Leadership Qualities

Leadership is a process of influencing the behavior of people at work towards the
achievement of specified goal. The following elements must be present in the

It is the process of influence;

The influence is always for achievement of common goal;

There must be minimum two or more persons present; influencing your own
behavior is not leadership.

The influence should be to get the willing co-operation of the employees and
not the forceful co-operation.

A person must possess the following qualities to be a good and effective
1. Physical qualities. Good physical features attract people. Physical features
like height, weight, health and looks of person attract and individual. Healthy
and smart leader can him also work hard and he can induce his subordinates
also to work hard.
2. Knowledge, intelligence and Scholarship. A leader must be able to
examine every problem in the right perspective or direction. The leader must
have superior judgment and abilities to take right decision in right situation.
The leader must have complete knowledge about the work performed by his
group members. He should take decision on the basis of facts, figures and
logic. He must have a mature mind. Then only he can be a successful leader.
3. Integrity and honesty. A leader must possess high level of integrity and
honesty. He must follow ethics and values then only he can expect his
subordinates to be ethical and honest.
4. Self confidence and sense of responsibility. A leader can develop
confidence in his subordinates only when he is having faith and confidence in
his own abilities. He must be confident that he will be able to tackle every
situation successfully. A confident leader only can create confidence in his
subordinates. The leader must have the sense of responsibility for
achievement of goal or target of his group member. He must know clearly
and readily accept the accountability for any mistake done by the
subordinates as subordinates work under his guidance and direction. The
leader must share or pass on the credit of success to his subordinates.

A good leader must set an example for others as inspire the people. 7. he should take decision. Motivation skill. Social skill. He must be able to answer all the questions of subordinates regarding “why”. He must have courage and initiative to take bold decisions. He should not get confused. Generally all the instructions and information from the superiors are passed to subordinates by the leaders only. He must take risk for the advantage of organization. A leader must be friendly with his subordinates. A leader must take initiative to grab the opportunities. leaders pass all the problems and grievances of the subordinates to the top level and to inform the problems rightly the leader must have communication skill. The Control Function of Management . A leader is the source of information for all the members of his group. 6. He must provide supportive environment to subordinates so that they do not hesitate to discuss their problems.5. Decisiveness. Once he is convinced about the facts and figures. 8. So they must have good communication skill so that information reaches each and every member. On the other hand. Initiative. Although it is not possible for an individual to possess all the qualities but at least through training manager can make an effort to acquire as many as possible. the leaders must have communication skill. A leader must take firm decisions. 9. To establish cordial relationship among the subordinates and the superiors. He must remain connected with the work and must lead all his subordinates in performing to their best ability. The leader should not force the subordinates but develop voluntary contribution from the subordinate side. He must be decisive while managing various activities and people. He must understand people and try to maintain good relations with them. Communication skill. The leaser must be able to convince the employees that their willingness to do work will bring best result in their performance.

Controlling is tool for achieving organizational goals and activities. it has been defined as “the process by which managers assure that resources are obtained and used effectively and efficiently in the accomplishment of the organization’s goals”. corrective actions and forward thinking so that errors are removed. ‘Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise’s objectives and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished. evaluation. Planning is a process by which an organization’s objectives and the methods to achieve the objectives are established. as amanagement function. organizing. Its object is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring’. planning and control are often referred to as ‘Siamese Twins’ of management.Control means. monitoring. and the principles which have been laid down. . the orders which have been given. This is a very general definition of the term. and comparison of actual performance with standards. implementation. Planning and controlling go together. measurement of actual performance. Control Process involves establishment of standards or targets of performance. measuring actual performance and taking corrective action. However.  According to Henry Fayol. etc. and controlling is a process which measures and monitors the actual performance conform to planned objectives of the organization.’ From these definitions. Control in management means setting standards. medium and long terms. ‘Control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted.’  According to Harold Koontz and O’Donnel.  According to EFL Breach. and correction of performance to ensure that the organization meets its objectives in the short. examining the causes for any deviations in performance and taking corrective actions. if not eliminated. control comprises these three main activities. one of the managerial functions like planning. is an important function because it helps ensuring that the planned goals are attained through a system of checks. and corrective actions taken timely so that deviation from standards are minimized. “Some sort of systematic effort to compare current performance to a predetermined plan of objective. it could be deduced that control. with a view to ensure adequate progress and satisfactory performance. Thus. presumably in order to take any remedial action required”. Thus. Control is management’s planning. ‘Control is checking current performance against predetermined standards contained in the plans.

But. Recent surveys of some major organisations around the world have shown that all successful organisations are continuously interacting with the environment and making changes in their structural design or philosophy or policies or strategies as the need be. sections. They should either change or die. on the other hand. which make corrective courses made continuously as executions happen.A control system is necessary in any organization in which the activities of different divisions. and so on need to be coordinated and controlled. Most control systems are postaction-oriented or feed-back control type and consequently are inefficient or fail. The more important factors are as follows: 1. There are a number of factors both internal and external which affect organisational functioning. is future-oriented and predict adjustments to be made to put back on remedial course before the outcome drifts from planned scheme. Forces for Organizational Change Change is inevitable in the life of an individual or organisation. The major forces which make the changes not only desirable but inevitable are technological. legal. For example. In between there is a system of control called ‘concurrent or real time control. international and labor market environments. Any change in these factors necessitates changes in an organisation. Organisations that learn and cope with change will thrive and flourish and others who fail to do so will be wiped out. there is little an employee can do today to correct the results of actions completed two weeks ago. departments. there is no third alternative. External Forces . there is no forward stretch to predict possible mishaps in the later phases. due to current actions and having a plan to stop such mishaps from happening. most of the organisations are facing a dynamic and changing business environment. political. social. Steering control or feed-forward control system. economic. In today’s business world.

marketing and other policies. Moreover. but they have to adapt to meet the pressure . The interference of the government in business has increased tremendously in most of the countries. there is tough competition in the market as the market is flooded with new products and innovations everyday. the organisation cannot change the environment but must change themselves to align with the environment. Accordingly. desires and expectations of the customers change rapidly and frequently.External environment affects the organisations both directly and indirectly. equal pay for equal work. specialized and narrow jobs will be replaced by workers who can perform multiple in decision making. the competition today has some significant new twists. Today the concept of consumerism has gained considerable importance and thus. Many jobs will be reshaped. The global economy will make sure that competitors are likely to come across the ocean as well as from across town. The organisations do not have any control over the variables in such an environment. Most markets will soon be international because of decreasing transportation and communication costs and the increasing export orientation of business. The substitution of computer control for direct supervision. Successful organisations will be those who can change in response to the competition. Managements will have to increase their investment in training and education of the employees because employees skills are becoming obsolete more quickly. 2. equal opportunities to women. The corporate sector is regulated by a lot of laws and regulations. Individuals who do routine. Social Changes: Social and cultural environment also suggest some changes that the organisations have to adjust for. Social equality e. The adoption of new technology such as computers.g. Moreover. New methods of advertising are used to influence the customers. The management has to follow certain social norms in shaping its employment. is resulting in wider spans of control for managers and flatter organisations. has posed new challenges for the management. Marketing Conditions: Marketing conditions are no more static. knowledge and a lot of government efforts. the consumers are treated as the kings. Political Forces: Political environment within and outside the country have an important impact on business especially thetransnational corporations. Organisations that are not ready for these new sources of competition in the next decade may not exist for long. telecommunication systems and flexible manufacturing operations have profound impact on the organisations that adopt them. 3. Technology: Technology is the major external force which calls for change. A few of these factors are: 1. The organisations do not have any control over the political and legal forces. 4. Japanese firms have progressed rapidly because they are very fast in adopting new technological innovations. They are in the process of rapid change as the needs. There are a lot of social changes due to spread of education. Sophisticated information technology is also making organisations more responsive: Both the organisations and their employees will have to become more adaptable.

The work force is changing. The youngest generation of workers is loyal to their careers. As a result. but their attitudes change. more dual career couples. 2. In our country. Workers who are in the age group of 50 plus value loyalty to their employers. delegation of authority. the reunification of Germany. major internal causes are explained as follows: 1. 3. retirement. The profile of the workforce is also changing fast. the organisation has to change accordingly. Workers in their mid thirties to mid forties are loyal to themselves only. The informal relationships change because of changes in managerial personnel. deficiencies Structure: in the Sometimes existing organisational These deficiencies may larger number managerial of changes be in the levels. installation of controls etc. arrangement of unmanageable span of and of Management some processes. in order to respond to the needs of two career couple. the economic policy has liberalized the economy to a large extent. Sometimes. Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. Organisations have to modify transfer and promotion policies as well as make child care and elder care available. An organisation is also affected by the world politics. However. management. which in turn means.of these forces. 2. Internal Forces Internal forces are too many and it is very difficult to list them comprehensively. form lack . even though there is no change in personnel. Each managers brings his own ideas and way of working in the organisation. The employee turnover is also very high which again puts strain on the management. Different work values have been expressed by different generations. All these changes will be necessitated because every top executive will have his own style and he will like to use his own ideas and philosophies. Many of the regulatory laws have been amended to reduce the interference of the Government in business. The new generation of workers have better educational qualifications. Change in Managerial Personnel: Change in managerial personnel is another force which brings about change in organisation. allocation of work to individuals. Then behavior has also become very complex and leading them towards organisational goals is a challenge for the managers. they place greater emphasis on human values and question authority of managers.g. with a rapid increase in the percentage of women employees. Nature of the Work Force: The nature of work force has changed over a passage of time. Deficiencies are necessary in Existing because structure. transfer or dismissal. Change in top executives will lead to important changes in the organisation in terms of organisation design. Some of the changes in the world politics which have affected business all over the world are e. Changes in the organisation are more fast when top executives change. the break of Soviet Union etc. Old managers are replaced by new managers which is necessitated because of promotion.

lack of uniformity in policy decisions. etc. Organizations must undertake organization-wide change to evolve to a different level in their life cycle. need for dramatic increases in productivity/services. major collaborations. Thus. which necessitate change? Change should not be done for the sake of change – it is a strategy to accomplish the overall goal. may either support or hinder organizational functions. which prevail because of the external environment. Business Process Reengineering. Some internal factors. 4. as opposed to smaller changes such as hiring a new person. “rightsizing”.g. It may also be triggered by various internal factors. address major new markets/clients. What are the forces. new programs such as Total Quality Management. financial and material resources it requires. Organization changemeans that there is a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way the organization operates. lack of cooperation between line and staff and so on. he concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change.g. multiplicity of committees. Conscious managers take into account this view that organisation should be dynamic because any single method is not the best tool of management every time. entrepreneurial organization to more stable and planned development. These internal and external factors have been variously referred to as the drivers of change or the forces of change. External drivers of change: The external drivers of change are those forces of change. organisational changes take place just to avoid developing inertia or inflexibility. restructuring operations (e. “Organizations are systems that exist in the context of an external environment. e. etc. etc. going from a highly reactive. the need for change in such cases goes un-recognised until some major crisis occurs.of coordination among various departments. When a new chief executive is appointed. restructuring to self-managed teams. or to produce and market its services or products becomes a force of change.. Examples of organization-wide change are a change in mission statement. obstacles in communication. Usually organizational change is provoked by some major outside driving force. in a dependent relationship and that interact with it in order to survive and grow... which operate within the organization. They are: - . or processes. mergers.). substantial cuts in funding. To Avoid Developing Inertia: In many cases. buying a new computer for the department etc.” Any factor in the environment that interferes with the organizations ability to attract the human.g. new technologies. However. it can provoke organization-wide change when his or her new and unique personality pervades the entire organization. e. modifying a program. layoffs. changes are incorporated so that the personnel develop liking for change and there is no unnecessary resistance when major changes in the organisation are brought about. Some experts refer to such change as “organizational transformation”.

individual ambitions. need of different competencies  Profitability Issues: loss of market share. WTO regulations.  Economic Forces: fluctuating interest rates. Anti trust laws  Increased Global Competition: relocating companies to developing countries to cut labor costs. Political Forces for e.  Technological factors: change in work process. outsourcing. like downsizing. machinery. fall in revenue Resource Constraints: shortage of money. Internal drivers of change: The internal drivers of change are those forces. etc Sources of Resistance to Change The goal of planned organizational change is to find new or improved ways of using resources and capabilities in order to increase an organization’s ability to create value and improve returns to its . manpower. fears and frustrations. lack of autonomy. foreign exchange regulations. the Gulf war and so on. Opening up of the economy of South East Asia. information. Computer technology. oil prices fluctuation  Technological Forces: technological advancements like IT. use of information technology in routine and non-routine tasks. formal and informal relationships within the organization. insecurities. etc  Changing customer needs expectations and preferences: product innovation. automation  Human Resource planning: acquisition of persons with advanced skill sets for expansion. etc  Government Forces: Signing of the GATT. delayering etc. group dynamics within the organization.  Administrative policies and rigidity: inadequate administrative processes. decrease in productivity.  Organization Dynamics: internal politics. etc  Structural inadequacy: structural changes to reduce costs increase productivity.g. which exist inside an organization and trigger it to move from the current state to a desired state or sometimes even an unexpected state. collapse of the USSR. material. customization to suit customer needs. outdated rules and regulations  Expectations of the internal customer: Career growth expectations.

of course. Resistance can be overt. immediate or deferred. over half of all Fortune 500 companies have undergone major organizational changes to allow them to increase their ability to create value. or the like. For example. increased errors or mistakes. loss ofmotivation to work. One of the most well-documented findings from studies have revealed that organizations and their members often resist change. this is positive. deferred actions cloud the link between the source of the resistance and the reaction to it. But there is a definite downside to resistance to change. Resistance to change doesn’t necessarily surface in standardized ways. Resistance to change can also be a source of functional conflict. but then resistance surfaces weeks. organizational behavior would take on characteristics of chaotic randomness. If there weren’t some resistance.stakeholders. In a sense. has merely been deferred and stockpiled what surfaces is a response to an accumulation of previous changes. Similarly. It is easiest for management to deal with resistance when it is overt and immediate : For instance a change is proposed and employees quickly respond by voicing complaints. Reactions to change can build up and then explode in some response that seems to tally out of proportion to the change action it follows. Implicit resistance efforts are more subtle – loss of loyalty to the organization. Or a single change that in and of itself might have little impact becomes the straw that breaks the company’s back. An organization in decline may need to restructure its resources to improve its fit with the environment. The greater challenge is managing resistance that is implicit or deferred. increased absenteeism due to sickness and hence. threatening to go on strike. It provides a degree of stability and predictability to behavior. Some times the sources can overlap. Sources of Resistance Sources of resistance could be at the individual level or at the organizational level. resistance to a reorganization plan or a change in a product line can stimulate a healthy debate over the merits of the idea and result in a better decision. It hinders adaptation and progress. engaging in a work slowdown. At the same time even a thriving organization may need to change the way it uses its resources so that it can develop new products or find new markets for its existing products. implicit. The resistance. more difficult to recognize. In the last decade. . A change may produce what appears to be only a minimal reaction at the time it is initiated. months or even year later.

Security : People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feeling of safety. They hear what they want to hear. there is a general tendency for people to selectively perceive information that is consistent with their existing views of their organizations. Habit are hard to break. 2. Some people might benefit at the expense of others. Some workers might lose their jobs. They selectively process information in order to keep their perceptions intact. People have a built in tendency to their original behavior. especially when pay is closely tied to productivity. when change takes place workers tend to focus only on how it will affect them on their function or division personally. Role relationships may be reorganized. 4. Economic Factors : Another source of individual resistance is concern that change will lower one’s income. Habit : Human beings are creatures of habit. They feel uncertain and insecure about what its outcome will be. Selective Information Processing : Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. 3. a tendency to stymies change. adjusting to a new office layout.Individual Factors Individual sources of resistance to change reside in basic human characteristics such as perceptions. attempt to delay or slow the change process and otherwise passively resist the change in an attempt to quash it. Worker might be given new tasks. But when confronted with change. taking a new set of streets to work. Not surprisingly it can be difficult for an organization to develop a common platform to promote change across the organization and get people to see the need for change in the same way. personalities and needs. Worker’s resistance to the uncertainty and insecurity surrounding change can cause organizational inertia. To cope with this complexity. Therefore. some may fear they’ll be unable to . it means you’re likely to have to change many habits. developing a new lunch time routine and so on. 1. Changes in job tasks or established work routines also can arouse economic fears if people are concerned they won’t be able to perform the new tasks or routines to their previous standards. we do not need to consider the full range of options for the hundreds of decisions we have to make every day. So when your office is moved to a new location. They ignore information that challenges the world they have created. For example. the introduction of Total Quality Management (TQM) means production workers will have to learn statistical process control techniques. Life is complex enough. we all rely on habits of programmed responses. Thus. If they perceive few benefits they may reject the purpose behind the change. Absenteeism and turnover may increase as change takes place and workers may become uncooperative. finding a new parking place. There are basically four reasons why individuals resist change. this tendency to respond in our accustomed ways become a source of resistance.

rules and procedures for employees to follow. therefore. As a result. members of a group may resist change because a whole new set of norms may have to be developed to meet the needs of the new situation. Often change alters tasks and role relationships in a group. Although. They may.do so. Managers. And the more important the group’s activities are to the organization. For example. often resist the establishment of self-managed work teams. they are then shaped and directed to behave in certain ways. also affects group performance. develop a negative attitude towards TQM or behave dysfunctionally if required to use statistical techniques. Escalation of commitment worsens this situation because even when group members realize that their decision is wrong. These group processes make changing a group’s behavior very difficult. Units benefiting from the change will endorse it. Or. but those losing power will resist it. Group Inertia : Many groups develop strong informal norms that specify appropriate and inappropriate behaviors and govern the interactions between group members. When an organization is confronted with change. for example. Group think is a pattern of faulty decision making that occurs in cohesive groups when members discount negative information in order to arrive at a unanimous agreement. too much cohesiveness may actually reduce performance because it stifles opportunities for the group to change and adapt. the greater the impact of these processes are on organizational performance. Training and other socialization techniques reinforce specific role requirements and skills. Power Maintenance : Change in decision-making authority and control to resource allocation threatens the balance of power in organizations. the attractiveness of a group to its members. 3. Group members may unite to preserve the status quo and to protect their interests at the expense of other groups. manufacturing departments often resist letting purchasing department control . which can often slow or prevent the change process. they continue to pursue it because they are committed to it. Structural Inertia : Group cohesiveness. some level of cohesiveness promotes group performance. Group Level Factors Much of an organization’s work is performed by groups and several group characteristics can produce resistance to change : 1. Formalization provides job descriptions. 2. Organizations have built-in mechanism to produce stability. The people who are hired into an organization are chosen for fit. the selection process systematically selects certain people in and certain people out. A highly cohesive group may resist attempts by management to change what it does or even who is a member of the group. when it does. this structural inertia acts as a counter balance to sustain stability. it disrupts group norms and the informal expectations that group members have of one another.

established values. norms and expectations. If these conditions don’t exist. 4. Managers sometimes mistakenly assume that subordinates will perceive the desired changes as they do. Participation and Involvement : It is difficult for individuals to resist a change decision in which they would have participated. thus. counseling and resources adapt to new requirements easily. provided the source of resistance is inadequate communication and that management-employee relations are characterized by mutual trust and credibility. act to promote predictable ways of thinking and behaving. Communication can be achieved through one-to-one discussions. memos. This tactic basically assumes that the source of resistance lies in misinformation or poor communication. 2. they have difficulty in understanding the resistance. Education and Communication : Resistance can be reduced through communicating with employees to help them see the logic of a change. Functional units usually think of themselves first when evaluating potential changes. 3. denying that it is his responsibility to promote socially responsible behavior through out a global network. There are even occasions when a CEO will resist change. reduces uncertainty and promotes a feeling of ownership when change directly affects people. Participation increases understanding. but resist the ones that reduce it or even seem inequitable. Organizational Culture : Organizational culture.input quality. that is. They support those that enhance their own welfare. managers have a better change of gaining respect and the commitment to make it work. Organisational members will resist changes that force them to abandon established assumptions and approved ways of doing things. resistance will subside. Facilitation and Support : If employees are provided with encouragement. those opposed can be brought into the decision process. training. goals and resources dependencies can cause changes that are seen as beneficial to one functional unit to be perceived as threatening to other. support. Then the challenge is to find ways to reduce it or overcome that resistance. 5. Prior to making a change. OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Kotter and Schelsinger (1979) has identified six general strategies for overcoming resistance to change. If employees receive the full facts and get any misunderstanding cleared up. People can be encouraged to help design and implement the change in order to draw out their ideas and to foster commitment. Functional Sub-optimization : Differences in functional orientation. . or reports. A key task is to determine and understand the reasons behind people’s resistance when it occurs. 1. By accepting people’s anxiety as legitimate and helping them cope with change. group presentations. enhance feelings of control. Does it work? It does. the change is unlikely to succeed.

it participants design in inappropriate change. Sometimes specific things can be exchanged in return for help in bringing about a change. People who participate will be committed to implementing change. in many cases if it .4. Approach Commonly Used Advantages Disadvantages Education and When there is lack of information or inaccurate information and analyses. An example would be if the management tells employees that accepting a pay cut is necessary to avoid a plant shut down. 6. Examples of coercion can be also transfer. like bargaining units. decrease salaries or layoff people. Explicit and Implicit Coercion : Some times management might use authority and the threat of negative incentives to force acceptance of the proposed change. people will often help with the implementation of the change. when plant closure would not really have to occur. and nay relevant information they have will be integrated into the change plan. 5. Management might decide that if employees don’t accept proposed changes. be consuming. Can be too expensive Communication Participation and Involvement Facilitation and Support Negotiation and Agreement if lots of people are involved. Manipulation and Co-optation : Manipulation is framing and selectively using information and implied incentives to maximize the likelihood of acceptance. then it has to shut the plant down. Co-optation is influencing resistant parties to endorse the change effort by providing them with benefits they desire and non-influential role in the process. Other times. The advantages and drawbacks of coercion are approximately the same as that of manipulation and co-optation. Negotiation and Agreement : Management can bargain to offer incentives in return for agreement to change. Can be time consuming Where the initiators do not have all the information they need to design the change. time expensive and still fail. Can When someone or some group will clearly lose out in a change Sometimes it’s a relatively easy way to avoid major resistance. loss of promotion. This tactic is often necessary while dealing with powerful resistance. and where others have considerable power to resist. No other approach works as well with adjustment problems. Can be time consuming When people are resisting because of adjustment problems. negative performance evaluations and poor letter of recommendation. Once persuaded. general perks can be widely distributed and facilitate to implement the change.

Can Where speed is essential. It can be a relatively quick and inexpensive solution to resistance problems. It is speedy and can overcome any kind of resistance. Manipulation and Co-Optation Explicit and Implicit Coercion alerts others of negotiate for competence. and the changes initiations possess considerable power. Where other tactics will not work or are too expensive. people initiator. mad at the . Can be risky if it leaves Read: Ways to Overcome Resistance to Organizational Change lead to future problems if people feel manipulated.and when that group has considerable power to resist.