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Air Composition
Dry air is a mechanical mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and more
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Air is a mixture of gases - 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen - with traces of water vapor, carbon dioxide, argon, and various other components.

Air is usually modeled as a uniform (no variation or fluctuation) gas with properties averaged from the individual components.

Gas

By volume

Ratio compared to Dry Air (%)
By weight

Molecular Mass
-M(kg/kmol)

Chemical Symbol

Boiling Point
(K)

(oC)

Oxygen

20.95

23.20

32.00

O2

90.2

-182.95

Nitrogen

78.09

75.47

28.02

N2

77.4

-195.79

Carbon Dioxide

0.03

0.046

44.01

CO2

194.7

-78.5

Hydrogen

0.00005

~0

2.02

H2

20.3

-252.87

Argon

0.933

1.28

39.94

Ar

84.2

-186

Neon

0.0018

0.0012

20.18

Ne

27.2

-246

Helium

0.0005

0.00007

4.00

He

4.2

-269

Krypton

0.0001

0.0003

83.8

Kr

119.8

-153.4

Xenon

9 10-6

0.00004

131.29

Xe

165.1

-108.1

The water or vapor content in air varies. The maximum moisture carrying capacity of air depends primarily on temperature
The composition of air is unchanged until elevation of approximately 10.000 m
The average air temperature diminishes at the rate of 0.6oC for each 100 m vertical height
"One Standard Atmosphere" is defined as the pressure equivalent to that exerted by a 760 mm column of mercury at 0oC sea level and at standard gravity
(32.174 ft/sec2)
Other components in air
Sulfur dioxide - SO2 - 1.0 parts/million (ppm)
Methane - CH4 - 2.0 parts/million (ppm)
Nitrous oxide - N2O - 0.5 parts/million (ppm)

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