. conscientious. eats man who respects himself through all the varying inci like a dents of each successive hour working out his one great purpose. Begone with your dumb-bells but their effect. giving up his allegiance to things outside him. I should reply. has devoted self entirely to his will to make it at last in to cultivating harmony with and elaborating it him so as nature. : ? progress &quot. never to miss the mark in your endeavours to do and not to do never to be deceived in your assent and suspension of sire : : The first of these is the primary and most necessary point for if it is with trembling and reluctance that you seek to avoid falling into evil. Where. then. see is. It is in these respects. lofty. and I will say that arid do not merely interpret books. that I progress. and progress towards that effect in another. dumb-bells. moreover. self-respectful if he has learned that one who longs for or shuns what is not in his power can neither be conscientious nor free. from the moment when he rises in the morning he keeps watch and guard over : these qualities of his soul bathes like a man of honour. is progress to be looked for &quot. show me that you do so. unthwarted. (And yet that ! Show me your your muscles. and do you think the man who interprets the book is worth more than the book itself costs ? self besides. how can you be said to be making assent. look for the effect (of philosophy) in one place. but write similar ones your you are making progress . If I were to say to and he were an See here are to say. If you do so in accordance with nature. Never. free. not them. but if not.

I him tell to go neglect whatever business he home again at once. but and exaggerated A kind of moral gymnastic was necessary. of them to memory. to study to banish from one s life sorrows and lamentations and Alas and Wretched me and misfortune and failure and to learn what death and really is. My dear ! Crito. This only (is worth anything). new or revived conception of philosophy as of human conduct. iii. Em p. if so it please the gods. as such.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. training of the muscles bodily development one an artificial is which effected is necessary to perfect by giving them one by and for the time an exaggerated exercise. no exception to the rule that all arts Just as the require systematic and habitual training. so as to be ! able to say in the prison. so let it be. 1 It formed. . VI. view that in the present state of had already led the the to the human nature the study and practice of it required special kinds of effort. 147 as a runner makes all things help his running. at if. The was to bring the passions under the control of by giving them and to a similarly artificial bring the will into harmony with the will God. It was not only the science but also the art of life. not by so the training of the reading the rules and committing exercise. is on the other hand. and has left home with a view to acquiring that. exile and imprisonment and the hemlock-draught. moral powers was effected. 239. and a singingmaster his teaching: this man is making progress in very truth this man is one who has not left home in vain. 1 Sext. he is wholly bent upon and labours found in books. &quot. as having for its purpose This science actual reformation of mankind. and not there for the object may have : which has brought him away from home is a worthless one. But what &quot. aim of it reason.

13 . 13 4 5 6 De congr. It is frequently (aa-Kya-is). 591). Phil. Diels. and the recognition of the indifference of things that are In the second century. heres. caus. erud. 1 (ii. learning.reading. Galen. under Philo 3 (i. meditation. It is also possible that some of the writings that stand 8. Doxogr. de Joseph. self -restraint. 6 moral reformation had taken a stronger hold. Hist. 2 as aovojoni/ eTrtr^Setov re^v^?. askesis 1 He used in this relation in Philo. the of noble ideals. when the idea of indifferent. Leg. 51 (i. 4 and literary Its elements are memory of 3 intellectual &quot. that the greatest and most numerous blessings that a man can have come from the gymnastic of moral efforts. . guishes those means who 2 discipline themselves in He distin wisdom by from those who have only a of actual works. 11 Quod s 9) (ii. name belong det. de proem. 198. 5. this moral discipline was evidently carried out under systematic rules. 199) (i. 602. din. 11 (ii. pp. Plutarch (Aetius). sleeping on the ground rather than on a bed. De Abraham. He must undergo hardships. reformation. was not It left to a student s option. in another passage he adds to these prayer. Quw 3. el poen. 12 529). rer. $42). quoted because his writings are in some respects as faithful a photograph of current scholastic methods as those of Epictetus.148 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. 6 (i. 418). 273. porior. 91). (i. drinking water rather than wine. and philosophy pliil. discipline. and 1 The wisdom Stoics defined as Otiwv re KCU avdpia-rrivuv eTna-ny/j^v. 509). nom. 1. 2. (1) This special discipline of life was designated by the term which was in use for bodily training. He holds knowledge of it. VI. : so de congr. the active practice 5 duties:&quot. distinguishes three elements in the process of attain ing goodness nature. 41) . alleg. is to the same period. Gr. de mut. plac. 28 (i. caus. erud. Philo 416.

the task is divine .&quot. the storm of strong In a similar way suggestions that sweep reason away. being There was sometimes scourged and bound with chains. for free it is dom. 4. If &quot. desire. Marcus Aurelius says that an ostentation of endurance. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. &quot. The true &quot. 1 . for calm. the contest for kingship. 14. part of the 3. 4. become extreme. as call upon Castor and Pollux in a storm for yours : a storm. 12. : all to virtue by great bodily hardships 7. do and not for the world alone. 1 in his Student s you drink water. thirst you resolve if : wait. 3. he owed it to Eusticus that he did not show off with a striking display either his acts of benevolence or his moral exercises. 2. 3. poor soul carried off your feet great. In Diss. 1 . of saying. by it : . not by self it bodily hardships. 2 Enchir.&quot. 47 above 3 is 1. 12. cf. 1. 3 against all the suggestions of evil desire desire comes into sight way be is to for yourself it Don outside. given as a quotation from Apollonius of Tyana. says Epictetus 2 don t take every opportunity Manual. I drink And water exercise yourself in toil and hardship. Lucian s friend Mgrinus condemns those who endeavour is to fashion young men 1 M. to cool yourself). Epictetus him preferred that men should be disciplined. 18. an object of do not straight consider. but by the voluntary repression of is he who disciplines himself ascetic &quot. for undisturbedness. Diss. and put fill but t embrace if ever your your mouth with cold water out again and tell no one. 3.&quot. . 2.VI. 17. : Think of God : call be your helper and to stand by your side. Him to sailors &quot. 149 sometimes even subjecting himself to austerities. statues (in public. 27 : cf. Diss. the greatest of storms. Aurel. 81.

). was often best Conse practised away from a man s old associations. and grew up a who devoted living&quot. same by their preaching formation of mankind. either in another city or in solitude.150 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. Trtpl ascetic school. VI. 1 This moral gymnastic. discipline in a single stream. in effect. vol. &quot. he says. us. there was a reaction. &quot. . into &quot. blended. body and mind and Lncian himself says that he knew of some who had rather than by a mingled discipline of : died under the excessive strain. Dio Chrysostom argues. crowd and not heed The to retreat duty before &quot. i. to train the soul to follow reason without swerving. Against this also In a forcible oration on the subject. Orat. retreat. (Dind. against the monastic system.retreats&quot. pp. men themselves moral re Individual philosophers had had and Pythagoras had founded an 2 class of 288 sqq.&quot. quently some philosophers advised their students to leave home and study They went elsewhere. as a modern Protestant might 2 Ccelum non argue. man changing from a sick discipline is to live in a when they go from will find the : he will be only like one bed to another. xx. &quot. and flowed which moral went on is shall see. a man Everywhere hindrances both within and without city. out. But out of the ideas which they held which they expressed.both and not from that which seems to be the immediate The extent of true its noise. it was thought. imitators.&quot. they soon with Christianity. and the forth. to the 1 Nigrin. animum city to mutant. 27. as with it (2) ideals to we and the system because uncertain. there which has never since died &quot.

&quot. &quot. &quot.is different from that of the mass of men: from that of bed and exercise and baths and all the very dress of such a one ordinary men. p. but. and his the rest of his living. in their outer as well as in their inner life. to reform them as far he 1 Vol. necessary that those who it was professed philosophy should be marked out from the perverted and degenerate world around them. A is different man who in none of these must be put down as one of them. says Dio &quot. &quot. filled a large place the revived conception of philosophy as necessarily involving practice.&quot. (1) tion to the person which marked the fashionable society of the time. like the old It was a protest against the elaborate atten Spartans. to warn them and rebuke them. but neither the one nor the other had in With contemporary society.&quot. and to give not one of them any whit of flattery nor to spare any one of them. The life of one who practises philosophy. Chrysostom. usually as his at once a protest against the preva luxury in dress and the badge of his profession. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN 151 ETHICS.people see one lent in a philosopher s dress. says Dio Chrysostom.VI.Whenever. 240. was marked in two chief ways : A philosopher let his beard grow. but with a view to men. they consider that he is thus equipped not as a sailor or a shepherd. on the contrary. It was coarse blanket. (2) A philosopher wore a only dress. thongh he declare and profess that he is a philo sopher before all Athens or Megara or in the presence of respects differs from the rest the Lacedaemonian The distinction 1 kings. . ii.

i &amp. and the forces which led to the practice of it receive the is enormous impulse which comes from the religious emo The one tions. is unconscious. L&amp. On the lower plane the purpose of philosophy is stated in various ways. 3 1 3 Vol. each of which expresses the same fact. that nature. Stoicism transformed by the help of religious conceptions. Every object that is presented to the mind by either the senses or imagination tends to range itself in the ranks of either good or evil.avrao-io)v is Emh. what them according dealing with in dealing with thorough study ideas&quot. It consists in making the should be. and thereby to call forth desire or undesire in most men this association of particular objects with the ideas of good or evil. Follow the other in the maxim. is summed up in the maxim.152 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS.gt. It is the good and evil.&quot. it to of the conceptions of and the right application of them to par It is the endeavour to make the will ticular objects.lt. Follow God. The moral reformation affected the contents of them from the sphere ethical teaching chiefly by raising of moral philosophy to that of religion. 13. are two planes of ethical teaching. p./&amp. It is the bringing of the will into harmony with nature. 4. being the result of educa the task of the philosopher to learn to attach the consequent stirring of tion and habit : it is . orthodox and traditional Stoicism : In Epictetus there The one is that of in the other. show them who to 1 it filled. The frequency with which reformers new this class of moral mentioned in the literature of the time shows is the large place which 2. The xPW 2 246. 2 is. VI. 30. ii. possibly can they by talking to them and are. an important element in the philosophy of Epictetus.lt. &quot. and the : desire. Nature .

in its action. 1 to take sorrow un thwarted ment out man of a s life. 2. 1. 1. 2. some importance in the history of psychology. limits of desire are those things that idea of good to what is really good. 1. the desire to have or the effort to do or not to do. so that desire shall never go forth this is the to what is either undesirable or unattainable right dealing with ideas.good. is of O^/XTJ.lt. 30. mainly concerns the individual concerns him &quot. It probably runs back to the Platonic distinction between TO cViflvTtKoy /eos and TO not to have. marked out the constitution are by attaining that result and steady stream. 4. 1. 17. which other of desire is that in it one and the other are determined by landmarks which itself has set in the circumstances that surround nature The natural us. 1. 16. between 1.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS.&quot. cKKAurts. 17. Both the gratification. 12. Tr/ooAi^eis are the ideas formed in the mind by association and blending. &quot. 22. 4. 2. 2. the other by The one that of one which is judged to be fitting. : 3. a^op/ATj. 7. distinction 1. 2. efforts to do or not to do. (1) o/ae^ts. 32. 4 The . 9. 1. 4. to have. 11. 2 and to 153 and disappoint its change disturbed The result of the The means of practice of philosophy is happiness. Dins.o-yr) 2. and elsewhere. 18. 7. 20.rj\{/U)v rot? ITTI /xepovs. The which it the corresponding state of never fails of its mark. 4. 22.frapiJ. the other in his relations with state according to never man nature&quot. men. TMV 7rpoX. and (2) . 44 : Diss. 21. 41.&quot. VI. have or not desires to The one nature itself in two forms.&quot. 2 DIM. 103. 4 stimulated by the presentation to the mind of is an object which is judged to be &quot. &quot. 3. 19. 23. 1. 1. fails of effort is that in in himself. torrent into a calm 3 human of surround itself and the circumstances which That nature manifests it. 2. 31 3 Diss. 11 . 4. 8. 1. 4. 1 &amp. 6. 23. 4. 28. 21 .

But in behind the conception of the Fitting was less prominent than the conception itself. 10. both of which were natural and familiar to the Eoman mind. The former of these. never to say or do anything to harm him. the other from the idea of a debt. 1 Dies. 2. a senator if : if : : it. speaking well of him. a son and give place to him him by in all things. to stand out of his way &quot. . may have you are a senator of any city. to obey him in all things. the organization of civil government. Next. that you are a youth if an old man. power the direction of effort : is determined by our natural relations. never setting up a rival claim to him in those things that are beyond the control of the will. has not &quot. that you are a father. and two other terms.&quot. came into use to express the idea of the functions The one was borrowed from which men have to discharge in it. &quot. that are an old man if a father. Next remember that you are also a brother the doing of what is fitting in this capacity involves giving way to him. are in our GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. and as constituting to what is Fitting in regard had overspread the Roman world.154 VI. This view of right moral conduct as being determined by the natural relations in which one man stands to another. never to disparage him to any one. but gladly letting them go that you the advantage in those things which the will controls. For example l : Bear in mind that you are a son. : yielding to his persuasion. to help all means in his power. What is involved in being ? To consider all that he has to be his lather s property. remember that you are a youth. that world the philosophical theory which lay those relations. For in you each of these cases the consideration of the name you bear will suggest to you what is fitting to be done in relation to &quot. officium&quot.

13. 6 2. 1. Human life begins and ends in God. a rule and standard for our lives. 17. 1. 1. 13. 9. If God be faithful. living we and He 8 things : together form the greatest and chiefest most comprehensive of &quot. We self a which his teaching is expressed : His offspring/ Every one of us may call him Just as our bodies are linked to the material also are son of God. 2. 1. it forms we also musl^ be faithful if God be beneficent. 9. 11. 7 10 2. . in &quot. 2. resolved when same elements. If we once all organizations. 15. 14. 6. 13.duty. 2 6. realize kinship. 7 By virtue of temples and incarnations of Him. 6. 3 5 8 n 3. 8. 11. 1 2 we live to the same forces. English : &quot. VI. 8. 11. 1. doing and saying whatever we do and say in imitation of and union : with Him. because we and He are part of one birth and universe. 14. this communion with Him we are in the first rank of created shrines. so that we are His . 8. 2. I will ask you to listen to a short cento of passages. 3 so by virtue of reason our souls are linked to and continuous with Him. we subject while die into the 5 to Him all hearts are open. &quot. On the higher plane of his teaching Epictetus expresses moral philosophy in terms of theology. 1.&quot. to complete His conception of the He had need for such completion of some beings who universe 1 4 6 9 : 1. 3. 155 the passed in this sense outside the Latiu language debitum&quot. 11 &quot. 9. 1. 5. we also must be benefi cent. first of all. 27. 1214. all desires known 6 as we growth walk or talk or eat. 14. strung loosely together. 14. 14. 4 There is no movement of which He is not conscious. is familiar to us under form its latter. being in reality parts and offshoots of Him. Moral conduct is a sublime religion. Why did He make us ? He made us. If God be highminded. no this and 9 mean or unworthy 10 The sense of thought of ourselves can enter our souls. .GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. He Himself is within us. 4. we also must be highminded. . &quot. 1.

of a good 17. 29. 19.m 2. 20. to Olympic an opportunity of showing of what : stuff we is in reality an whom He has given are made. 3. to behold and understand and interpret His administration of the universe to : be His witnesses and ministers. 1. 56. thirdly. 2. 16. the spirit of manliness and fortitude and highmindedness. 1. 1.gt. 2. 5. 4. 6 He has given us the power of . take from within thyself/ To this end He has given there is no power in heaven or earth that can 4 it us freedom of will . 46. 12. he has in ourselves placed good and evil in those things which are within our own 3 What He says to each one of us is. 1. There is a time for learning. 3. 26. tvapto-rtiv ry 1. If. it brings from Him this message. 4 6 82. 7. and gives. the greater the opportunity of adorning our character by meeting it. 6&amp. bearing and turning to account whatever happens. Give me a proof that your moral train real. 7 ? 9 8 to be of one mind with Him simply 10 to acquiesce in His administration to accept what His bounty &quot. 33. to be like a true Father and Guardian.gt. 1. fever comes. 4. 4. 90. 24. 29. 6/xoyvoytoveu/ 11 15. 98. 9. for example. secondly. TW 2. 33. 3. If thou wilt have power. 1. 29. 1 He made us. 4. 3. 9 10 is. 5 Lord God. We bar our freedom. time now for the real contest. 42. 16. 90. 11 remembering who he is. 32. 1. 2. 2. 1. 4. 0c$. He made 2 us. 8. man 7. 24. 12. 100. to resign ourselves to the absence of The only thought 1 2 s 5 7 8 1. happy : * any good. 1. to follow It is : : : what He withholds.156 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. has given I not feel sorrow and all time He that the may grant us the means of not feeling it. 16. 13. should be intelligent. 29. It is festival we are God s &quot. so that the greater the difficulty. 6. 13: 1. 7. 23. cf. 29. . 15. and a time for what we learnt in the lecture-room we learn have practising and then God brings us to the difficulties of real life and says to ing has been : : us. 46. Sioi/ojcm. 2. VT. cry out in our sorrow. 36. 42. 8. 1. 10. 3&amp. What is Him Him our duty to Life athletes. 4. 24.

4. None the : 4 We can only do this when we keep our eyes fixed on Him. the life is opening the door and saying does so. whence he came. we reap the fruit of wretched fear. : is 18. 8 And when He misfortunes. conditions under we will not take which and sorrow. 52 5 2. 29. Thy appointment I await Only lead me. VI. but Master of the Great Household. 16. 34 4. 131 4. There we suffer do not His commandments. and follow 46. He sends us where Supreme Captain. to fill the place 1 which God has assigned to him. Above we must all. not by a vindictive tyranny. 3. 3. 7 1. 4 Enchir. &quot. 4. 32. but are by a selfimposed. to us. 2 95. 4. me henceforth for what your eyes to God and say. 42. one of us a post to keep in the battle of leave He bids us. 16. 1. 3 4. He. 11. and Thou. and to Whom he owes his being. of thwarted effort and 5 unsatisfied desire. and to say what Socrates used to say. 24. 8 2. a quotation from Cleanthes. Employ I am Thine I I am of one mind with Thee service Thou wilt : : : : ask not that Thou shouldest keep from me one thing Thou hast decreed 4 for me. 29. consecrated to joined in close communion with Him. 3. 1. to will things to be as they are. Come. penalties If acting law. absolutely loss. If this be God s will. He bide His time. 14. 9. 24. 29. instead of bewailing your come forth. 21. of jealousy and ness what He gives under the He gives it. 1. when until it stances. : 4. according to nature is impossible.157 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. obey 1 has given to every and we must not life. He. so be 2 Submission must be thy law thou must dare to lift up it. less I follow Thee. 1. 16. . 2. 13. If we will it. . : Dies. 3 Lead Thou me. 6 His bidding is indicated by circum When He does not give us what our bodies need. I shall go Fate. the 7 sounding the bugle for retreat. not murmuring. God. &quot. And of all that consent reluctantly. : With no flagging steps nor slow Even though I degenerate be. 42.

that I may be the better witness to say. and 10. Barn. God The idea no doubt. cf. was &quot. conscious that He has no more present need of you. should take the place of every other pleasure. What others preach. 4. to tell men that their sorrows and fears are vain. rather. : who my companions am. With such longer care in a ministry committed to me. 3. the consciousness of obeying God. 3 Its ultimate appeal was not to the reasonableness of the moral law in Greek itself.&quot. God s servant who has finished His work. 2. 24. 24. at another time there He disciplines me by poverty and by prison. note. they are laws of Qojd^jiot His personal will. edition. ? 2 Greek world and the ethics of the ethics of the earliest forms of Christianity wer^fnany points both of difference and of contact. The main point of difference rested morality on a divine was that Christianity command. in 2 3. I am doing their praise of virtue is a God has sent me into the world to be His soldier and witness.158 VI. 6. on the contrary. does not rny whole nature His laws and His commandments Between the current &quot. 3 Kaii/os vo/xos. found but they are so in another than either the Jewish or the Christian sense : is. : praise of me: : to mankind. therefore. He sends me at one time here. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. It took over the fundamental idea of the Jewish theocracy. 5. Think what it is to be able as &quot. can I any what place what they say about me strain after God. 97. that the moral laws are laws of in the Stoics . morality. 1 This. but to the fact that God had enacted it. or nay. that to a good man no evil can happen whether he live or die. independent. part of the whole constitution of the as being expressions of laws of world. 110114. Gebhardt and Harnack s . r^ 810. 14 sqq. 1 3. but as being nature. or I are.

failure. having tuated as time went on that in the earliest was it : been predisposed to accepted it. several sin of was in the in the mind But one element was constant. l 1. &quot. it was on the one against God. This importance was overshadowed in the later Christian communities by the importance which came to duct. was a trespass hand something which God must be appeased. . most conspicuous in those respects aims of the contemporary moral reformation and above all in the importance which was attached to moral con is . they tended to fuse some elements of the new The agreement which were the chief teaching with some elements of the old. and onT the other hand something which He could forgive.conception prohably not in the popular mind what mind what of St. It As such. To the Stoics it was shortcoming. Beyond but there was : amendment was possible no forgiveness for the past. and that. Augustine. the breach of moral Into the early Christian law was conceived as sin. Consequent upon the conception of the moral law as a positive enactment of God. of St. The docu ments which deal with the Christian moral. The i first of these proofs is the place which moral conduct holds in the earliest Christian writers. was by virtue of the latter ages the minds of many persons had accept Christianity. these and other points of difference there The former became accen a wide area of agreement. still less it it became was It elements entered. be attached to doctrine : its existence in the earliest communitieg ig j|iown by two classes of proofa. life They enforce the ancient code are almost wholly of the Ten Words. 159 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. Paul.VI. and loss the chief for : sufferer was the man himself for the future.

nor rapacious. doctrine It may &quot. Thou shalt not be covet Thy the full ous. expanding and amplifying make them embrace thoughts and desires as well as words and actions. nor haughty : thou shalt not take mischievous counsel 1 See especially Harnack. to being the expres sion of the highest moral ideal.&quot. 2 These com- as thyself: mandments are amplified in the spirit of the_Srjn^n^on the Mount. VT. thy neighbour &quot. but filled to : : speech shall not be false or hollow. which it sets forth. nor evilly disposed. The most inter estingjof such documents is that which is known as the JITwo them so as to 1 Ways.&quot.Thou shalt not forswear thyself: thou : thou shalt not speak evil thou shalt not be double- minded nor double-tongued. 2 Teaching of the A2)ostles. It proves to be a manual of instruction to Apostles. They raise those Ten Words from being the lowest and most necessary level of a legal code. It is . whatsoever things thou wouldest not have done to thyself. do not thou to another. Way of Life&quot. 1886. It is there prefixed to be taught to those who were of a Christian community. for double-tonguedness is a shalt not bear false witness thou shalt not bear malice snare of death. with deed. has no place. Leipzig. 1. to be admitted-as-jmenibers thus be^onsidexeito In the express the current ideal of Christian practice. . thou shalt love God who made thee secondly. &quot. summed up in the two commandments: First. die Apostdlclire und die Jildischen Beiden Wege. It has recently acquired a fresh significance by having been found as part of the Teaching of the the regulations for ceremonial and discipline which constitute the new part of that work. nor a hypocrite.1.1GO GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS.

ye who lay hold on His promise. for child. nor in giving shalt thou murmur. to do all things so as to be obedient to God and to be well-pleasing in all things to the Lord our God.. and quiet.. 27. Thou shalt not hesitate to give. 68. ye sons of God. Thou shalt not hate any man. 1 3 Teaching of the Apostles. away him shalt not turn that needeth. such a one will be counted as a nation that transgresses against God. for the meek shall inherit the earth be long-suffer from all : and ing. 2 . 161 ETHICS. 1 . . how much more in mortal Another such document known tion 3 things. is the first book as the Apostolical Constitutions of the collec : it begins at once with an exhortation to morality. 2. path to : these things blasphemies are born.Listen to holy teaching. but thou shalt share all things with thy brother and shalt not say that they are thine own for if ye be fellow-sharers in that which is immortal. trembling continually at the and and kind. in accordance with the in harmony with command of the Saviour. and some thou shalt love more than thine own soul. Take heed. My . and for some thou shalt pray. and pitiful. 8. but some thou shalt rebuke.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN VI. 3. for murmuring is on the blasphemy nor self-willed nor evil-minded. 7.&quot.. against thy neighbour. For if any one follow wickedness and after do things contrary to the will of God. . . words which thou hast heard.. for thou shalt know who is the good pay Thou master of what thou hast earned. Ibid. his glorious utterances. 4. be not a murmurer. guileless. But be thou meek. M 2 Ibid. &quot.

1. and finding no blemish either in the bishop or in the ranks of the people by the pastor will be drawn to repentance. i.. i. but also and more especially sins of moral conduct and of the inner life. and the flock &quot. being smitten by his own conscience : but if. Christians were drawn together into communities. Alex. The qualifications whiphr-iir-fefeer. Lagarde. a new as of the Christianity conception by see Thomasius. were standard for ordi If any man who has sinned sees the nary members. law in Barnabas ii. This may be supplemented Const. abiding pure. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN Abstain then from all covetousness ETHICS. first of all he will not venture to enter into the assembly of God. 110 sqq. The second proof is afforded by the place which The held in contemporary Christian life. To be a Christian was to be a member of a community. Apost. basis of the but common also a belief. secondly. p. 97.162 VI. of the an organization to keep itself pure. bishop and the deacons free from fault. 6.. ed. E. discipline Iso was discouraged and soon passed away.. Clem. Justin passim. 120.&quot. T. and unrighteous 1 ness. . by his sin he will forthwith be taken to task . times were the ideal standard for church earliest times the ideal also in the officers. 1. 470 1 : Dogmengescli. The offences against which it had to guard were not only the community as open crimes which fell within the cognizance of public law. or being admonished For looking round upon the assembly one by one. 1. setting lightly he should venture to enter. 2. The lation community was not only a common It was the task practice. and either be punished.

and the sorcerers. with the white-robed members were the &quot. the its of heaven. under him. a child of God and &quot. the earliest communities endea sion. within were which were written in the Lamb s book of To be a member of the community was to be in and not merely in conception. what has since been Each one of them was a to realize as the Puritan ideal. both in the theory which they embodied in their manuals of Christian life.&quot. p.&quot. the realm of Satan and eternal death.saved. 2 The earthly they were in reality citizens of heaven.&quot. M 2 Ep. and the idolaters. the were the dogs.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN VI.new Jerusalem. &quot.&quot. ad Diogn. 1 In other cases a solemn was and formal act the sinful expulsion : member was cast into outer darkness : re-admission was accompanied with the same rites as the original admis In other words. Apost. and every one that loveth and maketh a lie:&quot.Without &quot. and will have hope and the whole : flock beholding his tears will be admonished that he who has sinned and repented is not lost.holy ones. and the murderers. &quot. community reflected in all but its glory lastingness the was the the and &quot.&quot.they life. 163 ETHICS. voured. and in the practice which they enforced known by discipline. its ever- Its bishop visible representative of Jesus Christ himself on the throne sitting elders life of round him: &quot. and the flock will have been cleansed. .&quot. 22. 1 2 Const. Passing their days upon earth. repent of and he will cry with tears to God and will his sin.&quot. reality. 5. 2. heir of everlasting salvation: to be excluded from the community was to pass again into the outer darkness. community of saints. 11. with shame and many tears he will go out in peace. elect. pricked in heart.

that the attention of a majority of Christian men was turned to the intellectual as dis tinguished from the moral element in Christian life. as to leave but little struggles for purity of life. The idea of moral reformation had from the men with a varying tenacity There were some men who had a higher moral seized different 1 Side by side with the average ethics were the Pauline had found a certain lodgment in some. VI. first of grasp. The interests of contemporary writers are so absorbed with the struggles for soundness of doc trine. which have survived in large and varied forms to the present day.164 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. Over these communities and the theory which they embodied there passed. And when the change was effected. causes are obscure. The aggregate struggles. Morality became subordinated to belief in Chris tianity by the same inevitable drift had been superseded by theory in by which practice Stoicism. which . In both the production of this change and its further The developments Greece played an important part. it operated in two further ways. room for a record of the In the last stages of those which endeavoured to preserve the ancient ideal was treated as schismatical. The dominant new theory of the Church as a corpus of those party framed a permixtum. and found support for it in the Gospels them selves. 1. 1 ideal than ethics. net result of the active forces which it brought to bear upon Christianity was. an enormous earliest The processes of the change and its immediate change. the party of visible communities number was no longer identical with the who should be saved. in the last half of the second century and the first half of the third.

they were not of universal or constant obligation. Those who habitually practised them were recognized as a church within the Church.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN VI. a type of Gnosticism. partly . Abstinence from mar riage and from animal food were urged and practised as &quot. 2 bodily training or gymnastic exercise (aV/c^cn?). though they gatory. were part of &quot. 1 and were specially enjoined at certain times upon all church mem bers. The practice of them was known by a name which we have seen to be common in theGlrgek philosophical schools. Harnack. At the end of the third century important both within them and without. of society itself. . to disentangle itself to rise 165 ETHICS. 2 Of and the despair of an age 6. 2. counsels of perfection. The secession of the Puritan party left much of this element still within the great body of confederated com munities. 202.&quot. Dogmengesch. It was relative to the It was that of conception of life as an athletic contest. it It became was in by the growing influence of the ideas which found their highest expression outside Christianity in Neo-Platonism partly by the growing complexity creased.the whole yoke of the Lord. the strain 1 Teaching of the Apostles. others : there were some whose natures were stronger whom there were some to tion of human citizenship. and its to fellowship There with God. was an attempt to In some communities there make such counsels of perfection obli In the majority of communities.&quot. from by contemplation moral life : was not the perfec but the struggle of the spirit material environment. are proofs of the existence in the very earliest Christian communities of those who endeavoured to live on a higher plane than their fellows.

rapt with a passion for heavenly knowledge. 2 e. to let the hair to profess divine philosophy. having embraced the highest of wisdom. de Vit. 29 . of Clement of Alexandria takes his part in ordinary human affairs. Sozom. and its badges were the badges of Cynicism. have given themselves up wholly to the Supreme King and God and virginity. YI. grow was and self-discipline 1 Strom.. 4. Euseb. acting the drama of life which God has given him to play. sanctity. knowing &quot. of the 3. Gnostic&quot. the rough blanket and the it unshorn To wear the blanket and hair. Dem. 1 early in the fourth century the practice of the ascetic came shown in the same out ward way. both what But be done and what to is is to be endured. the higher life of were. with which had sometimes already been confused. 33. The ideal &quot. Christianity became a legal religion. of decadence by the partly also . but with a more marked emphasis. 6 &quot. It was to claim to stand on 11. 26. practise this mode many thousands it. to be was most akin to Cynicism. 6. but women throughout the whole world. It was joined by the tendency among professors of philosophy.&quot. priestesses. Hitherto those who followed parallel counsels of perfection lived in ordinary society. It was indeed known as life in Christianity 2 It philosophy. undis tinguished except by their conduct from their fellowmen. . 7.166 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. of the universe. have renounced the desire of children according to the flesh. for the passionate love of God which had led men to a sometimes ecstatic martyrdom. necessity of finding a when new outlet.g. to practise (da-Krjo-aorOai) perfect purity So also id. as God of the universe. as the similar practice in philosophy. of the Syrian monks. Ev. It soon took a new form.&quot. and giving their whole care to their soul. : Not only old men under Jesus Christ it would be hard to say how of philosophy. Constant.

as the smaller i. Evagr.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS.&quot. Just as ordinary philosophers had some times found life in society to be intolerable and had gone into so the Christian philosophers &quot. later on the development of his Socrat.?/Hov. or a &quot. s efforts 1 aa-KrjTrjpiov. more than enormous overgrowth of these away the memory ception of a was due the place and earliest con that sublime individualism which centred all any other to man factor.&quot. from the larger: &amp. was once firmly rooted When in Christian largely developed in independent for the prac it soil. .&quot. but the independence and forms cannot wipe of the fact that to Greece. aV/o/o-^. society.&quot. To 1 new names which were rela moral discipline was usually practised tive to the fact that &quot. discipline. The practice soon received a further development.poimo-T&amp. So far as they retired from (fiiXoa-ocpia. and which therefore cannot properly be described here. they were of Those who retired from the world were ^ovayoi. (ppovria-rripiov. 167 a higher level and to be working out a nobler ideal than average Christians. 23. ibid. to whence the current appellation of ai/a^oy^Ta/. these were soon added the in solitude. The retention the practice. was which Greece ways was not primarily responsible.retreat. 11 \ spiritual life.&quot. i. go into retreat./&amp. said still &quot.place school of ava^wpelv^ anchorets.gt. 4. They were or philosophy. VI.solitaries.place for was a was a tice &quot. names shows the continuity of the old still practising discipline. and to live their lives of self-discipline and contemplation in solitude. of their retirement imovaa-r^piov.gt. for and the place solitude.&quot.lt. The place of their retreat ao-KtjTYipiov. began to withdraw altogether from the world. distinguished from povacrrripiov. reflection. &quot.&quot. &quot. 21.

is the more important 3. 1 philosophy:&quot. by this &quot.briefly : and Instead of the concep holiness.&quot. the chief contemporary of Milan. thyself.168 VI. there was of the fourth was formally recognized Love was no more the hand state of things ecclesiastical writers. 11. impregnated with the dominant ethical ideas. slightly raised the current rules of conduct : continued. theologian of the West. and withdrew him from his fellow-men in order to bring him near to God. As in regard to metaphysics. Patilag. For the average members average the of citizens churches were of the the by Greek educated empire. formulated Ambrose the current theory in a book which 1 Clem. the frame of mind which had been formed by education was stronger than the new ideas which it absorbed. They accepted Christian ideas. At the end the old enumeration of duties. now methods. in the moral conceptions of the average Christian Churches. and when the most spiritually-minded of those who remained detached themselves from common life terioration there should be a de of their brethren. but without the enthusiasm which made them a transforming force. It was inevitable that when the Puritan party had left the main body. tions of righteousness conception of virtue was Thou &quot. 2. so also in regard to ethics. book saying. was It the also inevitable that those conceptions should be largely shaped by Greek influences. there was the old instead of the code of morals which in comprehended shalt love thy neighbour as century the new of divine namely. with modifications. The Pauline ethics vanished from the ChristtSn^woiid . Alex. . GREEK AND CHRISTIAN ETHICS. The current ideals re mained.

but also became the because it Middle Ages. that it is holds that a happy it is realized life is a by virtue. While _JThe victory of Greek ethics was complete. Ann. . It makes not only in conception. . but also in detail. . GREEK AND CHRISTIAN 169 ETHICS. is Greek wisdom. justice its subsidiary form of beneficence is helped by the Christian society. with the moralists.But basis of the moral philosophy of the the book is less Christian than Stoical. not merely expresses the ideas of his time and seals the proof of their prevalence. Draseke in the Rivista di filoloyia. Leipzig. to come a subsidiary and not a primary motive. der Einfluss der stoisch-ciceronianischen Moral auf Ambrosius. . It tinges or at least with a Theistic colouring but the conception of-each of them remains what it had been to the Greek .VI. of life is happiness : it according to nature. Christianity was being transformed into a system of doc the imperial court were slowly The ethics of a of personal rights. with addition that no man can be wise who is ignorant of addition that is Greek God: justice. 1 It is a recJiauffee of the book which Cicero had compiled more than three It is Stoical. example. which the earliest Christian trines. the Stoical jurists at communities endeavoured to carry into practice. are the ancient virtues of Its ideal life that Its virtues wisdom and justice. . and capable of being realized here on earth. 1881 . Wisdom. centuries before. 1875-6. chiefly from Pansetius. It makes the hope of the life virtue the highest good. for the&quot. iv. elaborating system the Sermon on the Mount. courage each of them with a Christian. have been transmuted by the slow alchemy of history into the ethics 1 P. and temperance. Ewald.

if practicable. basis of Christian society is not Eoman and Stoical.170 of GREEK AND CHRISTIAN VI.&quot. and the maxim. The trans tions mutation so is modern question is not the Sermon on the Mount so complete that the much whether the ethics of are practicable. A fusion of the Eoman conception of rights with the Stoical conception of rela involving reciprocal actions. to Christian theory world to working in Christianity the same higher morality which worked in the ancient world. is in possession of practically the whole field of civilized society. . belongs to a plane on which Epictetus and Thomas 2i Keinpis meet. which formulate in by modern conceptions such that thou hast and give to the justify Sell meet with no would be less opposition the Christian societies. &quot. Eoman law. Christian. The socialistic theories modern language and an exhortation as poor. they desirable. Follow God. but The ETHICS. within than without The conversion of the Church must precede the conversion of the But meanwhile there is Christian practice. as whether.

the j of earlier mind tended to arrange them were con- ceived as separate. THE CREATOR.LECTURE VII. The varied phenomena of earth and sea and sky had not always been brought under a single expression. I. not only above. It &amp. The sea. the moon which month by month waxed and waned. the stars which year by year came back were like a marshalled to the same stations in the sky. GEEEK AND CHBISTIAN THEOLOGY. that the separate groups came to be combined into a whole and conceived as forming a uni verse. There was order. The sun which day by day rose and set.lt. army moving in obedience to a fixed command. which for all its storms and . unconscious alchemy of thought. belonging to different kingdoms and It was by the controlled by independent divinities. That sense had not always been awakened. came with the sense I I of the unity of the world. It came also with the sense of the order of the world. SLOWLY there loomed through the mists Greek thought the consciousness of one God. working through successive generations. The groups into which. but also beneath.

the origin of This conception of one. Simplic.172 VII. the earth upon which see d-time and harvest never failed. 1 movement and birth is an ordered whole was intertwined.&quot. could not pass its bounds. slowly elaborated itself. ap. but of a universe moving in obe dience to a law. Movement meant life. application of the conception that when the sum of movements was conceived as a whole. and life meant everywhere some It was by an inevitable thing analogous to human life. are infinite. It was like the preaching of a fruitful. which was formulated by a later writer in the expression. . all things that move have been invested with personality. it should be also conceived that behind the totality of the phenomena and the unity of their movements there was a single Person. 479). f. were part of the same great system. The earliest form of the conception is probably that of Anaxagoras. when Epicharmus 6 (Diels. with one or other of two kindred conceptions. but spring after spring the buds burst into blossom. and summer summer the blossom ripened into fruit. Doxographi Graeci. murmurings. of which one had preceded it and the other grew with it. 1 and almost as Theophrastus p. The origins of matter &quot. in pliys. It was a con ception which had but slowly disentangled itself from that of bodily powers. as it The one was the sense of personality. By a transfer ence of ideas which has been so universal that it may be called natural. The other was the conception of mind. The conception was that not after merely of a universe. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. The stars and rivers were persons. revelation.

GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 1. and elsewhere /&amp. and births.But though God is one. 98. and from eternity to eternity Thunder-God. p. magn. from the lightnings and j and Fruit. 3. has &quot.gt.lt. . &quot. 7.a de fort. 173 1 It is not the eye that sees.God. de Alex. fort. 336. and families. Tusc. 3.a&amp. 401 a. p. and friends. kinsmen. but the mind: all things mind are and blind the deaf. and companions. it was 3 said. 2 Pseudo-Arist. nor gods 1 &quot. and the God of tects).lt. It mind was that except &quot. and Greek gods. p. et Osir.Aa. from the cities (which he pro thunders and rains he sends) . 3 De hid. in short. that is of Time. 378. 36. of the spheres of deriving a His government name from each He is because He called the Son of Kronos. It alone was the real self: and the Person who is which behind nature or within behind the bodily His essence was mind. says Plutarch. named after all forms of nature and events as being Himself There are not different gods among the cause of &quot. from the fruits (which and City-God. 20. of armies God. quoted in Plut. different 4 peoples.VII. p. and homesteads.&quot.&quot. and that not only thought but willed. and Eain-God. continues and Lightning God.&amp. like the personality activities of is were passing away. was The gods There was one God.&quot. Cic. Disp. : : not only saw but thought. it each one of us of the old : mythology like a splendid pageantry of clouds moving across the horizon to be absorbed in the clear and infinite heaven. : 3.He many names. voos opy Kal voos aKOvet raAAa cf.&quot. but the mind proclaimed it is not the ear that hears. all.nor of the south foreign gods and gods of the Kat TV&amp. .lt. 67. of heaven and earth. Lucret. de mundo.

some of them obscure and some more clear. but have different names north . and others. wholly have slipped into superstition. came will the two following Lectures at a comparatively late that Greek thought ning first The present Lecture stage in its history to the conception of a begin The conception was first formulated 1 The century B. out of which gods by Anaximander. so leading their thoughts on the path to the for some men. deal mainly with the with the other two. earlier conception was that of a chaos.&quot. p. TOVTO Tovvopa Ko/uVas T^S ap^s so Hippol. It was : of all things. avoiding the slough of superstition... though there be one Eeason who orders these things and one Providence who ad them ministers appellations .174 VII. as far as possible. among there are different honours and different races . three strands of thought are constantly intertwined the thought of a Creator. 1. have Divine : but it is not without risk . in their turn fallen over the precipice of In the conception of God as it atheism. and men use con secrated symbols. It is desirable to trace the history of each of these thoughts. 6 (Diels. but just as sun and moon and sky and earth and sea are common to all mankind. 476). GREEK AND CHRIST [AN THEOLOGY. Pliilosoph. Simplic. and to consider their separate effects upon the develop ment of Christian theology. TT/OWTOS . among different races. 6. ap.C. separately. missing their foothold. so. and 1 all in the sixth things alike proceeded. thus uncoiled itself in Greek history. the thought of a Moral Governor. in phys. and the thought of a Supreme or Absolute Being. f.. The first remove from Theophrast.

to matter : it is the theory which These two theories run through subsequent Greek philosophy. fy act KCU coral Trvp . 1. following the conception of human personality as absolutely single. The one. the theory which is known as Monism. the belief that life The conception of mind and matter were the same. with a kind of without. a term which. as it originally does.When it was evolved. The chief philosophical expression of The Stoicism. rhythmic motion.VII. Strom. but immanent and inherent in it The antithesis a force that acts with intelligence. &quot. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. The substance is one. a fire that was kindling and being 1 quenched with regulated limits of degree and time. he had thought. 5. body and soul. conceived of reason it is and force as external known is all as Dualism. KOO-/XOV rov avrov a cure rts $ewv OVT dvOpwinDv eTrot^crev aAA. Monism was Stoics followed the lonians in believing that the world consists of a single substance. was not yet evolved. Alex. forms. Clem. signifying. human of personality as a following the conception separable compound. the Stoics in various between the two was expressed by is was sometimes the bare and neutral contrast For the Passive was of the Active and the Passive. ap. two lines that earlier conception of thought began to diverge. 175 was hylozoism. the timber which a carpenter uses 1 Heraclit. 14. conceived of both reason and force as inherent in matter : The other. It sometimes substituted Matter. They followed Heraclitus in believing that the movements and modifications of that substance are due neither to a blind impulse from within nor to an arbitrary impact from It moved.

The two terms of the antithesis being regarded as expressing modes of a single substance. and of others towards regarding drift of quodcunque The former conceived of God.&quot. term the Active. 1 &quot. He ception. is which are continually striving to express them selves through the matter with which they are in union. properly belongs to another order of ideas . Phars. always moving with purpose and system. and always thereby producing the world. He The is teleological idea controls the whole conception. He is through them and in them working to realize an forces end. mind 579. there range of conceptions. which. and for the Active was frequently sub term Logos. separable in thought and name but not in reality. The of Him quodcunque vides Jupiter est latter conceived of Him as This became the governing con the sum of an infinite number of rational the natura naturans. The Logos was vested the antithesis was between matter with personality : This latter term was used to cover a wide and God. on stituted the the other hand. on the one hand. and. also the expression of thought in a sen tence and the expression of will in a law. but not all equally divine. in union with In the lowest form . as the natura naturata: moveris. is 1 Lucan. He the highest form of the most attenuated form of matter. 9. The products are In His purest all divine. VII.176 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. was a natural God mode of matter as a mode as a some minds towards regarding matter. partly thought and partly will. nor Stoics used neither the colourless the impersonal term the Logos. for the purposes of his craft. signifying as it does. has no single But the majority of equivalent in modern language. essence.

ow-ii&amp. 5.&amp. M.6v TT)V SidvoLav WKeuorcu OeiQ Aoyw. T^S /xaKa/nas c^wrews e/c/xayetov ^ a7rocr7racryu. careful to guard against an inference that is implies a breach of continuity between the divine and the ovStv rov OCLOV Sccuperov&quot. it would probably be most If all this the help of suitably gathered into the proposition that the world is the self-evolution of God. de mutat.ia. 8. nom.epes. 4 : aVoo-7racr/&amp. : 51 (i. opif. opif. Diss.. cosmogonical it gives an account of : The 2. of a sapling phors : which separate from and yet continues the life of its is parent tree. Into such a conception the idea of a beginning does not necessarily enter it is con sistent with the idea of an eternal process of differentia : tion that : which changing forms : always has been. and by later conceptions. His sense it is described especial offspring by the meta an or of emanation from outflow Him. He is the cohesive force which holds Between these two poles together the atoms of a stone. Trees avOptoTros Kara p. 6 . M. Anton. Anton. 32). the all to It is in an purest essence of God is the human soul. 14. 46 (i. under changed and the theory is cosmological rather than rather explains the world as it is than is.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.lt.gt. cbroo-Tracr/xa rjv ov tt7Ttt/3TT/a-iv. N insid. 2. &amp.iAocro(/&amp. 27: diroiKia. dAAtt povov KTtvTat.a ?} aTravyao /ua yeyovcos : lie considers the term eKpxyeJW to be more appropriate to theology. re/zvcrat yap soul. VII. its origin. 35). 11. 24 (i. . 209). Pliilo. quod dot pot. of a colony in which some members of the mother have state settled. 1. 2. 612) cxTToo-Tracr/za human Kar : and he etKovos ^etas e/c/xayctov e//. de mund. 1 were expressed in modern terms. .lt. rov Trai/ros T/Js i^v^rjg a7rocr7rao-/xa 77 oirtp ocrLUtrepov ctTreiv rots /cara Mwwvjv 39 (i.gt.gt. of Nearest of are infinite gradations of being. Dualism was chief philosophical expression of 1 dTroppoia. The co-ordination of these and cognate terms in Philo is especially important in view of their use in Christian theology de mund. Epict. 177 His essence.

p.178 VII. so far as they admit of is 1 being grouped. material objects. 986 KCU c. spoken of as being itself the fashioner of Each thought shows itself in a group of the world. and between God and the world. its perfect of types is conceived as the vow post-Platonic Epinomis. or as a force pro As the ceeding from His mind and acting outside it. conception of these forms was developed. God was regarded as being The world was in its origin only outside the world.p6vr)criv Aoyos TLVO. mind is : beyond him in founding upon this separation a universal distinction between the real and the phenomenal. may be viewed as imitations or embodi ments of a form or pattern. potential being (TO was that w ov).f&amp. which was higher than the Form of Being.more and more. of a craftsman The upon action of God upon his material. &amp. 6 TTOLVTWV Oavf^acrT^v . In so acting. Sometimes His reason. Plato followed Anaxagoras in believing that separate from matter and acts upon it he went Platonism. they tended to be regarded in the latter light rather than in the former. a carpenter shapes wood. so changing phenomena were united with an un changing element. existing either as a thought in the mind of the Divine Workman. reaching The highest and most * JPhileb. or moulding moulds clay. They were themselves grouped in a that its highest point in the Form of Perfection. They were cosmic forces which had the power of impressing themselves upon matter. follow ing out thoughts in His mind. vast gradation. in the . shaping it it as He it as a statuary acted with reason. 16.lt. They were less types than causes. Such objects. 28 6. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. They came midway between God and the rude material of the universe. p. or His mind.gt.

&amp.gt. and is 1. ii. 308). 30. 2 The agents were gods who. The conception of it which was current in the Platonist of matter is schools.GKEEK AND CHKISTIAX THEOLOGY. Hippol. and it is employed subordinate agents in the construction of the actual world. Philosoph. p. Tim. p. yei/i/7/o-as Ovrjrd re fj the Otol p. The creative energy of God is spoken of as the Demiurgus. 179 In the elabo further conceived as a person. because progressive.gt. which speaks of first and second causes. j&amp. 1888. 19. Thus the language of philosophy. TWI/ ^wwi/ Qriniovpyiav. The (Plato. theory that of Siebeck.V =6 ( 6tw Srjfuovpyos) TO TC irav OI/TWS : a?rai/ are addressed at length by 6 ro Se TO the most pertinent words are. : executes by means of his servants.iv Trepl rrjv vpuiv yeveo-iv. capable of growth and decay.gt. TTO. and the ministered to him. lv ovv r|. forces. 1. receiving qualities and and sometimes as chaotic substance which was forms. which and therefore important in relation to Christian philosophy. that of a world in which nothing was imperfect since it was the work of a 1 The best account of Plato s complex. VII. 3 The distinction between the two spheres of creation. is 1 reduced to order. irav oo-ov aAAa Kivovcvov 7r C fy oparov 7rapa\aj3a)v OVK ^crv^/ai/ ayov araKTW? ei s rdgiv avro 7?yayev Vc /cat &amp.&amp.gt. who himself made an ideal world. Plat. vol. in his Untersuclmngen der Philosophic der Griecken.wti/ rrfv Professor Jowett in the Introduc Timmus who irl vpeis t^v Svvafj. is given in the Pladta of Aetius. N 2 demons . Stob. Plato s Lehre von der Materie. having been themselves created. ap. most powerful and most active of rate cosmology of the Timeeus. r&amp. &quot. 470) frames in his mind a plan which he &quot. were bidden to create living beings. Ed.lt.lt. is crossed by another sort of phraseology. God made the world because he was good. The matter upon which the Demiurgus work or his agents sometimes conceived as potential the bare capacity of being. 11 (Diels. In Tim. 41. Freiburg im Breisg. p. ^Lfjiov^voL rrjv The whole theory is summed up by tion to his translation of the Creator is like a human artist TpeTrecr^e KaTa ^&amp.

a/3/xevryv ytVercu. 1872. and of the nature of the forces which lay behind those processes.180 VII. as given in the Placita of Aetius. we as shall see. In Stoicism. eprcptaAr^os TTavras TOW (nrepfMaTiKovs Xoyovs The Ka6 ovs best account of this important e/caa-Ta KaO et/x. to be of importance in some phases of Christian thought. containing in themselves the law of the forms in which they exhibit themselves. p. fused together were the theories of the processes by which the actual world came into being. element in later Stoicism is in Heinze.g. It was which results of philosophical reflection succeeds an age inevitable. which is the base of all things. 110 sqq. frequently in Stoical writings. and eternally active energy of God. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. and Stobseus. Eusebius. moving always in the direction of His thoughts. Perfect Being. pp. e. In the one. nition of the Trvp TtyviKov. reproduced by Plutarch. the processes of nature were the operations of active forces. and that of a world which was full of imperfections as being the work of created beings. came. that these two great drifts some points to approach each The elements in them which were most readily of thought should tend in other. there was the theory of the one Law or Logos expressing itself in an infinite variety of material forms in Platonism. there was the theory of the one God. die Lehre vom LOIJOS in der (jriechischen Philosophic. 306. each of them a portion of the In the one Logos which runs through the whole. Diels. shaping matter according to an infinite variety of : patterns. when an age in the syncretism of philosophical origination. they were the operations of the infinitely various self-developing seeds. so that those thoughts 1 in the defi Aoyot crirepfJiaTiKoi. 1 other. .

Plut. In view of 1. Phil. were sometimes regarded in their apparent multiplicity. From What. 10. Matter. Simplic. f. 45. where Simplicity contrasts this with Plato s own strict dualism. ap. 1. 2 Ed. Irris.19. 2 Platonic became common but of three principles. Stob. 1. 12 (Diels. by laying between the two phases antithesis substance. prop. the operations. the dualism of the upon the distinction between the creative energy of God and the form in the mind of God which His energy embodied in the material universe. But while the monism upon the of the Stoics. Hippol. 1. was tending to introduce a third factor into the concep laying stress by Platonists. 1 1 the Active (TO TroioSi/). de placit. Herm. 3. The three apyai are expressed by varying but identical terms God. was tending stress of the one to dualism. p. and the Pattern. 3. Matter. p. ap. and sometimes in their underlying unity processes : and in both also the unity was expressed sometimes by the impersonal term Logos. avrr) /zev i^eo-rajo-a which Aetius gives KaO avrrjv : ISea co-rlv ow-ia ciKovi{ov(ra 8e ra? uAas Kal 1. CUT ta ytvofjLtvt] rfjs TOVTWV 6Veoos. evang. phil 1. 288). in the mind of God. philos. de an. Matter. God. Euseb. Pliilosoph. . in the Placita of Aetius. p. and FPG (Mullach 38) Matter. Eel. and the Form (iSea). de plac. as causes operating outside Him. tion of creation. not of God. conceived. or the By Whom. Plut. 308). 15. Hence came a new fusion of conceptions. and the Pattern (flrapo&iy/xa). TT/SOS o). Gent. 6 (Diels. 181 might themselves be conceived as the causes of the 1 In both the one theory and the other. 1 Hence the definition TOS. : : Alexand. as Forms they sometimes were. 10 (Diels. with additions and differences in Stob. 21. The It to speak. mundi 2 2. e ov.VII. 485). ap. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. in phys. and the Form. : What (\x$ ov. Aphrod. and sometimes by the per sonal term God. in Timaeus Locrus. two or Pattern.

ferent sense. in fact. that the Father and Maker is good. and they contain the seeds of nearly all that afterwards grew up on Christian soil. what. the Logos rather than the Logoi of God. were expressed by a singular rather than a plural term. were more or GKEEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. The ultimate cause nature of God. without fusing into a symmetrical system. we should find in them a perfect bridge from philoso phical Judaism to Christian theology. It is at this point that the writings of Philo become of special importance. As of the world is to be found in the though perhaps in a dif God is regarded as good. and that being good not grudge the best kind of nature to matter He did (ova-la) . And even without such a key we are able to see in them a large representa were going on. He make : any one wished to search out the reason why the universe was made. If to say. and that if we could find a key to their chronological arrangement. I think that he would not be far from the mark if he were it by virtue of His power. By His goodness was impelled to make the world He was able to in Plato. the two dominant theories of the past. less identified with. and can better understand by the analogies which they offer both the tentative theories and those that ultimately tion of the processes of thought that became dominant in the sphere of Christianity. one of the ancients said. consequently desirable to It is give a brief account of the view which they present.182 VII. It is possible that those writings cover a much larger period of time than is commonly supposed. being viewed as the manifold expressions of a single Logos. the Stoical Logoi^ and. They gather together. &quot.

Tim: ovoeTrore /3ov\rjOrj e.r$ai (i. but several others are used.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. : word rrjs.$oVos* Trap air A^crta aura).. ov Te-^vtryj? 8 ytyvo/xevoov. 38 (i. 47). ibid.My of the Greek mythology). (i. proceed forms of mind and reason. 329) is Trarrjp TO&amp.V . dualistic in is .. it its found to be based upon a recognition of a sharp dis tinction between the world of thought and that of sense and to be monistic in regard to the one. attfig. : ovoYts Ktpl o^Sei/os 35 p. The which became important in later controversies do not appear in the writings which are probably Philo s own. From Him. 5 5) (i. also de 7rotryo-ev. 72 thus the Creator. dyaOos ^v TOVTOV 8 (/&amp. as from Eeason. Goodness and Power. 216). ov orjfjuovpyos [JLOVOV : monarch. or con scious in the form of human thought. 31 (i. all 183 &quot. and by Power He governs it. 8^/xiovpyo?.&quot. cf. and that by Goodness He begat God is the universe. ibid.. HQVOV aAAa /cat 1 (i. ling. $e6s ets ecrrt Kat KTUTT^S Kat Trot^rr)? rwy 6 Awv. 3 (ii. 9 (i. KOO-^OTTOIOS. 30 God). TrdVra recognition (i. distinctions : yevv^o-as ov povov ets TO e/x^aj/es ^ yayev aXXa Kat a Trporepov OVK r\v aAAa Kat KT/crnys avros wV cf. de confus. 3 But when the conception of His relation to the world is more precisely examined. when seized. 6 0eo? TO. becoming me a more serious story (than that soul once told was it though excellent. . TrXdcrT Yjs. Trai/ra oTi/xaXtcTTa cherub. VII. which of itself capable of had nothing And 1 again: things. God a fountain. whether unconscious in the form of natural law. KooyxoTrAao-- 348). 1. de plant Noe. Plat. the Fashioner and Maker of the world. Leg.g.gt. all is mind. 434) .lt. with a divine ecstasy. 1. 144) most. 162). . 632). frequent cf. but are found the most explicit in those which probably belong to his school them is de 13 of somn. re^vtr^?. (of eyyiyi/erat yev6&amp. . ib. regard to the other. is like a river that 1 De mundi dyaOut tKTos 8e wV 3 De 2 The opif.gt. It told me that in the one really existing God there are two chief and primary faculties. Builder and Artificer. as it often was.

an offshoot not separated from Him. ins. &quot. but from the Father and Leader of all things. 208. soul. dispro received a change and trans formation into what was opposite and best. 35) : quod deus immut. that is 691). 10 . sensible world is acted was outside Him.The man In by the came soul from nothing that is created. 1 fills The body the two worlds meet. life. (Jeremiah They ii. animation. 51 and elsewhere. is fashioned Artificer from the dust of the earth: &quot. a colony from was nothing else that blissful and happy nature. for nothing divine is cut oif and disjoined. (i. 46 2. again : The mind is an offshoot from the divine God). placed here below the benefit of our race that granting so . life and discord it : It was in itself without order. monistic.&quot. : life.&quot. 575). man for be to mortal in respect of his visible part. proportion. order. but being the ever-flowing 4 life. 1 DG 2 De mundi 279). Only God is the cause of soul and 13). 37 (i. the fountain of life&quot.&quot. quality. without portion. But the theory of the origin of the The matter upon which He dualistic. in expounding the words. without quality. VII. opif. ib. only &quot. 32) : cf. pot. Him flows forth from and the universe. 2 And &quot. (i. 3 all 24 (i. (i. 36 det. he says 3 extended.184 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. harmony. 209). somn. yet in respect of that which is invisible he is the heir of immortality. &quot. have forsaken me. (i. He and reasonable especially of rational soul Himself fountain of This is more than is . but and happy soul (of And again. Quod 4 Deprofurj. identity. full of difference. For what He breathed into Adam than a divine breath.

408). Instances of the other angels. 27 de (i. 8 adavdroLS Aoyots ovs KaActi/ (i. 19 (i.f&amp. : empty space : hence in de profug. KCU (TvyK^y^vif]v ovvav e OVO-LO.gt. opif. it. Himself not that the all-knowing and blessed One should touch unlimited and confused matter name is receive He but : used the unbodied Forces whose true the Forms its fitting (i&fat). div. was not right for it : 185 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. de confute.o7rAcum?s somri.i(ro(f&amp. 1.V UTCLKTOV 1 Noe. 122). 5 (i. KCU dvet Seov (i. 263). 2 13 (ii. 1 De mundi opif. terms are the following e is pyoov KCU Aoycoi/ oi) : iSeat are common. T^V 329). that each class of things should 2 which are here These unbodied Forces. touching it of it form. 5) this is the most explicit expression of It may be supplemented by de his theory of the nature of matter. de plant Noe.gt. 2. her. and sometimes in the language of 3 The use of the two popular mythology as Daemons. : tSeais Kara^p^cra^tei/ov TOV TTCTTO it] KOTOS : TT/DOS de WlUnd. 330) word is more Stoical than Platonic. sometimes in the language of the Old Testa (Aoyot). 495). 547).e. God begat He 1 himself did not all things. 2 KOU da-x^^ria-rov ovorcav with TO KIVOVV De 3 The terms Aoyot and sacrif.g. 22 (i. 2.oi eia&amp. shape. called by the Platonic name of Forms. 2 (i. ling.&quot. (i. rwv Oeiuv i. 261). in identical words. 6 rjpjaro fiop&amp. 3. 62 2 (i. in strictly Stoical phraseology. plant : avT7?s ts Ta^iv e /ecu dramas e/c Staxptcrtv aytov o fits (rvy^ixrcd)? quis rer. Wos dyyeAovs Leg.l&amp. it is rather that of matter having the property of resistance than that of potential matter or Koo7/. Wos dyyeAoiis de somn.lt. de somn.characteristic of a better touch Out &quot.lt. Trdcrii/ d/aifytots oi)s aAAot &amp. 492) 665) ouo-ta is the more usual word. div. 642) Kal Trdo-ats rats quis rer. KaXf.gt. T^V aVotov contrasted.gt.lv TOVS dyyeAotis Kat Aoyovs avrov : : : Sai/^oves.ITLOV. e. are elsewhere spoken of in Stoical language as Eeasons sometimes in Pythagorean language as Numbers or Limits. heres. but vXf] is sometimes the conception underlying either found. ment as Angels. de gigant. O.#e Sat/xova?. alln}. 31 (i.ovv : : : (i. (i. 638). ayyeAons Mww^s d/ufytot and so. VII. i. 9 .&quot.

6 vorjTos eirdyrj KOCT/XOS: the Stoical definition of Aoyos in 20. ling. synonyms which are them. 219). where God tells Moses that so far from Himself being (ii. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.gt. 6 (i. 1 The : cf.lt. KOO-/XOV TI Otov Adyov ^ 5^ KOCT(MOTTO LOVVT TWI/ ao-a&amp. (i.e rs dt Stov ovSev av eYepov 5). they collectively form the world which the Divine Architect of the great City their essence.gt. it constitutes : 2 activity ideal an ordinary city the no other than the mind of for in the building of : which precedes it &quot. expresses the two sides with. aVeipa KOU aoptcrTa KCU 219). 34 Epictet. 5. of the Universe fashioned in Logos. 218. They are at once the agents instruments by means of which God fashioned the or He world. ISeat KCU /ACT/DOC KCU TVTTOI KCU crc^yoaytSe? (ii. : wv rov vorjrov etvat Mos. but in the unity of On the one hand.ju. Diss.Sev 2 De mund. KCU 7repioptovcrai a-y^f^aTi^ovcraL. opif. the interchanged with each of of the conception of them.aTOJv KOU TrapaSeiy/xartKwv iSewv e o&amp. 431) : cf.eis Gwrotois TTOIOT^TCIS KCU Trepi ^u. etTrot vit. G wroA^Trreov KCU TG\S KCU a&amp. not in the plurality of their manifestations. 154). 13 (ii. TO. SiW/x. 6 ao-^Ty/Aarto-ra TreparoTxrou clearest instance of the identification is KCU probably in de monarch. planning to realize in a visible city the (i. 3. the powers that minister to Him are cognizable in not even cognizable. de monarch.is the architect. but that as seals are known from their impressions. 1 In both respects they are frequently viewed. the Eeason or Will or Word of God more pre that Logos in a special form of its cisely.s so de conf^is. 1. as crvarrj/za CK TTOMV . 7).186 VII. their essence. names Force and Form. His mind before His thought went outside Him to stamp with its impress the chaotic The place of this world is the and unformed mass. and also the types or patterns after which fashioned it.

12 A. 9 (i.lt.j&amp. alleg. 4 glad the city of God.oyo&amp. quod deus immut. ^v TO 2 ovvafJLL&amp. de cherub. is God the same conception is expressed in less avaretAai Kara //. opyavov. 18 pijfjLari. 2. Wisdom. is &quot. 9 alo~OrjTa yevi/cov aio-Orjrov Trpop-rjOeia rov TreTroi^ KOTOS.gt. river of forth to From it. embroidered the Forces of the seen and unseen worlds. Form of Forms. 106). opif. Leg. It is the 3 It is the and that flows waters. 162).gt. 31 (i.gt. The archetypal thought seal. 3. Abr. .lt. 691). 5 Kocr/xoTroiryrtK^. sometimes viewed not as a Form is that God&quot. 4 (i.city of his 187 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 5 De profug.full of all things. 24. VII. 4) : it charioteer. x/&amp. 18 (i. all by 5 But in all this. is itself God the Eeason of but as a Force.&quot. 281). which we the archetypal pattern. 37 (i. By flow. it. opif. the universe. the call the ideal world.oTpa 7rpi&amp. Aoy(j). &quot. 562). but : though His Thought was the 1 De mund.make another and even sublimer figure. 452) : cf. alleg.avo-rdro) (i. /cat both heaven and earth) vTr^p^ry Sw/oetoi/ w KCU (i. (i. #os 47).&quot. it is the instrument. the high-priest s robe.s (i. TO&amp. It is the expression of His Thought. 20 18. 1 On the other hand. 6 (i. impressing itself in but infinite Forms and by means of infinite Forces beings. ovvafjus 560). yap dfji(f&amp. 47). 35 (i. de migrat. the robes itself with the world eldest born of the am. de mund.gt. the Eeason of God.w/xevos rov icooyxov ei/ayafero more expressly. Philo never loses sight of the primary truth that the world was made not by inferior or opposing by God. It His creative energy. 5) . as from a fountain. deprofug.&quot. His Thought went forth from Him. : 4 De somn. 3 Leg.epos (i. irplv figurative language in Leg. 2 is by which He made instrument &quot. 1. alleg.I as with a vesture. 1.e.&quot.gt. all lower Forms and Forces &quot.

19 6 TWV yei/vTJcras. In the appealed began with the sublime declaration. singular interest in we shall find in of the world view of the similar conceptions some Gnostic 2 schools. 443) and elsewhere. 1 and one that tion of the genesis of the world. 6 A. 6 #eos ra iravra . and it elaborated the picture by the aid of Artificer : anthropomorphic conceptions By His almighty power He fixed firm the heavens. 632). Himself who gives the orders. and the metaphor : into that of a marriage expanded a different concep By God of God : is is which the Father Fatherhood is of is conceived as the Father. : 1 2 Deprofug. Abrah. . only arid well- 3 have now the main elements of the current &quot.188 VII. It &quot. this world. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 8 (i. His visible son. (i.&quot. ebriftt. 13 361). receiving the seed of God. 1. and by His incomprehensible &quot. Its ultimate basis was the upon the wave of the The Scriptures to which It rode in reaction against polytheism. God. it accepted that declaration as being both final and com It saw therein the picture of a single supreme plete.&quot. His Wisdom as the Mother: &quot. beginning God created the heavens and the earth. de somn.We conceptions out of which the philosophers of early Chris tianity constructed new fabrics.and she. had no need Christianity to borrow from Greek philo sophy either the idea of the unity of God. 561). de migrat.wv TrarTJp. or the belief that He made belief in one the world. 9 (i. with fruitful birth-pangs brought forth beloved. 3 De (i.

gradually withered away.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.. if a good and the world. the impress of His The own 1 image. can we account for imper all theistic almighty God made failure : and pain ? These questions of the mode of creation and of the God to the material world. of ditheism which grew up with finding their roots in its it unsolved pro blems and their nutriment in the very love of God which it fostered. not less now than then. 4. But in proportion Greek world. that Irenceus. trast between had grown c. VII.homo . though not without a struggle. and of the precise as the belief spread widely over the relation of God to the material world.. per tip in less explains the maims dixit $ ^. hands to mean the Son and Spirit &quot. et Spiriturn quibus et . wisdom He set them in order : He 189 separated the earth from the water that encompassed it . but as the necessary outgrowth among an educated people of that which. is the crucial religious conviction. the The simple Semitic cosmogony became insufficient. procf. The various forms and around it.. and with an even keener-sighted enthusiasm.&quot..&quot. it is a noteworthy instance of the con and the developed theology which than a century later. hominerii. were asked not less instinctively. hoc est per Filium. questions of the mode of creation. and last of all He formed man with His sacred and spotless hands. and the underlying relation of 1 |Clem. Rom. 4. when monotheism became a They came not from curiosity. belief that the God was one the Creator of heaven and earth came. question of fection and philosophy How.. to be a foremost and permanent element in the Christian creed.$4^ but this simple early belief ejus plasmatus Faciamus : est. which had grown with the growth of monotheism as a philosophical doc trine. lib.

There was a large tendency to account for the world by the hypothesis of evolution. 1. of One group Christianity as which were afterwards of philosophers. not only by the common sense of the Christian communities. Another group of philosophers. fill a large place in the history of the first three The compromise which ultimately centuries. question which any answer to them must at the same time solve.190 VII. and handed on to later times only those parts of the theories were which were most exposed also to attack. Thinkers schools. resulted has formed the basis of Christian theology to the present day. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. introduced conceptions discarded. like the tableaux of the framed cosmogonies which were symbolical and fantastic in proportion as they were symbolical. The belief expressed itself iii many forms. The of all answers were necessarily tentative. after the man ner of controversialists. also. but also by caricature. accentuated their weak points. treating the facts symbols. In some way it had come forth from God. within the original communities and out first side them. mysteries. of all schools were met. and which except in relation to the But so far as the underlying conceptions least intelligible whole system. dealing rather with the ideal than with the actual. Their opponents. can be disentangled from the details. The . framed cosmogonies in which abstract ideas were invested with substance and per The philosophers sonality. they may be clearly seen to have drifted in the direction of the main drifts of Greek philosophy. It was in all cases syncretist.

or the putting forth of leaves by a tree. 9. cle civit. 1 and 4 all abstraction. 9 : Jupiter omnipotens regum rex ipse deusque Progenitor genitrixque deum.g. Ed.g. deus unus et omnis. and after him by S. p. The conception 38. e. ap. Evang.gt. in the verses of Valerius which are quoted by Varro. 16. Other metaphors were taken from the pheno that of mena of vegetable growth. 304) . 2. and Eusebius. 3 Hippol.qv TheValentinians 6. also conceived in 24. e. Hippol. in. 3. 549). 29 . but also a Mother of the world. 7. of Epiphanes. common word probably the metaphor involved in the Stob. de Zevs piet. 83 (Diels. and commonly among the Stoics. yeyovevou Se ret? Zevs a/x/3poTos eVA-erc VV/JL^. is 1. e. The metaphors of other writers were taken from the pheno mena of human generation 3 they were an elaboration : of the conception of God as the Father of the world. as of a stream from its metaphor was 1 source. : yei/ero. Gomp. though God Himself was unwedded.. prwp. They were sometimes pressed there was not only a Father. all the powers that came forth from Him came forth in or pairs. union. . 191 same writers frequently made use of different metaphors but all the metaphors assumed vast grades and distances . pias ^&amp. Dei. 12. 6. the evolution of a plant from 2 a seed. VII. found as early as Xenocrates. 13 : so of Kara crvvytas Simon Magus. Zevs OyjXvs quotes the Orphic verse aippvjVf Zevs 4 ib. 3. between God in Himself and the sensible world. apa&quot. of Basilides (or rather one of the schools of Basilidians).g. ed. So Philodemus. Augustine.?ycrt 6. p. p. aTro TOV . 2 This is 7rpo/3oA?J. Wisdom or Silence : some other In one elaborate system it was held that. quotes 100 /&amp. of the double nature of God. p. One an outflow. Aetius ^pranus. 29 (Diels. 10. 1.gt. male and female..GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. existing things were the offspring of their That which came forth was Derivatio : Iren.

and made more by the use logoi . Koiva Kal prjra atoovas KOU Aoyovs KOU jOt^as KCU orTre/j/zara KCU TrA^ptofjiara KOL Kapirovs (ivo/^acre. of the synonym l intelligible the thoughts of God were conceived as active forces. In the conception of one school of thinkers. VII. 2 dvOpWTTLvr) 3 5. man the Kap?ros. 6. The powers which flowed forth from God were at once and material. Horn. where flame). 43 (of Marcus). eAa^tcrrov TravreAws Svvdpei B aweipov cnrtpfjia l/ceti/o.192 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 8 (of the Docetae). 9 sqq. 3 and the fruit again contains is 1 Hippol. TT/OWTOI/ vo7/o-et eTrtvoei? rj Kal Tre^v/ce yei/ea-$cu cos ev iracra rjTtcrovv SiSaa-Ko/xev?/ re^v^. The common expression in one group of won (a/wi/). the unbegotten seed of which the Tree of Being but plastic forms. .. Hippol. the invisible forces of the world acted in the same way his materials. rot Se oi/o/mra TCUI/ crroi^eiwi/ TO. TTOLV o TI TOVTO CKacm? TOJV apyjuv vorjOev. but it is complicated with the metaphor of invisible and visible fire (heat and It is adopted by Peter in the Clementines. corresponding to the monistic God Himself. 4. ecrrlv dyewrjTov. the distinction between intellectual and material existence tended to vanish. They were subtler and conception more active forms of matter acting upon its grosser intellectual of In the conception of another school. C. 2 In that the art of a craftsman acts upon the conception of another school. embodying themselves in material forms. 8. 7rot|OaAei7ris fMrj foxy Hippol. God is the leaves and fruit. sophers the expressions are relative to the metaphor of growth and development. similar God is the /ua. sions are gathered together. oOtv yeyovev r] O-VKTJ. 19 (of the Sethiani). 9. 6.lv A metaphor was used by the Simonians. philosophers is In other groups of philo origin in this application. Beov etVai TOV TT/JCUTOV otovet crTrc/j/xa Hid. Hippol. a term which is of uncertain various ways. CTVKT]S /xeye^et TO Se. 2. and repeat the Stoical term In the syncretism of Marcus the several expres seed. : fj.

passions the material world and the Demiurgus who fashioned it. presents to all theories of evolution which assume the existence of a good and its failures was bridged over by the hypothesis of a The &quot. carried back from the earthly Paradise to the sphere of perfect God. o KapTros ev &amp. 2 Another theory was that of revolt and insurrection among the supernal powers. without the aid of Out of this shapeless another. 32 sqq. . which was expressed in lan that guage readily lent itself to caricature. 2 The 3 This was especially the view of the Peratse. 8. and the that came forth from her. some The theory was shaped in various ways. 3 Both difficulty farther back : theories simply pushed the no solution of it they gave : they were opposed as strongly by philosophers outside Christianity as they were by polemical theologians within it 4 : they helped to pave the Ibid. 1 The obvious difficulty which the actual world. chief authorities for this theory. 8. Enn. divinity of symbols. Wisdom herself Valentinus had become subject having both ambition and desire.fall from original righteousness&quot. with and imperfections. she had produced from herself a shapeless mass. .vAao~o-Tcu way w TO for the Augustinian aTretpov KOU TO dve^apiOpr^Tov (nrepfj-a orvKrjs. was lapse. which are expressed by almost unintelligible itself. produce what is perfect. 5. ii. That of the widely-spread school of was. and Hippolytus 6. Hippol. in ignorance that the Unbegotten One alone can. . 25. are the first seven chapters of the first book of Irenaeus. arose mass. . 13.lt.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 4 Notably by Plotinus. that the Divine to passion. VII. O^vavpi^optvov . 193 in itself infinite possibilities of renewing the original seed. 9. and that.

It : work of art.) almighty as well as beneficent imperfect and evil the ultimate relation come what is assumed a co-existence of to create ? dualistic hypothesis matter and God. VII. theology of succeeding centuries. 59. C. I ( dfji6p&amp. claims that Plato adopted it from Moses.ov v\t]v apopifiov ovcrav crrpe^avra TOV Otov Kocrpov Arys TroiTycrai : : ib. con tained grave difficulties. 1 But this. with these hypotheses of evolution was a tendency.f&amp. to account for the world by the hypothesis of creation. by side Western world. Three main questions were discussed in connection with of matter to with it it : God ? What was (i. and partly from the conception moral of evil.) The God come into contact HOTV did a God who was did (iii. which ultimately became supreme. iravra rrjv i.1 avrov 10.) (ii. arising partly from the meta physical conception of God.194 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. The difficulty of the assumption degree to which matter was There was a regarded as having positive qualities. though he avowedly adopts the conception from Plato. dp^jv dyaOov ovra ^rjpLovpyrjcra.) How so as to shape it? (i. universal belief that beneath the qualities of all existing varied according to the things lay a substratum or substance on which they 1 The conception appears in Justin Martyr. tacit The assumption was more frequently than explicit. but Justin. Apol. in either the Eastern or the Side 2. no less than the monistic hypothesis.lt. . It was the result of the action of God upon already existing was not evolved. but they did not them selves win permanent acceptance either in philosophy or in theology. God was the Builder or Framer the universe was a matter.gt. but ordered or shaped.

10. a mass of atoms not coalescing according to any principle 1 or order of the action of the Creator arrangement: upon them was that of a general changing a rabble of individuals into an organized army..VII. 11. 39. The to that of empty metaphysical conception of substance tended to be confused with the physical con Matter was sometimes conceived as ception of matter. that He made was the metaphor of a seed which contained in de anim. 18. 15. &amp. K TOV pr) KaAws 4 i/cavws prjS xovros ibid. The distinction of subject and object was preserved.%? pv o2 . 194) : e apop^ov vAr/s : Justin M. it as a partly by moulding potter various elements as a clay. procreat. p. Apol. so that the action of the Transcendent God was still that of creation and not of evolution He made . Legat. out of that which was not That which &quot.gt.lt. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. ov yap e/c TOV p) ovros rj yei/eo-is ^Plutarch. but it was things to expressed by &quot. But the conception of the nature of this substance varied to from that of gross and tangible material and formless space.lt. 5. partly by combining builder combines his materials in the construction of a moulds house. 3. were grafted.D&amp. and which gave 195 each thing its unity. to which the Creator gave form.us yap o K/3a/Aev5 KCU 6 6 7n?Ao?. conception of matter was raised to a higher plane. Kepapevs. Moller.. Wisdom. p. 1. plastic in the possessed the the Basilides. 2 regard hands Both these conceptions as more or less gross. viraKovovo-a 5e avT$ f) vAt? Trpos TTJV i&amp. but still With quality of resistance. /crto-ao-a TOV KQCT^OV 59 (quoted in note. irpo rrjs TOV KOO-/XOV Kosmologie. be. a/cooyua yap rjv ra cf.lt. Athenag. Tex^tTTys Se 6 Tr^Aos. aAA : : ycvo-&amp. it of the of matter tended to It was Divine Workman. It was sometimes conceived as a vast shapeless but plastic mass. KCU 6 0eos S^/uoupyo s.

the ultimate is summum genus. The by which process things came into being followed in inverse order the The steps by which our process of our knowledge. but of different kinds of growth. itself possibilities.196 VII. not only of the form or qualities. LTTTTOV. the Absolute Being and the Absolute Unity. evolved or made the world from that which was not. It became the basis of the theory which ultimately prevailed in the Church. 14. The metaphor is sometimes : explained by the help of the Aristotelian conception of 1 The original seed which God made genera and species.TTO ecrrt TO cnrep^a o e ^et Iv AptcrroTeA^s yevos etvat ets aT rov wov fiovv. not yet having brought any and since all power over creature into being. by an almost infinite stairway of subor dinated groups. The transition appears in Tatian. The basis of the theory was Platonic. 6V. Three worlds were involved in it the world of spirit. Tracrav 7. and between the two the world of life. though some of the terms were borrowed from both Aristotle and the Stoics. are the steps by which that Absolute Being and Absolute Unity. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Cf. God is the author. 22 (of Basilides). who is God. not only of growth. all ideas ascend. TOVTO T^V TravcnrepfAMV o (frrjiriv Te/xvo/xevov i5eas ws re/xvo/tev i:rrlv 2 OVK Orat. O. from the visible objects of sense to the highest of all abstractions. In itself him. 5 (following the text of Schwartz). He Himself by the power of His word gave substance to all 1 Hippol. oirep . ad Graec. being Himself the substance of the whole. was alone : both visible and invisible things was with Him. ib. avOpurrov 10. and the world of matter. but also of the substance or underlying ground of all u The Lord of the universe 2 things.

form in Athenagoras he makes a point in defence of far from denying the existence of : Christianity that. 8. however. H. 4. in strictly philosophical language. 3. but its Source. l3ut its importance was soon upon had probably It seen. TO ov ov yivtrai it is is which light of the distinctions where TO 6V = and 4 19. ovra ets TV . causes things exist before 2 Clem. yap ij/xas Ham. Eusebius. but in the former of these passages he 6 $eog e VTTOKet/xev^s vXys 7rott rov Kovpov. vol. 1. is which TO efi/ai TO.r) ov. TL 8e 3 Christ. 3 I by impressing form on matter. exaAeo-ei/ i. 7: Origen. 123). In some of the other passages in which similar not clear whether the conception is more than that p. de printip.Xa TO appears from the expression. 4. 8. elsewhere) 17 TO v. E. sage TO OVTOS CK rov pi] Tio-as KCU Troirycras : of the universe. whence being (see Holler. Legat. : ov = TO Swa/xct ov. Lvai rjpais : : Clementin. 3. 3. does not lay alone in also stress it. Hand. 5. 2 found in another is l who. e OVK OVTWV OVK oi/ras KCU 32. p. VIT. p. or potential p. 6 Oeos 6 is 5. 2.r) ov KCU Travopfvov : p) it is of an artist who. i. 2. found It is being unborn and imperishable. 28. ycvrjrov. to exist eTrot ryfle TW ra p. which is ayevtjTov the meaning of TO p. Ad 2 Autol adds. the development of the Platonic conception within the Christian sphere gave it a philosophical form and early in the third century it had become the prevail God had created ing theory in the Christian Church. 61. 2 Maccab.things with 197 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. peya et 5 and 10. quoted as Scripture by Irenseus. tTvai ap^opevov 1. IK 79. 2 = clear that TO Kosmologie. 20. The most important passage is Hermas. rrdvra Kricras KCU Karap- TO. it made Him the Author of all He existence. avra expressed Travra (the pas dA. 1. phrases occur. so God. monotheism : : He was not merely the Architect matter. must be read by the this are clearly expressed i/o cis which by Athenagoras. 7. This theory Himself. which did not o #eos fjiYf OI/TOS and TO OVK ov = TO alcrOrjTov. pro l.&quot. been for a long time the unreasoned belief of Hebrew Theophilus.

2. : 7TOt7^(TV KOO-/JLOV .lt.acrcrai/ $or) Ta/xiewravTt /cat ra wavra de/n TrA^pojcravri Hippolyt. short of its (ii. ei/ ovpavov S^/uov/oy^cravri. 7. having been created by God. 1 In Euseb. TO. rrj 6 Oeos Trputrrj rjpepa eTroi^crev ^kv o&amp. Praep. 8. did God come into contact with it so as to give it qualities and form ? The difficulty of the question became greater as the tide of thought The dominant idea receded from anthropomorphism. It one is the treatise of rary records of the controversy Tertullian against Hermogenes. Reliquiae Sacrae.rj in such a way as to suggest their identity 1. 4. yfjv TTiAwcraim. and elsewhere CTTOtCi vXrj&amp. reprinted in Routh. but of the which beset any attempt to explain moral evil on metaphysical grounds. VII. : 1.. 87. But the theory did not immediately win its way to It rather set aside the moral difficulties acceptance. The insoluble difficulties the origin of attempt was soon afterwards practically abandoned. t. The solution of the moral difficulties was found in the doctrine the . : : later TOV books the whole passage. in Genes. Traimx K p.. 22..rj OVTWV rats Se a XA. . the other is a dialogue : same date which of about the unknown Maximus. Evang.ya e^ OVK 6 t ovrwv 0O? 1^ VTTOKeifMeVrjS ^ of the Clementine Homilies. these of are with that expressions interchanged ^ vTroKtiptvr] vX. e OVK O VTWJ/ TO.) How. .lt. under any conception of matter. those difficulties was attacked by those who felt There are two chief lite strongly. iVa Tl Se [J. TO ov = void space a 17.solution of the metaphysical difficulties was found in the general acceptance of the belief that of Free-will God created : all things out of nothing. Trai/ra eTrot^crev.ra eTrot^crei/ In Theophilus. 4. 1 Both is ascribed to an otherwise treatises are interesting as examples not only of contemporary polemics. than solved them. 10.at? OVK CK /AT) OVTCOV.$ In the TO. #aA. gives clear and interesting exposition. ii.198 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 2.

Those who appealed to Scripture saw an indica tion of this in the use of the plural in the first chapter of Genesis. the original conception of i Justin M. following 6 TWV oAwv e 8(o/&amp.was that 199 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Iren. schools of thought this theory was combined 2 The uncon with the theory of creation by the Son.e The cus TraTTjp rats Icurrov Svva/xecriv SiaTrAaTTeiv. 1 Another current of which had been first speculation flowed in the channel. power of the word of God: His wisdom had shaped itself into a in the On as a substantive force. the demons Greeks. which were paflTjT Greek OrTthe one hamI7tEere Had long been among IheTrews a &quot. formed by the Timceus of Plato. in subordination to tEe^anscendent God. the of mediation. TT?S . 7. of supposing a single Creator and Euler of the world who. 20: so of after quoting the passage Philo. 556). conception of that wisdom Greek philothe other hand. as in Philo. StaAeycrat p*v Genesis. where. de profug. pjuiov/Aevais Tr)v Peratse in Hippol. Hippol. VII. mediation was regarded from the point of view of the of the effects. &quot. and the agents were plurality and variety They conceived as being more than one in number. ovv Platonic the theory. 62.ofelemSats&quot. the of were the angels of the Hebrews. 17. The view into which the Christian consciousness ulti been building itself mately settled down had meanwhile Jewish and partly up out &quot. Tryph. 1.&quot. fashioned the things that exist. 5. in the region of the unknown of trolled imagination play constructed more than one strange speculation which is it not necessary to revive. In some&quot. Sometimes.belief and the TeTTel ln&quot.lt. Let us make man. TO 6vrjTov ^/*(3v avrov -r eyv^v. 13 (i. he proceeds. 16. 24. 25.

chaos. theory. sophy that Mind or Eeason had marshalled into order the confused and warring elements of the primseval had passed into the conception of the Logos as a mode of the activity of God. The form P. 1 which we have found in Philo is found also in the earliest expressions of these combinations. N which had a natural affinity for each other.? nf f. The Jew through whom Celsus sometimes speaks says.iar) was answered on the by the hypothesis the &quot. we also assent to the same.&quot. into a com been combined by Philo. and sometimes by the hypothesis of creation by subordinate and imperfect agents. as we have Seen. mnnisfiV. whether the Logos clear activity. but it harmonized with and supported by the Greek conception of matter as the seat of formlessness and disorder. had already have seen. These several elements. His unity view the Logos was God. Origen. 1 2. on the hypothesis of a lapse.200 VII. Cels. If your Logos is the Son of God. or as view. &quot. . 31. as absolute as (iii.Vmnry nf p. was is regarded as a mode of God s In either His supremacy there was no rival. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. as we prehensive system and in the second century they were entering into new combinations both outside and inside : The vagueness of conception the Christian communities. . sometimes It f.) not always having a substantive existence. c. because as the Creator .rpnf.hy dualistic of evil inherent in matter. God was regarded in either It is How : could a God who was at once beneficent and almighty create a world which contained imperfection amT~moral evil ? The question was answered.hpse hypotheses came rather from the East than from Greece was&quot.

and which was first formulated by Marcion. Origen. The 201 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. and the 1 agents were beings whom He had created. each of them moving under the impulse of a separate Power.Til. It Christ. 4. and the work of the Saviour was made so 1 2 Cf. and world of mortal and imperfect existences the crea distinction the&quot. which meet us in both the and the moral world. that the two were regarded as inherently hostile. activity. Platonic conception. Marcion deep a chasm between the Law and the Gospel. . c. were solved by the hypothesis of two worlds in conflict. an extension of the Platonic latter hypothesis is between the perfect world which God created directly through the operation of His own powers. Noet. c. Hippol. contradictions. which He entrusted to inferior agents. Cels. the Flesh and the Spirit. He seemed to be a derived from God and ultimately large in the horizon of : rival and an adversary. The same solu material tion applied also to the contrast of the of Old and New had been already thought that the God the Jews was different from the Father of Jesus Testaments. 11. 54. God Himself. inferior In the conception which grew up early in the second century. and con He ceived as doing the work of the inferior agents. but. in a certain tion of His In the mode of was the Creator (Demiurgus). the imperfections. was subordinate to finite The the Supreme Him 2 but looming thought. the inequalities of both condition and ability. with an exaggerated Paulinism. the Creator was detached from the Supreme God.

swept away the The moral difficulty was solved. also in Ireneeus is : is it is only 2 : one Almighty God who created all things by His fashioned them. 22: cf. we shall see in the next Lecture. and partly He moulded The it by His Logos. in spite of its The reservations and safeguards. dent and rival God. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.existent and resisting matter or an indepen The enormous wave of belief in the Divine Unity. : 2 1. 20.rule of truth:&quot. i. philosophical difficulties of monotheism were enormous. which had gathered its strength from the whole sea of contemporary thought. and caused that out of what was not is not the least of the contributions of Professor Harnack he has vindicated Marcion from the many to early Christian history that excessive disparagement which has resulted from the blind adoption of the vituperations of Tertullian see especially his Dogmengesckichte. as barriers in its path. 2te aufl. by the conception of God the metaphysical difficulties of the contact of with matter were solved. 4. it His Son. . and There Word and 1 It is it . 1 The objection to all this was that. regarded as bringing back into the world from which. Bd. he had been shut out the God of love and grace.. 226 sqq.202 VII. seems communities states it as part of the following one of several passages in which he so states &quot. pp. that he so generally accepted in the the recognized &quot. who co-existent with Him. but the knot was not to be cut by the hypothesis of either a co. eternally by the conception first patristic into form statement of this view stands in the forefront of his theology to have been of which he was cognizant. partly by the conception that God free-will that : created matter. it tended to ditheism.

or solid earth. but as an internal mental process of the universe. alone by Himself. God of Abraham. or dense air. whether visible or invisible. 32. this -God of Jacob. things temporal or things eternal. the first and sole and universal Maker and Lord. and not being without knowledge of the Father s thought . 10. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.&quot. 203 all things should be: as saith the Scripture. Him. 33. so that when the Father bade the world come into being. is the there . not infinite chaos. by angels or : : over all things.VII. except so far as they existed in His foreknowledge This supreme and only God begets Eeason first. or subtle breath. and God This fashioned man. All things were made by Him and without was not anything made that was made. or warm fire. and no other God. and from it came that which was begotten. There is no exception the Father made all things by Him.. the 1 Hippol. and by His will He made the things : was that are.this : this is Christ. The same view is expressed with equal prominence and emphasis by a disciple of Irenams.. and all the host of them by mouth and again. nor Beginning God. objects of sense or objects of intel the Breath of His : : He made them not by any powers separated from His Thought for God needs none of all these beings but it is by His Word and His Spirit that He makes and disposes and governs and presides ligence. that before were not. not reason as a spoken word. Him alone did He beget from existing things for the Father himself constituted existence.. as we shall show. bearing in himself the active will of Him who begat him. God who made the world. who shows an even stronger impress of the philosophical speculations of his time &quot. had nothing coeval with him.The a : one God. nor the azure cope of the vast heaven but He one. having formed the thought of him. The cause of the things that came into being was the : Eeason. By the Word of the Lord were the heavens made. . above whom nor Power nor Fulness Father of our Lord Jesus God who of Isaac. not measureless water.

justifying in this part of his theology 1 even more than in other respects the criticism of Porphyry. Reason brought each thing to perfection one by one. followed the school of Philo in believing that the original creation was of a world of ideal or intelligible existences. 9. widening sphere. The cosmogony of Origen was a His aim was less to show in detail how the of creation. 19. that though in his manner of life he was a Christian. 2 expanded. the belief that there was one God who Word by wiiom He Word was manifested in revealed Himself to mankind by the had created them. than to u justify the ways of God to man. and that both the existence of the Son and the 1 ap. . this But the Alexandrians were concerned with the metaphysical than with the moral diffi and their view of those difficulties modified also culties less . E.&quot. 6. was not impersonal. 2 De princip. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. the teaching of that school in believing that the Word or Wisdom of God. or of God. &quot. by whom He made the world. and summed up the judgment of average Christians on the main philo as time went on. world came into existence. to a sophical questions of the second century. thus pleasing God. but His Son. It appealed. &quot. and that Jesus Christ. Euseb. with all its difficulties. 2.204 VII. H. view their theodicy. accepted.&quot. in God he was his opinions about He a Greek. no less than the rhetoricians of Gaul. This creed of Irenceus and his school became the basis of the theology of later Christendom. 1. The questions were not seriously re-opened. 6. and that the cause of creation was the goodness He differed from. He proceeded strictly on the lines of the older philosophies. The idealists of Alexandria. .

who conveyed a share in himself to certain parts of the things so created and caused them 4 thereby to become rational creatures. is. 2. 2. Ibid. the Son caused : . of such worlds. 3. 4. 3. 2. was made by the agency of the only begotten Son. 8. 6. 5 Ibid. came the actual world the Father caused it to be. 2. 1. it be rational: to and visible 3 another invisible. thus eternally co. 5 : The matter of as well as the it form was created by was made by Him. one universal order spring from 1 Deprincip. 3. 2. 2. or that there should ever have been a time at which God was not omnipotent from having no world to 2 The relation of each to the world is stated in govern.existent. 4 lUd. 1 ever existed without His Wisdom. 10. . that from the Father and the Son. 5. 1. as also Philo and the Platonists had taught. but leaves behind it a similar seed which has a similar life and a similar succession so did : beginning and pass through its appointed period to the end which was like the beginning in that after it all things began anew. took its beginning in time but it is not the first. that the whole world.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. creation of the ideal world For it is had been from impious to think that God 205 all eternity. 5. The Stoical theory had conceived of the universe as God. which. 1. is a copy of the ideal world. and to Him it will return. its 2 Ibid. 6. nor will it be the last. 3 Ibid. ever have been without the conception of the world that was to be. VII. This visible world. possessing the power to create but not the and it is inconceivable either that Wisdom should will . 9. 3. varying ways one mode of statement is. 6 It analogous to a seed which expands to flower and fruit and withers away.

was never again seriously disturbed. and it also left its traces in many inconsis tent usages within the circle of the communities which rejected it. VII. human freedom. in distinction from the divided government of many gods. gical God. : : the hypothesis of more worlds than one on the one hand of the hypothesis of is a complement. on the other hand of the hypothesis in the divine because it justice. parts of it it of from the theory of a content with creed.206 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. and in the identity of the one God with the Creator of the The close world. and gives scope for the discipline of reformation. But the belief in the unity of God. accounts for the infinite diversities of condition. More were Christians simpler than one question remained unsolved and the hypothesis . all rational creatures were they are equal no longer originally equal and free because they have variously used their freedom and part. It was no longer Theolo but Christological. came to be applied to the sole government of the . though allied. The expression Monarchy. of the controversy was marked by its transference to a different. Large elements of this theory dominated in the theo logy of the Eastern Churches during the fourth century.&quot. which had been used of the sole government of the one &quot. area. Origen s theory was a modification of this it recognized an absolute beginning and an absolute end: both the : God poised as it were between these two divine eternities were the worlds of beginning and the end were which we are : In them. of creation by a rival God was Church which flourished part of the creed of a for several centuries before it faded away. But ultimately those which distinguished The mass Irenseus faded away.

which is the ultimate solvent of all philosophical theories. In this new area of con the Son. VII. of the Father. and the Oriental influ ences which were flowing in large mass over some parts But of the Christian world.We may sum up on the conception universe. and dualistic theories of the origin of the world lie beneath the two schools of Monarchianism. economy&quot. in one of which Christ was conceived as a mode of God. permanent as it With down into the belief in the a conviction which has been as was of slow growth. by the result of the influence of Greece of God saying that Hebrew monotheism. and in the other as His exalted creature. it believed that the the hypothesis of the existence of a Power the existence of a rival Power. The moral difficulties of human life. the average opinion of thinking men.207 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. tended towards ditheism. In the determination Greek philosophy had a no less important influence than it had upon the and with some ele controversies which preceded them of these Christological controversies : ments of that determination we shall be concerned in a future Lecture. difficulties in the belief in a The dominant God Theistic philosophy . Father. nities to believe as in His relation to the material it found a reasoned basis for It helped the Christian commu an intellectual conviction that which they had first accepted as a spiritual revelation. &quot. had for centuries past been settling unity of God. The monistic troversy the old conceptions re-appear. and the Holy Spirit. are greater difficulties in limited by even than the great who allows evil to be. in distinction from the &quot.

that He us and is we &quot. : and it not impossible that. and is to Him.not in far off Him. that the is the eternal and unfold . the Christian world may come back to that con is ception of Him which was shadowed in the far-off ages.&quot. but very that He nigh. of t laid emphasis on the conception of God as the Artificer and Architect of the universe rather than Cause. and through Him.of Him. may change. yet so . GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.rested from His creation. even after this long lapse of cen turies. is that &quot. moving universe itself ing manifestation of Him. are all things &quot. &quot. worketh hitherto&quot. the form not the only theory that is consistent with the fundamental thesis that &quot. and which has never been wholly without a witness. tianity. Greece became the dominant philosophy of Chris It prevailed in form as well as in substance.208 VII.&quot.&quot.He is in changeless and yet changing in and with His creatures and that He who &quot. But though the substance Platonism immanent as its will remain.

THE idea of the unity of God had grown. TLv Trepio^jv KOV^OV P CK TTJS \v a. as we have already seen. the army. 1. order The order being capable by numbers.LECTURE VIII. Hence the same philosopher Aetius ap. personality to imply the capacity to change whereas in the world. de plac. The dominant element in the idea of in the idea of the world implied and will was it seemed God was personality: But order. first to 7 of give to the as of a marshalled of being expressed by numbers. . II. it is. it was fixed and unvarying. p. phil. 1. 1 in the movements It could be expressed &quot. GEEEK AND CHEISTIAN THEOLOGY. The philosopher of numbers was the world the name Cosmos. 7T/3(uros wyo/xao-e ri]v TUV oAcoj/ 2. is 1 inconceivable. THE MORAL GOVERNOR. Those relations are not only fixed. but absolutely unalter That a certain ratio should be otherwise than what able.VT$ of . Plut. in a common with the idea of growth the unity of the world. partook of the nature of numerical relations. But it did not absorb that idea. THE GREEK IDEA. wherever order could be traced. A. 1 (Diels. 327). The order was most conspicuous the heavenly bodies. will.

as though tion. All things are by destiny. ibid. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.9 322). 3. rlo-cropa ^v yoGv T^ 81. The length of a man s life and his measure of or por endowments had been spoken of as his share&quot.? 1. religion. Jiomerische Theologie. &quot. actively.lt. T^V made by Parmenides and Democritus and el^ap^rj is also eivcCyicw But in much later times of the passage quoted above. Qucest. pressed. Aphrodis.All ness of physical order. ot rfv xa. It it was.&quot. t lr av KaO 3 % dvdyK^ 2. 3 Aetius. 1.&quot. on the other ^ap^vrjv ^VTIK^VOV dSwarov. 321). Svo r6 K aff ye kv rots yevo^vots aiViwv of? KaO cipfiv ytvo/*6vois c? hand. Nat. HpaicAeiTos Travra Kal avrfyicijv the identification of p. metaphysicians who 1 All things are by necessity. : 8e a-M}v e^ap/i^v. . : . 96. soon came to be otherwise ex things are by necessity. and the followed him framed the formula.gt.lt. K&W 25 (Diels. 1 &quot. m a continuation a distinction bein was sometimes drawn between the two words. fused with the conception of the unalterableHence the proposition. is unthinkable : contradictory ed Spengel). fcrapx&quot. of Greek This conception linked itself with an older idea &quot. sometimes impersonal 2 inevitable. Nachr 3 2. Through its character of inevi: was sometimes in any case.&quot.210 VIII.^ irepi- irdvra Kar^ dvay/cryv. Homerische Theologie. ^dy^ of a proposition of which the used of the subjective necessity Alex. personal. Kal TLapptvftrjs Huflayopas dvayKqv A^pm* 4 &amp. 2. Ka&amp. conceived invested with necessity. be made to Nagelsbach. 5 (p. it tableness. Kewrflai 2 may T&amp. numbers who had first &quot. ut supra. . 2.0 ^apbut. of it also as being conceived of the Cosmos. Sometimes the assigning of this portion to a man other gods was conceived as the work of Zeus or the like sometimes the gods themselves had their portions men and very commonly the portion itself was viewed it were the activity of a special being. reference For the numerous passages which prove these statements.&quot.&quot. &quot.&quot. 2. 1 Aetius. p. rt&amp. . &quot. 27 (Diels.lt.

the other. which has become a perma nent possession of the human race. 4 : eTvai Se other words. Tro Xf?.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. de divin. Theog. 904. 55. r^v 6. 2 p. pliilos. was further elaborated The Greek into the picture of the world as a great city. This sublime conception. Hesiod. 142. Theodoret. whose equivalent in but ecclesiastical. T(Dv. had sprung. aKoXovOia KCU dvaXoyta TWI/ o-v/xTrai/- dp/Aw e^ovora dSidXvrov Cic. Over against the personal might to stand the dark and formless came sonal Destiny. 3. 3 . 26. 1. SO.&quot. Gr.&quot. Its parts were all interdependent and relative to the 1 Nagelsbach. Alex. nent.the linked chain of causes. Philo. ei^a/tyievrp Ktvrycrti/ dUStov trvvf)^ KCU TTay[jLvr]v ap. 14. ot Sraiucot elp^ov amahs: 598). Gell. its The conception was 211 Zeus there thus of an imper fixity of especially elaborated In the older mythology from which it personifications had been spoken of some times as the daughters of Zeus and Themis. 3 6. civil the state. de mut. was ordinem seriemque o-va-Tijpa KCU Clem. and some times as the daughters of Mght. continuous and ordered move was &quot. Aetius ap. 2 The former expressed its certainty and perfect order its working. 218. the darkness of The former element became more promi eternal. by the 1 Stoics. Strom. 1. It ment. in : The Stoical definition of a 77-0X1? TTWI/ IJTTO vofJLov StoiKOLy/evoi/. Nachhomerische Tkeologie. 4 The was an It &quot. affect. 2. cur at. ap. Plut. was an modern times ideal society. 3 Chrysippus. 28. Aul. VIII. TrA^os dvOpo)- . causarum cum causa causae nexa rem ex se gignat. nom. idea of necessity passed into that of intelligent and in herent force the idea of destiny was transmuted into : that of law. 23 (i. de placit. the is not embodied 5 type of a perfect constitution or organization (o-wrrj^a). P 2 * 4.

O&amp. 40). Frag. 4. 5. 5.wews Tr/ooo-ra/crt/cos [J. the administrators Thou be Sun: thou hast had assigned a special task. Aoyos Se eo-rt ^&amp. speaks of ^ TroAv Oavpcu^op^vri TroAcreia TOV rryv ^rcotK KaTaftaXopevov Deorum. Diss.gt. Stoical writers all Achilles.&quot. 13. the power to go on thy circuit and make the year and the seasons. working out without friction the divine conception which was whole : expressed in 1 society.S Otuv oioVtl TToAiS 4 9. TOV Atos Owv : Plutarch.212 VIII. o-vveo-TrjKev e 22. de Josepho. as to every other created being. Peerlk. 10 : most fully Euseb. and so fulfil thy ministry alike in small things and in great the army to Ilium Thou hast the power to lead be Agamemnon.lt. TOV T&amp. 15. its men should do. de Muson. Phsedr. Diss. 6 (H. : make thy circuit. 6. &quot.lt.gt. p. 3. dvdpuTrwv Kal 24. was unchangeable. Petersen. TTpOO O nKaL fJLV CUl/ yap 3 ot Kara TrdAets vofJioi Epict. idea is viyt. GKEEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.y rrjv ^ye/zovi av e^oi/rwv TWI/ 8 dvOpUTruv VTror^Tay^v^v. To were limited. 1. Evang. It consisted of gods and men ideal the former were : The moral law was human nature. Arius Didymus in K6(TfJ. prescribing what and forbidding what they should not do the latter. rj 3. 3 To : In this sense each individual &quot.Js (jE)vcre(os opBov Aoyov. man. 46). 3. OVTW Kal K dtWV Kal dvOptoTTWV (TWeCTTWCra. the whole was flawless and supreme. 2 man was a citizen of the world. 22. : ZTJI/COVOS ed.gt. 19 (from Stob. Thou hast the to fight in power : combat with Hector : be this function of administration the gods The 1 constitution of the great city The Magn.&quot. a reason inherent in its rulers The world was such an laws. : Chrysippus ap... cupecrci/ nat. 15. Epicur. de Alex. to make fruits grow and ripen. ap. Flor. 2 Philo. to stir and the winds. . 4 . 164 TroAeoo? 2.TTiV TU&amp. citizens.. . 6 . human laws were but appendages of it. its . to lull warm the bodies of men go thy way. found in almost : Epict. ed..V TTpaKTfOV aTTayOpCVTlKO? 8e (UV OV TTpaKTtOV . Prcep. p. jJiV &amp.

: . conception. of unfailing laws. if it had been possible. which had underlain the primitive The meaner conceptions religions. I would have made thy body and thy But as it is. the power of indulging or not in dulging desire of thy mind. The gods were and they were good. the power of making or not making effort. the elements of which had existed in the earliest religion. in the bound by the conditions of things. 10. I gave thee a part of myself. have the gods placed in our power the faculty of rightly deal ing with ideas all other things are out of our power. of the whirlwind and the earthquake. not by an arbi their supremacy. For what says Zeus ? Epictetus. says Epictetus. . &quot. gradually asserted burlesque. Diss. of night which had resulted from a vividly realized anthropomor phism. Side and thunder. by the operation Epict. were.&quot. they absolutely could not.VIII. The awe of the 2. were passing into the region of ridicule and finding their expression only in of the earlier Two great conceptions. forget not that possessions free and unhindered. like men. . is best of all things and Stoical supreme. And since I could not do this. &quot. but 1 just. was fading into mist. the malice and spite and intrigue which make some parts mythology read like the chronique scandaleuse of a European court. They punished wicked deeds. thy body is not thine. That which 213 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. but only clay deftly kneaded. power of dealing with all the ideas 1 by side with this conception of destiny were growing up new conceptions of the nature of the gods. in short. The gods. 1. 1. the . also trary vengeance. Is it that they would not ? I for my part think that if they had been able they would have placed the other things also in our power but &quot. The gods of wrath were passing away. . . forces of nature.

And again This is the law divine to evil that is &quot. which at first had only been that of wise provision in particular cases. linked itself with the Stoical teleology. The laws were the expression of the highest conceivable Their penalties were personal to the offender. VIII. : The data for the long history of the moral conceptions of Greek to be religion which are briefly indicated above are far too numerous 1 the student is referred to Nagelsbach. are linked together. : &quot. outside the range of his will. Diss. anything let him feel pain and sorrow. and itself &quot. of the world. let him bemoan himself and be unhappy. them after death. self-acting laws. to the individual. 17 58. happiness and perfection. let that let him be man flattered. Whoever thinks anything to be good that is outside the range of those his will. The forethought Providence&quot. . There punishments appointed as are. widened out to 1 The con a conception of their general benevolence.&quot. ception of their forethought. &quot. both to the universe worked by 2 tetus.&quot. i. of their kindness. &quot. Die Nachgiven in a note homerische Theologie. let be envy and unsatisfied longing him be unquiet whoever thinks feel .214 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. and immanent in human it. says Epic- were by law it It to who disobey the divine administration. 11. 1. of Grod was thus beneficent in regard or sphere of life. The gods were which in the also good. misery and imperfection. The God who was the Eeason was working to an end. . which was also In the the perfection of each member of the whole. That end was the perfection of the whole. earlier religion The idea had been a kindness only for favoured individuals. 3. and the sinner who did not pay them in this life paid morality.

and the highest reason. TOV Travros SUJKOVTO. is also the law of the perfection of the There were two stages in this blending of the two conceptions into one. de placit. of Destiny or Eeason parts. The two conceptions. though apparently antagonistic. let him be mean-spirited. Stob. 3. 43. in Plut. Aoyov TOV Sia rfjs : Heraclitus ap. and it was incident to perfection. 8e ytyo/ucva ICTTIV 6 .215 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. let him feel grief. like all conceptions which have a strong hold upon masses of men. let him bemoan himself and be 1 unhappy. and pity in short. /x. let him be a slave. 1. p. Reason 28. 323). and strong and beyond escape which exacts the greatest punishments from those who have sinned the greatest The man who lays claim to do not concern him. 1 2 Diss. is 42. secondly. 5. and.6 ov TO. in the conception of the fixed order of the world as being at It was rational because it once rational and beneficent. the identification. and jealousy. Placit. There were thus at the beginning of the Christian era two concurrent conceptions of the nature of the super human which determine the existence and control forces the activity of all created things. ibid. which is the law of the perfec tion of the whole. let him be a braggart. had tended. 15 (Diels. was the embodiment of the highest reason beneficent because happiness is . Eel overtax 1.&quot.ev yeyovora yeyoye TO. Aoyos Ka. Destiny philos. let : . 1. to approach The meeting-point had been found each other.lav e^a/o/xe^s Chrysippus. For what says sins. Aet. VIII. : ova. first of Des 2 tiny with Eeason. the conceptions of Destiny and of Providence. the things that it ? him be vainglorious the man who disobeys the divine administration. 24. TOV KOCT/UOV Aoyos rj Aoyos TCUV ei/ T$ KOCT/XW irpovoia.

de 83 (Diels. 322). or Eeason. Ed. Se yev^cro/^eva yevryo-erat in Stob. Ev. 6 XpvcrnrTros] opOios irl Kal rwv oAwv Ka6 rrjv ei/JLap/Aevrjv dva&amp. The more exact state of Aetius ap. p. in the quotation Zeno ap. 20. on S rj Koivrj &amp.0 fjifvrjv . Placit.216 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.f&amp. what comes by mind found in He- who distinguishes absent from Plato. pltys. 17. whether by the lingering of an ancient belief . 5. Philodemus. de plcwit. The former with Providence. is into being by necessity. and all things that happen in the infinite chain of immuZeno ap. p. ed.lt. p.gt. Arius DidymilS. growing logically out of their conception of the universe as a single substance moved by an inherent law. not. p. 458). It was probably in many cases a change rather of language than of idea when Destiny or Eeason or Providence was spoken of as God 2 and yet sometimes. 5. Eel. 29 (Diels. given in the preceding note : : 15 (Diels. Aet. is God. 306). loftiest 10. Lucan. pliilos.v(riv : \eiv aAA. 34. but voluntarily binds Himself by comprehend airavra KaO God it. ap. Providence.lt. 5 (Diels. se is oi) said to form of the conception quoque lege tenens : of Fate or Law. summary 2. by an or intuition which transcended logic. 11. Prcep. the sense of personality mingles with the idea of physical sequence. 7. 1. 1. in the Stob. from what is wrought the elaboration of both the former and the : due latter is of these is to the Stoics.f)rfcrlv &amp. Did. Pharsal. is Providence Chrysippus.gt. 1 but raclitus. 1. The : p. Ar.f&amp.VTWV Kal Aios 8 TOV Op^pov tiprjKtvai [sc. 15 (Diels. repug. yti/erat.wm Kal 6 KOIVOS : TTJS &amp. Plat. Euseb. 15.weo&amp. frag. 34. p. 464) piet. yiverai TO. is is elfjLap- expressed by not the slave .lt. Ed. 1. 2. Keason. TOV rov Travros Aoyov ov enoi : 1 Destiny. Epit. ment is Gompertz. ovSe T com TovXa-^La-rov ere/Xetero /3ovA^ &amp. 549). de Stoic. 2 Destiny. de commun.o&amp. or the Will of God Chry sippus in Plut.s aAA rj Kara rrjv rov Atos /SovX-ycnv Epit. in Stob. 5.gt. Aoyos /cat elfjiap^evrj TroSas AeA?7$* Travra^ov Trpovoia Kal Zeus ecrrtv ovSe rovs dvr i- yap ravra OpvXeiTai VTT O.lt. VIII.povra rrjv Siot/ceirai id.lt.gt. where God within Himself rovs cnrepfJLariKovs Aoyous Ka.

Rep.lt. ? f against the conception of a perfect Eeason or Providence administering the world. (i. a as of not the is stated phase philosophical solu by Celsus. e/ TOVTOV rov pepovs Karaa rjyrjcrcnTO rryv KO. avrov kirkrp^f. view linked itself with Oriental conceptions of matter as inherently The 1 24 evil. conception tion of the difficulty. The problems which the fact suggested a large place in later filled solved in The many Greek philosophy. OVK e Soej/ eiVcu ryjv 380 35 in a denial (i. 0ew yap T Travrjytpovi Ka/ctav oSov kv ^V-^YJ XoyiKrj 81 eavrov 17). table causation are conceived as 217 happening by the will of God.VIII.s rrjv Se Se ets 7rA^$os etp^cr^ai cos CK Oeov /xev OVK ecrrt : KaKa vXy Se . 432). pp. its who Platonic form it incorporated assumed the who ultimately owed their existence to God. but as one which might be taught to the vulgar. 22). was more commonly found solution Plat. . avayKouov ovv opif.KWV yevecrtv TWV dyaOwv eavrut /xdvw SO also The other in the (probably) post-Philonean de Abraham. but whose existence as authors of evil existence of inferior agents He In some later forms the permitted or overlooked. Tpoi&amp. de confus. Philo. This view. rrjv 556). p. 13 JJL^T (i. . But over 3. 41.LovpyoL&amp. was sometimes found solution God universality of Providence. 379.lt. through some of the Platonic evil is good found : schools. ling. yrjo-ai ITTI ov -^dpiv rots Kevrjv: deproflig. 28 (ii. Tim. 2. de mund. which its first philosophical expression in the Timceus of Plato.s eapKi aTrovet/zat 8if]fj. was transmitted. to the later syncretist writers In Platonic elements. was the fact of the existence of physical pain and social inequality and moral failure. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. and were ways. due in the denial of the the Author only of is 1 to other causes.

9. of the reality of apparent evils.What about my leg 2 then being lamed. 0eos yap ovSevos curios KO. in other words. /cat rots . was regarded as an economy (otWo/x/a). 1 Another view.s 1.j3o\al dAA.KOV TO ravra yevi/wo ti/. &amp. do Slave ?&quot. Ev.218 VIII. addressing himself in the character of an imaginary objector. &quot. but in which will you not you not give that up let it go ? will ?&quot. 1.lt. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. but his contri tions bution to the good of the whole.gt. ii.lt. Gell. with which he dealt. The pain of the individual is not an evil. realizes its purpose not directly bui it by degrees there are necessary sequences of its march which seem to us to be evil. &quot. They were all either forms of good. 643. was el at TWI/ avfyjwTrwv voo-ot is form of the : &amp.lt. akin to the : preceding. in which there are apparent inequalities of condition. 8. 1 This one of the solutions offered by Chrysippus the concrete difficulty. non per naturam sed per sequellas quasdam necessarias. like that of a city. 644). Aul. or incidental to its operation or essential Stoics. So also in the long fragment of Philo in Euseb. of the world there are subordina as a whole.v(T(D&amp. ! really find fault with the world on account of one you bit of a leg ? will to the universe ? you not gladly surrender it to the Giver The world.TXTIV yivovTai. 24. was based upon the conception tions In its vast economy and individual inconveniences. had many phases. ing on to its end : The world is marcl. oro/Aei/a rots aVayKCuois 12. TrapoLTrav aAA. and his answer was that diseases come Kara irapaKoXovOyortv. /zeva 2 epya Diss. the teleological conception of nature.f&amp. Kara Prcep. ov Trporfyov- at TCUV o~Toi^eto)i/ pTa. 13 (Philo. It common solution of th One view was based upo This was the to its production. 7 (6). Such subordina and inconveniences are necessary parts of the plan. says Epictetus.

/A/?cu vt \apiv dAAa Kar aAA^v 2 Dies. ov^ oicnrep rots WTrep TTOTC ftev TO. and next of the city which is so called in the more proximate sense. first the city which consists of gods and men.n&amp. it will be its duty both to walk in mud. 219 such inequalities are necessary to the constitution of the whole. rots aya$ois OIKOVOIJ. 35. to be rich. asks Epictetus. What are you ? A man. VITI. form a similar conception about ourselves.&quot. sometimes to be ill. 1 is meant. . I. &quot. 24. you Am brought before a court so-and-so to go on a voyage to be say. now. regard yourself as a man.by distinguishing things that happen to us as according to nature and conry to nature ? The phrases are used as if we were isolated. de Dii#. 2. is man a A ? member of a city. to die before your time. &amp. nature but to live until old age. fever : condemned to be sort of Yes ? . repug.IOLV de Stoic. Why then are you discontented ? Do you not know that as in the example a discontented foot is no longer a foot. with these companions of our : : is 5 so-and-so to fall into a so-and-so to die so-and-so : for it is impossible. on account of that whole.avAois ev rats TroAetriv. and not as isolated. to be in good health . it is no longer a foot. Plut.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.What j . &amp. sometimes even to be cut off for the benefit of you consider ut if it as a foot. and to tread on thorns nay. considering the this life. body we have.lt. some if yoii times to be in want.lt. member of the body. 2. sometimes to take a voyage. so neither are For what you a man. If you regard yourself as isolated. a part of a certain whole. 5.r example. he would co-operate with nature in both Chrysippus. ap. and. sometimes to run into danger. it is according to . It is that if happen 1 on this account that the philosophers rightly tell us man had foreknown what was going to a perfectly good to him. it is your duty. to a foot to be according to nature is to be clean &quot. atmosphere round us. then.gt. 2 &quot. the earthly city. falling . then. which is a small model of the whole. a We have to the whole body if it refuse. and with that different things of this kind should not befall different men. it may be.

The increased complexity of social life revealed the distress which it helped to create. men were It was. free. 10. 7 (6). and that the whole is supreme over the part. was repeatedly expressed by Homer. and the latter also quotes it as a belief of the Pythagoreans. but does not appear in philosophy until the time of the Stoics it is found in both Cleanthes and Chrysippus. margin of life which will of the gods or the ordinances of fate. came from their own folly or their was outside the The belief to a They belonged perversity. 2. that the authors of own Their sorrows. 2. were free to bring ruin upon themselves. VIII. not punitive or remedial. intensified consciousness of individual life quickened also the sense of disappointment and moral shortcoming.&quot. if -i 1 the teleological conception whicht be assumed. and the was growing. 1215. underlies But it was it an explanation of misery And the sense of misery and moral evil clearly inadequate as and moral evil. Gell. though logi cally inconsistent with the belief in the universality of His Providence. being conscious that this is the particular portion that is assigned to him in the arrangement of the universe. The solution of the difficulties which these facts of life pre sented was found in a belief which was correlative to the growing belief in the goodness of God. led which it had itself wider conception that they were altogether Diss. 2 Aul. may have been adequate as an j explanation both of physical pain and of social inequality. sick and the city over the citizen. so far as they were misery. and dying and being maimed.220 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. . This Stoical solution. 5. 2 Out of : it came the solution that from men that to the 1 of a problem not less important than The conception sprung.

in a word. you will not have an enemy/ fault The incompatibility of this doctrine with that of the universality of Destiny or Eeason or Providence &quot. on the contrary. liable to hindrance. your own. effort to obtain. and that which is another s to be. 221 There emerged for the first time into prominence the idea which has filled a large place in all later theology and ethics. our own proper out of our control are our bodies. and what belongs to others for what is will meet with in your way. then. Bear in mind. to be Of happy s to of do or miserable. which is always observed. s. property. you will obstacles own. your you be regretful and disquieted. you will do no single thing against your will. The freedom which was denied to external nature was asserted human was within a man own power nature. you will find another with no one. The harmony of them. impulse control.antinomy of the practical understanding&quot. the other out of it &quot. VIII. 1 one part is in our things that are. Things to do. no one will harm you. dent for what own which as it really is really is. you will reproach no one. dependent. &quot. that if you mistake what is depen is free. and each of them was sometimes stated as though it had no limitations.&quot. in our control are opinion. effort to avoid activities office . 1.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. . not liable to hindrance in the doing or to frustration of the attainment things out of our control are weak. the was not The two doctrines marched on parallel lines. reputation. If. It right or wrong. in our control are in their nature free. and which underlies a large part of both the theology and the ethics 1 Encli. in a word. says Epictetus. all things except our proper activities. belonging to . that of the freedom of the will. no one will thwart you. all . you will find fault with both gods and men. indicated by both Cleanthes and Chrysippus. you think that only to be your others.

5. . to acqui : esce in the will of God. p. Dial. 157. eadem necessitate et deos adligat. The life and teaching of Epictetus are for the most part a commentary upon it. 8 quid est boni viri? prsebere se fato. 1. 107. 1 &quot. of Epictetus. nolentem true function and high privilege mind and so to educate his that to be best which is discipline his will. with absolute cer move of its parts to in that march unconsciously. he chooses for himself misery if he chooses that which is in accordance with that movement. but as 2 realizes this. for them. Ep. action. he finds happiness. is in effect this its own end. with no sense of pleasure or pain. instead of bemoaning the diffi he will not only ask God to send them. conditor et rector semel jussit. 2 Seneca. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. sic inori jussit. culties of life. chooses that which of movement against the is of nature. destiny It is a man : s Ducunt volentem fata.222 VIII. The world marches on : perfection. scripsit quidem fata. not as submitting in passive resignation to the power of one having made that will his own. as to think really best. man fulfils his trahunt&quot. the idea of good If he choice between them. the sense of pleasure and and freedom evil. which nature has not willed and that to be avoided in other words. 1 Seneca. To man is given the consciousness of and pain. and the . In either case the movement of nature goes on. ille ipse semper omnium paret. inrevocabilis humana : pariter ac divina cursus vehit. If a man who is stronger. 11 : This is a free Latin rendering of one of the verses of Cleanthes quoted from Epictetus in Lecture VI. the Stoical but thank Him theodicy. sed sequitur. grande solatium est cum universe rapi. quicquid est quod nos sic vivere. realizing its The majority tainty. no idea of good or evil.

Look GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. or forced. but that is not what you do you sit sometimes shuddering : thought of what may happen. have the equipment which Thou hast given me. . 2 Ibid. not even reserving to Himself the power of such degeneracy these powers 1 of thwarting or hindering What words are sufficient to praise or worthily describe the If we were really wise. what difficulty Thou wilt for I Bring me. what should gifts of Providence to us ? it. powers you have and when you have looked at God. &quot. . 1. 3740.VIII. but also. Great is . 1521.&quot. and has made it absolutely your own. &quot. at the them. the work of a swan but being as I am a rational being. 6. and the means for making all things that happen contribute to my adornment. I should do the work of a nightingale if a swan. say.but the chiefest and divinest hymn should be for His having given us the power of understanding and of dealing since most of you are utterly blind rationally with ideas. can I will same is not leave work this I do this and I invite you to join my . thing. sometimes bewailing and Then you find grieving and groaning over what does happen. Nay. we have been God. and bless doing in public or in private but sing hymns to Him and recount His gifts (ras x^P LTa ^ ? %gi n g we not to be singing this hymn to God for having given us these tools for tilling the ground great is God for having given us hands to work with and throat to swallow with. : : . 1. has given to this part of you the capacity of not being thwarted. 1 Epict.&quot. Diss. ought God. or hindered. for that we grow unconsciously and breathe while we sleep ? This ought to be our hymn for every or ploughing or eating. like the good King and true Father that He is. fault with the gods For what but impiety is the consequence at the ! ? And yet God has not merely given you which we may bear whatever happens without by lowered or crushed being by it. Nay ought there not to be some one to make this his special to this function. I must sing hymns rank with as far as I me in this This to God. 16. 2 song. else can a lame old like . and to sing the man hymn me to God for all the rest ? What do but sing hymns to God ? If I were a nightingale. 223 .

S. but that some of them are in the keeping of the Father in heaven. 10. dominant. and whose work was scrutinized before the wages were It is found in many passages of the New Testa paid. that of wages for work done. 2 Ibid. IDEA.&quot. 3 Ibid. : with Syrian forms moving round us. wages in heaven. . VIII. whose wages are with &quot. For the Greek city. and speaking a lan guage which is not familiar to us. 41. Great are your Those who do their alms before men persecuted are consoled &quot. 6. the giving of a cup of cold water. receive their wages in present reputation. 1. and not least of all in the discourses of our Lord. and have no wages stored up for them in heaven. 1 S. 12. at once the paymaster of Two conceptions are his dependents and their judge. Mark. It grew up among the natural growth on Semitic soil. we have to substitute the picture of an Eastern sheyk. will not go without its wages. Matthew. 3 The payment will be made at the return of the Son of Man. s fellahin. 6. 42. 5. Luke. with its orderly government. to whom the day work brought the day s wages. 1. In primitive Christianity we find ourselves in another sphere of ideas we seem to be breathing the air of Syria. 2 The smallest act of casual charity. The ethical problems which had vexed the souls of the writers of Job and the Psalms. are solved by the teaching that the wages are not all paid now. 1 The by the thought. S.224 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 23. and that of posi tive law. The idea master who of moral conduct as will in work done due time pay wages for for a was a it. 9. ment. THE CHRISTIAN B.

God face. righteousness shall go before him if he be the wicked. not only &quot. 21.&quot. They follow on the offence by the sentence law. but also that seek after Him. once the Lawgiver and the The Judge. underlying conception is that of an Oriental sovereign who issues definite commands. given in charity should be given without still &quot. 2 Hebrews. who is gratified by obe dience and made angry by disobedience. who gives pre sents to those who please him and punishes those with whom he is at is The punishments which he angry. wages of his wicked : : : ness are before his 2. are vindictive and not remedial. 4. 3 Didache.&quot. 4. yi/aV ?. 22. 6.that is due their &quot.he He 1 is. is. y&p T is wnv 6 TOV ^KrOov *aA6? aVrotTroSo-n. e- 11. They are the inflicts mani festation of his vengeance against unrighteousness. They are external to the offender.&quot. VIII. : 12. murmuring. judges without of respect persons every one shall receive according as he has done if he be his good. He sends of the judge.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.?.&quot. this primitive Christianity of 1 Revelation. men The introduction into into and not by a self-acting punishment. 12 avrov. .The Lord judge. 7. for God will repay it: 3 in the Epistle of Barnabas. 2 So also in the early Christian literature which moved within the sphere of In the Two Syrian ideas. what is Ways. : so Barnab.&quot. him to give to every So fundamental God must to that He man according as his work the conception that believe.pays to 225 them that cometh &quot.&quot. the conception of the paymaster is blended 4 with that of the &quot. 3 4 Barnab.

But the two conceptions are apparently irreconcilable with each other andjhe history ofjUarge part oearly . VIII.) of free-will. is . Jesus Christ. but there was none of these conceptions is consistent of remis with itself : each by itself furnishes the basis of a rational theology. God was a Sovereign who had issued commands: He was a Householder who had entrusted His servants with Sovereign. Gospel was. can be said to have been solved even now. possibility of sion. The order was rational and beneficent.226 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. He could remit a debt which was due powers to to Him be used in His from His servants. He a breach of His orders: could.ofjbhe cojiforgiveness to that of law. the history of endeavours to reconto a moral cilejEgmT^~Th^ohe conception belonged who set forces in world. There was a of its violation came by a self-acting law. raised which were long in being solved. The As special message willing to forgive men of the their to remit their debts.) The Christian conception of God on its ethical side was dominated by the idea of the forgiveness of sins. controlled by a force which was also conceived as a Personality. for the sake of The corresponding Greek conceptionJhad come to be dominated by the idea of order. God was and service.) (i. that transgressions. but it was universal. It The punishment could not be violated with impunity. to that Governor ception of a Moral these difficulties were. controlled by a Personality motion the other to a physical world. Each amendment. (i. if culties diffi indeed they The chief of the relation of th^idea_of the relation . forgive as Householder. Stated Christian theology . the ethical conceptions of Greek philosophy. at His pleasure. (ii.

in Christian terms. 4. except upon the hypothesis of the existence of two Gods. being at pains to refute him. s chief .227 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. . 9 . which filled a large place in the Christianity of Ttotli the second and the third centuries. Tertullian.I&amp. iii.D. ditheism was presented as the only solution of this and all the other contrasts of which the world is full. Justin M.v cruAA. si . by Origen.gt. His immutable righteousness excluding the idea of forgiveness. c. : Martyr. os Kara TTOLV yevos avOpuiruv 8id rrjs TU&amp. and of which that of Law and 1 Grace is the most typical example. 95) by the large place which he occupies in early controversies. propositions seemed at first to be The two is just. God God is good. work was Aimflecras. Justin Iren. the one resolved itself into the pro position.g. the Clementines. and also by the fact that the Churches into which his adherents were organized flourished side by side with the Catholic Churches for many centuries (there is an inscription of one of them. 3. 318. 2. 1. de princ. 1 bonitatem affectum talem quemdam esse quod bene fieri omnibus debeat : etiam tur . 26. 3. . and they had not died out at the time of the Trullan Council in A.cn.D. In the theology of. No. The ditheism was sometimes veiled by the conception that the second God had been created by the first. e.T^etos TTO AA. VIII. Contrasts : the extent to which his opinions prevailed is shown both by contemporary testimony. vol. 5. 1 The difficulty seemed insoluble. Cone. 692. 2 The New earliest Christian philosophers are stated. These conceptions of the existimant igitur in order to be -modified. the other hand. Irenseus. 2 The title of Marcion . the the idea of punishment infi on .? Trevrot^Ke /^Aacr^/Aias Ae-yety. the importance which was attached to him is shown Quinisext. . Apol. and was ultimately subordinate to Him.gt. in Le Bas et Waddington. inconsistent with each other nite love of God excluding : on the one hand. .gt. Origen. the other into the proposition. 2558. Sai/Aovu&amp. . Marcion. dated A. indignus sit is cui beneficium datur nee bene consequi mereaJustitiam vero putarunt affectum esse talem qui unicuique ut secundum sensum ipsorum Justus prout meretur retribuat malis non videatur bene velle sed velut odio quodam ferri adversus eos.

other a God who is good. Judge also able to not and be God the if only good. Testament was the revelation of the good God. as it should seem &quot.&quot. Eedemption was the victory of for of the God who was revealed giveness over punishment. 3. including meant not inexorable wrath : that of repentance. 2. therefore. 25. God would -is God : so as to bestow judges be not also good. Marcion. the one a God who judges. justice goodness and justice were combined in the power of God to deal with every man in the idea of deserts according to his deserts. If the God who favours on those on will whom He imperfect. 1 to God. good He will be test those on whom He shall bestow His goodness. the Old Testament was that of the just God. opposed it insisted that justice and goodness were not only com co-existent in the Divine nature. other hand. God who was manifested in the by Jesus Christ over the Law. The writers who were helped.228 VIII. On the nor wise neither a be as will He just. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. the difficulties which it explained. who argues that in either of the two attributes. His and outside as well goodness justice. and the by dividing God into two. on both sides puts an end do if it i Iren. the God of love. patible but necessarily Goodness meant not indiscrimmating beneficence . The ditheistic hypothesis was itself more difficult than God the of wrath. He should. The solution the absence of cease to be found in Irenaaus. . be not accompanied with judgment. but also by the dominant They dencies of both philosophy and popular religion. not only by the whole current ten of evangelical tradition. those whom to and reprove ought. outside goodness as inasmuch as it does not save all.

3. the justice also of God acquired another function. His justice harmonized it. In this way this whole all its adversaries. denied to the unworthy. 229 found in Tertullian.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. that of regulating the operation of His goodness according to the opposition to it the result is : that His goodness.Nothing is The good is the Creator has been at once good and just. 1 evil. so in Fall. all that is just is good where the just is. 4. Every position and mode of the elements. after arguing on a priori grounds that the one attribute implies the other. in raging with wrath. 2. between the greater and the lesser lights tion between light As goodness brought all things into being. 9. so did justice distin guish them. 19. it is avenged on it is taken away from the unthankful. its good which is unjust. passes It is transition from physical to u moral law: just as the justice&quot. and the go odness of God came hence forward to have an opponent to contend with. c. 2 Homil. &quot. 2. 2 the going so far as to make 1 Tert. between day and night. 18. It is the work of justice that there is a separa and darkness. . who. function of justice is an agency for goodness: in punishing. 13. of God in its physical operation controlled His goodness in the making of an by an almost unconscious moral operation it has. &quot. 12. VIII. found in the Clementines. as it does good and not It is condemning. The whole universe has been disposed and ordered by the decision of His justice. Eecognitions the acceptance of it an element Marc. is dispensed it is offered to the worthy. orderly world. 11. instead of being absolutely free. in you Marcionites express it. the movement and the rest. it is according to men s deserts . since the regulated. From the beginning of the world &quot. between heaven and earth. The two qualities came forth together. are judicial decisions of the Creator When evil broke out. His goodness formed the world.&quot. the rising and the setting of each one of them. His dealings with mankind.

happen. 2 37. 9. Sec below. that is to say His own image likeness. But Especially P&dag. 1 3 Recogn. administering the world by laws which were at once beneficent and just.in to is &quot. and thereby able to prevent its happening. it would certainly not have happened. it did . why did He allow man. 2 God :&quot. The difficulties of the problem Christian form by the conception of moral evil as guilt rather than as misery. and powerful. and thereby unwilling that such an event should it would happen. 8.&quot. saving knowledge know that 1 andria is good it is . good God to moral were increased in evil. each limiting the other in the mind of God the general effect of the con troversy was to emphasize in Christianity the conception : God as a (ii. and his view will be best considered The Christian world in his time in relation to them. It is elaborated just. of this problem of the relation of goodness to in Greek justice passed. and prescient. and able to avert and evil. 3 was settling down into a general acceptance of the belief that goodness and justice co-existed. 3. as the corresponding problem of a relation of the into the problem philosophy passed. and thereby not ignorant that &quot. to be tricked by the For if He devil and fall from obedience to the law into death ? had been good. p. nay more. The problem was stated in its plainest form by Marcion: and prescient of the future. 23. If God is good. being impossible under these three conditions of divine greatness. VIII. His own substance. not enough for salvation we must know also that by both Clement but in the latter it is of He Alex linked closely with other problems. since 1. and by the emphasis which was laid on the idea of the Divine fore its knowledge.0 &quot.) But Moral Governor. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. and Origen . 233.

It was. the inference is certain that neither good nor prescient nor God must be believed to be 1 powerful. Tert. not absolutely good to by nature. Marc.&quot. It is found in Ireneeus : God In man as in angels. by which Marcion solved this and other problems of theology. has placed the power of choosing. This solution is found in Justin Martyr : &quot. . 7. is may justly not be in possession of what deserve which the and receive they punishment good. for that is an attribute of God alone. may But if it had been by nature that some were bad and others who have not obeyed 1 ap. was mass of the Christian consistently opposed by the great The hypothesis of the existence of communities. The solution which they found was almost uniformly that of the Stoics production of moral virtue : : there no choice is evil is necessary for the there no virtue where is and man was created : free to choose. c. two Gods. not having 3 freedom transgressed the will of God.&quot. and that in his exercise of moral praised for his good actions. 3 Tatian. so that those who have obeyed and that those . in short. of every created being is to be capable of vice for no one of them would be an object of praise if it The nature and virtue had not also the power of turning in the one direction or the : 2 other. Orat. 231 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. but brought is in order that the perfection through freedom of voluntary choice.&quot. .might justly be in possession of what is good &quot.VIII. in the doctrine of free-will. the cause of his himself be bad man may justly punished. being man the may be worthily righteous being wicked. for angels also are rational beings. happen. Grcsc. &quot. 5. It is found in Tatian Each of the two : classes of created things (men and angels) born with a power of self-determination. 2 Apol 2. 7. ad 2.

c. 56 so also Tert. 5 4 . 5 1 3 2 Iren. Peeda. dels. 10. found in Theophilus 2 and Athenagoras. 3 and. both among well-governed men and much more in the sight blame for being bad.g. so the Christian philosophers of Alexandria conceive of God as the Teacher and Trainer its and Physician of men.&quot. as a more elaborate theory. Ad c. and again on the other hand to reject it and not do it. nor the others of inasmuch as they were born so. : 2. But since same nature. and of apparent evils as necessary means of testing character. inasmuch as they were so constituted . Alex. Scorp. Just as Epictetus and the later Stoics to be the specially divine part had made freedom of will human nature.232 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. able on the one hand to hold fast and to do what is good. in Tertullian and the philosophers It is of Alexandria. and in the other case blamed and punished for their rejection of it. and that such image and likeness was freedom of will. 4. that if God foreknew that Adam would of s objec fall He should not have made him free. Autol Marc.the image and likeness of God. 6 . of the pains of life as being dis not ciplinary. 5. so Tertullian 4 answers Marcion tion.1. 5.g. Legat. neither would the latter be deserving of praise for being good. 37. E. G. . 2. 2. that such highest form was &quot. Clem. good. 1. 27.&quot. 31. in fact all of men are of the 1 God. and of the punishments of sin as being vindictive but remedial. it is right for them to be in the one case praised for their choice of the good and their adherence to it. by the argument the goodness of God in making man necessarily gave him that the highest form of existence. VIII. Origen. And just as Epictetus and the later Stoics had conceived of life as a moral discipline. de princ.

233 of unsolved difficulties. to others powers. learning of the divine law another among the Greeks. and to flash forth the brilliance of a star to give to some the glory of . or the strength and weakness of their characters. they object to us about terrestrial beings that a happier lot of birth has come to some men than to others one man. to grant to some principality. is said even before . It took no account of the enormous sessed it difference between one man and another in respect of either the external advantages or disadvantages of their lives. &quot. who are canni- . and to others the glory of the stars to make one star differ from another star in . for example. The difficulty was strongly by more than one school more so because it applied. celestial beings above who rose in their sublime gradations it. another . but also a loftier and more honourable position . among whom small learning . among the Ethiopians. the sun. to others domi nations to confer upon some the noblest seats of the heavenly .VIII. object to us that it is inconsistent with the of God in justice making the world to assign to some creatures an abode in the heavens. to cause others to shine out with brighter rays. and not merely a better abode. of the will.Very many persons. felt of Christian philosophers. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. and to others the glory of the moon. he One man is born among the he finds the Hebrews. is begotten by Abraham and born glory . as it assumed that all beings who had pos were equal in both their circumstances and their natural aptitudes. and. supplanting his brother even in the womb. In the second place. There was still a large margin The hypothesis of the freedom hitherto been stated. the not only to the diversities among mankind. themselves also wise and men of no is born to be beloved of God. but also to the larger differences between mankind as a whole and the. tribunals. according to promise another is the son of Isaac and Eebekah. especially those who come from the school of Marcion and Valentinus and Basilides.

1. 4 6 1. 1. 4 on the one hand. VIII. for. among the Scythians. 6. The diversities of existence which have sprung from a single beginning will be absorbed in a single end. 1 Origen. 5. Stoicism and Neo-Platonism are blended into a complete theodicy nor has a more logical superstructure ever been reared : on the basis of philosophical theism. 9. 3 The causes of those diversities lie in the diverse things themselves. who offer their guests in sacrifice. another another &quot. this varied and different condition of birth matter in which free-will has no place is not caused by a diversity in the nature of the souls themselves. it will no longer be credible either that the world was made by God or that it is governed by His pro vidence and consequently neither will the judgment of God : upon every man s doings seem a thing to be looked 1 for. a soul of an evil nature being destined for an evil nation. 9. It is to this phase of the controversy that the ethical theology of Origen is relative. They consequently argue thus If this great diversity of . inequalities . 9. follows is. 2. as there will be but a single end. 2. on the other hand. and own words &quot. 6.234 bals GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 4. what other conclusion can be drawn than that all this the result of chance and accident is And ? if that conclusion be admitted. in doing so.&quot. among the Taurians. 2. God 5 and. de princ. 5 2. : a circumstances. with the exception of one extract from the contra Celxum. with whom parricide is legal. 8. 7. 8. In that theology. It is necessary to whole. to use chiefly his 2 : There was but one beginning of all things. a catena of extracts from the de principiis. He could not give to one 6 They being an advantage which He did not give to another. being absolutely impartial. it is show the coherence of his view as a advisable. 2 The passage which 3 De princ. They were created absolutely equal had no reason in Himself for causing . 2. and a soul of a good nature for a good one. .

of the latter if praise and blame the former sloth by The if it and negligence lapse. consequently also of happiness and misery . VIII. virtues. But this world is not the only world. 5 . temporal world which is seen. being God in all created beings it must be accidental. 5. powers. consequently of . 4. 4 7 1. . 6. 1. when it takes place. 7 The present inequalities of circumstance and character are merits . but not coerced by them. 2. 5. 5. were 235 by a similar necessity. &quot. 2. 5. is not only voluntary but Some beings. 6. and this . 1.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. all beings are arranged according to their been determined by their own conduct. 1. thus capable of both good and evil . Every soul has existed from the beginning it has therefore passed through some worlds already. 5 3. dominations. 1. as well as in the eternal worlds . their place has thus not wholly explicable within the sphere of the present life. Some lapsed 5 Some lower. 3. Some lapsed will. created with the capacity of for spotless purity is of the essence of none save diverse . of exercising it. 1. Its place in this world as a vessel appointed to honour or to dis honour is determined by its previous merits or demerits. comes into this world strengthened by the weakened by the defeats of its previous life. which are unseen. 3. and conse 1 The lapse. never lapsed they but slightly. lapsed to such a depth of unworthiness and wickedness as to be 6 In the opposing powers they are the devil and his angels. 3. also. but not irrecoverably. of chooses holiness and clings to it. and will pass through others before it reaches the final . 5. . causes and put it away from ourselves by declaring that we are voluntary for every being . It victories or 1 3 6 1. like logs or stones. when it swerves into wickedness and ruin. 5. being is is by upon them from Every created rational forces that act neither true nor reasonable. 2 2. princedoms. dragged without. 3. 3. is quently liable to lapse. and form the race of men. and form in their varying degrees the orders of : thrones. though possessed of free form the order of angels. endowed with reason has the power 2 it is excited by external power is free 3 For to lay the fault on external causes. 3. 6. it also various in degree. 4 has taken place. Its consummation.

while no creature is coerced into acting rightly. that they of the Creator. and that they themselves may be partakers of the patience 3. 20. 2. 2 It is an indication not only of His wisdom but of His goodness that. cleansed of the dregs of all vices. when the end has been brought back to the beginning. and in Him no evil inheres. 6. that state of things will be restored which the rational creation had when it had no need evil who all . . 56 . 3 2. the diversities of natures for which created beings are them selves responsible are wrought together into the harmony of the world. 21 : to a lower grade. 1. acting as it does simply through free-will. 3. its place in the world which is to 1 All this takes place with the knowledge and under the over It is an indication of His ineffable wisdom that sight of God. 1. 17. 14. a rapid cure is But in the end all souls will be thoroughly 4 All that any reasonable soul. then. because evil will nowhere exist. &quot. and to not beneficial. He and There will be no longer but sometimes beings of higher merit are assigned may benefit those who properly belong to that grade. as to some bodies. : no longer either see or contain anything else but God God will be the mode and measure of its every movement and Nor will there be any longer any distinc so God will be all. c. De princ. He is thus the great Physician of souls. For God is long- some souls. work in follow world determines this this. takes in some cases an almost illimitable time. 3 The process of cure. So. 9. it will : : tion between good and evil. de princ. Cels. 7. 2. God is all things. 10. away to the soul all. yet when it lapses it meets with evils and punishments. VIII. will be wholly God purged. suffering. God calls what are termed evils into existence to convert and purify those whom reason and admo nition fail to change. alone the one good is that not in 1 to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and sense of wickedness will have been taken some God becomes souls but in all. .236 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. can either feel or understand or think. for. and with every cloud of wickedness completely wiped away. All punishments are remedial. 2 4 1. 1.

probation. and which have preceded it. and on the other with theories of divine grace. VIII. 6. 3. have survived. with its perpetual ascent and descent of souls. The is lost in the marshes doctrine of final causes has been pressed to an almost excessive degree as proving the existence and the providence of God but His govern . any 237 anywhere. but it has been so mingled on the one hand with theories of human depravity. Free-will. later history in which Greece has had no have had a The share. ending at last admitted a probation in a life to in the union of all souls with 1 God. The Christian world has acquiesced in the conception of as a probation ceived of this . ment of the human race has been often viewed rather as the blundering towards an ultimate failure than as a complete vindication of His purpose of creation. . but in other this great theodicy. none have admitted into the recognized body of their teaching Origen s sub lime conception of an infinite stairway of worlds. only part has forms. The Greek conceptions which underlie it. but while some of life as its sections life have con the only probation. final causes. that the original current of thought into which it has descended. and others have come. 3.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Of been generally accepted. doctrine of free-will has remained in name. but God evil &quot. death. nor 1 will be all in all. nor the sting of death.

Tnjph. the great cities and along the commercial routes of the empire had paved the way for Christianity by their active propaganda of monotheism. we have Stoicism On its ethical side it seen. AS THE SUPREME BEING. GEEEK AND CHBISTIAN THEOLOGY. GOD III. . movements reacted upon it. on its common with reformed theological side it moved with the new movements of Platonism. way among Christianity won its the educated classes by virtue^of^jts^satisfy- ing not only their moral ideals. had. as They gave 1 in harmony And those a philosophical form to the_ simpler Jewish faith. Justin.to them. 2. and especially to those elements of it in which the teaching of St. but also their highest intellectual conceptions. c. they were expanded into large theories in which metaphysics conceptions remained. large elements in .LECTURE IX. IT was in the Gentile rather than in the Jewish world It was that the theology of Christianity was shaped. Dial. Paul had already given a foothold for speculation. The earlier but blending readily with the philosophical conceptions that were akin . 1 Cf. The Jewish communities of built upon a Jewish basis.

The have had three leading which are marked respectively by the dominance conflict stages. A. (1) The Transcendence of God. 239 had an ample flq]d. THE IDEA AND But the ITS theories DEVELOPMENT IN GREEK PHILOSOPHY. clouds and darkness were round about Him. blended with. the philosophical conception of a Being who was beyond not only human sight but human The conception of His transcendence obtained thought.Tim fipnfiftpfion^ for example. were the result of at centuries of conflict. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. (2) His revelation of Himself.IX. At every to of specu least two stage of the conflict the conceptions of one or other of the forms of Greek philo a and decisive the sophy played part changing phases of the conflict find a remarkable parallel in some of the . philosophical schools. and that of His incommunicability. may be said to of speculations as to (1) the transcendence of God. blended with. The conception that &quot. and the consequent need of a mediator. Nearly seven hun- . which in the fourth century came prevail. (3) the distinctions in His nature. of the one God whose kingdom was a universal kingdom and endured throughout all ages. gave a philo sophical explanation of the truth that Jesus Christ was . and which have formed the main part lative theology ever since.of His Son. and dialectics and passed into. the philosophical conception of a Being who was beyond time and space.&quot. the stronger hold because it confirmed the prior concep tion of His unity . and passed into.

2 The form in which it is given by Sextus Erapiricus.&quot. rj Greek philosophy rots crwpxcrc Swa/^ets. and not to the former. even in this second form. He was the ultimate generalization of all things. has ever since rested by the Platonic distinction between God be the world of sense and the world of thought.lt. the Greek thinker.240 IX. 225.V KCU TOV Qtov iravi. Hypotyp.lt. all of Him of Him is hearing. Absolute 1 The more common conception was that of ras evSt^Kovcras Aetius ap. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. a continuous unity. they are not. longed to the latter. 29.rvfji&amp. expressed as the ultimate abstraction of or He was not limited by parts all of Him is sight. implies this v eu/cu TO TTO. but only seem to be the to have of them is not truth. The conception was that of Absolute Being. : all is understanding.f&amp. dred years before came into large mind of a ences of of God time the contact with when first Christianity Greek philosophy. : we seem But the conception. Stob. Only the One really is : now) and is everywhere perfect sphere which fills able. Over against objects of sense knowledge that : it it was not nor will be it is : entire. Eel of the earliest rots (rrot^eiois P/iys. 2. had leapt to the conception as the Absolute Unity. Pyrrli. was more consistent with Pantheism than with Theism.gt. the innumerable all space. in whose time the distinction was clearly understood. outstripping the slow infer popular thought. But it is number: 1 by bodily form &quot. : &amp. probable that the conception in its first form was rather of a material than of an ideal unity 2 the basis of later : metaphysics was first securely laid by a second form of the conception which succeeded the first half-a-century afterwards. a undying and immov are the Many. It was lifted to the higher plane on which it but illusion.vY) .

a form sepa (eireKeiva &quot. Doxoyraphi Greed. This great conception of the transcendence of God filled a large place in later Greek philosophy. and consequently varying expressions. The briefest Prcvp. IX. The above is taken from the summary of Aetius in Pint. 1. OVK ouo-ias 6Wo? ovcr/as Trpecr/Jap. of it in Plato s own writings it is not necessary to enter here. evang. 304). It is more important in relation to the history of later Greek thought to know what he was supposed to mean than what he meant.cc vtrept- ert CTreKetva T&amp. being 1 on. but we history of shall better it is beyond understand the relation of Christian theology to current thought was being formed Tyre. p. rate from all beyond the world of God therefore is Mind. Euseb. 7. and in Plotinus.- our present purpose . for mind in the highest phase of its existence is self-contemplative the modes of its : expression are numerous. 509. philos. 14.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. into the inner development. and all 241 the other terms which expressed His unique supremacy.]S this and Stoicism. de plac. that is to say. that theology mus of in Plutarch. a step farther back from the material objects about which its modes employ themselves. in we when if take three expressions of the conception at the time Maxi- 1 This is a post-Platonic summary of Plato s conception . even out The side the Platonic schools. out of contact and not involved with anything that acted is with capable of it. T?? overlap matter. - It writings aAA is probably Republic. 16 (Diels. In this sense God is can itself transcendent sense and matter. and most expressive statement of the transcendence of God (TO ayaOov) in Plato s own TOV dyaOov. KOU Swa/v. and perhaps infinite but : it go behind its modes.gt. as it were. Absolute Being. and so retire. was a struggle between p. were gathered up in the conception of Mind . Unity.&quot. R .

and unspoken by the voice and unseen by the eyes and since we cannot apprehend His essence. Age. 394. 1. greater than time &quot. : a vessel charged after. the former above moon. And &quot. Delph. the Father and Fashioner of all things that are. motionless. for by the touch and Ocellus Lucanus in the Augustan sq. 8. Plutarch says What. cf. without beginning and without fills 1 ceasing. Tyr. a will be and it is belongs to the is not rather than to the is. time brings no change. and so really is. and forms of gold and ivory and silver. the comprises. 187. 400). again Father and Begetter of the universe that Plato nor tell us. is that which really the Uncreated. older than the sky. 23. ap. no before or after and : eternity with one Now. TO iroiovv and TO TTCUTXOI/. is unnamed by legislators. the del #OVTOS Qeiov and the ning and no end : act /xcTa/5aAAovTos yevrjrov (2. the latter below. Die*. He who is older than the sun. Maximus of Tyre says : God. and in our inability : naming by His name of all things that are beautiful in this world 2 ours. p. The universe has no begin 383 It it always was arid always will be (1. 9. 18. to exists whom For time is always flowing and never stays with birth and death: it has a before and a has been: But God is : ? It is the Eternal. 2 Max. or will be. . : then. for he saw Him Plutarch. we lean upon words and names and animals. Ei Colour and ap. nor His size. the Undying. Diels. Mullach. 1.&quot. He not has been. i. p. and lapse of time and the whole stream of nature. 388). and plants and rivers and mountain-peaks and springs of waters. that has being One. p. 2. de not. &quot. Him not size are felt . IX. p. so that the course of the moon marks the limit between the changing and changeless. changeless eternity.&quot. and that not in time but in eternity. longing for an intuition of Him. however.242 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. it timeless. for he knew it not It is of this tells us does he : His name he does not tell he touched 1 : : us His colour.

GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. It was like the light that surrounds the sun and shines forth from it.&quot. and heard its only through kinship with Him. of arts and sciences.&quot. 1 is next greatest comes forth from Him. 1. crw/zara /xeptcrrr) (oi crta). the two. We are between distinguished from r] irepl TO. must. 3 . and the next greatest alone. instead of the One abiding by Himself. 1. vow for vow sees Him and needs Him is . So with what : : is That which greatest. 1.. 2 Max. dirb Be riav aperiov 1. the love of beauty should ascend from that of the body to that of character and laws. in answer to the old problem. where vov? is a/^epto-To?. for this is the only way in which we can pray.gt. seen only through its likeness to Him. by the noblest and purest and clearest-sighted and swiftest and oldest element of the soul. Enmades. But the One has no such object consequently we must not assert movement of is alone. KaKet /3aSivrov rr)v arw . then. 9. being such as we have described &quot. untouched by fleshly touch. rj8r] dvafiaiveiv ri vovv. Tyr. R2 TO ov. it had its being without His assenting or willing or being moved in anywise. when we What then was produced was pro speak of things eternal duced without His moving .how Him&amp. 17. anything whatever has substance. The t&amp.lt. 8. 2. eirl 3. but stretching forth our souls in prayer to Him. 5. alone to Him &quot. as in a temple. from the One. Plotinus similarly. though the sun is itself at rest it is reflected like an image. abiding still and beyond all things (oreicai/a aTraimov). 6/xotWis TT/DOS 6e6v. seen by the sight unspoken by the 243 but the Deity Himself is unseen by the sight.. IX. being as He . cf. 6 . gaze of us. 2. unheard by the hearing. 2 Plotinus.&quot.d6apo-is of the soul consists in having a share of both. We who upon Him in the inner part is by Himself. Him Let us not think of production in time. replies: Let us call upon God Himself before we thus answer not with uttered words.. 1. Everything that moves must have an object towards which it moves. 1 : voice.

are used not in a proper but in a For Being. being better than virtue. But the conception of transcendence is capable of It may be that of a God who passes taking two forms. common stream with ing. is i. In either said to be unborn. i. I am is thy or perceptible in his writings. cognizable only by mind or it may be that of a God who exists divisible. 2 . Depost. ed. since from 1 2 3 De mut. Cain. all is supra-cosmic. De mund. 228. new the a blended in a It currents of religious feel- well illustrated by Philo. . and better even than the good itself and the beautiful itself. is itself 3 movement time its He He &quot. but beyond it for He contains it. is the Father of the universe. extra flammantia moenia mundi. op. better than knowledge. both before the birth of secondary sense. is out of relation itself and sufficient for itself. sense of the term case He is the spheres of material transcendent in the proper is the other . 4 . 582. 229. qua Being. undying. . is full of itself fills : 1 He transcends all quality. uncontained . the world and equally so after it. and since the same terms are thus used to express the ele both forms of the conception. 5. and ments of them should not always be that the distinction between present to a writer s mind But the conception in one or other of its forms later large-.244 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.J God &quot. 2 He is not in space. for He the father of time. it is natural that these forms should readily pass into each other. [The process The words &quot. 2. place in Greek philosophy. which . i. is proceeds. Mangey. IX. not in time. nom. beyond all the classes into which sensible phenomena are by virtue of His being pure Mind. without body. filling the infinite space which surrounds and contains The one God existence.

ii. 580. nom. pp. are the symbols of created things. p. 648. et poen. ii. without passions&quot. 16. 281. was the idea of beings or coming between God and men. for from whom should He receive anything who possesses all things without eyes. The necessity for such intermediate links is not affected by the question how far. much less the human mind. but see the manifestations of it to be* (2) The Revelation of the Transcendent. cf.IX. whereas His only attribute is what is: works. Side side by with this conception of the transcendence of God. ii. 630. Cf. i. 7 1 8 4 6 597. Frag. outside the Platonic schools. 207.: feet. 12. i. A transcendent in Himself incommunicable the more the con forces God was : ception of His transcendence was developed. and intimately connected with it. 206. can contain 2 : Him we may the conception of He 4 3 : we know that He we cannot know is. the stronger was the necessity for conceiving of the existence of inter mediate links. 12. Quod deus immut. 2. Sext. Cain. ii. Him in His were monstrous folly to go behind His works and 5 He is hence unnamed: for names inquire into His essence. 8-9. The system. p. 655. 114. note the allegory in the Phcedrus. parts or GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 258. 242. ef. 7 Abrah. Hippolytus describes Aristotle s Meta physics as dealing with things beyond the moon. 7. for how who all fills things : : should He how can need eyes who made the weak eyes that are too He 1 light. 1872. Die Lehre vom Logos in der griechischen Philosophie. Demut. Lucanus. 354. there was a belief in a transcendence of God. 19. 5 De post. De proem. 224. for upon the sun be strong He is incomprehensible not enough to gaze upon its Maker. i. God by the express5. in general Heinze. Oldenburg. 12. to gaze is invisible. Dam. real Epicureans coarsely expressed the transcendence of ovcri a. 654. 19. Strjpyjrai rj . 654. i. ii. De 7. cf. even the whole universe. ap Joan. 6. sion. 48. n. Pyrrh. 2 281. 415. or only in His existence outside the solar In this connection. for whither should 245 He walk without hands. Ocellus Emp. 92-93. 566. p. cited above.

. 2. see references in 635 ii. Berlin. 13 Philo. ii. 15. and Celsus. . Keim. Maximus. A philosophical basis for the theory was afforded and the Stoical Logoi the place which those seen already Forms. the Eeasons which inhere in it and. Die Ansichten der Striker uber 307). basis for such a conception was afforded in the spirits popular mythology by the belief in daemons The belief inferior to the gods. Thales. a survival of the primitive psychism was probably which peopled the whole universe with life and anima 1 There was an enormous contemporary develop tion. Eus. 120 . 1 2 Origen. Plato and the Stoics (Diels. of the sunlight and the cold. 558) . 252. Cels. 12. . like laws. We have or Eeasons. SIOIKOVVTCS TO. In the latter some are good. p. 3. Prcep. 3. Evan. Wachsmuth. TYJV yfjv (Diels. Plutarch. 1860. Greek Philosophers. Damonen. Dio Chrysostom. 7. op Keim s Celsus. 86. 13. 23. The Forms according to which He shaped the world. 84. &quot. c. filled in the later Greek cosmo by the Platonic Ideal or Forms. viewed also as Forces. but superior to men. Benn. some bad. that Christians misunderstand Plato Jewish heavens. 8. control its movements. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. viewed also as productive Seeds. 19. Cf. ment They are found in Epictetus. SGU//OVWI/ TrXrjpts (Diels. Athenagoras. Origen s idea of the heavens in de prim.246 IX. TO rrav tp^vyov apa KCU 301). Empedocles in Hippolytus. A i.&quot. . ii. Hesiod in Sext. and cosmogonies. e. 1. most of them of mixed nature to them is due the creation of all things of the idea of daemons or genii. p. 14. the Forces by which He made and sustains it. Emp. except the human soul . logies They were not less important in relation to the theory of the transcendence of God. Epictetus. and those Eeasons. cf. Kara ix. Mantik u. Pythagoras. and Celsus objection by confusing his heaven with the vi. cf. they are the rulers of day and 2 night. Frag.g.

(i. and of His intelligent crea of it to of Philo. and the expressions which are relative to them are interchangeable. is there but sees Him. is able to reveal the nature of the reflexion of that nature. Daemons. he abstain. the world of 1 it is His thoughts conceived as separate from Him.The . ling. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. longing to apprehend God. Cam. but . pass into one another. existing wise man. God It is The Logos because it is itself able to reveal that nature to intelligent creatures because the gence is itself an offshoot of the Divine. de confus. intelligible realities.IX. which also is of so a revelation His thought impressed upon matter. 247 His nature. he resolves to pursue the further journey. he does not Him afar off. he sees is that the object of his quest is afar off and always receding. (3) The Distinctions in the Nature of God. human intelli As the eye of sense sees the sensible world. and Angels.&quot. Forms. Logoi. since the reason sees the intelligible world. and with them abides as a guest but when &quot. The most common four conceptions. . at and when he once enter into the Divine Presence or rather not even afar off can he behold 1 Philo. for compelled to the eyes of his understanding being opened.Wisdom leads him first infinite distance in advance of him. an 2 &quot. are outflows from and reflexions communicate a knowledge In the philosophy tures. into the antechamber of the Divine Reason. Logos. and it is more commonly found in the singular. expression for them is Logoi. these philosophical conceptions are combined with both the Greek conception The of Daemons and the Hebrew conception of Angels. 20 2 De post. 229). and travelling along the path of wisdom and knowledge. 419). God. 6 (i. first of all meets with the divine Eeasons.

is expressed by 2 (i. standing reflects &quot. unspeakable. Like a king. it them announces by decree what a refuge. div. not begotten like ourselves. 15 (i. 139). IX. her. 1. 1 What he sees God Himself but the likeness of who cannot gaze upon the sun may not is just as those yet gaze upon a reflexion of &quot. it (Gen.&quot. 4 6 man relation of the Logos to God. midway between God and man. like a teacher. like a friend. somn.&quot. as from 3 from mortal Ibid. (i. brings advice and it all the kinsmen of virtue and provides for &quot. who like the angel who redeemed Jacob men from kinds of evil. but also a suppliant the immortal. 1 Leg. it suggests the wisest plans.&quot.248 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.It many it tells for the uninitiated to to man. but also the Divine will and the Divine goodness. 4 delivered Lot from Sodom. 2 The Logos. 501). like the angel help like . Him. (i. it. 41 (i. best . distinguished several metaphors. all 1. it instructs its disciples in what will benefit them like a counsellor. 1 (i. 5 men ought to do . The its functions. 42 (i. Ibid. 5 De ? Quit 122). yearning after 7 33 (i. only he sees that the place where he stands is still infinitely far from the unnamed. 16). 3. becomes to men a messenger of the angel to Hagar. not unbegotten like God. 3 encouragement. so de Cherub. 547). and incomprehensible God. and so greatly benefits those who do not of themselves know what is . 633). stands on the border-line between the Creator and the creation. 1 De somn. Alleg. 11 1. but it not only also reflects man God. and so becomes not only an ambassador from the Euler to His subjects. 649). 656). And God downwards upwards to secrets which it is not lawful 6 hear. . 1. 62 630).&quot. rer. it succours rescues xlviii. reflecting not only the Divine nature. Deprofug.

Leg. and abiding as a body was dead. . the Logos is evolved from God . or outflow the Logos is projected by God as a man s shadow or : phantom was sometimes conceived 2 expressing separate existence body. 495. Odyss. he justifies it on the ground on oVa av Atyvy 6 Oeos ov p-tjfjiard ecrriv dAA ?p : o&amp. 656). Alleg. 4 De jAijSev off dfAffroLV by his every feature.a Kivelv aA^uecrrepov. 31 (i. 106) used as convertible with ^KWV (ibid. 18. conception of the universe. commenting on the expression of the LXX. the substance of which the hence also 3. ins. the eternal CIKWV of God. chief sacrif. 10. in Exodus xx. but rather. The 1 by Him. 5). and frequently in classical writers. 6 0OV AdyOV (i. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Zpyov avrov de decem orac. 28 (i. it is a its after the cast The by n$ts 18 i 3 the sun. reflexion cast is from a spring. 6 yap Oeos Aeyoov a//a rotet Se \p?] 86yfJ. 11 (ii. as in Homer. /ATav thrown by God upon the space which He as a parhelion 1 as it is contains. of a ghost or the TrapaSeiy/xa.6aXfjLol t7TOl Trpo JTWV Sio/novcri TOV V01JTOV ClVoU KOCT/AOV : rj de mund. an outflow as metaphor of the second class 175). 6 Adyos (i. created other. 188). In the former. ling. 427). may be gathered into two classes.lt. portrait-statue or a reflexion in a mirror the Logos 3 De is : : in de confus. 23 (i. et Cain. pot. 207). chief metaphors of the former class are those of a phantom. somn. 1.IX. 6 Aaos ew/oa T-TJV ^xov^v. opif. Quod det. corresponding of They to the two great conceptions of the relation of the universe to God which were held respectively by the two great sources of Philo s philosophy. or image. 249 which are important in view of later theology.gt. Abel.). in relation to the Logos. not of the shadow cast by a solid object in the sunlight. the other to the dualistic. in its sense of either a phantom Logos is o-Kta is hence God : is the unsubstantial form. ovSev av e T^S^ KOCTfJiOTTOlOVVTOS- 2 The word o-/cta seems to be used. the Stoics and the Plato- The one class of metaphors belongs to the monistic. in the nists. 41 4 (i.f&amp.

ling. the Logos is the first-begotten of God and by an elaboration of the metaphor which reappears in later theology. the Father. God is in one passage spoken of as its is that of a son : . 28 (i. 12 (i. 2 its It hence tends some times to be viewed as separate from God. i. . 2 ibid. not of the Logos but of the : universe. All the conceptions 308): de confus. The had already passed through several had begun with that which was itself the earlier conception forms it : greatest leap that any one thinker had yet made.250 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. yei/i/qflei s. the made the world the conception conception that Eeason Eeason : : the conception of God as Personal out of that grew the thought of God as greater Eeason led of to than Eeason and using it as His instrument and at last had come the conception of the Eeason of God as in some way detached from Him. . (1) The Transcendence of God. IX. 148). 8 (i. 20 (i. God is croquet (i. the metaphor of a human birth being transferred to the highest sphere of heaven. 427) : They spoken of as 414). working in the world as a sub : ordinate but self-acting law. which we have seen to exist in the sphere of philosophy were reproduced in the sphere 1 De agric. as Mother. 361). De so God is spoken of as the husband of profug. THE IDEA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT IN CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. offspring of B. 14 (i. 683. Wisdom Father. It was natural that this should lead to the further conception of Eeason as the God and Wisdom. But in de ebriet. Knowledge the Mother. but inferior to God though greater than man. 3 7 &quot. of Christianity. 3 Quod a Deo mit. neither God nor man. 562) in 14 de Cherub. somn.

2 the earliest Christian teaching. God is ception of the transcendence of speaks to them He is angry with them and punishes them He is merciful to them and pardons them. blessed. of sensible : They are sometimes relative to the idea of perfection God is unchangeable. The essence of incorruptibility uniform. indivisible. He has no name for a name implies the existence of something prior to that to which a name is given. Sethiani ap. whereas He is : : These conceptions are prior to all things. He does all this through His angels and prophets. ad Flor. God is nnseen and untouched. 2 Ptolenusus. said one school of philosophers. and 1 faith i.is &quot. We give Thee thanks. the con God is absent. 1. The conception which underlies the ^earliest expression of the belief of a Chris tian community is the simple conception of children : &quot.e. and &quot. unending. near to men and : : and last of all But he needs such through His Son. 1. indeed. God is unbegotten and without beginning: phenomena are visible and tangible. for to dwell in our hearts.&quot. 7. To Thee be glory for ever. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. the unbegotten Father of the universe and self-existing light. infinite. and that He is light.&quot. in contrast to the world phenomena phenomena come into being. that He (/3J0o?) which contains and embosoms is self-existent. From simple and is Father of a primal light. . Thy servant. than because He is transcendent. all negative : the positive conceptions are that He is the infinite depth all things.&quot. 30. Thy holy name which and for the knowledge and immortality which Thou hast made known to us through Jesus Christ.The 1 &quot. Thou hast caused Holy Father.IX. Iren. mediators rather because a heavenly Being is invisible. incorruptible. all. 251 are sometimes relative to God.

that they may give thanks to Thee and upon us hast Thou bestowed : spiritual food and drink and eternal life through Thy servant. This tendency resulted 5 in Adoptian Christology.252 IX. 10. See also Orig. everlasting. Con. . 36. not as in a dogmatic system. that and all He that is. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. p. was. hast created all things for Thy name s sake. 3 Origen. iv. 5 . Before all things we give Thee thanks for that Thou art mighty : Thee be glory to 1 for ever/ In the original sphere of Christianity there does not appear to have been any great advance upon these simple The conceptions. in Gen. and 4 spirit itself as material. SoyyitaTM^cv 1. Cels. 7. But most of the philosophical conceptions above de scribed were adopted . E. 7. protests against 1 Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. /cat 37. cf. 7. Thou. TrapaTrA^cricos rots dvaipovcrt Keim. vol. 100.by the Apologists. p. regarded which denied 3 all God is only cog They were influenced by intellectual existences. 4. For thus a literal interJustin example. 2 one. that stress was He almighty is laid the world. 2 2 Cf. 26. that over is God upon which doctrine is He made His works. 1. deprinc. Cels. vovjTas ovcrias Srwikoi? p. They are for the most part stated. Stoicism. and Eus. Almighty Master. the Ebionites. Doymengesch. and through such adoption found acceptance in the associated Chris tian communities. It is quite possible that some Christians laid themselves open to the accusation physical discussion : which Celsus brings. but incidentally. cf. c. of believing that nizable through the senses. for a view ascribed to Melito. and the Clementines. Alogi. H. ii. that His mercy There was no taste for meta there was possibly no appreciation of metaphysical conceptions. 25 (Delarue). 160. hast given food and drink to men for their enjoyment. Harnack.

seeing that He was before the world was born. c. His loftiness is inconceivable. I mention His handi description. by whom the universe is brought into being and set in order and held firm. nor can it : His goodness beyond imitation. eternal. He who is uncontained by space and by the whole 1 world. 253 Old pretation of the anthropomorphic expressions of the Testament : You are not to think that the unbegotten God came down from anywhere or went up/ For the unutterable Father and Lord of all things neither conies to any place nor walks nor sleeps &quot. impas and uncontained comprehended by mind sible. my friend : the form of God is unutterable and in be seen with fleshly eyes for His glory is uncontained. I who have sufficiently believe in demonstrated that they are not atheists One who is unbegotten. I mention His offspring if I speak of Him as strength. incomprehensible and reason only. If I speak of Him as light. so that He sees all things and knows all things.&quot. I mention His might if I speak of Him as providence. His wisdom is un describable. not with eyes or ears. Listen. 2 Leyatto. I mention His government : : speak of Him as spirit. I mention His breath if I speak of Him as wisdom. His beneficence beyond rivalled. nor but abides in His rises. invested with ineffable light and beauty and spirit and power. but with His unspeakable power. through the agency of his own : Logos. seeing : And Athenagoras thus sums up his defence of Chris tianity against the charge of atheism : &quot. 10. . work if I speak of Him as reason. His size is incomprehensible.* Theophilus replies thus to his heathen interlocutor who asked him to describe the form of the Christian God : &quot.&quot. unseen. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. c. be. own place wherever that place may and keenly hearing keenly. His strength is incomparable. if I : : : 1 Dial. Tryph. nor is any one of us hid from Him nor does He move. 127.IX.

and one who who made things 3 that have body?&quot. unmade. Mimic.&quot. 3. in the extremity of 1. yet he argues that He is material. mention His goodness His if I : speak of His kingdom. Adv. 18. nor compound. case of Tertullian clearly shows that they are compatible with the former conception no less than with the latter.254 I IX. predicates are predi- cable of school becomes para doxical and almost unmeaning effort to express the same time When tial. 2 beginning. 1. nor essen nor non-essential.3. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. de Trin. cf. 2 its to reconcile the belief in with the belief that &quot. It is not easy to determine in regard to many of these expressions whether they are relative in the writer s mind to a supra-cosmic or to a transcendental conception of The God.how could one who is empty have made things that are solid. unborn. is is void have made incorporeal have But there were some schools of philosophers in which the transcendental cha racter of the conception clearly apparent. 1 transcendence of God. neither material. without &quot. and Novatian. nor simple. and at the His transcendence there He is the Creator of the world. 2. 3 Adv. existing in eternity. He was Not even negative Him. 1. and one things that are full. Marc. and without end. lides. Frax.&quot. Felix. nor Ad Autolycum. of It anticipated. The language of the It conceived of absolutely beyond all predication. for &quot. is such schools. and the most remarkable. as transcending being. later God The earliest is that of Basi- and perhaps helped to form. 7. the developments of Neo-Platonism. was nothing. for though he speaks of God as the great Supreme. Octavius. I mention 1 glory. .

424 if. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. but the seed of the world. 129. Mbller. p. 3 which was the 4 highest abstraction of current philosophy. 7. without perception. ff. p.(OVK &v #eo ?). 26. KO. nor Absolute Being. with out purpose. : 2 These exalted ideas of His transcendence. nor god. is * willed. without desire. 130. God who was not .. cf. 124. 8. who inherited the wealth at once of regenerated Platonism. nor absolutely any of the things that are named or per Inn ceived or thought. . with its 1 This capacity of division. avevvo^ros Pcedag. 255 nor unperceived. name that can properly be named of Him There &quot. p. of more but probably with the same mean There is no conception and no essence briefly. cf. ad Floram. Kosmologie. nor the Good. avow-to?. 358.. were further ela borated at the end of the second century by the Christian philosophers of the Alexandrian schools. nor Creator. 21. 12 and also Ptolemseus. without will. and of theosophic Judaism. nor Lord. sible was said ing. nor No science can attain Father. and world.. of ticism.. and without perception.L 1. : is no neither the One. necessary. pp. 42. 7. by Marcus God. 1 ap. nor angel. nor Mind. I use the word only but I mean without without thought. without passion. which had especially thriven on Alexandrian soil. In saying because some word volition. willed to make a world. Gnos Clement anticipated Plotinus in conceiving of God as being u beyond the One and higher than the Monad itself. I do not mean the extended and divi i in saying world which afterwards came into being. .. though fc.&quot.&quot. 302. nor man. without thought. 2 for 3 4 Hippol. ibid. 6.&quot.IX. Monoirnus.

which is be apprehended through the intelligence made in His image the human mind is capable is to : knowing the Divine by virtue of its participation in it.&quot. His only attribute to be known. 7. God which regarded Him as supra-cosmic rather than 2 and as having a material substance though not a human form. Min. But in the strict sense of the word He is beyond our of our knowledge is like the vision of a spark as compared with the splendour of the sun. Felix.like knows time. is and existence. the world 19 sqq. soli 5 tary and destitute&quot. 36. But only &quot. knowledge : Greek philosophy.256 unto Him. IX. 5 e. Being has no more or less. pass into the sphere of the rougher sort of The ? phenomenal ridiculed a God who was objectors &quot. 3 His own conception is that of a transcendent. cf. cf. 10. nature which absolutely simple and intelligent. c. the doctrine whether of a supra-cosmic or of a tran as in scendent could He God How necessitated the further question. Gels. c. in his unapproachable uniqueness: the more serious heathen philosophers asked. of GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. I. 4. Celsim. 1. Ibid. and consequently has no need after. or is which transcends both He absolutely simple. ? and . 2 5. 1. If like knows like. 2. ciples . 1. so also in Christian theology. Deprinc. 1. 158. 5. of either space or Being absolutely intelligent.&quot. Keim. 1 3 4 how can your God know Strom.for all science depends on antecedent prin is nothing antecedent to the Unbegot- but there Origen expressly protests against the conceptions ten. 4 But (2) Revelation or Mediation of the Transcendent. 6. 1 &quot. 12. passim.g. no before or intelligence know and to He like.

239).s all iSta things and hence Cf.gt. adv. 6/x.IX.s . o li/u. 7. were dubious of the introduction of dialectic methods into seo 1 Christianity Eus. cf. in both of which anthropomor 3 phism had been possible. p. v. The conception had some elements of Stoical and some of popular Greek theology. It lay beneath what is known Modal Monarchianism. in will. 257 the mass of Christian philosophers. 4 aAA he made He knows His own 6 $eos iracri TO?S ytvo/xai o OeXu) KCU . it &quot. or one of the questions that are cognate to cardinal point of their theology. It came to an especial promi tentative answers group of nence in the earlier stages of the Christological contro versies.Expavescunt p. 13.&quot. 2 The it. v.Sabellius. no one can deny that knows what His Aeyercu yap 3 will has made. 28. Father of the rather than in another. felt this question. 25. Sac. i. Rel. 5. : rov vTrtp ra ovra Kara TO. Prax. and.a/xei/ et/xi . is the Creator and was His good pleasure. veXifaara yivuxrKfiv avrov ra 6Vra by His will. as an explanation of the nature of Jesus Christ. to be the were innumerable. S a&amp. Encycl. . 2 How can God Pantaenus. alcrdr]Ta [Arjre voepws ra vo-rjra ov yap eu/at Svvarov &quot. &amp. Weingarten. One early them maintained the existence of a capacity in the Supreme Being to manifest Himself in different forms. : ad otieovo/uav/ Tert. 6Vra TWV oWcoi/ Xa^j3dv(r9aL. Brit. art. as e avrov. Harnack. because all things. when asked by outside philosophers. who clung to tradition pure and simple.gt. 4 same God/ said Noetus. ?rtS^ ev Tracrtv ecrr/v. for if Cf. as the theory that Christ was a temporary mode of the existence of the one God. 3. &quot. He The older sort. ap. know the world. &quot. &quot. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 379) [ArjTC ccur^TWS TO. ii. Cf. used by the Naassenes. 1 both within and without the associated communities. It was simply His will to mode exist in one One and &quot. if like knows like ? replied (Routh.lt.wvv/xa&amp. Hipp. Julius Africanus (Routh.

47. abiding within His essence the latter. of Ptol. But the dominant conception was in a line with that of both Greek philosophy and Greek religion. but also in the same school. . For example. though 2 The former regarded independent. Dogmeng. and partly with the greater or less development of the tendency to give a concrete shape to abstract ideas. 10. cf. tained when He He contained is was men He birth. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Tert. ap. 1. 4. appeared to righteous and when is invisible. seen He When He is visible wills not to be contained. Valent. special the Supreme forth. Schraid. c. that of Valentinus himself and that of his great.258 IX.) The both made the speculations as to the nature of these forms varied partly with the large underlying variations in the conception of God as supra-cosmic or as transcendental. of or in relation to knowledge to the other. follower Ptolemy. The variations are found to only between one school of philosophers and another. 12. in common with the great : 1 2 Hipp. when He became on was His good pleasure it He uncon- being born His own He to son. 9. They varied also according as the forms were viewed in relation to the universe.&quot. Sia0rs n. is : is not seen He is and contained when the Father had not been born. rightly styled Father: undergo another For when of old. (i. not 1 s. as manifestations of the one and means forces. Iren. or He forms and modifications by which world and revealed Himself to it. not tullian distinguishes between two schools of Yalentinians. Terexist. the ^Eons as simply modes of God s existence. 1. From God came in Him existed. as its types and formative the Supreme Being and His rational creatures.

1 Ptolemy 4 2 ap. Noet. were blended. voice and name. only-begotten of God. Hipp. Iren. nished their opponents with one of their chief thereby handles for ridicule but Colorbasus regarded the pro duction of the ^Eons as a act. 1. reasoning and intention 2 to : or from the original Will and Thought came forth Mind and Truth (Reality) as visible forms and images of the 3 invisible qualities (SiaOeo-ew) of the Father. s2 6 Hipp c. Iren. Following the tendency of current is for light psychology regard the different manifestations of mind as relative to different elements in mind itself. some schools of phi losophers gave a separate personality to each supposed element in the mind of God. 1. ferent sources. Iren. 3.) But side by side with this tendency to indivi dualize and hypostatize the elements or modes separate of the Divine Mind. 1. 12. majority of the school. 1. 4 mind is the theory. Almost all these conceptions of the God communicated Himself to the conception of Him to the as dif means by which world were relative Mind. the expressions. 2. most philosophers of the same school made a of and fur substances&quot.lt. ap. On He one alone . (ii. 12. looked upon them as 259 &quot. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.IX. cf. 3 ap. 5 (Valentinians). There came forth thought and reflexion. 1. however. And again. 1 Some : single momentary which came from times. I genealogy ^Eons. 10. personal which had come forth from God and re mained outside Him. It is as inherent a necessity for thought to reveal itself as it to shine. there was a tendency to regard the mind of God as a unity existing either as a distinct element in His essence or objective to Him. 12&amp.

GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. and revealed Logos. or Word. TrpoyJKaro already become Koyov opoiov . Iren. which to Himself. 2 Iren. 1. individual logoi to the Logos. Protrep. each was a part and phase of God s nature which expressed and reflected itself in a part and phase of the world. and which passed through more than one phase before won it its way The leading point in both ance. opened His mouth and sent immediate creation. 2 is The the image of Him. 10. 14. God to Himself is that Mind is the revelation of His self-consciousness : is. that of Marcus. creation the only immediate revelation and the only The Father. is to general accept the relation of the We have 1 is ap. and to endow with form that which is invisible. &quot. Clem.260 IX. so that collectively the logoi are in equivalent to the Logos. On another theory. a logos* a root and seed of being sent forth : : other words. Al. 1. 3 (Basilides) : cf. It is at once a revelation and a projected out of Him. mind is born from the unborn Father. which was so was made up of distinct utterances each utterance was an won. and thence in their order all the long series of Powers by whom the universe was formed. 1 Another theory. 24. forth the Him Logos&quot. the meaning of the conception of Mind as the only-begotten of God. of God. The theory is who is the image and reflection not far distant from that which is found in the earlier Apologists. resolving to bring forth that which is ineffable in Him. Wisdom and Force. the Logos the Son of vovs. so to speak. 1. and from Mind are born Logos and Prudence. probably contains the key to some of the others . knows God and wishes to reveal Him.

&quot. How could God come into contact with matter? 1 The Forces were also Eeasons to lie in the solution : they were woke mind activities and to consciousness : also thoughts : and the mind of men they man knew the in knows like. that other men have 1 As compared with Philo. as expressions of a single have also seen that the solution of the Logos. forces . The create ? innumerable forms of created solution of the metaphysical difficulty.a is partaker. 2 The and other men was thought difference between Christ to be. by virtue of containing seed of the Logos. and the latter being not only productive forces.which peared in the form of fire. Tryph. Justin lays stress on the Logos as Revealer. and had at one time ap at another in the form of the will of God. Apol. &quot. can a transcendent How God know and be known ? was found which had already been given to the cosmogonical difficulty. 61. but also the laws of those and which had viewed them both in their unity.IX. aTroo-roAos. the former being regarded as forces as well as forms. He trine that God was found in the doc created by means of His Logos. 63. and endured to suffer all that the daemons effected that he should suffer at the hands now by of the foolish Jews. making known to us the will of God cf. acquainted with the Syncretism which had blended the Platonic ideas with the Stoical logoi. a particle of the divine That divine Logos &quot. human race &quot. had become a man. : 2 Justin. on behalf of the human angels. who im could pressed himself in the things.&quot.of which the whole of God. i. rather than in their plurality. as like within it Logos itself. 261 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. . who emphasizes the Logos in relation to the work of creation. race. We How problem.

Cf. He is ineffable. only a &quot. 220. 8. Wherefore : the Son reveals the knowledge of the Father by manifesting Himself: for the manifestation of the Son is the knowledge of 1 2 Apol. 1 Within half a century after these tentative efforts. 2 and largely helped by the dissemination of the Fourth Gospel. And His Word knows that the : Father since as far as concerns us. The form in the following which the belief is stated by Iren^us is : the Father except by the Word of God. 161. But the Son &quot. but some way which was not yet the closely defined. i. it is the Father alone who knows His own Word both these truths has the Lord made known to us. for Gnostic Christology. that the latter lived by the : light of a part only of the divine Logos. whereas the former lived by the knowledge and contemplation of the whole Logos. IX. that is by the Son revealing Him nor can any one know the Son except by the good pleasure of the Father. Jesus Christ was the Logos by whom world had been made. on Him : the other hand. It : Dagmeng. ii. would be beyond our present purpose to go into Christology. . seed of the Logos&quot. whereas in him the whole Logos was manifest and the difference between Chris tians and philosophers was. and who revealed the unknown also in the belief that. Harnack. No one can know : performs the good pleasure of the Father for the Father sends. He himself declares and unlimited: and to us and. in Father to men. invisible is. MonarchianIt will be sufficient to indicate three theories (1) Modal ism . and the Son is sent and comes. which had probably at first only a local influence. (2) Dynamical Monarchianism j (3) Logos theory. the mass of Christians were tending to acquiesce not only in the belief of the transcendental nature of God.262 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.

7.) what : was the nature. since He was seen by all. of a creation of all things Clem. in and It dialectic.IX. rose out of each of thought is In the speculations which these questions.general proposition that Jesus Christ was the Logos human form. the Workman who formed it and by the Son. Strom. 6 . The philosophers of the school of Basilides. though they have seen as others. men educated than it is was no more possible for the to leave a metaphysical possible in of problem untouched.) what was the genesis. . The question of the genesis of the Logos was mainly answered by theories which were separated from one another by the same broad line of distinction which (i. who. even more conspicuous than before. that Father who begat the Son. have not believed as others. lopment that Christian philosophers. 2. 6. the influence of Greek of the Logos. . should go on to frame large theories as It was an age of definition to the nature of the Logos. or the Media (3) The Distinctions in the Nature of God. the Father : 2G3 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 5. Alex. own days our mass for chemists to leave a natural product unanalyzed.&quot. And therefore the righteous judgment of God comes upon all who.) separated theories as to the genesis of the world. It was by a natural process of deve tion and Mediator. 4. For by means of the creation itself the Word reveals God the Creator by means of the world. 3. Two main questions engaged attention (i. is. that 1 Iren. while acquiescing in the &quot. 1 Father therefore has revealed Himself to all : . cf. had been the first to formulate the doctrine of an absolute creation. for all things are manifested by the Word The by making His Word visible to all and conversely the Word showed to all the Father and the Son. the Lord who is the Fashioner of the world and by means of His handiwork (man). . as we have seen. (ii.

Dogm. and some of of the Logos them were had esta originally relative. but came forth from Him. Noef. it was so created by the Logos.264 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. of creation. that in from God. out of the things that were not. c. conceived that whatever in their theory corresponded to the Logos was equally included with all Hence came the defi other things in the original seed. between them. They were supplemented by the metaphors. 7. Hipp. Hipp. of the flowing of water from a spring. were in use before the doctrine blished itself. 1 But the majority of theories expressed under various metaphors the idea. The metaphors were chiefly those of the putting forth&quot. &quot. Apol 51 . though the world was created out of nothing. who was not created by God. Schmid. The which was relative to the other theory some way the Logos had come forth rival hypotheses as to the nature of creation were reconciled by the hypothesis that. 52. 62. 2 Tert. and of the radiation of 2 That there was not originally any important light. Each of them contained an element 1 Cf.&quot. is shown both by the express disclaimer of Irena3us and by the fact of their use in distinction combination in the same passages of the same writers. IX. 21. The metaphors supple mented each other. which also were in earlier use. The combination was important. as of the leaves or fruit of a plant. 22. which played a large part in the contro versies of the fourth century. not to the Logos. (7rpo/3o\^ prolatio). out of nothing. and of the begetting of a son. . but to other conceptions of mediation between God and the world. that the Logos was made nite proposition. They &quot. p.

for by Clement but repeated in Tert. is must be a pure in monism form and some sense God. a perfect 1 But in other writers the force. 1. is &quot.first force after the Father of all offspring of and the Lord &quot. &quot. Son of God&quot. &quot. idea of development or generation. logos.&quot. which had been strongly maintained against those who of God. cit. The Logos who reflected God and revealed Him to rational who creatures. as well as cv5ia0eros. by the Holy called 1 the the beginning. cf. Prax. which God.). begat from Himself a kind of rational Force. Clem. cf. seemed to be running another of kind of danger in the very ranks of its defenders. cf. unapproachable light. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 265 theory which ultimately expressed the settled judgment of the Christian world. Al. Keim. also contained in himself the forces of the material world.gt. 7iy)o&amp. the &quot.o/3iKos 5. of God. the Glory of the Lord.as Leg. 16. however lightly the metaphor might be pressed. note in Ign. 2 Philo applied the phrase Cdsus.&quot. denied Son.&quot. Hipp. to the world : cf. : God is Him Himself. the God for first sometimes first-born. before all created things. . adv. Theophilus. explained the difficulties of the world by the hypothesis two Gods in conflict. ad Magn. 10. c. seemed to involve an exist ence of the Logos both outside God and posterior to He was Him. sometimes 2. See Zahn the Old Testament) Spirit (i.IX.sole monarchy&quot. distinction of Aoyos (loc. 2. Strom.e. 5. In Athenagoras there self all things to universe.lt. Noet. &quot. in the The main which they presented was that difficulty of an apparent inconsistency with the belief in the unity The doctrine of the &quot.&quot. 95. 2 God. 8./&amp. on TrpotXOiov in relation to s eternal generation. 22. spirit.

8. : rfjs /xe/ator/xov ov KUT avroro/x^v in Tatian. 31. C. : /A Trypli. 4 The Gnostic controversies in regard to the relation to Powers who were intermediate between Him and the world. For Callistus own view.266 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. f ^ M* 5. 180. as by Trypli. 7 sometimes Wisdom. c. both of which came from external philosophy. 10. Justin. 493 cf. 12 Schmid. 16. IX.&quot. Dial. 3 Callistus. also p. God of the had helped to forge such intellectual instruments. multiplication. cf. *0ui. Justin. 10. is spoken God and Lord beneath another of. . and Irenaeus 5. 3 It was saved of the to universe. torches may be irpof$\. cf. 9. Hipp. Noet. c. Tatian. 31). as though the Divine nature admitted of a division. p. sometimes Lord and Logos sometimes he speaks for he has of himself as Captain of the Lord s host i sometimes : all these appellations. Tert. Schmid. both from his ministering to the purpose and from his having been begotten by there is. 4 The one was that the generation had taken place within the sphere of the generation had not taken place by the Deity severing of a part from the whole. Plotinus ap. 1 Father s &quot. many 62 E.&quot. Noet. . p. cf. 2 c. also called Hippolytus and his party ditheists. 45 for Praxeas ap. ap. See Schmid.gt. 5 but by distinction of or development itself: function or 1 Justin.gt. 56 C. Dial. rofjirjv cos Hipp. God. r. is different. (cf. Trypli. c. and It follows that the Father s pleasure. 61 A. the Maker 2 The theory thus formulated tended ditheism and was openly accused of it. 48. 50. one of them being an inheritance from Stoicism. 11. Harn. 9. Weing. ur t /D 128 tap c vA? Kara Swa/zei KOU fiovXr) avrov dAA ov KOT OLTTOrov irarpos oixrias . from the charge by the gradual formulating of two dis tinctions. sometimes Angel.r]0\v yfvvrjpa. 5 a &amp.TB Dogm. ibid. while excommunicating the Sabellians Hipp.r/&amp. p. the other from Neo-Platonism.

of light. also Tatian. For Clement and Origen in this connection. 4. But he hovers between the Logos as thought and as substance. according to the nature of the individuals into 4. : have been a Father before there was a Son. uncertainty as to eternal generation in Justin . 10. Emanation seemed to him to imply division into parts. Cels. see Harnack. God mind. cf. capacity to shine.&quot.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Hermog. but there was a time when there was not a Son. His . 5 Trypli. The question of the nature of the eternally-be (ii. pp. 495). 3 For metaphor c. Noet. though his view is not through 2 out steady and uniform. 118. 14.. in Origen that this solution attains if. 2 But the influ ence of the other metaphors in which the relation was expressed overpowered the influences which came from pressing the conception of paternity. Cels. e. 579. it is clear expression. In lit an early statement of the theory it was held that it had taken place in time it was argued that God could not &quot. c. according as the supra-cosmic or the transcendental idea of God was domi nant in a writer 1 is Justin. IX. Light. 4 Father.) gotten Logos was answered variously. 1 The other was that the generation had been eternal. it was could never have been without its argued. 3. 4 There is hard t. 12 . Hipp. 61 C. the Son was always a Son. 3 The Supreme Mind could never have been with The Father Eternal was always a out His Thought. also employed.. p. human Word changes whom He cornes.speech&quot. where the metaphor of is con- &quot. 581. 5. 8. Dial. s c. c.g. see Engel It is not in Hippolytus. 267 from one without diminishing the light of that one. Tert. 5 God unchangeable affairs : rrj Trpovoiy KCU in Himself comes into contact with rfj oiKovo/xtp. deprinc. 1. Monoimus ap. To Justin Martyr. 18. Though implied in Irenaeus (Harn. 2 ap.

but by essence. tVoo-rao-is 4 an outflow as light. 22. that the conception of a quasi-physical influence emanating from Him is seen to be first expressly abandoned. of light 1 3 from i. while Tertullian speaks of still and &quot. by the spread and dominance of the transcen It dental as distinguished from the supra-cosmic conception of God. in whom thought advanced to the belief that God transcended not merely phenomena but being. 5. 32. the Logos abides &quot. &quot.lt. force after the Father: he &quot.&quot.oratio. are above the heavens the &quot. &quot. Dogmcng. There a similar is uncertainty in the view of Theophilus. 2 &quot.ria. from which it never afterwards de scended.&quot. 56. side by side with these. mainly from the schools of Alexandria. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Strom. 22.268 IX. c. second numerically but not in will.ratio&quot.first the places that first-begotten.in . 1. 23. Justin. oiVt a. but . doing only It is uncertain how far the idea the Father s pleasure. It came. not see Clem. It is in Basilides. eov&amp. Try. as Tertullian. as we have already seen. held that side by side with God existed. 1 of personality entered into this view.&quot. Alex. Apol. 2 ad Autolyc. He is : Hamack. The Saviour is God. : is the &quot. who introduced the Stoical distinction between the two aspects of the thought and speech Logos. but same expressions with another meaning.a second God. is &quot. Averts. ii. Cf. p. not by par 4 He is begotten of the very taking. He ceived as supra-cosmic. was only gradually that the subject was raised to the higher plane. 3 But the place of the later doctrine in the Christian Church He uses many of the is mainly due to Origen. The generation essence of the Father. 580.virtus&quot.

det. Whose body Nature is. of the vital force. to designate the material part of a thing. and the compound of matter and matter. (frrjm Kal wov TOV rov 6 Aov KOO-/AOV /xi ay Diog. . insid. philosophical and Christian cosmologies.&quot. TI re v A?7 &quot.ousia is was some- Kal TO efSos KGU TO IK TOimoi/. . ovcria 1035a. ancL GjjJ 3 TTJS fomK&amp. 25. KOCT/JLOV IlorreiScoi/cos. 10. the visible In their monistic conception of the universe. Quod 148 : so in ovcriav Kal if/v^v p. pot. 2 oixriav Se Oeov Zr/vuv 6/zotco? Se M. controversies did not so From as begin with him. in origin. . form. eV fJiev . But although would be beyond our present purpose describe the Christological controversies which fol to lowed the it dominance in the Church final scendental idea of God. i. : 1 used as a synonym of hyU.g. But the GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. form. Kal TOV ovpavov. L. the sphere of Christian thought were the current ones of In Christian theology that philosophy has philosophy. survived. 2 In the same way Philo speaks of the blood as the material 3 TO Hence in both ova-Mes. 4. . 7. Kal XpvcrtTrTros e. Anton. confining ourselves as far as possible to the later Greek uses of the terms. Ousia is (OIHTIO) the distinction is used in at least three distinct senses clearly phrased by Aristotle. The use is most common among (a) It is the Stoics.IX.iav paraphrased in the well-known lines of Pope &quot.}s Sui/a/xews. : All are but parts of one stupendous Whole.gt. 6.&quot. Metaph. 209. world was regarded as the ousia of God. of the tran within that purpose to point it is out the Greek elements. the soul. 269 much end with Origen that time they were mostly But their elements were Greek The conceptions which were introduced into internal to Christianity. vehicle. 40. ousia 1 p.

^o? TO eh GLL aovvcLTOV 3 e^oV).g. 1 (c) It is common element used of the in the classes which sensible material things may be grouped: been distinguished as the substantia ab- into this has since stracta in the language of Aristotle. p. 11. are ^ overlap e. on the other hand.g. : r/ (e^o?). In Aristotle.270 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 4 Ibid.J) only the Aeyo/xe^ rj TiVL CCTTIV* OlOV : 2 5 jU /JTC of the form. 1042 a. 7. in a predication be the subject and cannot be a predicate.)(wpi? members and not outside them (since ovGiav KOI ov * f} what they are this latter is Plato 5 o$o?. conception of Parmen. ousia ouo-ia Se ecrrtv or and by participation in which they exists outside them. b. : To a 1 /^~ /T KClO rj Kvpiwrcnd re KGU Trpwrw? KGU V7TOKLfJLVOV TtVOS AeyeTGU ITTTTOS. Metapli.lt. to denote the matter out of which the world was made. IX. p. e. 3 Arist.lt. e. 1037 a. (b) It is used of matter embodied in a certain form this has since : been distinguished as the substantia concreta. and of its equivalent ova-La. VTTOKl/Jl. 132t? ?OS.e. a different point of view is the following sense. 5.V&amp. according as the term was used by a realist or a nominalist to the former it was the : common essence which exists in the individual of a class (TO ef&amp. Frequently in the Metaphysics. man must always an ousia in is the strictest sense. 6. 5. p. 12.V is jaaAicrTa. and the term TT/OWT^ ow-ia is used in o rts avOpwTros Kal 6 rts KLVO s nominalist. 1037. 7.g. i. 2 a but in the Metaphysics taken. ai TO TO . a sensible material thing. ^ $ av rot o/xota /zcre^ovra o/xota y. p. 6. 4 cTTGU 1079 p. or ideal essence (TO 2 ?iv elvai). 11. TY\V &quot. which Gdteg. a particular which or a particular horse. it was the form This sense branched out into other senses. OVK . 1. times used as interchangeable with liyle. 1032 b. p. p. 6.

gt. common name which.6VOV.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Porphyr. 5 : KacrTOS //. avwraro) oucra. VOT^TO. . 3 7. the becoming. and filled the widest sphere. it is 45 stated by Celsus and adopted by Origen Origen. Kara Trourtoy rwv VTT avrijv KanqyOpOV^VOVy (TWCOI/TJ/AIOS s. TW /z^Sev yeviKwrarov.p6pOfJ. was more ousia than the genus. sq. Sophist. not pure ousia. and hence not abso 5 lutely under our control. but that we partake of and our soul . ousia or . is 271 predicable in the same sense to a number of individual existences. wpo avr^s. yv TO Kara Se . KOL &amp.S arra KCU / / ovcriav etVat ra 5e acrto^tara eiSfj / j/ TVJV d\.v ttr) ouo~tas. p. 2 &quot. in the later philosophy. or wider class.lt. .i]0ivriv / / \ yevecrtv CIVT oixrtas &amp. yet/os iroppiti v. 1 ovcria ecrrti/ ovo/xa KOLVOV /cat doptcrTov t TTOCTTaoreCOl/ Suidas. distinction played a large 3 and whereas in part in the later history of Platonism the view of Aristotle the species. . and contained the largest number of other classes in itself it was the summum genus . it we are farthest in respect of our a compound. The being.lt.pepofJLvrjv nva. c.&quot. . e. eKetj/wv craiyUaTa . which in its turn The visible world of concrete it tended to accentuate. Gels. 4 YI ovcria. &amp. Plat. on the was ousia in its highest sense which was remove from the concrete. Eisag.&quot. j 6/AOTt/A(t&amp. /xev TO efi/at o-w/*u. or smaller class. that at the farthest : Plotinus says that in respect of the body from soul ousia. 246. individuals was regarded as phenomenal and transitory the invisible world of intelligible essences was real and : permanent: the one was genesis. v. 24. is itself but ousia with an added difference. . 1 The Platonic form of realism grew out of a distinction between the real and the phenomenal. as being : nearer to the concrete individuals. IX.^ Hence contrary.ev rjn&v Kara 2. or u other. Trpocrayopevovcn.gt.g.

j)v avOpwTroi ivifav. 20. Plotin. 2. Clement. but also the species (&/). the latter in later Greek philosophy.lt. 5. Metapli. ws opoovGritov 192.lt. KGU ecr^tev ns ovcria. TOVTO 8e ecrrtv oiov crvvdzTov TL IK 8ia&amp. Anal.7r&amp.v 3. there was an argument that animals should not be killed for class. 90 b et Top. 2. 4 Sto ovSe Arist.lt.a in the latter.272 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. b. 8. In the one.&quot. Hypotyp. proposition which it was only necessary for us to it is of the so that in part know not only the ousia of objects of thought.body. a definition was itself defined as expresses the ousia:&quot. Enn. 12. Of these two meanings of ousia. whether they fall within or without the class &quot. OVKOW KV04(os ovcria ov8 6. 4 TYJV if/vxyVf KOU 6 [j. &amp. 6. 1 p. their souls being homoousioi with our own class food. TOVS TroSa? Horn. the knowledge ousia was completely unfolded in the definition. the members of the same class. to with himself. &quot. are homoousioi with washed the feet of the him. post. thinking them to be &quot. Pyrrli. ye ofAoovcrtoi al TWV 1. 2 But in the one meaning as in the other. for example. . 130 b . /zere^Ojitev OWMXS. so that 1 &quot. p. on the ground that they belong to the same as men. the former expressing the whole essence &quot. Sext.popa$ KOL ovcrias. namely species and genus.a\i&amp. Porphyr. men one another. 2. 7. the former tended to prevail in earlier.of like so and Abraham three strangers men 3 : who came substance&quot. p. 1.TTa ecr^tev. Abstin. Empir. or the sub-classes of the same wider were spoken of as homoousioi: for example. 2 Kvpioi T^S avraJv ovcrias.gt.gt. the latter part of the essence. so unfolded.lt. 4. dv8pa&amp.^a&amp. &quot.&quot. 3. de 19. \{/v)(al rais ^/xerepa6?. IX. p. 1030 3 auTOOwia&quot. of a class-name or concept.

IX. Vet. felt Some its 273 application philosophers. episc. difficulty of the God was we have whole conception in and expressed. 6. Cain. 8. In this Those who do not know the ousia how shall they give an accurate account they followed Philo of their it &quot. The tide of which Neo-Platonism was the most prominent wave placed God beyond ousia. 1. vol. 4 cf. da post. 229 Philo. Bibl. 714. in spite of the acceptance of the Mcene formula. 845. 5. Athanas. reprinted in Migne. The to GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. Hieronymi : Theologi Grseci. vol. who met the dogmatists on both sides with the assertion 2 that neither ousia nor liypostasis was predicable of God. as already seen. Gr. Dionys.. vol. 1 The Christological controversies of the fourth century were complicated to no small extent from the existence of a neutral and conservative party. vii. but hyperousios? Even those who main tained the applicability of the term to God. i. 3 in S. denied that such an application was possible. the conservative feeling against the introduction 1 c. Areop. Dialogus de sancta Trinitate. And. 64. Patrol. ad Afr. i. 2 e. in Galland. 62 there is a remarkable Christian application of this in a dialogue between a Christian and a Jew who was curious as to the Trinity. i.g. nom. when so applied to Him. vol. : of the soul of the universe 4 ?&quot. But in spite of these diffi culties. Origen meets Celsus s statement of that view by a recognition of the uncertainty which flowed from the uncertain meaning of the term. ventured more than a century later on to recur to the position that God has no ousia. de div. Gels. xl. 4. Pair. T . denied the possibility of is denning own soul. 30. vol. the great Christian mystic who most fully represents NeoPlatonism within the Christian Church. Alleg. Leg.

Son was not a creature (/cr/cym) and . ap. Ham. was insufficient. . ap. the term homoousios (o/xoouo-fo?) was not unnatu rally adopted to express the relation of to God God the Father It accentuated the doctrine that the the Son. the the same essence as herself. 22 TO ev in Epiphanes (Valentinian?). 7. were overborne by the practical necessity of declaring that He is. IX. . 580. i. ad Antioch. was Kara so as regards Travra T$ OVK 6vn 6//.oovo-tos. but did not give sufficient definition to the conception of the plurality. 2 It was rejected in its application to the world. Harnack. three-fold sonship which was in the seed which God made. i. 3.gt. Iren. but accepted within the sphere of Deity as an account of the origin of His plurality. 616. 5. Oeu&amp. 219. 491. the Holy Spirit was a creature. &quot. as transcend ing numerical unity became dominant in the Christian Church. 1. 1. 2 In the Valentinian Cf. It expressed the unity. 5 &quot. so of the term as Those who maintained that applied to the Holy Spirit. 488. tlie spiritual existence which Achamoth brought forth was of In that of Basilides. unitate substantise.ex Iren. 1 The term occurs first in the sphere of Gnosticism. Hippolytus. 21. though true. 20. 3 (Hipp. It was capable used by those of being CK TTJS ova-Las TOV Trar/oos.ejusdem substantise Harn. 38). 1. Tert. He is. Clem. A than. 191. But homoousios. and by the of metaphysical terms into theology. 6. and the philosophical doctrine of absolute transcendence. &quot. : 481. vol. corollary that since there must be an ousia of But when the conception one of the God Him.274 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.. thereby maintained that He was severed from the essence of the Father. it (rvvv7rdpx fi T 2? /Aovor^Tt as Suva/us o/xooiVtos dvry. and expresses part of one of the two great conceptions as to the origin of the world. Horn. Apol. Cf.7. Iren. 11. system. 476 sqq.

It also. hypostasis (vTroa-Taa-is) and hyparxis (fora/ofiy). rj The epiac.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.lt. and future 3 4 Athan.avTao-ia. of things that take place in the sky. says that Dionysius of Alex andria gave it up because of its use by the Sabellians cf. Erapir. 52 (300). 226. 462. cf. 714. and Basil. that in Moreover..g. is used of that which has an actual as 4 also of that which compared with a potential existence has an objective existence in the world. which had come form than Thus more emphatic into use as a It followed almost all the senses of ousia. in which namely designated the permanent element in of objects thought. and may be disregarded 2 here. IX.J&amp.rrdvai. 20 : . The term hypostasis is the conjugate of the verb v&amp. so Kara rrjv rrj? it is ovvias i 2 is i.lt. of necessary to trace the history. distinction Chrysippus says that the present time {x^crravTcu. Doxogr. p. like ousia. e. was contrasted with phenomenal existence not it merely in the Platonic but in the conventional sense . elvat. 1 is the plurality to be merely modal or 275 phenome which it It thus led to the use of another term. 9. 462. the past 1. Q chief uses. contrasted with vTrocrracrii/. KU. rj yap found in Stoical v-n-dpx^. The latter of these played but a small part in Christian theology. Ep. 363. Greed.& vTroo-raa-iv. vol. It is found..g.f&amp. : 2 icai writers. 5 Diels. . some are appear 3 ances.gt. exists in came the thinking subject. in ovcria V7ra/ots eVrt. 6 Ib. 469. &amp. e. some have a substantial existence. the term it 1 It was expressly rejected at the Council of Antioch in connection with Paul of Samosata.lt. Diels. 372 Sext. ibid. one of its ova-la was Hence when things said v(pia-Tavai.gt. 5 into being. e. 318. where p. 192.i&amp. and not merely . Ep. 4. 26. ad Afr. who held nal.g. Diels. The term most of ousia in its senses had come to be convertible with two other terms.

Sext. o-^/AatVet. against three i&amp. ^xarwv apLUfJico TMV o^uoetSwv Still the identity of the two terms was allowed even after they were Sta&amp. 3 There was the more reason for the growth of the dis tinction. over la GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. objection at Council of Sardica. Empir. 2.ZEons. 1. is Ousia signifies expressed by Athanasius when he says has while property which is community. one 6. So that hypostasis came in certain schools 14. in the sense of genera might be merely conceptions in the mind the alternative was that of their having an existence of and : species. vol. 2.7roo-Tao-eis in the Godhead. Son and 3 Cf. i. Dial. he tolerates the view that there in the Godhead. : even more clearly by Basil. and to designate that which in Aristotle had been by the term ova-La -jrpwTrj This vTroa-Taa-is. 219. UTrocrracrts ovcna ecrrt /cat ovSev aAA. rj Se avro TO 6V. 2 a He : 17 ova-La rrjv KOIVOT^TO.&quot. 693. ad Afr. This was anticipated by Irenseus in his polemic against the Valentinian heresy of the emission of . de Trin.lt. Ath. Dogm. 4.e^)ovcra tending to be differentiated cf. while x ^TIS OVK ZCTTI Kotvrj TWV Trjs avr^s oijcrta? elsewhere identifies it with TT/JOO-WTTOV in Ath. 2 and &quot./&amp. Spirit. on the was only ground that vrrocrracrts might be regarded as synonymous with ovo-ia. 4 I8tav wnxTToo-iv. : vTroo-racrts tcmv ovo-ia fJLrd TIVOOV tSico- Tovrecrrt TTOOCTCOTTOV opoovcriov.&quot. 617).276 IX. of Father. in Expos. orthod. &quot.fid. 4 1 2 Epict.hypostasis not common to the hypostases of the same ousia. et e ct Cyril. because the term homoomios lent itself more readily to a Sabellian Christology. Athan. ^ei rj 714. Cf. their own. instead of one -uTToo-rao-is mroo-rao-is. Harn.gt. . (i. the use of ousia in its Neo-Platonic sense prevailed. Ousiai. de Pyrrh.o crrjfjiati OfJLevov : So ad Antioch.gt. had sometimes been replaced by the term When. there arose a tendency to differentiate the two terms. Ep. v therefore.

the word difference. 5. 58. 3. the one Latin word substantia. 4 1 Ed. Its origin is pro be traced to the interchange of documents be tween East and West. Flavius. 1. sub oculos Harnack. sought. Kiihn. had been used that just as viroa-Taa-is senses of ova-la. in the juristic sense. 1 ova-la aro/mos The distinction. IX. 7. 2. 6. mark the advisable to ova-la. 14. 2. ended in the introduction bably to of a third term.GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY.. had sufficed for both. jarred upon a 3 Consequently substantia was claimed for while for uTroo-racm a fresh equivalent had to be ear. to Cicero. the etymological When equivalent of vTroVracn?. Quint. The clearest and most elaborate exposition of it is contained in a letter of Basil to his brother Gregory. et substantia ejus 4 Cf. 489. it Ep. so a to express one of the new term came more precisely the sense into use to define of vTroa-raa-^. nam cadit. 8. 8. &quot. de princ. ib. 5. essentia. may be This was found in persona. Quintilian. the natural equivalent for Latin it the ova- la. 543 Orig. 3 Cf. 2. the of Galen. which leading to a difficulty in regard to this use of vTroa-raa-is. who 3. . Ep. 2 662. the individual. person&quot. in turn to Plautus and to Sergius 33 : Seneca. for its use by Sabellius. So long as ova-la and v^ea-rao-is had been convertible terms. and more recently Fabianus. cf. Harn. whose antecedents those of &quot. however. 210. in which case Tertullian may have originated this usage.&quot. was far from being universally recognized. 2. 6. became However. For substantia. ascribes 23. also .&quot. a possible party to a contract. of 277 thought to be the term for the substantia concreta. 693. two words became differentiated in Greek. Dogm. &c. or of &quot. 679 . a character in a play. who was evi 2 The result was dently not quite clear upon the point.

et Cyr. up.s 3 4- &amp. that which distinguishes one man from another. Such Western. specie. adv. 30 is distinguished ITTI TT)V &amp. 28. Ixxxvi. see Leg. ovonov. TWV For o Awi/ &amp. uTrocrTaaris.gt. when Jerome. with a unity of siibstantia t &amp. by which he understood ires substantias. and in Latin dwr/a. Kaye. 2 But distinct from and ova-la in the fourth century came it with identical be iden to and afterwards again distinguished from whereas the Monophysites identified it with uTroa-raa-i ?. 7. rj in Philo.ixri5 rov 6 Aov (i.g. 1193.w-ts : rj 14. There is a remarkable saying of Athanasius which is capable of a wider application than he gave 1 E. 1. In the second century (j)vo-i9 to 1 had been &amp. distinctions within the oeconomia of the Godhead to he gradu. practice would tend to stimulate the em ployment of the corresponding Greek term TrpooruTrov. with tified it.g. Ath. 7. from ovcrta W/B/A^O-CV. Times have changed since Tertullian s 4 loose and vague usage caused no remark. E.278 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. cf. 75. and complains that he is looked upon as a heretic in the East in consequence. 337). 3.t&amp. potestas . it 6 Aa SIOIKOVO-O. finally. ad. Ant. in E. uTrocrracrts In Epictetus.vo-i&amp. the two series not being actually parallel even to the extent to which they are so in appearance. Prax.f&amp. thinking as a Latin. Grcec./&amp. T. T. natura. whose use hitherto seems have been subordinate to that of vTToa-rcKTis. hesitates to speak of rpels vTroa-Taarei?. status. fid. substantia. ova. KoayAOTroiiav 105). All Leontius of Byzantium says that both Pat. forma.to. persona. To sum overlap We have in Greek four terms. ii. 407. Bp.gt. 2. 7rp6a-(*)7rov. .lt. ra SO 7.lt. 2 (E. then.. ii.lt. IX. and Averts where he makes the = ?So9. three..gt. And. in Expos. orth. 25.lt. = it : it TrpocrcoTrov runs 6/zo- denotes individuality of cha racter.vo-is Beason. the philosophic terms and natura came into use.lt. (pv&i?. 2 In Ath.gt.

of Christ.IX. 18.gt. A The phrase but the tion took place against the multiplicity of terms . {iTroo-Tacreis KCU rcvas KCU Thus the Eoman Dionysius. then. the flame For all this. be ignorant of the fact that when we deal with words that require some training 1 as follows: &quot. was but a fading memory. therewith connected.They seemed to to understand them. quoted in Diet. the devastation of fair fields..of Councils 1 De under Sententia Dionys. from that which has been a permanently disastrous fact the interference of the State. 577). nature of God. and on the other the tendency to trust in and insist upon the results of was strong. Homoousios. Greek and sword. that sanction which elevated gave the decrees . Once indeed the Catholic doc tianity. These evils mostly came philosophy was not responsible.x* objects 373.&quot. Atlmn. different people may take them in to each senses not only differing but absolutely opposed 2 Thus there was an indisposition to accept ova-la. 374). other. (Routh. majority began to deprecate investigations . 3 reac was not understanded of the people. the as to the. . with its speculation. which in Christian history. r/aeis Svva/xas /xc/Ae/oicr/xevas T/)IS. and unstudied language of the childhood of Chris simple awe-struck sense of the ineffable nature hand of God.gt. 8 (i. Biog. 3 dyvooviwov wro TWV Aawi&amp. 279 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. though not till then. trine was formulated. into Reliq. But I do not propose to dwell upon the sad and weary in which for more than a century history of the way these metaphysical distinctions formed the watchwords of the as well as of ecclesiastical parties of political strife and murder. dc Synod. 2 in a fragment against the Sabellians to the division of the /*ovoy&amp. ill pp.

I feel as strongly you can feel the weariness of the discussions to which as I have tried to direct your attention. It became handmaid and its rival. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. we must sions in place in Christian accept the conclu of the Christian world at least recognize that upon large assumptions. The majority of formularies define God by negative terms. It may be held that the attempt to solve the insoluble problem. Three may be indi cated which are all due to the -influence of Greek philo they rest 1 sophy. parallel with the corre sponding portion of the Lecture as originally delivered. 1 [As this summing up never underwent the author s final revision. Philosophy branched its off from theology. in the production of a tendency to form rather a negative than a positive conception of God. how God.] (1) The tendency to abstract has combined with the tendency to regard matter as evil or impure. ED. who is pure spirit. we can properly estimate their Whether we do or do not theology. It had to show their reasonableness or to find reasons for them. made and sustains us. It postulated doctrines instead of investigating them. . it has been thought well to place them here. and the notes which follow stand in his MS. the resolutions of the majority upon the deepest subjects of human speculation to the factitious rank of laws which must be accepted on pain of forfeiture. And for ages afterwards philosophy was dead. banishment or death. and yet they have claimed which are negative a positive value.280 IX. to Greek philosophy to the hypothesis of the chasm between spirit and matter the tendency to interpose powers between the Creator and His creation. But it is only by seeing how minute and how purely speculative they are. that which the greater part ultimately acquiesced. has darkened the relations which it has attempted to for conceptions (2) We explain owe by introducing abstract metaphysical conceptions.

the conception of Essence. de Prim. assumed that metaphysical distinctions are important. in speaking of the essence of either the world or God. 34. The (3) third assumption is that the idea of perfection which we transfer from ourselves to God. but is it important for us to recognize the fact that. There is other wise no justification whatever for drawing men s thoughts away from the positive knowledge which we may gain rests upon this both of ourselves and of the world around plate. even at us. that changelessness We know these things of our we cannot know them of One who is unlike our who has no body that can be tired. I am far from saying that they do not is at least . 1. that was a view.(1) It is 281 GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. that better than feeling. really corre sponds to the nature of His being. Again. The second is the assumption that these metaphy which we make in our minds correspond (2) sical distinctions world around to realities in the us. It is assumed that passionlessness is selves selves. IX. 1 It : than motion. to contem far distance. or in God who beyond the world and within it. sum of the qualities. 4. apparently matter or substance merely represented the Origen. . is rest is better may be noted that even in the later Greek philosophy there identical with that of Bishop Berkeley. we are assuming the existence of something corresponding 1 to our conception of essence in the one or the other. but it is not I am far from saying that they are not less important to recognize that much of what we believe : assumption that they are. who has no better than change.

282 IX. I have spoken of these assumptions because. GREEK AND CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. imperfection that can miss its aim. which will lead us at once to a diviner knowledge and the sense of a diviner life. 1 These Lectures are the history of a genesis it would otherwise have been interesting to show in how many points theories which have been thought out in modern times revive theories of the remote past of 1 Christian antiquity. : . the time may have come when in face of the large knowledge of His ways which has come to us through both thought and research we may be destined to transcend the as sumptions of Greek speculation by new assumptions. with whom unhindered movement may conceivably be perfect life. although it would be difficult to over-estimate the importance of the conceptions by which Greek thought lifted men from the conception of God as a Being with human form and human feel passions. to the lofty height around them an awful and on which they can infinite Presence.

THE GREEK MYSTERIES AND RELATED CULTS.LECTURE X. SIDE by side in Greece with the religion which was openly professed and with the religious rites which were practised in the temples. and for the expression in a common worship of the religious feelings which the public religion did not satisfy. They were the worship not of the gods . but intensifying their better elements and elaborating their ritual. preceded them. The mysteries were probably the survival of the oldest religions of the Greek races and of the races which 1. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MTSTEEIES UPON CHBISTIAN USAGES. A. and then of the associations for the practice of other cults. Tvere innumerable associations for the prac tice of the new forms of worship which came in with foreign commerce. I will speak first of the mysteries. and sheltered within them by the common law and drawn together by a stronger than political brotherhood. Side by rites which were known as the side also with the great political communities. were the splendid Mysteries. epavoi or opyewve?. not in antagonism to them. These associations were known as Qlaa-oi.

and eTroTrreia. Cf.. xlv. and was replaced by a divinity. 212 259. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES of the sky. which admitted to the TMV or holiest act of purification . and the scenic representation of the great facts of natural life and human life.284 X. Attische Quite cms Inschriften. of whom the latter became so dominant in the worship. initiation.ri&amp. p. 39 if. Bd. near Athens. they was originally the cult of the powers which produce the harvest. . 592 622 and Weingarten. lacchus. 2 Foucart. 401 sqq. Aglaopli. Demeter and Kore. . reference in general may be made to Keil. 1881. Bulletin de Correspond ance Hellenique. 3 The successive stages or acts of initiation are variously described at least four KaOapo-is the preparatory and enumerated. 441 : sqq. god almost disappeared from view. but of the gods of the earth and the underworld. the sacri fice. xxiii. the pvrjo-is or higher greater initiation. Histor. conceived as a triad of divinities a god and two goddesses. te/ow. 1883. Le culte de Pluton dans la religion eleusinienne. probably borrowed the earlier races among whom had settled. but there were : the initiatory rites and sacrifices . o-vcrrao-is 7rapd8o&amp. the gods of the pro ductive forces of nature and of death. reAer^ or the prior initiation. of which the histories of the gods were themselves symbols. as well as to the authorities cited in the notes. Pluto. Philologus.s the ritual. who had no place in the original 2 Its chief elements were the myth. Zeus and Apollo and Athene. It had been a cult from It by common to the Ionian tribes. 3 1 For what follows. which have brought to the largest in light large remains of the great temple Greece in which they were celebrated. Lobeck. pp. 1 The most important of them were celebrated at Eleusis.lt. that the. and the scattered information which exists about them has been made more impressive and more intelligible to us excavations. Bd. Zeitschrift.lt. pp.

1 2 Cf. rites of Eleusis : later to all men.UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. 59.&quot. Apollonius of Tyana was excluded because he was a its An interesting inscription has recently come to light. in conse that there were elements in quence of being purified. 394. were admitted to a diviner life and to the hope of a resurrection. The distinction is itself remarkable. was distinction between those approach who were not purified. p. which shows that the public slaves of the city were initiated at the public expense. human life from which the must himself candidate before he could be fit to purify There a God. I.e. The creation of this The mankind was lifted on to a higher plane when it came to be taught that only the pure in heart can see God.He only may enter who In other mysteries it is pure from all defile ment.&quot. and were open The bar at the entrance to women came to as well as be only a moral bar. When Nero went to Eleusis and thought at first of being initiated. and whose soul is conscious of no wrong. to 1 Eomans. Foucart. (i. and has lived well and justly. which is not less important in bearing upon Christian rites. : whose tongue is not prudent.) The main underlying conception 285 of initiation was. he was deterred by it. Gels. c. race of were originally confined to the inhabitants of Attica but they came in time to be open to all Greeks. . 2 who The proclamation was probably accompanied by some words or sights of terror. 3. Here is another instance of exclusion. was: &quot. The whole ceremonial began with a solemn proclama Let no one enter whose hands are not clean and tion &quot. Origen. and between those who.

On the first which go on there is similar kind to that at Athens. the coming of . Vita 3 Cf. Epicureans. &quot. for three suc a proclamation of a If any Atheist or &quot. 73. e. 74. see.g. ii. 5. s.The first and most terl. du Peloponnese. von Andania. p. &quot. Christians. The prophet himself sets the example.I. 91 . on the inscr. 18. Grecque. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES magician (70*79) and not pure in respect of ra he had intercourse with other divinities than those of the mysteries. . ii. Professor W. the ceremonies proceed through several days in imitation of the mysteries and in glorification of Alexander. ff. 39 worship of a temple. v. and practised magical rites. Alex. of . cessive days. ! of Coronis.C. away the and whole crowd responds. pp. Cf. Inscr. are represented . Pt. let him flee . 38.286 X.&quot. Ramsay in Ency. Reinach.&quot. 2 The proclamation was thus intended to exclude notorious sinners from the first or initiarceremonial. fjitjOeva dxddapTov specified. We In it Alexander institutes a celebration of mysteries -and torchlights and sacred shows. Christian or Epicurean has come as a spy upon the festi val.ZEsculapius. 2 138. and Sauppe. &quot. &quot.&quot. i. Got532. 530 important condition required of those who would enter the temple at Lindus is that they be pure in heart and not conscious of any crime. Men Tyrannus Trpocrayeiv. p. ! &quot. lation prescribed at the temple of iii. various periods of purification being d Epigr. Aglaoph. saying. the marriage god go on in the successfully. 133. 161. the mysteries of the Cabiri in Le Bas and Foucart. die Mysterieninschr. Apoll 4. away Then the show begins the birth of Apollo. A. &quot. instances of regu at Laurium in Attica. and 89 ff. Welcker. M. B. 3 The rest was 1 Philostratus. Griech. Brit. in C. p. For purification before admission to the Lobeck. let the initiation of those who believe Then forthwith at the very beginning a chasing away takes place.Mysteries. 1 learn something from the parody of the mysteries in Lucian s romance of the pseudo-prophet Alexander. Traite Andania in Messenia.

9. asked to confess his sins. sea. which have some to all. 1 The Confession was followed by a kind of baptism. Nam et sacris quibusdam per lavasuos lavationibus efferunt. deos etiam ipsos The mysteries are not exhibited incontinently Alex. The purification was followed by a sacrifice which (ii.287 UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. : .It after certain purifications is foundation of instruction and of preliminary preparation for what is to come after . but only Ibid. They had to practise certain forms of abstinence they had to fast and when 2 they ate they had to abstain from certain kinds of food. pp. . in which nothing remains to be learned of the universe. the mystagogoi who were gods.&quot. They came from the bath new men. go away. or at least to confess the greatest To whom am I to crime that he had ever committed. not without reason that in the mysteries that obtain among the Greeks. Strom. as also cc. as also the laver among the Barbarians. thrown upon a man s own He was conscience. I will tell &quot.To &quot. Hippol. : addition to the great public sacrifice. &quot. 20. lustrations hold the first place.&quot. 189 3 It is a regulation of There was a lesser and a greater initiation law tha-t those who have been admitted to the lesser should again be see the whole initiated into the greater mysteries. 5. and during it certain kinds of food were 197. &quot. ^ .&quot.&quot. conducting him. to the Lysander said he. crum initiantur . 5. The fast lasted &quot. 5. each of the candi 3 Then dates for initiation sacrificed a pig for himself. &quot.&quot. : : chapter.Then if you will them. nine days. 5. and the great mysteries. was a KaOapans. and previous instructions. wholly forbidden. confess -said it?&quot.&quot. candidates for initiation bathed in the pure waters of the The manner of bathing and the number of immersions varied with the degree of guilt which they had confessed. 11 : &quot. After these are the minor mysteries. Cf.4: 1 Tertullian. . Bk. -Clem. a laver of regeneration. de Baptismo. 8 and 2 things. &quot.&quot. but only to contemplate and comprehend nature We have thus a sort of baptism and catechumenate. Lobeck.) was known as a-cor^pia a sacrifice of salvation and in It a \ovrpov. Aglaopk.

Protrept.0 truly sacred mysteries! lighted with torches and I survey the become holy whilst I am initiated. I p. 2 And at night there were the mystic plays the (iii. Winter by winter the fruits and flowers and grain die down into the darkness. and by eating the sacred cakes. Canter).) scenic representation. have i. stainless light! heavens and God My : I &quot. 32. and again p. It was the drama which is acted every year.S vvKra-s. It was the poetry of Nature. the wanderings of the mother.(OO-&amp. and seals while illuminating him who is initiated. : Their torches were extinguished they stood outside the temple in the silence and the darkness. 12: Cf. of summer and winter and spring.288 X.&quot. Eleusis celebrates by torchlight processions.I Aristid. Alex. the birth was a symbol of the earth passing through its yearly periods. spring after spring they come forth again to new life. Their (Demeter s and Proserpine s) wanderings. 2 and grief. is &quot. &c. &c. Ib. and seizure. Winter after winter the sorrowing earth is seeking for 1 Clem.lt. : So ^lius 2 &quot. which the Then followed and broke their KVKCCDV there was three days and initiated shared the for her daughter. 2. The doors : was a blaze of light and before them was acted the drama of Demeter and Kore the loss there opened of the daughter.&quot.&quot. 454 (ed. They began with a great each of those who were to be initiated procession a long lighted torch. The Lord way am is the hierophant. .lt. have drunk the cup. and singing loud pseans carrying in honour of the god. the drama in symbol and for sight. fasted. 1 It set out from Athens at sunrise and reached Eleusis at night. another great nights in Demeter sacrifice. and It of the child. drinking the mystic The next day mourning of fast only by a drink of flour and water and pounded mint. Alex. Clem. ras &amp.O/DOI. Protrept. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES there was an interval of two days before the more solemn sacrifices and shows began.

were a foreshadowing of the life to come. 2 is like those who are being initiated The one expression. life. having become perfect and initiated restored to liberty. on the burning of the temple at Eleusis. into the mysteries. Rev. crowned with myrtle. At the moment of quitting it. When a man dies. wanderings. was the poetry Death gave place to by which the soul might be fit for the presence of God. of painful courses. her lost child blossoming It the hopes of . pure spots and meadows receive us. Our whole life is but a succession of correspond. 1880. terrors. It was a purgatio It life. that I will quote &quot. Cant. men 289 look forward to the new of spring. TeAeib-0cu. come over us and overwhelm us but as soon as we are out of it. and a lethargic stupor. the most august mysteries. U Lenormant. . Those been baptized and initiated were lifted into a Death had no terrors for them. Florileg. of the festival ap. 430. he it. The gain they would not 2 Fragm. fears.UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. lie in Stob. sinking in the mire and mist beneath him through fear of death and through disbelief in the life to come.&quot. 454. 1 There is a passage in Plutarch which so clearly shows this. ^Elius Aristid. i. . but that hereafter darkness and mire like the uninitiated. T 6\vrav the other. abiding in its miseries. the symbolic scenery of the life of the gods. was not for this life only. . Sept. was a drama also of human of the hope of a world to come. man. 120. really master of himself celebrates. with voices and dances and the solemnities of sacred words and holy It is there that sights. p. . looking down upon the impure multitude of the profane or uninitiated. blaze of light after darkness. The who had new life. mortal sweats. quiverings. There was probably no dogmatic teaching there were possibly no words spoken it was all an acted 1 Cf. of long journeys by tortuous ways without outlet. animce. holds converse with just and pure souls. .

493 B. It is not easy to draw a definite line 2. to all others is misery. but they saw it each man for himself. Lenormant. In later times it was supposed actually to make them better . ed. Sept. 3 &quot. It was his personal communion with the divine and the glory of it were gone when the world. awful individuality about it. 2 all change both The initiated The and it was published was conceived effect of it of character The glamour life. new myths and new forms of worship were added. Les Mysteres du Syncretisms Phrygien dans Catacombes Romaines de Prcetextat. in a way which shows that the tian catacomb at o&quot. But 1 parable.Chris Eome. thren. 414 sq. 14. were by virtue made Thrice happy they who of their initiation partakers of a life to come. 1854. to to be a of relation to the gods.f worship was blended 1 Synes. Petav. Rhet. Rev. p. 48 also. 2. 429 sqq. Paris. p. Plmdo. 36 . ov paOeiv SiareOrjvai yevo/xevovs S^Aovort eTTir^Seioi)?. : p. Not only are they sometimes spoken of in common as mysteries. Orat. between the mysteries. sibly gave committed 2 Cf. and the forms of worship which went on side by side with them. 719. so in effect Pindar. however.&quot. Dind. Legg.290 THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES X. Gorg. Gr. Plato. See Garrucci. ut sup. go to the world below having seen these mysteries them alone is life there. frag. to their initiation . 4 These forms of worship (ed. p. in which the elements of the Greek mysteries of Demeter are blended with those Sabazius and Mithra. 8. 3 Soph. strictly so called. : to In time. 114. but there is a remarkable syncretist painting in a non. Sopatros in Walz. see Lenormant. 4 viii. it was all kept in There was an silence.). Cont. Cic. frag. They saw the sight in com mon. les . 69 C (the lot of the They were bound to make their life on earth correspond uninitiated). 1880. some private instruction to to the n Setv d\Xa TtaOdv KCU But the /zvo-raywyoi pos groups of f^vo-rat who were them.

in Bullet. Dogm. 3 JJ. man was took five years to become that of the Arval feast at Rome : Henzen. . 8 . 164). also had an initiation The condition : 291 they also aimed at a pure religion. individual conscience: man had a to be tested and examined by the officers. at Xanthos in Lycia. 1. sense of communion with one another in a communion with God. as there is in Christian times. During the earliest centuries of Christianity. p. most venerable assembly of the association unless he be Nor was it left to the pure and pious and good. 3 existed on an enormous scale throughout the eastern part of the Empire. and the religious societies which were akin to the mysteries. the offerer had the right to half of what he had brought. cf. 55. Roman Monarchians in Epiph. Acta fratrum Arvalium. 2 The most says that it elaborate account is c. cf. Harnack. Valent.&quot.holy table.&quot. and the offerer shared with the rest in the distribution.VCTTCLL is used of members of a religious association at Teos de Corresp. 1880. and of the (Inscr. of which the rules remain on an inscription. the mysteries.UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. There were elements in some of them from which Christianity recoiled. was: Let no one enter the of entrance &quot. They were distributed by the servants (the deacons). But the main element in the association was not so much the initiation as the sacrifice and the common meal which followed it. adv. Hellenique. The 1 were brought by individuals and offered in com mon: they were offered upon what is sometimes spoken offerings of as the &quot. The which followed was an effort after real fellow There was in it. 628. In one association. and against which the Christian Apologists use the language 1 There was a further and larger process before a Tert. a feast 2 ship.

rt yap et Ka\a ravr sacrif. guishes They were B. Sat/xoves yivecrOai points to the fact as an instance of the power of the devil (de prcesc.iOpa /xvcmy/oioi? rrapeSw Tertullian Apol. Ev. 260). THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES of strong invective. (ii. 1. is an inscription of Dionysiac artists at Nysa. prooem. Harnack. cf. p. introducing them into its own midst with the to exist side of associations. Protrep^ 2. Porphyry in Eusebius. cf. that this elements of these existing groups. Celsus in Orig. 1 But. 1885. Alex. /u/ATycra/Aevoi ot Trovrjpol : . r. 124. 3 This revival had many forms. Dogm. on the other hand. Origen does not controvert this statement. Philo. p. 2 part of a great religious revival which distin 3 the age. It came THE MYSTERIES AND THE CHURCH. Hippol. 14. was inevitable when a new group of associations by side with a large existing body which it was continually detaching members. of the time of the Antonines. 8. the majority them had the same aims of aim of life. with the assimilation of their members. Prop. some of the minds. 101.292 X. 4 1 12 This is what we Clem. 4 Similar practices existed in the Church and in the new religions which were growing up. in honour of one who was #eoAoyos of the temples at There Pergamos. They possibly also communicated divine knowledge. 1. I. under the inspiration of demons. 2 They also had the same sanction the fear of future punishments. de TTIV w /xixrrai K. Justin Martyr speaks of the way in which. 48. but appeals to the greater moral effect of Christianity as an argument for its truth. the aim of living a the pure of cultivating the spirit of brotherhood. as Oav/JLaa-rov OeoXoyov and TWI/ aTro/o/o^rwv fJivcrrrjv. the supper had been imitated in the Mithraic mysteries : oirep /ecu ei/ rois TOV M. A. 5. Cf. 4. Bull. and the aim as Christianity itself worshipping a pure God. cf. from practices of their original societies impressed upon their new group should tend to assimilate. 66. Hellen. de Corr.

. : Orig. too.. (Inconfusus) Sozomen s (1. Theodoret. in Joan.. Keim. : : of the heretics. 40) : in- qui ipsas quoque res sacramentorum divinorum idolorum expositionem delictorum mysteriis semulatur. ii. Gels. xix. Cyril Hier. xv. 222. ofo.. Qucest. celebrat et panis &quot.T. eTTTy yots /xovois 8eov raSe Aeyetv Kat TMV ov curetKos a/xv/jroji/ rtvas rySe TYJ /?ovA?yv yap . xcvi. cf. TTfev/mrtKot and \f/v)(tKol or V\LKOL condemns ra dTropprjra ///ixmj/ota who cf.A.. . and the reAerat of Mithras and others speaks of the pvo-r-tjpta c. the Nicene Creed is significant alike as regards motive and language Kal ra roiavra eTricm^oi/oov. Valent. 1. inter alia. It was preached openly guarded worship by imposing a moral But its rites were simple and its admission. Cels. : (/uAtov Kat a/covetv v^^yov/xevwv. Origen admits (c. p. vi. Up to a certain time there is no evidence that Christianity had any secrets. 1. have been in fact the find to 293 It is possible that case. 20. bar to It teaching was public. procem.&quot. Yet this very secrecy was Cf. After a certain time all is changed : mysteries have arisen in the once open and easily acces sible faith. Se /AUCTTCUS Kat 8e roT in the Church. Cels. 3) reason for not giving Chry.UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. o/DKOts Srycrai/res /x^re eet7reu/ naturalized TV^OVTL /xeTaSovvat K.&quot. 1. 3) to the secrecy of the Christian associations jwould hardly have held good in the apostolic age. 1. and there are doctrines which must not be But the declared in the hearing of the uninitiated. /cat rare SoKi/xao-avres TO reAetov Twv KaKwv Tra/oaSiSoi 6ecr/xtov efvai rr}s d/zaprtas Tes. Celsus. 1. to the world. The objection which Celsus makes (c. de lavacro repromittit . 22. in Num. On the rise of this conception of Christian teaching as something to be hidden from the mass. the Valentiniana and c. in Tert. Horn. 7) that there are exoteric 1 esoteric doctrines in Christianity. where there is a direct parallel drawn between them and the mysteries also the distinction of men into two classes among the Gnostics Harn. Dogm. in Matt. p.. He specifies. (2) the mysteries. in Psalm ciii. and Dial. Aug. and justifies it by (1) the philo sophies. CatecJi. adding. 1 &quot. they made the Christian associations more secret than before. 4. 30. oblationem. Jicer. Horn. Hipp. 6.

Teaching of the (1) no special minister of baptism &quot. is specified. c. 36. those who believed when Philip preached in Samaria. with significant &quot. A later. the jailor at Philippi. and of the religious cults which were analogous to the mysteries. 13. 48.he The to recognize Jesus Christ as the Messiah. 5. xix. The first point is shown by the Acts of the Apostles . 15. the Cornelius. I will ask you to con and secondly the Lord s Supper. though modifications. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES fiuence of the mysteries. are elements which are found outside Christianity in the institutions of which I have spoken. In the earliest times. 1 (o 2 Apostles:&quot. x. 38. baptizeth&quot. that of admission to the society is. viii. and the practice of fication. the vague /SaTmfyv) seeming to exclude a 12. 33. 8 : i ii.294 X. was It a bap very early stage. the converts at Corinth and Ephesus. xvi. . (1) baptism followed at once upon conversion (2) the ritual was of the sim 1. in the earlier form. the Ethiopian eunuch. was not simply general . tism of water. 41. . is still 1 that seen in the Acts xviii. and then I will attempt to show how the elements which are found in the later and not the society a by sider first Baptism. were baptized as soon as they were known second point is also shown by the Acts. 38. plest kind. by a symbolical puri expressing membership of common meal. nor does it appear that it needed any special minister. Lydia. they modified in some important respects the Christian sacraments of Baptism and the Eucharist the practice. each in its simplest form. men who repented at Pentecost. Baptism. 47.

limitation of it is specified is but there an to water. Orat. 3 Lobeck. 6. Cyr. p. 4. Greg. 146. The effect of baptism the - For the tion-from is seal in baptism. Alex. Al. partly the forehead in of those who were actually sealed upon 5 sign of a new ownership. ff. Paday. 638. 13. Calech.&amp.) as the time of Justin Martyr we find a (a) So early name given to baptism which comes straight from the baptism. Al. cf. previous instruction officer (4) a . 1.When it 1 (V) came It ^om^eo-ecu). 5 .lt. p. Naz. 1. (^amoyAoy. : vol. &quot. p. of early Christian These were the simple elements of obscurityemerges after a period enormous the sand the under like a river which flows have already begun. Euseb. p. perfection. Can. 47. Pcedag. 1. talia initiatns et See Otto. xl. Quis dives.gt. pp. fast is enjoined before baptism. being pre Cyr. 8 s. illumination. Cels. as Tertullian calls them. cf. p. 1.J&amp. (i.am{o/Aevoi the baptized. For the c. consignatus 141 . cf. cf. (3) . 14. 42 ap Euseb. p.295 UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. 3. 6. enlightenment&quot. ot pared for baptism. Protrep. 23. 40. 1 Apol 2 Clem. Hence ol = &amp. hence sins before and after . 3G. 193 i. Bruns. 2.lt. 3 .gt. Cf. Naz. from the mysteries and from some forms of foreign cult. vol. mysteries. Catech. 6. 62 . Engelhardt. changes of later times The first point of change is the change of name. 7 (rfpayh). Orat. = those &amp. 78. Clem. 639. Aglaoph. 61. Vita Const. passim. which also came both to seal &quot. 27. 4 Apol.. 21. ad = . Otto. Valent. 102. 639 Orig. i. Hist. .lt. &quot. Greg. n.oTr0VTes et 31 p.f&amp. 1. Laod. tests and was used partly of those who had passed the 3 4 who were consignati. Hier. to terms sealing-illumination-imtiarelating use of imagery and the Clem.&quot. 12. Strom. Hier. 2 be the constant technical term. name the Greek mysteries The name &quot. catechumenate defined of no period is element that (2) the only is implied.

99. of the agent or minister. Alex. Dion. 301. and explicable only through ideas and usages peculiar to Thus we have words expressive them. Hier. like /zi^cm. 1. Horn. 21 ad popul. which the ecclesiastical theory and practice of baptism lies under to the mysteries . 20. 38. 6. once denotes and connotes. 17.. Strom. i. Orat. 40. pp. 615. baptism. but well known to the mysteries. Co/it. 242.296 THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES X. 33. . p. xix.1. Naz. but they may help to indicate the degree and nature of the obligation. i. . 9 For the sphere of the influence of the mysteries on the language and imagery of the New Testament. cf. in Cantic. Sozomen. Hier.e. 8 Sozomen. Or act of initiation. 4. a^V?. 8:7. by a long period in all cases postponed it came to be of preparation. Greg. see 1 Cor. 93. Sozomen. Hierar. 9 we The second point the change of time. The term (c) 1 nvorrnpiov is applied to baptism. also Cyr. reference to the unbaptized. ii. 39. v. i. Clem. and of the ideas it at . Athan. Orat. . 6 ff. are different. like /uLva-raywyovjULevos. ii. 7. like /uLva-raywyos 7 Subject. yue/xi^eVo?. 6. p. (a) Instead of baptism (ii. 3. enlightenment. Hier. 648 5 . comes a whole it series of technical and with unknown terms to the Apostolic Church. 2. 1. 3. p. Horn.1. Antioch. Eccles. 2 rcAe-n?. in Act. . iv. 169. Naz. this terminology can more easily trace the influence of the mysteries than of the New Testament. Horn.) is being given immediately upon conversion. Horn.8 In juLvyOels. 6 Dion. Dion. 1 Greg. 2 4 ii. vi. Early instances of o-c^payts are collected in Gebhardt on 2 Clem. Areop. 9. 5. 1. vol. 8. 3 3. ywyia 5 . p. cf. 5 ii. 3. Ar. 242. These examples do not by any means exhaust or even adequately repre sent the obligations in the sphere of language. /mva-ra- 6 of the . 15 vii. Eccles. Theod. Heb. et passim. 632 Sozomen. p. . p. 1 3. Pcedag. 85 in Joan. Areop. p. 8 . with or. 3. Catech. 18. 13. 7 Chrys. 34 Chrys. Chrys. Ecde&. 413 C. 1. either of the rite 3 4 reAe/cocn?. Theol. Areop. . vi. 168. Mys. which involves a change of conception.

&quot. our &quot. mysteries. de Spir. Epiphan. them hour. they &quot. Disdplina Arcani. 3 (c) As to if show conclusively that the change was due to the influence of the mysteries. Cf. those who had and those who had not been baptized. Const. 59 ad fin. this who a they are no sooner hearers than : prayers. 8. Did. and in some cases deferred until the end 297 of life. 12. c. I dwell upon these broad features. and &quot.UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. 287. and the minister is ^va-Taywyo^^ and the persons being baptized are ^va-raycoyov^e^oi. 41. . 295. 41. note 1 vol. mysteries. Const.&quot.g.their catechumens 2 are perfect before they are fully instructed (edocti).&quot. Alex. p. distinguished very term which was in use for the similar distinction in regard to the mysteries initiated and uninitiated.v.. quoted from Clem. because it necessary to show that the relation of the mysteries sacrament was not merely a curious coincidence . passages others. 2 De prase.3. might be largely supplemented by evidence of parallelism in the benefits which were con- and what 1 I Apost. 5. 32. and See Bingham.&quot.then and initiating those already Cf. e. 3. Cf. Christian Antiquities . 8. p. cf.&quot. and especially on the transference is of names. iii. to the have said as to the change of name and the change of conception. and to participation in purified into the sacred s. Apost. supra. and riot before do we invite eTTOTTTevetv ejeo-rt rois a/xvryTois. Orig. notes 2 and 443446. Tertullian regards as a it distinction is believer. Sanct. 3 a ov8e Cels. we have as from unbaptized by the seen. 1 () The Christians were separated into two classes. 60.join mark of heretics that they who among them : uncertain in the is have not a catechumen. pp. And Basil gives the custom of the mysteries as a reason for the absence of the catechumens from the service. 27. baptized persons were. .

cov crov . 4. Baptism^ . 2 Just as the divinities watched the initiation from modern ($) times. d Alexandrie.298 X. rCtv T/oaTre^s Trpo/cei/xei^s. 1 See p. Prccfatio ad Catech. 15. note 1 also Diet. p. The usage was local. 374. Sometimes the baptized received the communion who had been initiated (/3) at once after baptism. many been already adduced. 293. s. rov Xptcrrov Trapoi/ro?. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES ceived to attach to the one and the other. TCU TI^S ayyeAcov dSeA(/&amp./DIKT^S n. week or ten days before the great office of Baptism on Easter-eve. as the initiated wore a mystic crown at Eleusis. especially 2 Histoire de Veglise 3 De baptismo rrys p. 12 : Paris. to the inner sights or pass. Christi.gt. to the present day for a creed is avpfioXov or pass-word. an important place in the whole ceremony.lt. ii. so Chrysostom pictures Christian 3 and Cyril describes baptism in the blaze of Easter-eve . a (7) The baptized were sometimes crowned with garland. just as those at Eleusis proceeded at once after a day s fast to drink of the mystic KVKCWV and to eat of the sacred cakes. It is out of the blaze of light. 318. 1677. &amp. TWV Cyril. but lasted at Alexandria until mentioned by Yansleb. Otherwise the Lord s Prayer and the Creed were kept secret and kept the technical so as mysteries name and . and Creed.word (a-v/m/3o\ov them to in the last days of their the baptismal formula itself and the rites the traditio symboli catechumenate 1 s what has catechumens had a formula which so the was only entrusted Lord There are slighter indications serving to supplement In the Western Prayer. occupies There was a special rite for It took place a it. Catechumens. (a) As those who were admitted had a formula of the mysteries or crvvOrj/ma).vv. Christian Antiquities.

and only as a rule once a year on Easter-eve. but only in the great churches. and each a vast array of lights a of them They Pope and signs are arranged carries a light. : : they assembled in the church of St. 299 the white-robed band of the baptized approaching the doors of the church where the lights turned darkness into day. The candidates were examined and tested they fasted they received the secret symbols. is a procession to the great bath of baptism. not at any place or time. . what doth hinder me to be baptized?&quot. And then. who vests them in a white robe their foreheads again with the cross. which is given of the practice at Borne so late as the ninth century. Museum Ital. makes night continuous with dawn. ord. and are presented to the one by one. says Greek Father. and the there water is blessed. John The rites of exorcism and renunciation were gone through in solemn form. which the Pope then blesses there is a reading of lessons and a : singing of psalms. .See here is water. afternoon. prav. the Creed and the Lord s On Easter-eve. The baptized come forth from the water. Lateran. Then the blaze of them.UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. in a great circle. II. while they chant a litany. and the rituals survive. though Pentecost was (e) also a recognized season. are signed with the cross. Com. It 1 is kindled Mabillon. The Pope and his priests come forth in their sacred vest ments. with lights carried in front of them. as the day declined towards Prayer. xcix. Rom . The primitive &quot. Baptism was administered. ad. 1 Pre paration went on through the greater part of Lent. passed into a ritual which at every turn recalls the ritual of the I will abridge the account mysteries.

We Father. We thank Thanksgiving for the broken bread. The mass is celebrated the mystic offering on the Cross is represented in figure is . To Thee be glory for ever. possibly admit of more than one meaning. 2 which implies thank Thee. that they have entered already upon the promised land. not with wine. our : . 9. Thee.300 X. 2. which Thou hast made known to us through Jesus Christ Thy Servant. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES the beginning of a new life. passages of the The extra-biblical accounts are &quot. for the holy vine of David Thy servant. &quot. for the life which Thou hast made &quot. however clearly we may feel. taken by themselves. 1 It was simply the ritual which we have seen already in the mysteries. no sensible man will found an argu ment. 2 c. our Father. and which. The purified crowd at Eleusis saw a blaze in the light were represented in symbol and of light. (&) 1 It was one of the points to which the Greeks objected in the dis cussions of the ninth century. the mention of which a lamb was offered on the altar often suppressed rite in that early is afterwards cakes in the shape of a lamb. And there was one more symbolical Easter sacrament. that they may understand. &quot. Baptism had felt the spell not less so had the Lord s Supper. says an old writer. but with milk and honey.&quot. (1) (a) The Teaching : of the Apostles Thanksgiving for the wine. but for the newly baptized the chalice is filled. upon which. earliest times may be of the Greek ritual : Its elements in the gathered altogether apart from the New Testament. . life and and death resurrection.

in the Apostolical Constitutions. viii. ad Hebr. 498. 3. ot fj.[jLvrj[jLvot (id. Gels. known to us 301 To Thee be through Jesus Thy Servant. Origen. Apost. 6. c. 1. 248. p. 239. This marked separation of the catechumens and the which was possibly strengthened by the philo sophic distinction between ot TrpOKOTrrovres and ot reXetof.. ii. 19. ad Demet. 5. just as those who were not yet initiated and those who were fact that the impure were excluded from the Greek Mysteries. de beat. (2) There is a fragmentary account which has been 1 singularly overlooked. cap. Ep. to be recognized within the circls of the very initiated themselves. our present purpose to discuss. Horn. Phil. glory for ever. p. 44. the prevalence of infant 3 baptism caused the distinction no longer to exist.UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. 1 2 3 Bk. The advance consists in the catechumens and penitents go out. lines 18. viii. under influences which it would be beyond baptized. p. Horn. Persons who have partaken of the Eucha Te/W^evres (Chrys. viii. p. p. i. Const. (ev vTroKpla-ei)? found in the same book of the (3) 2 Apostolical Constitutions. distinctions came . After the reading and the teaching. rist are ot and 57. xii. 4. After the thanksgiving they ate and drank: none could eat or drink until he had been baptized into the name the of Lord. After the partaking there was another thanksgiving and a prayer of supplication. 12. &quot. 132). the deacon made a proclamation which vividly recalls the proclamation at the beginning of the Is there any one who has a quarrel with Mysteries. xvii. 3. cf. 11.&quot. lasted until. vii. Is there any? The next any one with bad stage is feeling&quot. de compunct. Degrees and x. and in i. 87: c. which carries us one stage further. 169). 13. vi. vol. 59.

O-CTTTU Ovo-iavp. offerings : For the Eucharist itself as a mystery. 382. vol. 2 470 3 Found : 4 i. 181.8eo-TaT?7 reAerr). 118. de bapt. irpoo-rjXOt fj. 4. Christ. 390. vol. and of the offerings placed upon the faithful partook. Chrys. Pelus. ii. E.gt. . see Lightfoot s note. ii. Ephes. The table in the heathen temple was important . .&quot. Orat. table of It is used the Apostolic Fathers of the Jewish altar. c. 44. roiavTr) TO Ovcriaa-Trjpiov eKetvo Ad Mag. Cf. 6. 6 Isid.gt. 1881. as mysteries. Naz. p.L Cf. Homolle in Bulletin de Corresp. ad Demet.ro-eTa.) This use of Oucriao-r^piov is probably not earlier than Eusebius. 1 the which altar is later (a) The conception of the table as an 2 It is used in than the middle of the second century. Greg. they do not speak ii. p. Laod. Chrys. x. de sacerdot. The earlier offerings were those of Irenaeus.&quot.suis discipulis dans consilium. 3. 375. 5 The conception (#) of the elements as ava-r^pia is even 6 but once established. rot x.^i/ o/zei/os .lv TWV dtiaiv /UKm?piW /ucTaA. (/&amp. cf. primitias Deo ofFerre speaks and again the Church offers ex suis creaturis primitias suorum &quot. p. TripUp 6 da p) SiSoo-Oai fj. Cone. 4. 4 noted that though the Apostolic speak of a Ova-ia. de comp. ad Corinth. 4. Cf. 57. by Ignatius always meta 3 It phorically. Trail. in Chrys.lt. Horn. figurative sense. 713. Ap. (r^ayrj. also 4. Epist. like the Latin term a sacramentum. 88. 4 . 7. 74. later 1 .gt./3iKa&amp. . in a but Christian sense.g. 516. p. 44. 4. vol. 3. iii. 2. 5 Rom. it became permanent.OLVt&amp.gt. 7. Const.&quot. (f&amp. (4) In a later stage there a mention of the holy is table as an altar.vorrr)pia. But see for dvo-iaa-Tyjpiov in a highly 6. 17. iv. 1. in Ep. may be Constitutions (Bk. of a Ouo-iaa-r^piov. 7 . 5. 5 H. p. 3. where he of Christ &quot. i. Bruns.302 THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES X. -ru&amp. e. 3. 340. Pliilad. munerum in Novo Testamento ei qui alimenta nobis praestat. ii. Hellen. v. He argues for silence on the ground that they are mysteries. upon it were placed the Th.

gt. ra Se e/c rvys TWV (jitOa. aTrocrToA.x^?. The extreme tendency which he shows is perhaps personal to him but he was in sympathy with his time. aTroKaTOVS areAeo-rovs (c. the priests are ^cortcrrtKot . aTroreAeiot rovs TO? Qtiu&amp.time must count for a large factor in the history of Christian thought. rfjs rrjs 1 In Dionysius Areop. ^ivcrTaywyoi. TeAecrrt/cot . 54. eTriKAv^rews pij^ara ITTI rrj avaSei^et rov aprov KCU rov irorripiov T^S evAoyias Tts rwv dytcoi/ TO. p. 5. 4). There was a sacred formula. The deacon. vol. 3. ie/5a/&amp. ^wraycuyet TOVS KaOapOwras. ed. Basil says that : de Spir. influence on the Church of . iv. 2.lt. TeAecrra^^at.e.All : of all the rest is dial. 66.gt. the bishop. 303 The conception of a priest into which I will not now enter was certainly strengthened by the mysteries and associations. The full development or translation of the idea is (5) found in the great mystical writer of the end century. After saying that some doc trines and usages of the Church have come down in writing. no saint has written down the formula of consecration 131. 233). v. (s. Kadapthe Eucharist is te/joTeAecn-iKWTaTTy (c. dips them in the water .rt . Sancto.UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. 1 I will here quote his description of the itself Communion the other initiations are incomplete without The consummation and crown this. iv. the priest. i. i.toi TrapaSocrecos SiaSo^evra fjfiw ev /xvcrny/cHcp TrapeSe^a- he instances the words of the Eucharistic invocation as among the latter . Corderius.gt. pp.e. &amp. teporeAecrrat.the after. 125. 55. leads the baptized by the hand into the church . 839). p. Theodoret. i. There are few Catholic treatises on the Eucharist and few Catholic manuals of devotion into which his conceptions do not enter. reAecrrov/oyot. &quot. and his . vol. in of the fifth whom every Christian ordinance is expressed in terms which are applicable only to the mysteries. the deacons. the bishops are TeAeo-rcu.^a&amp.

and then And having both partaken and given invites the rest. The and the cup The sacred bread Then placed upon the altar. The hierarch and the priests wash have lists their hands in water.lt. he himself. Eccles. 1 plation. he brings into open vision the things of which he sings the praises.ipxw) initiates the sacred to all the holy peace : and prayer after all saluted each other. Areop. ra OeioTara). pp. c. of blessing are the sacred hierarch and announces &quot. 187. is led in a priestly ner. 1. I things. 3. to the others a share in the thearchic communion. always by the thearchic spirit. and by means of the symbols (tepovpyei which are sacredly set forth. par.304 X. Hier. .&quot. And when he has shown the gifts of the divine working. in purity of his godlike frame of mind (/ man KaOaporrjTi through blessed and spiritual contem ee&amp. 2. rtjs OeoeiSovs 1 Dion. the mystic recital of the sacred is am to the contemplation (e7ro\J^W) of the other sacred completed. he himself comes into a sacred communion with them.&quot. ritual is then described. he stands in the midst of the divine altar. The hierarch sings the praises of the divine working and consecrates the most divine mysteries. it were. and around him stand the priests and the chosen ministers. to the holy realities of the mysteries. . yet this alone imparted to me the vision through guided whose mystic as light. 188. THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES the participation of him who For though is initiated in the thearchic common be the it mysteries. (&p&amp. he ends with a sacred thanksgiving and while the people bend over what are divine symbols only.o?).lt. 1. of all the hierarchic acts to characteristic make the initiated partakers of the divine light.

n.UPOtf CHRISTIAN USAGES. 292. This inference is strengthened when we find that the Christian communities which were nearest in form and spirit to the 1 Hellenic culture. though interesting. in Hermes. It seems fair to infer that. A. Bd. other honours to T. (a) It seems likely that the use of Sl-n-Tv^a tablets commemorating benefactors or departed saints was a continuation of a similar usage of the religious associations. 1 The (5) blaze of lights at mysteries may have suggested the use 2 of lights at the Lord s Supper. X . 2). There are two minor points which. ^Elius Alcibiades. of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus at Arsinoe.D. 305 _ Once again I must point out that the elements the conceptions which he has added to the primitive prac are identical with those in the mysteries. xx. from a Berlin papyrus. the money accounts. 215. the one should be due to the other. The idea of prayer and thought as offerings was preserved by the NeoPlatonists. he is to be TT/DCOTOV TOIS 2 Cf. and since the new elements of these changes were identical with ele ments that already existed in cognate and largely diffused forms of worship. are less certain and also less important. for the use of lights in worship. p. were the first in which For among in the decree mentioned in a previous note (p. tices The which he the tendency Eucharistic represented grew: sacrifice came in the East to be celebrated behind closed doors : the breaking of bread from house to house was changed into so awful a mystery that none but the hierophant himself might see it. 430. since there were great changes in the ritual of the sacraments.

Eus. 6. 2 and &quot. and the Peratse. H. iv. Hipp. 1 Adv. 5. some pation into a perfect and eternal life.g.306 THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES X. 23. and with an oath not to divulge them heretics : Naassenes. in connection with initiation into the higher mysteries. 2 So also the Marcosians and some Yalentinian schools believed in a baptism that was an absolute sundering of the baptized from the corruptible world and an emanci Similarly. Marcus. Hippolytus (1. So also another Gnostic It have not only treated the truths of Christianity as sacred. drinking E.are The Justinians had an oath of secrecy delivered in silence. but also to have felt about them what the initiated were supposed to feel about the school is said to &quot. 7. these of whom &quot. 5. 1. 9. before proceeding to behold what eye hath not from the living water. and also those in which they assumed the strongest form. Such were the Yalentinians. 41. 3 was but the old belief in the effect of the mysteries thrown into a Christian form. other schools added to the simple initiation rites of a less noble and more sensuous order.&quot. Valent. 5.We had Tertullian expressly speaks in this connection/ read of Simon Magus that he taught that baptism so life to supreme an efficacy as to give by itself eternal all who were baptized. 27. 15. Some even to its full extent. 24) says the had mysteries which they disclosed to the initiated only after so the long preparation. proosm . whose mysteries &quot. &quot. The \ovrpov fyfj? was expanded and it was even thought that was added a fire which came who entered into it. to the water of baptism from heaven upon all introduced a second baptism. 17 (ad fin. 8 seen&quot. 8. mysteries I swear by Him who is above by the all. . elements appear.E. 5. and the Elkasaites as cleansing from gross sin.&quot.).

27. x2 .UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. with the mystic and magic customs candidate on the forehead. which was used immediately after baptism. p. though its source is not certain and is more likely to have been Oriental than Greek. 1 As soon as the oath had been taken. and hears what no ear has heard. has maintained a permanent place in most rituals two customs in There were the element of anointing. Good One. probably through the Gnostics that the period of preparation for baptism was prolonged. Hilgenfeld. Ketzergeach. 270. who then sealed the The very variety of the custom shows how deep and yet natural the action of the Gnostic systems. 5. as they think.&quot. as to it were the password of entrance into the highest mysteries. to no of keep these mysteries and to reveal them and after that oath each seemed to feel the to one. Cf. Ter- tullian says of the Yalentinians that their period of pro longer than their period of baptized life. he sees what no eye has seen. is confirmed by the fact that another element. power 307 God be upon him. and drinks of the living which water is their baptism. of thp Justhiians. it is up within them to everlasting life. The general inference of the large influence of the Gnostics on baptism. which certainly came through them. the East. and (2) the oil of thanksgiving. the other of the West the anointing with (1) the oil of exorcism before baptism and after the renun ciation of the devil. one more characteristic of this matter. 3 Hipp. which precisely what happened in the Greek practice of the bation is is fourth century. first by the presbyter and then by the bishop. a spring of water springing Again.

Areop. is so same proved being regarded as too awful were taken by the com their homes and carried about with them to touch. Arelat. cf. neque desipiant a sapore Christi (Migne.308 THE INFLUENCE OF THE MYSTERIES X. 46 c. instead of for men But were at the realized. 686). 8 adv. . i. For earlier Eccles. 1 4 Cyprian. ad Const. Clem. Hisp. s 3. aAet^erai coWc/D ot 15. but also puts to flight the invisible powers of Ayiost. 8. pt. Anal. iii. bapt. 2. Myst. Hier. Marcus that of in his conception of the Eucharistic service the white 1 For the Eastern custom. e/x/^o-ojuevoi. 312 the candidate is anointed all over before baptism with exor cised oil. s in Ep. translation in 67. 278 Or do 6. cf. ed. Bruns. symbolizing the Holy Spirit s unction with a view to both prosperity and adversity (Sirmond. ii. ii. de Spir. a^A^rcu et s orraStov here also before baptism and all over . Recog. 66. Sand. 41. Isid. deord. purifies from the : p. Western from Eastern thought on the subject. Col. p. is regarded of Christ. de off. eccl. Tert. Ep. Tattam). Marc. carnis.rcipiant. Martene. 814. ii. . (ed. Bimsen sin. 21 exorcizantur. ii. 4. xi. col. Ixxxiii. Boetticher 467. 4. unction of the region of the heart before and behind. 6. i. see Cyril Hier. For the later Western usage. 402. vol. Catech. the Coptic. . 6 . by invocation of God and prayer. 17. 342. vii. see Cone. 3. Constitutions. that the change fact that they 2 was not vividly by the fact that. sales accipiunt et unguntur. rit. Cf. Catechumens ut eorum made yustu condimentum sapitntice pp. introduced from the East. Theodulfus Aurel. Cses. the salt being . 70. Gr. 10. in as distinct bapt. 22. de ant. had been on the of the Gnostic societies or associations. which. 55. 2. But we read travels. Ante-Nic. iv. serm. Horn. 16. ad fac. 2 Apol 1. eccl. 22. de and 7 de resurr. is it among the Gnostics that there appears for the first time an attempt to realize the change of the elements to the material body and blood time. vol. 66. Catech. 1 of the of practice. burning traces of the evil one. . Rom. 7 Basil. . c. 815). Dionys. the elements municants to on their realistic The found in Justin Martyr. practices and ceremonies But beyond matters Church. Chrys.

6. 1 ap. was based upon a tendency of human ficence those of mysteries and nature which was not crushed by Christianity. in the separation of the central point of the rite from com mon view. Thus the whole conception of Christian worship was 2 But it was changed by the influence upon changed. and in some cases the galvanized survival.UPON CHRISTIAN USAGES. holds that sacrifice may consist of simple prayer. concurrent cults. 39. because though it their sacred hymns there is was the expression of a less enlightened faith. 2. of what I cannot find it in my heart to call a pagan ceremonial . ad Scop. 2 Hipp. in the procession of torch-bearers chanting the survival. yet it was offered to God from a heart that was not less earnest in its search for God and in its effort after holiness than our own. It rose it lives only by a survival. 309 wine actually turned to the colour of blood before the 1 eyes of the communicants. combined with the love of a purer faith and the tendency towards fellowship. to a new life. in the blaze of lights. an elaborate ceremonial which had produced the magni and which had cults. Tert. In the splendid ceremonial it of Eastern and Western worship. . Christian worship of the contemporary worship of the The tendency to mysteries and the. lives that and though new life still.

They expressed con fidence in his goodness. his veracity. the word Faith came to be transferred from simple trust in God to mean the acceptance of a series of propositions.LECTURE XI. Abraham trusted God. under the influence of contemporary Greek thought. THE INCOBPOBATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS. that to believe involved an assent to the proposition that God God exists. . and these propo sitions. The Greek words which designate belief or faith are used in the Old Testament chiefly in the sense of and primarily trust in a person. men. his uprightness. In the first Israelites also trusted the Egyptians dead upon the sea instance there was just so much of intellectual assent involved in belief. propositions in abstract metaphysics. THE object which I have in view in this Lecture is to show the transition by which. trust. The God when they saw shore. They implied an estimate God Their use in application to was not different from their use in application to of character. INTO A BODY OF DOCTBINE. AS MODIFIED BY GEEEK. They are as much moral as intellectual.






element was latent and implied rather than

conscious and expressed.

It is not difficult to see

when this




be conscious and expressed,

should lead to other propositions.
The analysis of
belief led to the construction of other propositions besides

the bare original proposition that

God ?




do I

The answer was Because He is wise, or
The propositions followed I believe that

good, or just.


God is wise, that He
in God came to mean

good, that He is just.
the assent to certain propositions


about God. 1

In Greek philosophy the words were used rather of
intellectual conviction than of moral trust, and of the
higher rather than of the lower forms of conviction.

from impression for a man,
he says, may have an impression and not be sure of it.
He uses it both of the convictions that come through the

Aristotle distinguishes faith

senses and of those that




even more important results.
blends the sense in which it is found in the Old

sophical use,


come through

in Philo a special application of this philo

which led


Testament with that which


found in Greek philosophy.

The mass of men, he says, trust their senses or their
The good man trusts God. Just as the mass


believe that their senses and their reason do not

deceive them, so the latter believes that God does not
deceive him. To trust God was to trust His veracity. But
the occasions on which God spoke directly to a man were

and what


when He


an unquestioning acceptance.

Cf. Celsus idea of faith



so spoke


He more commonly

Gels. 3.

39; Keim,


p. 39.





men through



the agency of messengers.
His angels
spoke to men, sometimes in visions of the night, some
times in open manifestation by day. His prophets spoke


believe God, implied a belief in

said indirectly as well as directly.



It implied the accept

ance of what His prophets said, that is to say, of what
they were recorded to have said in the Holy "Writings.
Belief in this sense

not a vague and mystical senti


ment, the hazy state of mind which precedes knowledge,
but the highest form of conviction. It transcends reason
in certainty.
It is the full assurance that certain things
are so, because God has said that they are so. 1




we may

note the




the Christian communities were helped by the current
the longing for cer

reaction against pure speculation

The mass


men were

sick of theories.

The current teaching of the Christian
teachers gave them certainty.
It appealed to definite
facts of which their predecessors were
eye-witnesses. Its



simple tradition of the life and death and resurrection
of Jesus Christ was a
necessary basis for the satisfaction


Philosophy and poetry might be built
upon that tradition but if the tradition were shown to
be only cloudland, Christian philosophy was no more




than Stoicism.


how, under the new conditions,
faith passed beyond the moral stage, or simple trust in a

have thus

to see

person, to the metaphysical stage, or belief in certain
propositions or technical definitions concerning Him, His




view of

rer. div.

two striking passages,
46, ii. 39.

faith is well expressed in

Heres, 18,




nature, relations




this latter

we may

distinguish two correlated and interdependent phases or
belief, the one more intellectual and logical, the

forms of

other more historical and concrete, namely, (1) the con
viction that God being of a certain nature has certain

true, the

He makes

statements which

ministers are also true.

other, into the


shall first deal

through His prophets and
The one of these forms of belief


what we know

was elaborated


God being

(2) the conviction that,


of the


as the Creed;



with these phases or forms of belief,

and then with the process by which the metaphysical
definitions became authoritative.
In the




instance the intellectual element of

was subordinated


to the ethical purpose of the

was not


upon in


and for

of moral reformation. The main
itself, but as the ground
content of the belief was "that men are punished for
their sins


and honoured

of this conviction

for their






the underlying belief that


rewards and punishes. The feature
which differentiated Christianity from philosophy was,


God must believe that He is, and that
them that seek Him," Heb. xi. 6 and He that
of God heareth God s words," John viii. 47.


and that






that cometh to


a rewarder of


was one of Celsus objections to Christianity that its preachers
more stress on belief than on the intellectual grounds of belief
rather of
Origen s answer, which is characteristic
Grig. c. Gels. 1. 9.




own time than


was necessary

is that
expressive of the belief of the apostolic age,
mass of men, who have no leisure or incli

for the

nation for deep investigation


altogether without help (1. 12).


and in order not

to leave





God had been made

that this belief as to the nature of

The purpose of the revelation
regeneration and amendment of life. By
degrees stress came to be laid on this underlying element.
The revelation had not only made some propositions cer


a revelation.


which hitherto had been only speculative, it had also
added new propositions, assertions of its distinctive or



differentiating belief.

it is

uncertain, except within


the narrowest limits, what those assertions were.
are several phrases in the


writings which read


Testament and in sub-

like references to


But none of them con
express a recognized standard. Yet the standard

elementary statements or rule.
tain or


gathered partly from the formula of admission
into the Christian community, partly from the formulae

may be

in which praise

was ascribed

tant of these, in view of

at least


But the formula
in two main forms.



The most impor

subsequent history,

is itself








evidence to show

that the injunction to baptize in the name of the three
Persons of the Trinity, which is found in the last chapter
of St.

Matthew, was observed.

of the Apostles.











It is the formula in the



also evidence,

with this evidence as to the use of the
vi. 17,


rov Xptcrrou


ov Tra/oeSo^r/re TVTTOV StSa^s ; 2 John, 9, kv
2 Tim. i. 13, vTrorvTroxriv e ^e vyiaivovratv

Aoycov (ov Trap e/zov ^Koixras ; 1 Tim. vi. 12, (o/zoAoyr^o-as TTJV KaA?)v
6/zpAoyiav; Ju.de 3, fj a7ra TrapaSoOticra rots dyiois Trtcrrts. Polycrates,
see passages collected in
ap. Eus. H. E. 5. 24, 6 KCCVWI/ rrjs Trto-rews

Gebhardt and Harnack




Patres Apost. Bd.

Schmid, Dogmeng.

c. 7. 4.

p. 14,


th. 2

Das Taufsymbol.






Trinitarian formula, of baptism into the
or into the death of Christ.

The next element


as to


of Christ,



in the uncertainty

exists is

far the formula, either in the one case or the

was conceived

to involve the assent to

any other

propositions except those of the existence of the divine
Persons or Person mentioned in the formula. Even this

was implied rather than


It is in the


Apologists that the transition from the implicit was made.
The teaching of Jesus Christ became to them important,
especially in Justin Martyr.



explicit is of great importance,

no means of knowing when or how
conceivable that





by which



we have


was made. 3




homiletically, in

the course of exhortation to Christian duty. 4 When the
intellectual contents of the formula did become explicit,

the formula became a


Concurrently with

a standard or test of belief,
ration in

it of so




See Acts
xxii. 16.

of different interpretations,


Apost. Const. Bk.



16, xix.





TW Xpio-TW




with which compare Rom.

20, ot /3a7rrKr#VT?


But the

vi. 1

ol /3a7TTto-$evTes ets oVo/xa Kv/oiov

offrei AOKCT LV

aTTo^avovres dvevepyrjroi


9. 5,


use as

of Christian teaching as referred

to the facts of the life of Jesus Christ.

were capable


was probably the incorpo



TOV Bdvarov rov







y ap


01 orvvaa^taprtav vTrdp^oixriv, ourcos KCU










where, in composite form.
Against this Cyprian wrote, in Ep. 73,
ad Jubaianum, 16 18; cf. Harnack, Dogmeng. 176.




von Engelhardt, Das Ghristentlmm Justins,
Harnack, Dogmeng. p. 130 ff.




to his


own, Strom.



account of Basilides conception of faith in contrast
5. 1.




propositions might be based


Different facts had a

speculation was free.

The same

different significance.

In the

upon them.

facts of the life


There was an agreement
as to the main principle that the Christian societies were
It is an almost ideal
societies for the amendment of life.

interpreted in different ways.


which the heathen Celsus draws

differing widely as to their

of the Christians


and yet all
to me, and I

The world is crucified
agreeing to say,
unto the world."
The influence of Greek thought,
partly by
allegorizing of history, partly by the con

struction of great superstructures of speculation



the original standard too elastic to
serve as the basis and bond of Christian society.
slender bases,

theories were added to fact, different theories were added.

point that the fact became of special impor
tance that the Gospel had been preached by certain

is at this


and that


content was the content of that

was not a philosophy which successive
It went back to the definite
generations might modify.
It was of importance to
teaching of a historical person.


be sure what that teaching was.


was agreed

to recog

nize apostolic teaching as the authoritative vehicle


All parties appealed to it. 2
But there had been more than one apostle. The teaching
interpretation of Christ


was consequently that, not of one person, but of many.
All parties
Here was the main point of dispute.
within the Church agreed as to the need of a tribunal,
but each party had





Each made


Gels, 5. 65.

Cf. Ptolemeeus

ad Floram,


7, ed. Pot.

appeal to a



different apostle.



though many in number,

they were teachers, not of their


opinions, but of the

which they had received from Jesus Christ, the
more orthodox or Catholic tendency found it necessary
to lay stress upon their unity.
They were spoken of in


the plural,


aTroWoAo*. 1

the Gnostics built upon
the Catholics built upon an



one apostle or another,
Their tradition was not that of
apostolic consensus.
Peter or of James, but of the twelve apostles.








an attribute which implies a uniform


at this point that organization

and confederation

became important the bishops of the several churches
were regarded as the conservators of the tradition


the bishops of the apostolic churches settled
See instances in Earn. Dogrn.





to a


Basilides, ap. Hippol. 7. 20, preferred to follow a tradition
Matthias, who was said to have been specially instructed by



Saviour. The Naassenes, ib. 10. 9, traced their doctrine to James, the
Brother of the Lord.
Valentirms, Clem. Alex. Strom. 7. 17, was said
to be a hearer of Theudas,

argued against




who was

a pupil of Paul.

heretics that they




had taken nothing from Holy

and had not preserved the TIVOS ayiov Stafiox^v. Cf. Tert.
But see the very remarkable statement of Origen as

to the cause of heresies,


Gels. 3.



Clem. Al. Strom.


7. 17.

and the conten

Cf. Clem. Alex. Strom. 7. 17, pia
tion of Tert. de prate, liar. 32, Sicut apostoli non diversa inter se
edidissent Harnack,
docuissent, ita et apostolici non contraria apostolis




134136. Eusebius, H. E. 4. 7,
pp. 133 ff., especially note 2, pp.
mentions that very many contemporary church writers had written in







86r)s, against Basilides,

Agrippa Castor.

Adamantius (Origen, ed. Delarue, i. 809) says that the Marcionhad err ICTK OTTO) v, /zaAAov 8e if/evSejricrKOTruv SiaSo\al.

hcer. and in Jesus Christ His Son our Lord. pr&amp. who was born of a virgin. it was accepted. general agreement as to the terms of the apostolic tradi In distinction from the Gnostic standards. de Vifg. They were made by the gradual working the it. 1. &quot.the De prase. . vel. 3. 17. Marc. 42. de monog.&quot. cc. adv. sitteth on the right hand of the Father. from whence he is coming to and in the Holy Spirit. but also adequate that a complete representation of apostolic teaching rule is there were no necessary truths outside common 2 The additions common sense. : God Almighty. tolicse.318 THE INCORPORATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS XT. It is quite to when uncertain or in what form the rule came to be generally accepted. . &quot. crucified under Pontius Pilate. Spirit.only For the cf. &quot. adv. Iren. Orig. not only apostolic and binding. and after 2 : especially of 36.o-iacrTiK7J.&quot. liar.&quot. 26. Tert. judge the living and dead The term Son came to be qualified in very early times . see Weingarten. In general.&quot. by 1 begotten. consciousness. de 4. of the Christian world. 1.the ecclesiae apos- 3. of the were approved by the majority. 25. 1 &quot. de prase. Holy for the KCLVCOV rrjs TTIO-TCWS. de prcesc. Tert. s. 21 (regula sacrament!) . 1 came be a standard which the majority of the churches the middle party in the Church accepted. 9. they were accepted by the sees which claimed to have been founded by the apostles. there tion. cc. in the third day rose again from the dead.lt. 2. 3 21. But it is in the main preserved for us with undoubtedly later accretions in Tertullian s contention is that this the Apostles Creed. Prax. Zeittafeln. liar. 12. 19. princ.zf. The earliest form is that which may be gathered from several writers as having been generally accepted in I believe Eome and the West it is a bare statement. &quot. 2. cc. TrapdSoaris KKA?. 3. Iren. 1.

and there were patches lying outside what has is was partly the indefiniteness of the Old Testament canon which caused the term Scripture to be applied to some writings of the since come to apostolic age. consisted of and what we now know as the The proofs Old Testament. were added. the remission of the flesh. which having once been oral had become written. been oral.&quot. Holy Church. 2. be its line. 319 and the resurrection side with this question of the standard or minimum necessarily with it of traditional teaching. what was then of Christianity consisted to a large extent in its consonance with those Scriptures.INTO A BODY OF DOCTRINE. be of more importance than only the authority Their elevation to an inde at first to tradition. and as the oral tradition which was delivered came necessarily to vary. pendent rank was due to the influence of the Old Testa ment. known The revelation as the Scriptures. it became more and more uncertain what was the true form and content Written records came to They had oral tradition. But as the generations of men receded farther from the apostolic age. which attached of the tradition. Which writings ? was . But the term Holy Scriptures was less strictly used than The hedge round them had sometimes supposed. and growing was the question of the sources from which that teaching could be drawn. The greater part of apostolic teaching had The tradition was mostly oral. gaps. and out of it. and of the materials by which the standard might be interpreted. But It the question. Side authentic by of sins. There had been already a series of revelations of God to men.

for examples. it But questions arose in regard to all these classes. Ed. 132. 131. TroAei OUTWS Kal ot Trpo^rjrai KCU 6 Kvpios. There were many writings attributed to apostles and apostolic men which were of doubtful authority. as the spirit of prophecy was common to both. THE INCORPORATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS only answered gradually. See Overbeck. Zeitschrift. 4. 22. 3 Cf. There were several recensions current both of the sayings of Jesus Christ and of the memoirs of the apostles. see Gebhardt and Harnack on 2 Clement. xii.F. also Harnack. ap. ev eKao-TT. N. Dogm. 417472. 1 The delimitation of the body of writings that could be so denoted was connected with the necessity of being sure about the apostolical teaching The term Scripture was applied to the the TrapaoW*?. The spirit of prophecy had was the common ground only gradually passed away. Eus. 3 It came to be applied also to the records which the apostles had left of the facts of the life of Christ. 2 recorded sayings of Jesus Christ (the Xo^m) without demur. i/d/zos KTjpva-a-fL . die Anftinge der patrist. the writings of the apostles and of apostolic men. it was but natural that both should have the same attributes. H. But the determination was slow. in the Hist. 1 2 4. The term Scripture (t ypatyf) is applied to the Shepherd of Hernias by Irenseus. p. But prophecy was not in the first instance conceived as having suddenly ceased in the Church. Literatur. ^et us 6 Hegesippus. 3. finally. and the date when a general settlement was made is 20. for the reception of the Old Testament and the New It Testament. which were not immediately answered. for this practical co-ordination.320 XI. tended more gradually to be applied to Then.E.

. and Athanasius. The first Biblical critic was Marcion the controversy with his followers. whether the ecclesiastical party or from the Gnostics . 25). which reaches its height in Tertullian. as there came whether there had yet to come be though be to a list They were. whether it was from Basilides. Zeittafeln.E. and which Christ. Weingarten. where he cites the Muratoriaii in the last of fragment.canon&quot. in our sense. Harnack. But we must carefully distinguish the idea of a canon and the contents It is uncertain whence the idea of a canon of Scripture of the canon. cf. the prophets had been. but also to the divine revelation which was recorded in the two Testaments. recognized doubtful it is children. Eus. serious consideration of the first words and memoirs of of the of the letters and other writings of the There apostles and apostolic men. p. list came as the writings of sense that it came 2 in as the voices of the Holy Ghost. to take in the Christian had in Philo Hence world the of assent not only to the great conceptions which were contained in the notion of God. 237 . Origen (ap. &quot. and from came. or Valentinus. should be accepted ? came to be a recognized list of the writings of the new revelations. 317 f. uncertain. : forced on the Church the Which recensions question. might have been well if the Christian Church had been content to rest with this first stage in the 3. the revelation of the Father to His faith or belief of the writings Writings on the of the earlier revelations to the Jews. H. as the first Biblical critic. if from the latter. or Marcion. pp.INTO A BODY OF DOCTBINE. whom he traces the first use of the term &quot. 19. 1 It Cf. 215 ff. Dogm. likely the last. 1 There is 321 no distinction between canonical and uncanonical books either in Justin Martyr or in Irenseus. 240 2 for Most Marcion Harnack. 6.

hter. of the the Father. &quot. 3 Tert. and it had in the &quot. . relaxes that line of argument. the age of the Tertullian.seeking&quot. given in the treatise against Praxeas. the Word Creator to the world. and of both to or The Creed. He heretics. had also had the effect of 1 In bringing into the Church the philosophical temper. de prcescr. 2. of speculation a vantage-ground within the Church. it : to relates has found &quot. relation of the Son to the Word. men. . and enters into formal discussion. Seek and ye denies shall research into the content of Christian doctrine only to the traditional teaching that. 2 c. man a further incompatible with having found. cc. THE INCORPORATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS transformation of the idea of belief. of scrupulositas applicability of the text. though in his treatise de prczsc. he abandons argu ment with the Gnostics. yet in his adv. In other words. There grew up 1 Tertullian. 3 dom depre than of the brethren no less is as must rest not on The absolute free was checked. search but on tradition (authority). hew. 18.&quot. belief the creed of the end of the second century. curiositas &quot. and to take as its intellectual basis only the simple statements of the primi But the tive creed interpreted by the New Testament. &quot.322 XI. is equally elaborate. faith the find. the &quot. Marc. 1. conflict of speculations which had compelled the middle party in the Christian churches to adopt a standard of belief and a limitation of the sources from which the might be interpreted. he has all when : that he needs: among modern Ultramontanes. 22.rule of faith&quot. 8. &quot. but the tendency to speculate remained. 2 With that Creed traditional as he believed as be to it the cates the He Tertullian himself was satisfied. there are already philosophical ideas creation of the world out of nothing.

different small groups of Alexandria.INTO A BODY OF DOCTRINE. the canonical tried to build theories out of side by side with them 1 : Scriptures. denies (Strom. iria-r^. of its omissions as well as of its assertions. accepting the rule of faith. and accepting also. of Christian doctrine. in Asia.We know most about Alexandria. There was a recognized school on the type of the existing philosophical schools of philosophical Christianity. in in were Palestine. which Clem. but by the help and in the domain of Greek But he is of less importance than his great thought.- men who within the recognized lines were working out philosophical theories of Christianity. 1). 5. have the first In the De we Principiis of the latter complete system of dogma . are these 1 points to : distinction between what was either an Theories were framed as to the relation of y vata-is and Tribrts ori. and I recom mend the study of it. for the study was Its first great teacher to construct a large philosophy with a recognition of the conven tional limits. 323 within the lines that had been marked out a tendency which. with possibly slight variations. He was the first Clement. disciple Origen. draw your (1) The which I wish to attention in reference to this tendency to phi losophize. of the strange fact that the features of it which are in strongest contrast to later are in fact its dogmatics most archaic and conservative elements. It is not to my present purpose to state the results of The two these speculations. 2 &quot. e. ~ 2 See Harnack. the former was conceived to relate to the Spirit. 549. . the latter to the Son. Christendom. yvwris took its place up in several parts of It grew In Cappadocia. in Edessa. Alex. g.

e understood as involving a dispensation. to say ignorant and uneducated. and to fuse all speculation in the average The battle of the second speculations of the majority. tended to disappear in the strong philosophical current It did not disappear without a struggle.324 THE INCORPORATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS XI. 3. (ceconomia). are frightened at this idea of But the ancient conser 1 dispensation. was final. who &quot. century had been a battle between those who asserted that there those was a single who claimed truly as He had and that the spoken to final tradition of truth. the always constitute the majority of believers since rule of faith itself transfers us from the belief in poly theism to the belief in one only true God not under oneness is to standing that though God be one. among others. remarks. and speculations in regard to such primary beliefs and historical facts. Prax. yet His l&amp. as the &quot.&quot. was a tendency to check individual and of the speculations. dis he The simpler-minded men.gt. or a historical fact of which a ginal and ground belief trustworthy tradition had come down. . It came be considered as impor to tant to have the right belief in the speculation as confessedly was to have it in the fact. Tertullian.&quot. of the time. consequent growth in importance of the spe culative element. Holy men Spirit spoke to and them as in the days of the apos The victorious opinion had been that the revelation tles. and that what was contained in the records of 1 Adv. (2) The result of the fading away it of this distinction. gives indications of doctrine of the Divine make its way Word had begun into the Creed &quot. vatism was crushed.not pensation&quot. in his time to was known it : The it.

and of both with . de prcesc. the apostles was the sufficient sum 325 of Christian teaching : hence the stress laid upon apostolic doctrine. (2) that stating the they affirmed the existence of manner and many things without origin of their existence. 1 Tert. 3 and : each side in such a controversy might retort upon the 4 If it were allowed to each side to other. the contention that Christianity rested upon the basis of a traditional doctrine and a traditional standard. and that theories based upon them must be the theories of the apostolical churches. to accept all but this. licer.INTO A BODY OF DOCTRINE. without a traditionally of faith felt The Gnostics were prepared They also appealed to tradition So far it was an even battle authoritative interpretation. de prcEsc. whom Tertullian 16. 3 Yalentinus accepted the whole canon (integro instrumento). was necessarily supplemented by the contention that the doctrine and standard must have a traditional interpreta A rule tion. and the most important work of Basilides was a commentary on the Gospel: Tert. cc. yet they were of no private literal sense. and a canon were comparatively to be so. that between those who inspired documents were to be taken in their and those who claimed that they needed a philosophical interpreta 1 that while these monuments of the apostolic tion. prtef. and were useless. 1 Which had been opposed: de prcesc. and did so.. In other interpretation. to the Scriptures. rested apostolic teaching. age 2 required interpretation. Origen (de princ. 18. The battle of the third century was claimed. 38. as Marcion claimed. 17. words. It is important to contrast the arguments of Tertullian with those of Clement of Alexandria. but gives a foothold for philosophy by saying (1) that the Apostles left the grounds of their statements to be inves upon tigated . 2 the contention of the heretics licer. 3) follows in the line of those who. liar.

They came now to to ensure unity on that which had come to be be held no important the interpretation of the recognized standard of belief.22. Const. well as the canon itself. growing up on Gnostic check. had added to their original functions the func Bishops less tion of teachers (SMa-KaXoi) and interpreters of the will of God (7rpo(pi}Tai). of apostolical churches . as was deposited with the bishops and their method of enforcing the check was the holding of meetings and the framing of resolutions. . They It required discussion. They were meetings of bishops. The all sides Christological ideas that were had much in common with the They needed a limitation and a The check was conterminous with the sources opinions. 7. ference of opinion had existed among no serious dif the apostolical was otherwise with the speculations that churches. were based upon the rule of faith and the canon. and through the operation of political rather the practice which circumstances rendered necessary. 20. 17. 10. Such meetings had long been held to ensure unity on points of discipline. 25. Bk. 5. pp. to the majority of apostolic writings. found in Apost. 14. 51. Clement makes Scripture the criterion between the Church and the heretics. 1 Accordingly meetings of bishops were held. each side might claim a victory. new principle had to be A introduced and the denial of the right of private interpreta to the primary articles of belief In regard both tion. ii. THE INCORPORATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS argue on the same bases and by the same methods. In Strom. of the tradition itself. 16 and 17. the meaning of the canon.8. The combination is first 16. though he assumes that all orthodox teaching is apostolic 1 and uniform.326 XI.

without beginning. The mass communities of have never wandered from the belief that they rest upon an original revelation preserved by a continuous tradi tion. 644. We confess and proclaim His begotten Son. first was the formulating of the specula propositions.. Bishop of Jerusalem. and he to whomsoever the Son revealeth Him. the Father save the Son. of the nature of definitions and interpre insertions were tations of the original belief. the earliest instance which has come an expansion of the Creed. the only begotten. one. and the insertion of such result tions in definite The theory was that such propositions in the Creed. whom no man hath seen nor can see. whose glory and greatness it is impossible for human nature to trace out adequately. p. unchangeable. but we must be content to have a moderate conception of ( Him ~No His Son reveals : man knoweth Him . 327 than of religious causes their decisions were held to be Two final.) The important results followed.&quot.INTO A BODY OF DOCTRINE. fined But is what has hitherto been unde a definition of necessarily of the nature of an addition. Rcl Sacr. as he himself says. of the Routh. They had passed historical 1 facts into the realm of metaphysics. the firstborn of every creature. . the wisdom and word and power God. is Hymenseus. earlier iii.. creed The were altogether 290. p. (i. being before the worlds. 1 The faith down from the beginning is down in the and Perhaps such to us of sent letter by his colleagues to which had been handed &quot. the image of the invisible God. God not by foreknowledge but by essence and of substance. unseen. Harnack.that God is unbegotten.. Paul of Samosata.

veracity are cognizant through our senses. THE INCORPORATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS was Belief The conception round a wide belief in of the nature certain of belief speculations. grew the more as the philo sophers passed over into the Christian lines. the 1 rejection of them as a greater bar to Christian Cf. The belief in the of circuit. had travelled It will be noted that there had been a change in the meaning of the word which has lasted until our own day. or the primary convictions of our minds in a witness. The habit of defining and of making inferences from definitions. and logicians and metaphysicians presided over Christian churches. 2 and 3. obscured. 2. Strom. But with this change in the nature of belief. the resolutions of the Nicene Fathers have come to be looked upon as almost a new and revelation. the definitions of faith in Clem. there had been no change in the importance which was attached to it. and we find through the fourth century. cc.328 XT. The it developing all God and in Jesus Christ. Al. and it tends to have that meaning still. not the highest form of conviction. or in facts of which which I may we include the belief in degree of certainty God which cannot attach admit of a to the belief in deductions from metaphysical premises. 1 Belief came to mean. tendency developed. . The acceptance of these philosophical speculations was as important as the belief in the Son of God. In the Nicene Council the tendency was politically more impor but it was not theologically different from what tant. The speculations which were then agreed upon became as a of and the still deeper with stamped body truth. had gone before. speculations of the Councils of Constantinople and Chalcedon. but something lower than conviction.

Al. was ex religion neither harms nor helps political penalty. Scap. first. . because the one assented to the speculations will not pain 3 a majority.lt. Theologians The &quot. still pre should worship God according to his own conviction. into the of the true system of as in Sext. fellowship than the rejection of 329 New the Testament itself. that one man s another man. (oAas a/zafa? /?A. though I have them at hand. Gregory of Nyssa. but they did not break the unity Now heretics and schismatics were iden of the faith. Empir. 2 that every man changed for the contention that the officers of Christian communities were the guardians of the faith. The distinc There had been parties tion had long been growing.cart-loads of abuse they emptied upon one another&quot. 1 And the They broke the concord of the brethren. Contro versy on these began to breed and with these assumptions. and the other had speculations of his own. tified difference in speculative belief .INTO A BODY OF DOCTRINE. track. It 1 was by these cupeo-is is which passed one used in Clem. Eunitch. The second result was the creation of a distinction between what was accepted by the majority at a meeting and what was accepted only by a minority. e. Luciail. soon But I offspring of venom and abuse.ov KarecrKeSao-av cUA/yAwi are paralleled in. stages. The was followed by original contention. the torrents of abuse which one saint poured upon of another. dpia-rrj aipecns: 17 it meant only adherence to a system of dogmas (no standard 16) Christian doctrine p. : TW ovn implied). its your ears by quoting.ao-(r?/u&amp. (Pyrrh.) in the Christian communities from the existence of such parties was admissible.g. 2 Ad 3 followed in their Philosophers had abused each other. lines. 2. served in Tertullian. 13. 2) . 15. Strom. 7. (ii.

to which they are speculations tian thought arises would draw attention I . of actual fact in the sublime system is the test of its which unsym- of its discords. sphere . which are admitted on requisite that a man given all sides should define . and metaphysical speculation with spiritual truth. other by a slow which evolution. .330 THE INCORPORATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS XI. and instead resembled the world of a world of religious and the deep harmony metry there prevailed the most fatal assumption of its foliage symmetry of a belief. that. I am far The point from saying that those theories are not true. of doctrine. that the idea of trust in God. the basis of changed into the idea of a creed. it is in the Greek mind. that their place in Chris from the fact that they are the specu The importance which attaches to the whole subject with which we are dealing. that secondly. and each definition of terms involved a new theory . is all religion. not outside but inside the Christian (5) the theories finally. began by being (1) a simple trust in God. lies less in the history of the formation of a body lations of a majority at certain meetings. and (3) a simple acceptance of the proposition that Jesus Christ was His Son then (4) came in the definition of terms. that the truth and a proof thereof. is. (1) The first conception comes from the antecedent belief which was rooted certain primary beliefs to be necessary. first. martyrs and witnesses of Christ died for their faith. of all. then It followed (2) a simple expansion of that trust into the assent to the proposition that God is good. than in the growth and permanence of the conceptions which underlie that formation. blending theory with fact. were gathered together into and the systems.

final. but to acquiesce in the verdict of the majority. those beliefs 1 that 331 as necessary that a it is man should be able to say with minute exactness what he means by God. or even by the unanimous voice of a church assembly. (3) The third conception is. that the definitions and interpretations of primary beliefs which were made by the majority.INTO A BODY OF DOCTRINE. which are made by the assembled under certain con interpretations of primary beliefs majority of church officers ditions. are not only true but 1 See Lecture Y. society it is : but I do venture to point out being an assumption must at least be favour that the fact of its . 135. (2) The second conception comes rather from politics than from philosophy. It is A purely philosophical. assumes that God never speaks to men The theory except through the voice of the majority. as that he should say. I believe in God. recognized. It is a large assumption. with unanalyzed philosopher cannot be satisfied ideas. and so certainly are in all cases true.. p. to understand them. of what is a convenient practical rule for conducting the business of human I do not say that arguments in its Let the majority decide. It is a transference to the transcendental sphere in which the highest conceptions of the Divine Nature move. in a particular age.&quot. by whatever light of nature or whatever illumination of the Holy Spirit may be given to him. . or that it has not some &quot. It is the belief in a majority of It is the conception that the definitions and a meeting. that the duty of the individual is. and which were both rela tive to the dominant mental tendencies of that age and adequately expressed them. not to endeavour. untrue.

But it may be that the time has . view that once. and was then suddenly traced. Of such testimony there and is for ever arrested. We have been able what to see. there is a divine The difficulty is of the meaning in the assump sometimes made. and that the Mcene theology was part of the original difficulty theology divinely communicated to the The point of most apostles by Jesus Christ himself. also a conceivable view that God is continually is speaking to men. is and that it was then suddenly arrested. and a divine interpretation of the Gospel history. did men. and that the revelation of Himself in It is a conceivable God speak to the Gospels It is a unique fact in the history of the universe. of mind which led to the formation of those elements of is distinctive in the were extraneous were added to it to the first form by the operation of Christianity. and that now. no ages in men s souls. absolutely none. The has sometimes been evaded by the further assumption that there was no development of the truth. that the interpretation of the divine Voice was developed gradually through three tion centuries. If this Such a hypothesis. not only that the several elements Nicene theology were gra but also that the whole temper and frame dually formed. importance in the line of study which we have been revelation a following together. the assumption of the finality of the Nicene theology is the hypothesis of a development which went on for three centuries. is the demonstration which it affords that this latter assumption is wholly untenable. which than in the early Voice that whispers less of Christianity. of causes and which can be be so. and once only.332 THE INCORPORATION OF CHRISTIAN IDEAS XI. even if it be a priori conceivable. would require an overwhelming amount of positive testimony.

. and possibly our an average. instead of travelling once more along the beaten tracks of these ancient controversies as to parti we should rather consider the prior cular speculations. and that that which is essential consists not of specu lations but of facts. We learn also that although for the needs of this solace of its sorrow. which speculation as such should question of the place and of the criterion occupy in the economy of religion by which speculations are to be judged. development and frame our rules of into societies articles of belief. the deepest secrets of God s nature and of our own are of the night to the indivi whispered still in the silence dual soul. come in which. yet for the highest knowledge we must go alone upon the mountain-top . It may be that too much time has been spent upon whether true or false. is drawing life of us thereby to that conception of it Christ was intended to set forth. be that the knowledge and thought of our time. speculations about Christianity. and not in technical accuracy on but in the attitude of mind in questions of metaphysics.333 INTO A BODY OF DOCTRINE. and which will yet which the regenerate the world. and that though the moral law is thundered forth so that even the deaf may hear. It would be a cold world in them. it may which is elements drawing us away from the speculative it upon to that conception of it which builds in religion the character and not only upon the intellect. for the we must combine have to for the life. which we regard which no sun shone until the inhabitants thereof had And arrived at a true chemical analysis of sunlight. of its possibilities. by striking conduct.

LECTURE XII. in the first age of was other than voluntary. THE TEANSFOBMATION OF THE BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION: DOCTBINE IN THE PLACE OF CONDUCT. necessarily . It was profoundly individual. but also their general sum in the changed basis of Christian communion. They were drawn together by the constraining force of love. sonship. I propose body to speak in the present Lecture of that enormous change in the Christian communities body have of doctrine by which an became the assent to that basis of union. I shall to speak less of the direct influence of Greece than in previous Lectures but it is necessary to show not : only the separate causes and the separate effects. But the clustering together under that constraining force was not the formation of an association. It assumed for the first time in human history the infinite worth of the individual soul. I SPOKE in the last Lecture of the gradual formation under Greek influence of a of doctrine. There is no adequate evidence that. The ground of that individual worth was a divine Christianity. association And the sons of God were brethren.

spiritual element. bers were the saints. that the holy ones. of the corporate unity of a philosophical school. the whole spiritual It life. by a common enthusiasm. &quot. H. not by itself is but : it existed as an but as an essential ingredient in was not separable from the faith&quot. 177. when once they began to be formed. &quot. The collective the Church of God was holy. 1 The ten dency to organization came partly from the tendency of the Jewish colonies in the great cities of the empire to combine. remain of the earliest Christian communities show that correct there was a real effort to justify their name. historically The pictures which the holy Catholic Church. THE TRANSFORMATION OF CHRISTIAN UNION. primitive clusters which were not yet crystallized into associations. and to a far greater extent from the large ten dency of the Greek and Eoman world to form societies for both religious and But though there is social purposes. they were formed on a basis which was less intellectual than moral and spiritual. and fused. Of the same spiritual element.E. as it were. eVwo-ts rov o-w/xaros. 335 There was not necessarily any organization. unity which they formed It was regarded as holy before The order it was regarded of the attributes in the creed is as catholic. The earliest 1 Socrates. were held together by faith and love and hope. there ample evidence that.XII. by the common belief in Jesus Christ as their Saviour. The sides. like the were two and works&quot. the by the overpowering sense common of brotherhood. by Their individual mem hope of immortality. not only into one body. but also by one spirit. They were baptized. no evidence that associations were in the first instance universal. p. associations. is. . An intellectual element existed element.

&quot. but it - was also that of an internal morality.one that asketh thee. The book which is probably nearest is &quot. to every . From &quot.&quot.&quot. But in the &quot.Give also. Take heed. 1.&quot. in date. of Christian teaching. shalt be is envious. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE complete picture of a Christian community is that of the Two Ways.But meek and long suffering and quiet and and considerate. 1 3. Thou shalt not be double-minded Thou shalt not be covetous nor &quot. of a change of character. guileless moral. The exposition partly a quotation from and is partly an expansion of the Sermon on the Mount. 17. of God. &quot.&quot. it is possible to put together a mosaic. the other and ask not nor &quot. There are fragments elsewhere.&quot. all things to the Lord our 2 Apost. 2 . any one give thee a blow on the one cheek.&quot. turn to him &quot.&quot. p. Two Ways&quot. the first book of the collection of documents known as the Apostolical Constitutions.&quot. Const.&quot. we have a primitive and the teaching is manual wholly moral.&quot. It professes to be a short exposition (SiSa^y) of the two commandments of love to God and love to one s neigh bour.Thou be angry nor shalt not shalt not be lustful nor filthy-tongued. and pray for your enemies. &quot. the Acts of the Apostles and the canonical Epistles.336 XII. and the extra-canonical writings of the sub-apostolic age. back. double-tongued.Thou grasping. of a and which certainly most alike in character to this simple manual.Bless If those that curse you. become well-pleasing in 1 Didache. 15 sons and to God. It pictures the aim of the Christian life as being to please God by obeying His will and keeping His commandments. &quot. 1 The ideal was not merely thou. cc. &quot. to do everything in obedience to God. new heart.

3 even possible that the baptismal formula may have consisted. says Tertullian reformation of our former vices.&quot.&quot. Individual Christians are spoken of as servants and sons God. as the phrase is expanded. &quot.BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION.I conservative sect call these made seven witnesses to witness that I will sin no more. as believers. 2 The rule of life is the Ten Commandments. not in an assertion of belief. 2022. Hipp. I will not not covet. I will not despise. of the effort to crush the lower part of us in the endeavour to reach after God. ap.&quot. fb.. the candidate promise for a &quot. hope. . 9. I will not act unjustly. of abstinence from all that would rouse the evil passions of human nature. lives 4 : The Elchasaites. 4. If thou wilt please and do none God. 4 The Christian communities were based not only on the fellowship of a common ideal. c. i. The plea of the Apologists was based on the fact that the Christians led blameless dv causa innocently consistam. as fellow-heirs and fellow-partakers with His of Son. abstain from all 337 that He of those things that are displeasing to hates. 1. Tert. &quot. 15. (Ad Scap.&quot. 2).e. but in a It is promise of amendment. &quot. I will no more. 5. 6. expanded as Christ expanded them. so as to It comprehend sins of was a fellowship of a thought as common ideal and a common enthusiasm of goodness. nor will I have pleasure in any evil. I will commit adultery steal.We Christians are &quot. l Him.&quot. I will not hate. Apol. Ib. There was the sublime conimmortality. but also on the fellowship of a common and born to i 3 In baptism they were born again.only for the 2 remarkable. well as of deed.those who have believed on His unerring religion. of neighbourliness and of mutual service.

which dominated in current society. changing was no longer The nations of the It conceived as sudden. The very preach the Gospel and to 1 pp. The lust and hate. until then would the end come : it would be a transformed and holy world. &quot. into which the saints. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ception that the ideal society which they were endea vouring to realize would be actually realized on earth. and over the new earth there would be the arching like spheres of a new heaven.the might ascend. 310312. world were to be brought one by one into the vast com There grew up the magnificent conception of 1 There would a universal assembly. But as the generations passed. 12.338 XII. naturally. if uncon of the bonds of sciously. without form. Zeittafeln. See also Lightfoot. a KaOo\iKrj e/r/cX^o-ia. . began to change new its earth. would be cast out for ever and the strife conflict. The Son of Man would come again. led them earnestness p. the iniquity and vice. angels. The kingdoms of this world would become the kingdom of the Messiah. and the sign of the Son of Man sent no premonitory ray from the and all f ar-off heaven. ii. things continued as they had been. and the regenerated would die no more. that this very transformation of the idea of a particular reli gion into that of a universal religion this conception of first an all-embracing human society. which led men to hasten the Kingdom. . but as gradual. carried with it a relaxation discipline. and not munion. Weingarten. be a universal religion and a universal society. this hope of a its force. The point which I will ask you to note is. vol. Ignatius.

this but also against worldliness. was against It whole tendency that Montanism not only against the officialism of Chris was a rebellion tianity.BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION. and in antagonism to it -to a community of men whose moral of few respects from those of their Gentile neighbours. which floated upon the waves of this troublesome world. but the rigour of the test was softened. 1 Weingarten. came to it The embraced earlier sins of The first narrowing was The Christian societies fell be narrowed. the limitation to open sins. in differed in but which there were unclean as clean.. and had been therefore excluded from the community. The old Adam asserted itself. even when a man had committed an. and weakness of character in the officers. that no cognizance can be taken of the secret The second limitation was. as well . z2 p. and a condonation by the community. open sin. 1 its conception of that code. The limitation was not accepted without a controversy which lasted over a great part of two cen turies. and which at one time threatened to rend the whole The Church was Christian communities into fragments.. in which thought. 339 also to gather into the net fish of every kind. he might be re-admitted. 17. under the common law which governs all human organ izations. ideal and moral practice was a Noah s ark. There was always a test. separated from the mass of society. There were social influ ences. a from being community of saints gradually transformed men who were bound together by the bond of a holy life. The Church of Christ. that thoughts of the heart. It became less and less practicable to eject every offender against the Christian code.

used to denote the orthodox system. both within the Church and on outskirts. 388. not its moral purity. came Agreement to assert its place side in opinion. was a growth in the importance of the intellectual elements. though not as a basis of association. 15. of the is once : used in Sext. Side by THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE side with this diminution in the strictness of member the moral tests of admission and of continued ship. Pyrrli. when 1 Eusebius. been in some sort Knowledge. but the fact that it was not corrupted by foolish The growth. Hegesippus. 2 The very terms heresy and heterodox bear witness to the action Greek philosophical schools on the Christian Church ai/aeo-cs 4. Ere/ooSdfous is used of the dog matics from point of view of a sceptic Sext. Empir.340 XII. 573. de Bell. which had always an element in Christianity. 13. Jud. Strom. E. of which I spoke in a previous Lecture. 5. its the majority the tendency of all majorities to assert their power the nocking into the Christian fold of the educated Greeks and Bomans. side with love. 276. Math. H. gives as his reason. Alex. 8. pp. : Josephus uses it of the -men of the other schools or parties as For the place distinguished from the Essenes. 22. and later in the Gnostic societies. it is Doxogr. p. now came to form a new element in the the Churches. Gr. by which had been the basis of union in the Greek philosophical schools. The idea of holiness and purity came to include in early times the idea of sound doctrine. principle which is p. 2. 2 bond But the of union within and between practical necessity. of any system of dogmas. In Clem. who brought with them the intellec mind which dominated in the age gave to the intellectual element an importance which it had not tual habits of previously possessed. adv. 771. of opinions which were not the opinions of doctrines. or the distinctive of a philosophical school : cf. 4. . 7. 1 in speaking of a church as a virgin. Diels. Empir. 40.

and which had consisted in a simple recognition of him as the Son of God. the contract of The profession of faith must be in the membership. necessary to ensure that the intellectual element was of the right kind. It was. Cf. 341 an intellectual element was admitted. very the supremacy of the intellect. The creed and teaching were the creed &quot.word and of its meaning. : Tert.&quot. became enucleated and elabo rated into an explicit creed. it was the traditio symboli^ the teaching of the pass.Ways&quot.BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION. or. 190 pr&amp. 1 If yvuxris was important as an Tertullian. it is the average that rules. caused stress to be laid at once within which it upon the intellect and the region moved. of giving some limitations to that element and a standard list by establishing a rule of faith of apostolic documents.- and teaching of the average members of the communities. de adv. 1 The teaching of the cate chumens was no longer that which we find in the Two the inculcation of the higher morality. The law of life is compromise. hence heresy was regarded as involving eternal death 2. that is to say. with discipline. as in society. element in salvation side by side with TTICTTIS or if Trurrts included then also the rejection of the right faith was a bar to salva yvwo-ts tion : prase. de . see Tert.lt. The profession of belief in Christ which had been in the first instance subordinate to love and hope. &quot.. as Harnack. of opinion in Gnostic societies. and assent to that creed became the condition. The cultivation Gnosis means ff. and this of itself gave emphasis to the new temper and tendency. curious counterpart in laxity of He speaks of the Valentinians. also of the 211. c. words of the Christian rule. &quot.zsc. In religion. 42 its 44. VaL. de Spectaculis. 4. frequentissirnum plane collegium inter hsereticos. so to speak.

it was a real birth into a new life . they directly suggested a question which soon became whether all baptism had this efficacy.342 XII. Was the mere act or ceremonial enough. was a real adoption into a divine sonship. There is no doubt that baptism was conceived to have in itself an efficacy which in later times has been rarely attached to it. the question of the minister of baptism became important. The which were laid down were minute. which it ? the baptizer were cut off from the general society of Christians on the ground of either his teaching or his if It became important to ensure that those who held the right faith. de Sped. and the ritual with vital. There were grave controversies as to the precise amount of difference of opinion which vitiated baptism. and should carry with practice. The renun- it the abjuring of false gods and their wicked was also an important element. or did it depend on the place where. fact of . it all rules the evil consequences of a vitiated baptism. viz. was a real wash ing away of sins . 1 Tert. The expressions which the more literary ages have tended to construe metaphorically were taken It literally. the person by whom. c. 1 These elements ciatio diaboli worship were indeed even more strongly emphasized by certain Gnostic societies than by the more orthodox writers but . was administered In particular. lest the baptism they baptized administered should be invalid. (1) The one arose from the importance which was attached to baptism. and the very 4. It came to be doubted whether baptism had its awful efficacy. THE TRANSFORMATION OP THE There were two collateral causes which contributed to the change and gave emphasis to it.

c. 11. It is mentioned in the Teaching of the Apostles. 1.Two Ways&quot. 10. intellectual But the test &quot. 2. like the velled widely pleasure.&quot. the moral precepts of the &quot. 8.Not every one who speaks in the spirit is a prophet. (2) There was another feature of early Christian life which probably contributed more than anything else to It was the habit of inter strengthen this tendency. teaching. like Jews. himself turns ing but 1 and teaches you another teach so as to destroy (this teaching). 11. 343 the controversies about opinion accentuated the stress which was laid upon such opinion. 7 and 16. if he does not what he teaches. ancient brotherhood of the Jews. (i. tra more for trade and commerce than for The new brotherhood of Christians. all A the travelling test had been necessary in the earliest times in regard to the prophets and teachers. c. 3 So also of the travelling 1 2 3 SiSa^i]. Hand. But in case he who teaches. gave to brethren a welcome and hospitality. receive him as the 2 Lord. 11.&quot.). cf. here expressly c. 1. .e. used of the moral precepts in Herm. is a false prophet. listen not to him : if he teaches you so as to add to your righteous ness and knowledge of the Lord. It drew away attention from a man s character to his mental attitude towards the general average of beliefs. was of moral rather than of Whoever comes to you and teaches you all these things&quot. but only he who has the moral ways of the Lord (TCW? rpoTrowKvpiov) by these ways shall be known the false prophet and the true prophet : Every prophet who teaches the truth. Christians. 2. So of the prophets: &quot.BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION. course and intercommunion. receive him.

or pass-word. but not being idle. but also to whole communities. .. hoc est testimonium veritatis. But when the intellectual elements had asserted a pro minence in Christianity.. . Let every one who comes in the name of the Lord be received afterwards ye shall test him and brethren: &quot.. Tert. 21. 35. to do. de prcesc. it form which a man might easily strain his conscience to accept. 1 is ^pia-re^iropo^ making The test here also is a test of character and not of belief. Tert. to furnish its munity travelling members with a circular 1 2 c. By it being a pass-word to hospitality.344 THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE XII. 3 Communicamus cum ecclesiis apostolicis. he If he be unwilling so a gain of godliness. of the formula as a passport attached not only to indi 3 The fact that viduals. 12.e. craftsman. ibid. 20. the Teaching of the Apostles makes the test personal and individual. shows that in the country and at the time when that book was written the later system had not This later system was for a com yet begun to prevail. and in religion no less than in became also a politics there are no such strenuous upholders of current The importance opinion as those who are hypocrites. provide some way of his living among you as find out If he wish to let a Christian. 2 It was. the communicatio contesseratio hospitalitatis. so to speak. and when the acceptance of the baptismal formula had been made a test of admission to gradually became a custom to make the acceptance of that formula also a condition of admission to hospitality. i. settle among you and is a him and so eat. If he be not a work craftsman. quod nulla doctrina diversa. 1.&quot. . pads were controlled et appellatio fraternitatis et by the tradition of (regit) the creed (unius sacramenti traditio]. a tessera a Christian community. The/wra.

Doctrine came to be thus co-ordinate with character as the basis on which the churches joined together in local or general confedera The hier tions. Men were no longer free to interpret for themselves. Such a 345 letter served as a pass The travelling Christian who brought it received an immediate and ungrudging hospitality. The first It was the instance of that . related in the first They came instance to discipline or practice. But that which gave importance to their operation was not interposition internal. concerning to belief. This elevation of doctrine to a co-ordinate position with life in the Christian communities was the effect of causes internal to those communities. the influence of Lectures but in their which I have traced in : previous direct operation within the churches they were altogether internal. The points of difference which port. letter of recommendation. came to be discussed at the meetings of the representatives of the churches in a district. it and out of The it. archical tendency grew with position of the bishops. thus led to the renunciation of fellowship. but also a new sanction. the tradition of truth. and accepted each other s certificates. but external. they would not receive each other s letters. rested belief upon living authority. which I spoke in the last Lecture. But when churches had wide points of difference. It gave to tradition It not only a new importance. no less than points of dis cipline.BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UXION. Those causes were in themselves the effects of other causes. of the State. which had grown out of the assumed desirability of guarding tended to emphasize that tradition. to relate Points of doctrine.

the of the meeting. that the bishops of a district claimed a right to interfere in the affairs of a neighbouring church. The Emperor did not determine what Christianity was. When Christianity came to be recognized by the State. and it went This determined Eoman policy. The principle which was then esta blished has been of enormous importance to the Christian communities ever since. . far to determine Christian doctrine for the future. on the basis of the organization of the Nicene Council The Bishop of . had a difference of opinion with the leading bishops of Syria on one of the new questions. There was not yet the complete confederation. and probably recognize authority with the support of his people. It is clear that confederation of churches was so far established in Syria in the middle of the third century. appeal as of made his to the was Emperor. The answer opponents by of the Emperor determined the principle already referred The tenant to. in the case of Paul of Samosata. which was Meetings forcing its way into the Christian churches. But he determined that what ever was taught by the bishops of Italy might be properly taken as the standard. which we find after the was a question only of neighbourhood. of the buildings held them on condition of being a Christian. interposition was in the days of Aurelian. Paul was condemned. Empire. who was a it statesman as well as a theologian. Antioch.346 THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE XII. civil right&quot. remained in possession of He was An the church-buildings. Paul of Samosata. &quot. He refused to formally deposed from his see. at the first of which there appears to have been a compromise. of the metaphysical theology. were held. At the second.

doctrine is. to banishment. a right to hold property and an exemption from to that civil burdens. who allowed in the fourth. as and I will so far recognize that opinion that no one shall have the privileges of Christians. election of a bishop who belonged to the lax party forced . In 250. cannot determine what Christian but I will take the opinion of the majority.I. the importance which those resolutions of the Councils assumed. who know what death. most important of such reactionary outbursts were those of the Novatians in the third century.&quot. to I need hardly draw out for you. who does not assent The succeeding Christian Emperors The test of being a Christian was opinion. human nature is. Callistus. One accepted them received immunity and privileges. The 1. a determined stand was made against it. I will speak the return to the Church of those who had been excluded on account of sins of the flesh. which was always smouldering. and of the Donatists now Its first only of the former. One who conformity to the resolutions of the Councils. followed in his track. 347 Constantino adopted the plan of assembling the bishops on his own authority. &quot. Against this whole transformation of the basis there were two great lines of reaction. The and of return to idolatry. The policy was continued. He said in Emperor. cause was the action of the Eoman bishop. and sometimes burst forth into flame. of union The one was the reaction of the Puritan party in the Church the conservative party. effect. and of giving whatever sanction the State could give to their resolutions.BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION. who did not was liable to confiscation.

but also of human nature. permanent element in the Christian world mainly as a reaction against the change of the basis of the Christian communities. and was fostered to a large extent by the influ ence on the main body of Christians of the philosophic But it asserted its place as a parties upon its borders. The tendency itself came.uKU)Vy a third rank. 1 mainly from the Greek philosophical schools.lt. in Italy and Spain. recognize It did not die out until at least five cen it. It was so strong that the State had to It lasted long. dominated the Christian world. It lingered on in detached com The majority. and the lowering of the current standard of their morality. with the support not only of the State. It had sym in Egypt. The schism was on a schism. 1 Lect. 164 sq. but it ceased to be a power. as I have tried to point out in ideal. vi. who framed for themselves and endeavoured to realize a higher than the Christian common They stood to the rest of the community as the community itself stood to the rest of the world. a previous Lecture. in Asia Minor.348 THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE XII. strong. with the Tay/JLa Henceforward there was. . It reaction was stronger and even more consisted of the formation within the community of an inner class. rdy^a T&V The aa-Kyrtov. side by side TWV K\rjpiK(jov and the Tayjma T(JOV ###BOT_TEXT###amp;amp. in pathizers all over the Christian world Armenia. The other permanent. : . 2. It involved the whole theory of the Church the power of the Keys. turies after its birth. munities. It was impracticable and undesirable and yet sometimes in human life room must be found for impossible ideals. ideal has been obscured by its history but that ideal was sublime. p.

intellectual basis is the only possible basis. Its darkest pages are those which record the story of its endeavouring to force its transformed Greek meta races to whom they were physics upon men or upon victories that it has The only ground alien.. a In such which they did not understand. of were men of the the world. cannot take the place of tho And began as a reaction against Chris was and as it is an effort to regenerate historical fact that it tianity as human it society. grimly statesmen were bishops were members world.349 BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION. society also. earnest about living a holy lifeof devout men. is the that the dominance of the metaphysical ele entertain ment in it I have net result will be perpetual. by the very fact of its separation. its its its officers . an In such a must necessarily have an on that intellectual basis important place. But Monachism. in which officialism checked the progress of Christianity. did not leaven the Church and raise the The Church became. The the introduction into Christianity of the . but the love of God and the love of man. of despair in those who accept which I for one cannot. now brought is these Lectures to a close. fear Christianity now. held together and by the loose bond of a common name. basing their conduct on the current maxims of society. Christianity has won no great victories since its basis was changed. not Greek metaphysics. not an assembly current morality. The won. the insistence But it comes from the instinct of self-preservation. the blurred and blotted picture of it which has survived to our own times. it has won by preaching. of a creed society.

and the darkness the with light. Greece lives.that fragment of an ancient usage. three chief products of the Greek mind Ehetoric. It is that it an argument has been able first alien to it. not only its dying life in the lecture-rooms of Universities. whose than spiritual its whose essence creation of a class of God it is is more metaphysical important to define men whose main duty . Greece lives. solemn enactment of a symbolic drama. but the artistic periods of a rhetorician its religious ceremonial. but and them this or by the continu ance in them of great modes and phases of thought. the initiation and the the spontaneous . and Metaphysics. in life is that of moral exhortation. its theology. its conception of intellectual assent rather than of moral earnestness as the basis of religious society in that underlie them. but also with a more vigorous growth in the Christian Churches. and the ideas for the divine life of Christianity to assimilate so an argument much that. rather than of love and selfsacrifice . . It lives there. Logic. I venture to claim to that a large part of what are sometimes have shown called Christian and many usages which have prevailed and continue to prevail in the Christian Church. are in reality doctrines. of large assumptions. ethics of right and duty. of that It is all these. and whose utterances are not outflow of a prophet s soul.was at for the truth of which has been assimilated. that it much has been . Greek theories colour by the and Greek usages changed in form and influence of primitive Christianity.350 I THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE XII. not of this or that by virtue of the survival within fragment of ancient teaching. but in Greek their essence still. of Its great drifts and tendencies.

but its sum. and to do its part in bringing on the developments essential. It possible to urge. that the tree of is which was planted by the hand of God Himself in human society. it is of the future. possible to urge. It is possible to form cannot be Mount It is life. began without them which grew on a soil is whereon metaphysics never throve which won its first victories over the world by the simple moral force of the Sermon on the Mount. and that growths are for the time at which they It is possible to hold that its successive exist integral and the duty of each succeeding age at once to accept the developments of the past. Its importance can It claims hardly be over-estimated. on the other hand. a foremost place in the consideration of earnest men. may throw off Hellen ism and be none the but rather stand out again before the world in the uncoloured majesty of the Gospels. 351 strong enough to oust many of the earlier elements. that Christianity. Between these two main views it does not seem possible . The question is vital. urge that what was absent from the early essential. was intended to itself whatever elements it It is possible to maintain that Christianity to be a development. and that the Sermon on the not an outlying part of the Gospel. on the one hand. is the question of the relation of these Greek elements in Christianity to the nature of Christianity itself. and by the sublime influence of the life and death of Jesus Christ. The theories which rise out of it are two in number. was intended from the first soil of grow by assimilating found there.BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION. But the question which forces itself upon our attention as the phenomena pass before us in review. which. the to loser.

to weld the of our time with the old in human by that historical continuity which societies is the condition of permanence. The timidity The recognition of the fact that ceased. Christian doctrine and of Christian history and there . it is not essential on the . it tracing the lines of development. and adopt the theory of development. on the other hand if will enable us. Bible. fore I am earnest in urging its study. and are content deposit. so far from having been a danger to religion. or the other must be accepted. with the consequences which it involves. to be the that lies before the theologians of our generation. is the has virtually the Book of Genesis was not made. I claim for the subject which we have been considering an exceptional importance. and to trace the assumptions on which these later elements are based we . The one to find a logical basis for a third. it or the other. latter. to disentangle the primitive from the later elements. an incomplete development and has no claim permanence. has become a new So it will be with the analysis of support of the faith. and practical action on the determination work to of it. because it will enable us. not unaware that there are many who lysis of Christian history. On the former hypothesis. I believe the consideration of this question.352 THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE XII. by new thoughts I am deprecate the ana to accept the There has been a similar timidity in regard to the It seemed a generation ago as though the whole fabric of belief that Genesis depended on the acceptance of the belief work of a single author. but grew. if on the one hand we accept the theory that the primitive should be permanent. But whether we accept the one clear that much of the is it seems Greek element may be abandoned. For though the .

the study of the subject has only I have ventured as a into begun. which is the bond of the sons of God. I so stood and so am sure that you will find the country to be in what I have described it to be. pioneer comparatively unexplored ground I feel that I shall no doubt be found to have made the mistakes of a pioneer. . 353 Lectures are ended.BASIS OF CHRISTIAN UNION. looks out from the height which he has reached upon the fail- and speaking as one who has landscape looked. in which men will be bound old. a in which the moral and Christianity spiritual elements will again hold their place. is together by the bond of mutual service. and that the main you will find also that it is but the entrance to a still fairer For though you may believe that I landscape beyond. I seem to see. am but a dreamer of dreams. a Christianity which will actually realize the brotherhood of men. though it be on the far horizon the horizon beyond the fields which either we which is or our children will not new but which tread a Christianity not old but new. but I feel also : the certainty of a pioneer who after wandering by devious paths through the forest and the morass. the ideal of its first communities.


: 148150. his allegorism. 258 fin. dogmatic complica use tion. 232. . mixed elements. 141. 190 . 317 317319. Bk. ethical character of Milan. as an exegete. his use of ousia. Elchasaites. Apostolic doctrine. 83 . Primitive sim its its formula. PROPER NAMES. on Lord s Supper. 164. Italicized subdivisions of a title Abstract ideas. type of teaching. 253 . 341. The temper widespread . later change in in time. Gnostic realism. 82. 167. ff. 64. his Monism.. 294. 72 compared with Philo prophecy its main subject. transcendence of God. 307.g. an 0.Apostles Creed. cf. 300 337 its exegesis. in Philo. 63 60. 296 minor features 299 late &quot. effects on Chris tianity. free-will. T. and abuse. on God s . 81. 231 . . 267. Apologetic.&quot. 252. 72. e. his ethics Stoic. among the name. voluntary. of pistis. 316. purity of 79.retreats. Basilides characterized. 295. 298. its place in modern life. Baptism and dualism. its philosophy. &c. 169. ran parallel to Greek. 61 the Stoics. titles. 148 &quot. n. Aristotle. lights. ii. . e. 252. 66 fin. Christian. 81 on moral probation.&quot. 301. . 65 ff. first Greek akin to religious. JEon. Alexandrine School. 306 ritual. 168. 0. a Alogi. idea of creation.mysteries. ib. . . Antiochene School. 2 . 259. cretistic. 66 69. 69 Askesis Associations. 342. Syn- ff.&quot. Monachism. . Greek tendency are elsewhere treated in more detail as separate 116 to.i. physical.g. e. .. 334. 81. 265. 292295.INDEX. 270. 299. and unction. 164 ff. 163. 79 82. transcendence.symlolum&quot. his view . Bks. 128 early Christian exegesis. Athenagoras on absolute creation. Julius. 19. irony of its history. AND TECHNICAL TERMS. 261^-263. . and Origen.. 296. . 161. 335. 290. 167. 132. connection with the cf. 315 plicity. 165. 148 ff. Ambrose . reduced to system. 336 on place of discipline.. 59. its ethical Apostolical Constitutions. 162. Hellenistic Jews. 269. 196.mysteries. 66.g. : Association at Aristobulus and Philo. Its importance. . . Allegorism. 268. two ways of viewing the -ZEons. 196. life required. transcendence of God. 82. . REFERRED TO IN THE LECTURES. 290 &quot. cf. &quot. Greek. Aristobulus. later .&quot. See also Philo 255. Africanus. . s. 65 ethical. 58 ff. its germ. 141 . 126 131. in religion. 292 . &quot. 166. 291. 291. 72 . 77 actions. Re 74... ii. 118. and viii. especially Gnostic. exponents. 295 . 8385. 61 . CONTAINING THE CHIEF TOPICS. Bk. common Gnostic idea. 297 . Apologists mark transition. 311. 253 Logos doctrine. n. (dffKrjaig). idea of.

Greek. 139. 147. 6 former. Catholic Church. 127. 317 Cyprian characterized. 315. its relation and Literature. Definition Dialectic. 346 in Puri 323. age of Dogmatism.follow his two planes of ethics. the simpler Samosata.D. 143. and philosophy. its genesis. unconsciously TTellenlzed. 131 . 195.&quot. 34. as moral re his attitude. logy. Const. Dogma holiness.&quot.^ a fusion JLJ) the idea of wages. 177. expanded. and . sort. of dis 3 . 295. 119. 315. its Puritan ideal. 2 . 347. &quot. tion. the New Law. moral reformation in first centuries A. 318 speculative interpretation by con : sensus. the in : original sense. 327. . 315. tanism. put an end to &quot. 239. 139ff. on relation of Dionysius Areopagites sums up the influ ence of the mysteries. Essentia : its bad Latinity a source use. 155158. Average morality. 252. among the Greeks. 335. Conservatives. Alexandria.as&m s. 302. 352. development of the idea. 277. . of N. corpus permixtum. 181 ib. . Education. asTcesis&quot. . 121 Dualism and Baptism. cf. 71 335337 Clement . its forms literary.follow God. ii. Celsus. 132 . genesis of the Logos. 315 the Lord s Supper. later hope. 343. 351. vari 180.149. 317. 118 fin. Dogmatism. 255. mainly Grammar and Rhetoric. guilds and philosophy. . later modi ously expressed. 314. 326. 76 it. . 2 . 313 if: its germs. 131. init. 80. .&quot. 107. 26 Nature. 252. the: the &quot. 263. T. Conservatism and Stoicism.g. 163. 71 . basis. primitive its ethical idea of God. Creed.rule of faith. on &quot. the Bishops (irapd- doaig tKK\r]GiaaTiKY)}. later &quot.163 . 8. Canon of N. : especially n. 254.Apostolic teaching. 194. 314. . 303. 251. 324. by its basis. T. Christianity and philosophy.heretics. tives. and appeal to hieroglyphics. 142 ff. &quot. of Christianity 125. Church. ff. 143. ff. 135. mixtum&quot. Monachism. 132 as a j &quot. 144 . 130. in Tatian. Didache. 252. . cf.prophesying. 142. 127 : : on Christianity on the Conserva criticism. Dio Chrysostom &quot. 162 Christian. idea.. in . as 132. 335 . Bk. 319321.&quot. . 330. 348 349. 332. 6 characterized. Greek. . his 11 cf. the baptismal formula. their Old Testament : God 230. 128. 246. .&quot. transition Ebionites become &quot. 35 Epictetus characterized. 344. n. 27 28 319. in religious ethics. e. ff. of creation. 144 &quot.&quot. early to Logic . 118. 152 : 152 155. the. Development not arrested.316. 141 . ff. the 195. 327 327 results. 32 spite of protest. Paul of 345. 1 : 58162 225 . 338. 140. &quot.356 INDEX. 175. his allegorism. . on . 294. . . and Porphyry s polemic against Christian allegorism. the poets its main study. . its theological 238. . 304. be comes a test. 280.Two Ways&quot. Platonic. 141 Demons. secret. 160. Greek. ff. 161. of the 316. 19 . its ff 164. 229.&quot. 348. Bishops.Apostles Creed &quot. 11. . n. 162. 195. Christianity. Ethics. 337. 313. especially n. 337 as such Ebionites). 224. 96 1 of transcendence. influ ence on Catholic Church. early character. and the &quot. Consecration of the elements : 130. quoted. its (Soy/Act).&quot.corpus per- 120.. 225 empha 336. Discipline. 301 in tercommunion based on moral test. also a litterateur philosophy. and Greek philosophy. simple theo its : 252 Baptism. 70 &quot. 300. 150. : the formula 6 . allegories. in Origen. 30 . 178 in Christian theories of crea fied. philosophic 140. (cf. sizes conduct. 331. just and good. 123. 164. Clementines. 317. 251. its extent. Apost. Clement and Tertullian on in Ebionites and Elchaoften not recognized saites.&quot.

sacrifice. : Homer Exorcism in relation to Monism. trine.ek. . Philo.. speculative by &quot. 275. . for minis- l : . agreement upon value of conduct. Faith (iricmg). 340. e. Basilides on matter and God. 330. 190 193. 341 as well as in Neo-Platonism. &quot. deterioration 168.&quot. ff. 193 fin. ff.g. 285. 329 . cf. relation to &quot. on free-will. 288 . 327 contrasted uses of term 328 belief. usage often doubtful. 290. n. . 169. through use of &quot. 267. 4 . Idea of transcendence.officium&quot. as regards creation. 22 24. 267 essential. hypostasis. and ypa/ijuaridri/c/j. 278.gnosis&quot. Christian form issuing in the Creed. Proclamation. . 150 ff. n. Immortality in the Mysteries. Guilds Hellenism characterized. . 14.&quot. Homily. eternal. 129. 153. n. Con necting link with the Mysteries. its usage.&quot. 285. 307. theory of creation. of Rights. the. . 30. without and within. . mystic drama. Hippolytus. Attitude to tradition 306. 130. tian theology. Old Testament.debitum&quot.&quot. . itpapxrjc and cognate terms trants. 8 its stages. 321. development.pUtis&quot. re capitulation. 28 in ypa^/jLariKfj. unction and sacramental realism. 274 Gnostics. 190193 . 162164 later. allego also the Its cosmogonies. 193 . 2 Homoousios (OHOOVOIOQ) shared senses of first used of God by the ousia. 310 hi s . *. Ethics/Christian. 276 .persona. . in Baptism. ff. .Two Const. earlier . 357 of f. 159. Bk. hypothe sis of a lapse.OM- (i&amp. 196. and the Scriptures. 286 Initiation (rsAen?) &quot. . confession and baptism (icd9apoic. 303.g. 51 majority and minority views. 278 &quot. as a Stoic category. 8 203 : . root of &quot. n. 313 ff. of Law average of victory . gradually Trpwn. 161 Ways. evolutional types. Compared with Gre. 305 ff. Gospel. 20. fires. 202. 148 askesis. 287 287. 308. consensus in in of Greek thought. contents of ethical teaching. 177.pistis.7rapi) especially n. cf.&quot. 143 Epictetus. connected with rhythm. i. elements. 13. history of fin. 69. . 322. . opposition from its idea. the . the &quot. 158 its basis and characteristic idea (sin). and 160. 272 its ambiguity. 257 ff. ib. 169 ethics in Roman ethics. 308. its difficulties and rewards. 6 203. procession. original use of term. : Greek 311 312. 309. his Logos doc Irenzeus. ff. Hyparxis = &quot. 254. 190 . the. Gnosticism between two rizes the ff.. . Hypostasis (viroaraais}. moral gymnastic. his theory of creation. asJcesis. n. . ovaia.g. . and &quot. its genesis of the Logos. 319 Further ff. expansion of Creed. Apost. 325. 161 164168 . Gnosis (yvuiffig) as a tendency. . Fitting. Xoi. in Chris . on Justice and Goodness in God. Evolutionary ideas among the Gnostics. Greek 170. in Inspiration Greece. philsopher. philosophy. 147 . 158.&quot. 289. 159 .&quot. (TT^OCUDTTOV) 277. 311. 133. its &c. 323 in Catholi and 339 cism. reve 263 257 ff. . 154 . . Modalism. 310. n. 75. &quot. and 339 ff. the side of &quot. 311. 154. 276. 70 9 . e. . 195. : specialized = further defined &quot. 263. Christian . ff. Generation. in Old Testament.prosdpon&quot. * 152 in Epictetus. 284. 268 .. Origen s contributions. . lation. 262. Heresy. see Association*. by aid . 28 ff. 288290. espe 1 cially n. nature.gt. History. Basilides and : Marcus. 130134. 274 sia. 266. 29. Grammar Greek education. 326 . ff.. 2 . side by side with &quot. relation to New Testament Canon. 109113. 323 341 check found . &quot. 251 e. 158170. 231 . .1ND-EX. 228.rpoV). 275. 51.&quot. 155. discipline. Bishops. 70.

Baptism.lt. . &quot. . &quot. 176. in baptism and exorcism. 273 Marcion. 257 ff. 302. 4 its . 185. ff. Marcus Paul of Samosata. and legacy to Christendom. culmina . ff.&quot.ideas.358 INDEX. Monachism parallel of Greek and Chris monistic elements. 69. God 206. 242. 247 God. 264. . . genesis of the Logos. Stoic. 346. ditas. 6 transcendence. Monism. relation to . v case. his ditheistic tendency. Ocellus Lucanus on idea of transcendence Logoi (Xoyoi). /ui&amp. 129. three Aristotelian senses nature Lucian and the Antiochene exegesis. (especially n. TTOO^O- oiKog Gnostics result. scale. 297.. 326. 180 cf.logoi&quot. specially as 292 to . .gt. 294 ff. 238. Modalism. . 168. 231 . 177. his meta 190. a theodicy. transcendence : see 67 128. 227. Its 271. in Philo s appear 1 (supra-cosmic). 183. Novatianism a Puritan reaction. 151. 78 . 321 his literal ). genesis of the Logos. n. 204206 233237 shapes Logos doctrine. 263.j&amp. 238. Maximus of Tyre. vofjLOQ Kaivoi. outward marks. 293. Montanism : 66 .j/&amp. the. 345. 40 ff. De principiis (ii. 184. 80 his cosmogony . 162 (espe cially note). 262 . cf. &quot. self- . 283 initiation at Eleusis. 309. Justin Martyr. 305 of Christian theology. 8 philosophy.gt. f. 281. its decay amid dogma. . . 323. and unity. 242. 249. a reaction. evolution of God. see : . abstracta]. 207. s Philo and Philonian writings a valuable bridge. Greek.ric. Metaphysics and revelation. 182. 8 his apologetic use of allegorism.&quot. [(i. Logos doctrine. as moral reformer. 239. its damnosa here&quot. 267. of the Logos. 278. not popularly understood. 187. 182. 187. Logos. Monarchianism a witness to older Mo- 185. a survival of 107. 137. . grand dogmatic system. and ff. 250 of growth . Difficulties in its application to God.vai&amp. 20 its basis. 267 the first . Platonism and Christianity. subst. : : . I 272.&quot. s &amp. 159 cf. n. 138 . 32 ff. 349. 268. trine. nvarayuyos. dualistic. Ousia (ovaia). . n.. its theological affinity. 348. 268. defence of it. Mysteries transcendence. narchia. 185. the. prophecy.lt. his his . 267. Philosopher. a reaction. 348. logoi. 253 Logos doc 261. in plurality.&quot. God s syncretistic grouping of : phors under term &quot. 126 ^ Natura on free-will. v. 339. 303305. 347. 72 . nature of the Logos.&quot. 158.deeper&quot. &quot.literal&quot. 182. 181. but God is Creator or Father. 184. their connection with allegory. : &quot. as a profession. &quot. 325. Origen. 175177. 230 . 296. 244 s diaries. 150 . Plato author . God Supper. . = 268 his . 277. Mediation of God s Persona appropriated for hypostasis. . ff. 284 &quot. 186. on transcendence. Logos. 280. 300 s tion of influence. 279. . together with religious guilds affect Christianity. 259261 261263 and Iv^LaOtroQ.. method. 266 on Christianity and . 183 . generally.forces.. 180. 138. later history in Platonic realism. General ff.) 82. his idea of a Canon. ture. l . 265. 270. 255. ff. quoted for God . 81. )=hyle. transcendence. 269. 182 7. and Lord 1 Judaism as basis a bridge. 180. its two types. 81.lt. God the ultimate cause. &quot. 167. in Philo. their sum the Logos. 247 247 ff. allegorism. sense compared with Christian exegesis. Stoical (= laws). distinctions in interme God na s Philosophy in Greek education. 186. his : tian. 175.&quot. view of the Eucharistic elements. compared with Platonic &quot.forces. (iii.) = substantia concreta. 188. 77.

vatives. Tertullian. its mysteries. 81. its true place in Christianity. priest.. 277. ousia. rgXsnj. 1 on creation. his Stoic view of substance. &amp. r\a&amp. 196 God s tran .lt. daemons. mily. appears in Apologists. mediation . 109113. 266. 196 free will. n. 5 Iff. . 73 died with formation of apologetic. the altar. 301 &quot. 296. . 131. Revelation and metaphysics. 298: Poetry. 245. n. 97.. Theophilus on creation. 309.&quot. genesis of the Logos. see hypostasis.r/u6c. nature of the Logos. 241243 daemons. 107. ib.. ^Stoicism \ and the moral reformation. mainly on 88 90. 38 excused public burdens. 347. n. 308. 229. Ptolemseus. Plotinus on transcendence. Unction of n.i xn^ (=natura). 265. Political analogies in the Church. 99. . prophesying. l God . Theodore of Mopsuestia as exegete.Eons.&quot. 301 . (2) thanksgiving. the Lord . how contesseratio. . 72. State. its view of substance. immortality through initiation. . 278. s of Logos. 94. 303. 345347.&quot. its genesis. *. Teaching profession. 259. 254 . 238. 101 . 5 &quot. . 255 f.ho and Prophecy and divination. . 295. 1 used. 240 . n. . \ cf.&quot. and. . Greek. on ecclesiastical tradition and specula Roman. 304. ethical affini with Christianity. 344. 244 Absent from . n. 26. Substantia at Plotinus. ties . 265. 21. . &quot. 289. n. composite origin.&quot. 8. 39. the n. especially n. 88 lines of the older Rhetoric.INDEX. Apost. on of baptism. Puritanism in early Church. Sophistic. . kypostasis. Tatian: his view of creation. 231 . as of absolute Unit y. 5 . its political aspect to the supra-cosmic. 126. 21 connected with usage (VO^LOQ). 333. 267. 253 . Symboli traditio. 302 and n. first cf. - Pythagoreanism and Christianity. 300. 252. . . 243 . 82.lt. extra-biblical deve- : in Didache. Being. the sacred &quot. culmination in Dionysius. transcendence. its two forms. 266. popularized in Sia\s&ig. 94 rewards. 91 and . manner of discourse. 232 Religion. 98 and airs. ii. Bks. 87. 88. 50. cf. 244. realism first among Gnostics. 257.TO$OQ. Speculation. 240. Transcendence. 332. 169. 87. see Faith. 243 f. his idea of ! and n. Christian teaching.&quot. 279 .. 253. cf. cf. on free-will. 268. 0om&amp. its interference with doctrine.70ai : see initiation. 138. on genesis of Logos. 331. 359 of transcendence proper. n. 268. 20. 348. n. 74 TrpoffUTTov.. 127 the Conser . 303. &quot. 278 sometimes = hypostasis. transcendence in him tion. then Writing as mysterious. Rule of Faith :&quot. (1) exorcism. . 251 f. . 101105. 295. on Christianity and philosophy. Mind. . its place in the Greek mind. 322. . 99 rant. 258 fin. 92 its Stoics like Epictetus. Preaching and &quot. 256 ff. earliest Alexandrines. 97 . on God as just and good. 6 formula. Const. its ethics in Ambrose.lt. Catholic Church. Rhetoric. 300 ff.gt. : 3 . lopraents. 141 ff. . reaction led by Objections. . 37 ff. of baptism. of. in Plutarch and Maximus. . .&quot. &quot. endowed. 129. 107 105 109. 19. 6 Plutarch. later use = onsia./gefie*fs n. of ff. Gnostics. God 251 s transcendence. its later usage. 308. &quot. ig. 137. 19. . (f&amp. ^s 242 Philo. on genesis of Logos. itine scendence. 197. 246. 242 s . 254. 246. . n. l 307. 241. : . especially n. = 278. and viii. 2 . . 254 f.. especially 257. r quoted for transcendence.

89. Gregory. 91. 1. for \ 2 i. 3 P. Rom. 178. Om. 5 . read Gregory Nazianzen. addj?. Rom. in 1 75. . Strand. for 266. 112. 1. for by. for note 16. 36. 3 60. 2. Nazianzen. on p. for latinis. for rjv. 4. fjv. . n. 2 44. . 26. 33. n. read a C. n. Naz. n.. 21 substitute read referring to Greg. n. read beg. Athenagoras. read ^waa^oro*. 3. 9. read Latinis litteris. Printers. n. Green & Son. 151. 2. n.CORRIGENDA. 9. for 1. for 1. 189. n. read 1 Clem. at end of quotation. C7m. . CLITO^^O^VOQ. xlii a . read and note. read note 4. 3 after Zectare F/. 33. middle. .