CLASSIFICATION TESTS FOR HYDROCARBONS

Andrea Mae Juan, Jane Rael Lenon, Abbygale Lumanglas,
Justine Nicole Malaluan, Jan Edward Maganti, Dane Manares Malilay
Group 5
2J Pharmacy
Organic Chemistry Laboratory

ABSTRACT
In the experiment, different tests were conducted for the classification of hydrocarbons. First, the hydrocarbon
samples’ physical state, colour and odour were distinguished. Second, their solubility in concentrated H 2SO4 was
checked. Third, they were put to ignition test to identify their flammability, soot formation and colour of the
flame produce, if there is. Fourth, 2 drops of 2% KMnO 4 was mixed with the hydrocarbon samples. This test is
called the “Baeyer’s Test” where the group takes note if decolourization occurs and if there is a formation of
brown suspension. Fifth, 10 drops of 0.5% Br2 in CCl4 was added to the hydrocarbon samples. This test is
known as the “Bromine Test” where decolourization was also noted. Both the Baeyer’s Test and Bromine Test
are used to determine active unsaturation. Sixth, the samples were added with nitrating mixture. Formation of a
yellow oily layer is determines the sample’s aromaticity. Last, 1 drop of 2% KMnO 4 solution, 7 drops of distilled
water and 3 drops of 10% NaOH solution were added to the samples. This is the test for basic oxidation [1].

INTRODUCTION
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds
containing carbon and hydrogen atoms [2]. They
can be saturated or unsaturated. Saturated
carbons only have single bonds between adjacent
carbon atoms; while unsaturated hydrocarbons
have double or triple bonds between some of the
carbon atoms. They can also be aliphatic or
aromatic. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are compounds
of hydrogen and carbon atoms without benzene
rings or aromatic ring like the alkanes, alkenes
and alkynes [3]. Aromatic hydrocarbons are
compounds that contain benzene as part of their
structure [4].
The experiment aims to differentiate
hydrocarbons in terms of (1) intrinsic physical
properties (2) and chemical properties based on
structure and behaviour. Also, to analyze a
hydrocarbon and determine if it is saturated,
actively unsaturated, aromatic or aliphatic.

EXPERIMENTAL
A. Compound tested
The samples used for the experiment are
hydrocarbons
specifically
hexane,
heptane,
cyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene and toluene.

B. Procedure
1. Physical State, Color, Odor
The samples were observed based on their
physical state and appearance. Odor was
examined by waffing.

Flammability of the compounds was tested by
lighting 3 drops of each in an evaporating dish.
Formation of soot was also observed.

4. Tests for Active Unsaturation
a. Baeyer’s Test
Combination of 5 drops of each of the
compounds and 2 drops of 2% KMnO4 solution. If
decolorization occurs, it confirms that the sample is
actively unsaturated. Brown suspension must also be
seen too.

b. Bromine Test
Addition of10 drops of 0.5% Br2 in CCl4 reagent to 5
drops of each sample. Decolorization is observed here
too, confirming the sample to be actively unsaturated.

5. Test for Aromaticity: Nitration
Nitrating mixture is first prepared by mixing 2
mL of concentrated HNO3 in an Erlenmeyer flask
which is immersed in an evaporating dish with
water. Two mL of concentrated H2SO4 is added
slowly. Eight drops of nitrating mixture is then
added to 5 drops of the sample. Formation of a
yellow oily yellow layer means the sample is
aromatic.

6. Basic Oxidation
To 4 drops of the sample, 1 drop of
2% KMnO4 solution, 7 drops of distilled water
and 3 drops 10% NaOH solution were added. If
there is a formation of brown precipitate in purple
solution, it confirms that the sample is oxidizing.

2. Solubility in Concentrated H2SO4
Calibrated droppers were used to drop 1 mL of
concentrated H2SO4 to the sample to determine
its solubility as soluble or insoluble.

3. Ignition Test

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Table
1:
Results
for
Classification
Hydrocarbons for Hexane and Heptane
HEXANE

of

HEPTANE

Condensed
Structural
Formula
A. Physical
state at RT

Liquid

Appearance

Clear solution

Clear solution

Color

Colorless

Colorless

Odor

Gasoline-like
odor
Immiscible

Plastic-balloon
like odor
Immiscible

Neutral
Flammable,
Luminous

Neutral
Flammable,
Luminous

D. Baeyer’s
Test

No change in
color;
immiscible

No change in
color;
immiscible

Becomes hot;
decolarized

Orange
solution; did
not decolarize

Inference

Saturated

Appearance

Clear solution

Clear solution

Color

Colorless

Colorless

Odor

Rubber-like
odor
Immiscible

Kerosene-like
odor
Dark brown,
became hot;
miscible

B. Solubility in
concentrate
H2SO4

C. Ignition
Test
D. Baeyer’s
Test

Bromine
Test

Inference

Neutral
Flammable,
luminous

Very weak
base
Flammable,
luminous

No change in
color;
immiscible

Turned
brown;
immiscible

Orange
solution; did
not decolarize

Clear colorless
solution
becomes hot;
decolarized

Saturated
Actively
unsaturated

E. Test for
Aromacity
Nitration

No reaction

Yellow oily
layer

Non-aromatic

Inference

Non-aromatic

Aromatic

Emerald
green solution

Violet solution

F. Basic
Oxidation

Dark Green
Solution

Non-oxidizing

Non-oxidizing

Black
precipitate
was formed

Non-oxidizing

Oxidizing

Nitration

No reaction

No reaction

Inference

Non-aromatic

Inference

Liquid

Saturated

E. Test for
Aromacity

F. Basic
Oxidation

Liquid

Condensed
Structural
Formula

Inference

Inference
C. Ignition
Test

Bromine
Test

CYCLOHEXEN
E

A. Physical
state at RT
Liquid

B. Solubility in
concentrate
H2SO4

CYCLOHEXAN
E

Inference
Table
2:
Results
for
Classification
of
Hydrocarbons for Cyclohexane and Cyclohexene

Table
3:
Results
for
Classification
Hydrocarbons for Hexane and Heptane

of

BENZENE

decolarized

TOLUENE
Inference

Condensed
Structural
Formula

Not actively
saturated

Not actively
saturated

E. Test for
Aromacity
Liquid

Liquid

Nitration

Oily layer

Yellow oily
layer

Appearance

Clear solution

Clear solution

Inference

Aromatic

Aromatic

Color

Colorless

Colorless

Dark blue
solution

Blue green
solution

Odor

Rugby-like
odor
Immiscible

Non-oxidizing

Oxidizing

A. Physical
state at RT

B. Solubility in
concentrate
H2SO4
Inference
C. Ignition
Test
D. Baeyer’s
Test

Bromine
Test

F. Basic
Oxidation
Inference

Immiscible
REFERENCES

Neutral

Neutral

Flammable,
luminous,
with soot
Slightly
turned brown;
immiscible

Nonflammable

Orange
solution; did
not decolarize

Turbid
solution
becomes hot;

Did not
decolarized;
immiscible

[1] Bayquen, A.V., et al. (2014). Laboratory
Manual in Organic Chemistry. C & E
Publishing, Inc. pp. 82-84
[2] Bayquen, A.V., et al. (2014). Laboratory
Manual in Organic Chemistry. C & E
Publishing, Inc. p. 81
[3] http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-ishydrocarbon-definition-formulacompounds.html
[4]
https://www.brightstorm.com/science/chemis
try/organic-chemistry/aromatic-hydrocarbon/