Jitsin chem.

Trial P1 2015

1

Section A [ 15 marks]
1

On collision, airbags in cars inflate rapidly due to the production of nitrogen.
The nitrogen is formed according to the following equations,
2NaN3
10Na + 2KNO3

2Na + 3N2
K2O + 5Na2O + N2

How many moles of nitrogen gas are produced from 1 mol of sodium azide,
NaN3?
A 1.5
B 1.6
2

C 3.2
D 4.0

In 1999 Russian chemists claimed to be the first to identify atoms of a new
element of proton number 114. This was produced by bombarding atoms of
plutonium, Pu, with atoms of an isotope of a Group II element, X. The reaction
taking place is the following,
244
94

Pu

289
114

(newelement)+ 3 neutrons

+ X

What is X?
A Ca
3

C Sr

D Ba

P and Q are two elements in the Periodic Table. The proton number of P is 28,
and Q2+ ion is isoelectronic with P. Which of the following is correct of P and Q?
A
B
C
D

4

B Mg

Element / ion Electronic configuration
P
1s22s22p63s23p63d104s2
Q
1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2
Q2+
1s22s22p63s23p63d10
2+
Q
1s22s22p63s23p63d84s2

The diagram below shows the mass spectrum of a gaseous element.
10Relative
abundance 987654321-

20

21

22

Mass/charge

Which of the following statements could be the correct interpretation of the
above diagram?
1 The percentage composition of the main isotope is 90.
2 The element is a monoatomic gas.
3 The relative atomic mass of the element is 21.
5

A I only
B 1 and 2 only
C 2 and 3 only
D 1, 2 and 3
Graphite can be used as a lubricant; diamond cannot. This is because graphite
has

A delocalized electrons.
B a hexagonal arrangement of atoms in the layers.
C covalent bonds between atoms in the layers.
D van der Waals’ forces between the layers of atoms.
6 Consider the following four compounds:
R
(CH3)3CH
S
CH3CH2CH2OH
T
CH3CH2CH2SH
U CH3CH2CH2CH3
What is the increasing order of boiling point of the compounds?
A R, U, T, S
C T, S, U, R
B S, T, U, R
D U, R, S, T
7

The covalent molecule of XYn has the following properties.
(i) Polar
(ii) Pyramidal in shape
(iii) Forms dative covalent bond with boron trifluoride molecules.
Which of the following statements about XYn molecule is true?
A
B
C
D

The element X is less electronegative than element Y.
The element X is located in Group 13 of the Periodic Table.
X atom undergoes sp2 hybridisation to form bonds with Y atom.
XYn molecule can acts as a Lewis base.

8 A 2 g sample of hydrogen at temperature T and of volume V exerts a pressure
2
p. Deuterium, 1H, is an isotope of hydrogen.
Which of the following would also exert a pressure p at the same temperature
T?
A 2 g of deuterium of volume V.
V
B 4 g of deuterium of volume 2
C a mixture of 1 g of hydrogen and 2 g of deuterium of total volume V.
D a mixture of 2 g of hydrogen and 1 g of deuterium of total volume 2V.
9 What is the maximum number of electrons that can be filled in the orbitals that
has the principal quantum number n = 3?
A 6

B 9

C 10

D 18

10 An equilibrium can be represented by the following equation.
P (aq) + Q (aq)
2R (aq) + S (aq)

05 mol dm-3 solution of sodium cyanide.5 moles 0. the equilibrium concentration of Q is 10 mol dm-3. XY 0.5 mole each of X2 and Y2 is heated in a closed container and the reaction allowed to reach equilibrium. the base dissociation constant.5 B 3 C 9 D 18 13 In aqueous solution.90 B 5. X2(g) + Y2(g) 2XY(g) A mixture containing 0.24 12 Two diatomic gases.are hydrolysed according to the following equation.In a certain mixture.6 0.3 0..1 14 Propanone reacts with iodine in the presence of an acid. NaCN at 250C? [At 250C. cyanide ions. 11 What is the pH of a buffer solution formed by mixing 200 dm 3 of 0.4 D 11.4 0. between 5 mol dm-3 and 10 mol dm-3.53 C 4.77 x 10-5 mol dm-3]. A 2.1 X2 and Y2 time 0 What is the value of the equilibrium constant Kc for this reaction? A 1. CN .10 x 10-5 mol dm-3 and ionic product of water. + CH3COCH3 + IH2 CH3COCH2I + HI . Kw.500 mol dm3 ethanoic acid and 300 dm3 of 0. What will be the new equilibrium concentration of Q if 5 mol of pure Q is dissolved in the mixture? A B C D between 10 mol dm-3 and 15 mol dm-3. Kb.89 B 3. of CN. CN-(aq) + H2O(g) HCN(aq) + OH-(aq) What is the pH of 0. A 2.00 x 10-14 mol2 dm-6.78 C 10. 15 mol dm-3. X2 and Y2 react as follows.is 3.0200 mol dm-3 sodium ethanoate? [Ka of ethanoic acid is 1. The graph shows the number of moles of each gas varies with time.2 0. is 1. 10 mol dm-3 .75 D 5.

C The freezing point of liquid X increases as pressure increases.0 Pressure/ atm 5. liquid. B Iodine is not involved in the rate-determining step. B Solid X sublimes at temperature above its triple point. 1 . H+ CH3COCH 3 CH3C CH2 (slow) OH CH3C CH2 + I2 CH3CICH 2I OH (fast) OH CH3COCH2I +HI CH3CICH 2I (fast) OH What conclusion cannot be drawn from this information? A The overall order of the reaction is 3. D The rate of the reaction is not affected by a change in the iodine concentration. .4 31. and vapour X coexists at critical point.The mechanism involves the following steps. 73. C The acid acts as a catalyst. D Solid.56. 15 The phase diagram of substance X is given below.1 Temperature / 0 C Which statement about the above phase diagram is true? A Substance X exists as a liquid at stp.

[1 mark] (ii) How many orbitals of phosphorus-32 are fully filled? mark] [1 (iii) Draw the shape of one orbital of phosphorus-32 which contains valence electrons. (i) Write the electronic configuration of phosphorus-32 isotope. [1 mark] (b) Carbon dioxide is used in some of fire extinguishers as it leaves no harmful residue. The carbon atom uses hybridized orbitals to form bonds in the carbon dioxide.Section B [15 marks ] 16. phosphorus-32 is used to control the excessive production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. (a) In a disease called Polycythermia vera. [ 1 mark] (ii) Is CO2 a polar or non-polar molecule? [1 mark] (iii) Draw a labelled orbital overlapping diagram for a CO2 molecule. (i) Draw the Lewis structure of carbon dioxide. [3 marks] . CO2 molecule.

17 According to Bohr’s atomic model postulates. Planck’s constant. By using the energy level diagram. RH. 1. [3 marks] 7 -1 [Rydberg constant.00 x 108 ms-1 . 6. 3. [1 mark] (ii) Calculate the minimum energy required to completely remove one electron from Lyman series.097 x 10 m . [3 marks] (b)(i) State the transition of electron that gives the longest wavelength. c = speed of light. (a) Draw the transition of electrons (first three lines) that resulting in the formation of Lyman series and Balmer series.63 x 10-34 Js ] (c) Give one other species that produces similar line spectrum of hydrogen atom in . thehe excited electrons will fall back to the lower energy levels by emitting a specific amount of energy or photon and producing series of lines known as line spectrum.

ion is shown as below: [Cu(H2O)4]2+(aq) + 4Cl-(aq) [CuCl4]2-(aq) + 4H2O(l) Blue Yellow Describe the observations and explain what will happen when silver nitrate is added to the system in equilibrium at constant temperature. [3] .ion and [CuCl4]2. draw the electron-sea model diagram and explain how the metallic bonding is formed.T1 to T2 (T2  T1 ) and the presence of a catalyst increase the rate of a chemical reaction. explain how both an increase in temperature. Ea. [6] (b) The equilibrium between [Cu(H2O)4]2. [1] (ii) With the aid of a sketch of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. and state the type of catalyst involved. (a) (i) Explain what is meant by the term activation energy. [5] (c) Oxides of nitrogen in the atmosphere contribute to the formation of acid rain by catalyzing the oxidation of SO2 to SO3. K is an element in Group 1 of the Periodic Table. [1 mark] Section C [ 30 marks ] 18. By using potassium as an example. [3] 19 (a) (i) Define metallic bonding.Lyman series. [1] (ii) Potassium. Write equations to show how this occurs.

At 300oC. titration curve.0 cm 3 of 0.3.090 (i) Explain the structure and type of bonding exist in compound P and Q. .20 Q 3800 2500 Completely miscible 0.100 mol dm -3 ethanoic acid and a few drops of an acid-base indicator.in the presence of H2O. (a) (i) What do you understand by the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases? [2] (ii) By using NO3.00 x10-14 mol2dm-6] Sketch the curve for the above titration. melting point and solubility in CCl4 for compound P and Q are shown as below: Compoun d Melting point (oC) Solubility in CCl4 P Boiling point (oC) -5 . [4] (ii) Predict the solubility of compound P and Q in water. 0. Deduce the structure of the molecules of ethanoic acid at 120oC and 300oC. [5] 20. NaOH is added dropwise into a conical flask containing 20. [3] (b) In an acid-base titration . 30. the pH of the reaction mixture is 12. [2] (c) Ethanoic acid boils at 118oC.0 cm 3 of 0. Kw = 1. Explain your answers.100 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide.150 g of ethanoic acid occupies 40. Identify the conjugate acid-base pair. [3] (d) By referring to the following table.80 x 10-5 mol dm-3. [Ka = 1. suggest the most suitable indicator for the above titration. Explain your answer. At the end of the titration.0 cm3 at 101 kPa.(b) The boiling point. At 120oC. pH of the solution at the Calculate and indicate in the (i) beginning of the titration (ii) equivalence point [5] (c) Explain why pH value at equivalence point is not 7. 0.0670 g ethanoic acid occupies 53. write a suitable equation to explain the theory above.0 cm3 at 101 kPa.

0 – 7.6 7.2 – 8.Indicator Methyl orange Bromothymol blue Cresol red Phenolphthalein pH range 3.0 [2] .1 – 4.4 6.8 8.3 – 10.

2py(O)] 2 bonds : [ Unhybridised 2py(C) . [1]  [1]  2  bonds : [Hybridised sp(C).2pz(O)] Acceptable Orbital Overlapping Diagrams.2py(O)]. [1] . [ Unhybridised 2pz(C) .Marking Scheme : Chemistry 962/1 2015 Section A : 15% 1 B 6 A 11 B 2 A 7 D 12 C 3 C 8 C 13 D 4 B 9 D 14 A 5 D 10 A 15 C Section B : 15% Q16 (a) (i) 1s22s22p63s23p3 / 1s22s22p63s23px13py13pz1 (ii) 6 [1 ] [1 ] (iii) OR OR OR [1] 3s O CO 3px 3py 3spz Eithe r one : 3s or 3px / 3py / 3pz (b)(i) [1 ] O CO X X X X OR (ii) Non-polar as dipole moments cancell each other ( = 0) [1 ] (iii)  central C atom : sp hybridisation (**Label correctly) OR Terminal O atom – sp2 hybridisation and 2 lone-pair of electrons.

Orbital overlapping diagram 1 : 3 marks ↿⇂   sp2 sp2  s p O C  ↿⇂  s p sp2 O ↿⇂ sp2 ↿⇂  ↿⇂ Orbital overlapping diagram 2 : 3 marks 2pz 2py 2pz   s p O  2pz  2pz C  s p O  Q1 7 (a) Energy ( i ) n= n=6 n =n 4= n =6 n=3 5 n=2 Lyman series Balmer series n=1 2py .

097x10 ) 2  2   1    Note : correct substitutions. . Transition of electron. n1  n2 OR  OR  [1]  1  1 E  hcRH  2  2   n1 n2  1 34 8 7  1 ΔE  (6.18x10  2 2  n1 n2    1   ** Li2+ OR Be3+ OR He+.(b) ( i ) (iii)  Label energy and energy levels.18 x 10-18 J ( 3 SFs) (c) Alternative :  1 1  1  -18 1 ΔE  RH  2  2  ΔE  2. the electron is no longer attracted by the nucleus.00x10 )(1. [1]  1 1 1  hc  RH 2  2  ΔE   n1 n2  .n ( n  6) REJECT : Energy level  Distance between energy levels decreases as n increases. OR Activation energy is the minimum energy that must be overcome by the reactant molecules before a chemical reaction can take place.  Correct transition of electrons for both Lyman and Balmer series. [1] Section C : 30% Q18 (a)(i) Activation energy is the minimum energy needed by the reactants for a [1] chemical reaction to occur OR Activation energy is the minimum energy needed by the reactants to form activated complex. It is removed / ionized. n = 3 to n = 2 OR n3  n2 [1] [1] [1] [1] When an electron is excited from its grounds state ( n = 1) to n = .63x10 )(3. [1]  2.

Hence the rate increases.to formed in soluble AgCl. [1] [1]  At T2. the reaction pathway is altered such that the activation energy is lowered to E’a. when a suitable catalyst is used.  Corresponding fraction of particles  E’a is shown. ** alter the mechanisms of the reaction [1] *[1] Max (6 )  Thus a greater number of particles with energy greater than E’a.(ii) Fraction of molecules with energy E T1 T2 ( T1) E’a Ea Energy . (b) Observations :  Solutions turn blue as more [Cu(H2O)4]2.ion is produced [1] / The intensity of the [1] blue colour of [Cu(H2O)4]2. The added Ag+ react with Cl. Hence. they are much greater number of particles with energy equal or greater [1] than Ea. [1] [1]  The Cl. [1]  Corresponding shaded area represents the fraction of particles equal or greater than Ea is shown.  a white precipitate /AgCl(s) is formed. colliding with each [1] other more frequently and results in effective collision. Hence the rate increases .  The particles are more energetic and they move faster.ions are removed from the system.ion increases. the reaction rate increases / the rate of reaction becomes higher.  At the same temperature. E  Label Y and X axes correctly // distribution curves for both T1 and T2.  The equilibrium position shifts from right to left to .

(b)(i) (ii) [1] [1] [1] Compound P  Structure : Simple covalent molecule  Type of bonding : weak van der Waals [1] [1] Compound Q  Structure : Ionic compound  Type of bonding : Ionic bond / electrovalent bond [1] [1]  Compound Q is more soluble in water than compound P. [1] TOTAL 15 Metallic bonding is the attractive forces / between the positively charged metal ions and the negatively charged of sea of electrons within the metal lattice. [1]  Compound Q is capable to form polar bonds with water [1] molecules. (c)  More [Cu(H2O)4]2.ions that have been removed.form more Cl.ions to replace the Cl.ions are produced  SO2 + NO2 SO3 + NO 1  NO + 2 O2 Note : Overall : SO2 Q19 (a)(i) [1] [1] NO2 1 + 2 O2 [1] SO3  NO2 functions as a homogeneous catalyst. [1] (ii)  Electron-sea model diagram  K+ e e e K+ K+ K+ e e K+ Note : No of delocalized electrons must = no of the given element (K)  Each potassium atom releases one valence electron into the open space in metallic lattice which can be imagined as a sea of delocalized electrons and forms K+ ion. .

0 cm3 and p = 101 kPa At T2= 3000C. [1] [1] . m = 0.0670g .6 / [1] 60. V = 40.0  At 1200C.0 cm3 and p = 101 kPa m mRT [1] Apply pV = nRT . 31)(120  273) 3 6  Mr of CH3COOH at 1200C = (101x10)(40.0670)(8 .150)(8.0X10) = 59. Hence M = pV r (0.3 [1] [1] (0. OR H O O CH3 C C O H CH3 O Hydrogen bonding  At 3000C. The relative molecular mass of CH3COOH is approximately 2 times /doubles the actual relative molecular mass.31)(300  273) 3 6  Mr of CH3COOH at 3000C = (101x10)(53.Note : Ion-dipole interaction between compound Q with water molecules. (c) Calculate the Mr of ethanoic acid. m = 0. the intermolecular hydrogen bonding is broken. CH3COOH at 1200C and 3000C  At T1= 1200C.  A base is a proton acceptor. Q20 (a)(i) (ii) Total 15  An acid is a proton (H+) donor. V = 53.150g . pV= Mr RT.  At this temperature. and the CH3COOH exists as monomer (CH3COOH). CH3COOH exist as a dimer through [1] hydrogen bonding.0X10) = 121 OR 121.

80x10 )(0.+ H+ ** H3O+ [H+] = = Ka. = ( 20.0) [1] . 3 8.+ H2O(l) HNO3(aq) (aq) Base (b) + OH- [1] [1] conjugate conjugate Acid base pH Titration curves : Weak Acid (WA) + Strong Base(SB) pH acid 12.0 30.100)/1000 = 2.c -5 (1.100) = 1.8 9 20.+ H2O(l) HNO3(aq) + OH-(aq) [1]  NO3.34 x 10-3 mol dm-3 pH = -log(1.0 Volume of NaOH added / cm3 [1]  Label axes : pH and total volume of NaOH and unit. [1]  Correct shape and equivalence/neutralisation point at 20.00 x 10-3 mol. the amount of NaOH and CH3COOH present exactly neutralizes one another. pH is determined from partial dissociation of weak acid CH3COOH CH3COO. NO3.89 (ii) At equivalence point. CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O No of moles of NaOH added (0.0 cm3  Before titration. The salt solution.7 2 (i) 2.34 x 10-3) = 2. CH3COONa formed is alkaline in nature.

 It changes colour sharply at equivalence point.56 x 10-10 mol dm-3. [OH-] = 5.0) falls within the end point of the titration / equivalence point of the solution. CH3COONa undergoes hydrolysis to produce OH-.3 – 10. Hence. pH = 14 – 5.0 (d)  Phenolphthalein [1]  Because the pH range of phenolphthalein ( 8.00x10 )mol conjugate acid3 base pair /-3at 250C (40.No of moles of CH3COONa formed also = 2. [1] [1]  pOH = 5.80x10) = 5.27 x 10-6.0500 mol dm -14 Kw (1.+ H2O(l) CH3COONa + H2O(l) [1] CH3COOH(aq) + OR CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH [1]  The solution formed is slightly basic / alkaline/ pH  9. Apply for any 3 (2.56 x 10-6 - + H2O [1] CH3COOH + x x  [CH3COOH][OH ]  [CH3COO ] Hence. CH3COOOH (Hydrolysis) 5. Kb = which is 5. - OH- CH3COO.56 x 10-10 Solving.00 x 10-3 mol.00x10 ) -5  Kw = Ka X Kb  Kb = Ka = (1. OR  The starting range (pH = 8.28 .3) falls just before the end point.0500=5. [1] .0/1000 )dm [CH3COONa] = = 0.56 x 10-10 x2  Since [CH3COOH] = [OH-]= x  0.72 (c)  The salt formed.28 = 8.

[1 mark] (c) State the transition of electrons that gives the longest wavelength in this series. [1 mark] .(b) Name the emission series that produce this series of lines.

7 -1 8 -1 [Rydberg constant. 3.(d) Calculate the wavelength. 6.63 x 10-34 Js ] [3 marks] . 1. Planck’s constant. RH.  corresponding to line b. c = speed of light.0 x 10 ms .097 x 10 m .

[2] (iii) Draw the Lewis structure of X. [1] .(a) A colourless gas X is an oxide of nitrogen. Identify gases X and Y. [2] (ii) Explain the equilibrium position when a small amount of helium gas is added to the equilibrium mixture at constant volume. It changes to a brown gas Y when heated and forms X again when cooled. and explain the observations. [4] (b) Gases X and Y are allowed to react in a closed container until equilibrium is reached. (i) State and explain what would be observed when the pressure of the container is increased at constant temperature.