4.

FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS
The noble (inert) gases – 2He, 10Ne, 18Ar, 36Kr, 54Xe – are so called because they are chemically
unreactive. In science, this is indicative of stability. The noble gases are stable so they do not need to
react chemically to gain stability. We know that the reason these gases are stable is because of their
electron count. You can think of the electron count of each of these elements as magic numbers: 2, 10,
18, 36, 54, which confers stability on the atoms.
In nature, all systems tend to move to a state having the greatest stability. Compounds are formed
because atoms “want” to attain a maximum stability – namely attaining the electron count of the nearest
noble gas.
Atoms can do this in two ways – by forming ionic bonds or by covalent bonds.

4.1 Ionic Bonds
Recall that an atom consists, in part, of protons and neutrons densely packed into a nucleus. The
electrons are moving rapidly outside of, and relatively far away from the nucleus. Thus for example, if the
nucleus of a hydrogen atom (located in downtown Montreal) is blown up to the size of a tennis ball, the
electron will be, on the average, in Beaconsfield. Because of these distances, the electron can “forget”
atom to which it belongs and attach itself to other atoms. The electrons of the atom can become “lost”.
Thus, atoms are capable of losing and gaining electrons.
If an atom gains an electron (which, of course, carries a negative charge), it then acquires an overall
negative charge. Similarly, if an atom loses an electron, it acquires a positive charge. Substances may
lose or gain more than one electron. Atoms gain charges by gaining or losing electrons. They do not
change their charge by gaining or losing protons.
e.g.

+

Na + e

Na

Cl + e

Zn

Fe

Fe

+ 2e

6+

+ 3e

+ 2e
+3e

O+2e
e.g.

3+

2+

Fe
Cr

Cl
2+

Zn


Fe

Cr
O

3+

2–

What are the charges of the substance when the specified numbers of electrons are added or
removed?
1. One electron is added to a bromine atom.
2. Three electrons are added to a nitrogen atom.
3. One electron is removed from a hydrogen atom.

Chemical substances which have charges are called ions.
3–

2–

Anions are chemical substances which have negative charges. e.g., N , O , I .
+

+

Cations are chemical substances which have positive charges. e.g., H , Na , Ca

2+

Typically:
Metals will lose electrons thereby forming cations.
Nonmetals tend to gain electrons thereby forming anions.
Again note that ions are NEVER formed by the addition or removal of protons.

page 30

Ca. Se. Sr. for example. Mg. • • Generally (but not always): • • Group VIA elements: O. Rb. Thus. a substance cannot accept electrons without other substances ready to supply those electrons. for – example. + Na – Na + e Cl + e + – – Cl – Na ------Cl The attraction of positive to negative results in the formation of an ionic bond. S. Cs will always form cations having (+1) charge. page 31 . Group VIIA elements: F. In will always form cations having (+3) charge. To be Memorised Thus: • Group IA elements: Li. it is easier for 3Li to lose one electron to attain the electron count of He (2) than to gain 7 e to – acquire the electron count of Ne (10). Group IIIA elements: Al. Ga. substances will not give up electrons unless there are other atoms ready to receive those electrons. I form anions having (–1) charge. Thus. Ionic compounds are crystalline. Te form anions having (–2) charge. The resulting neutrally charged compound is known as an ionic compound. Likewise a nonmetal such as 9F will prefer to gain one e to attain – the Ne electron count (10) than to lose 7 e to get to He (2). Cl. Ba will always form cations having (+2) charge. Ionic compounds can be recognised because only they have metal atoms. Na. K. Group IIA elements: Be. He Li+ 2+ Be Be2 Be2 + + + + Be2 + 3+ 2– O 2 Be + + Ne Al S Cl – Ar K+ Ca2+ Ga3+ Se2– Br– Kr Rb+ Sr2+ In3+ Te2– I– Xe Cs+ Ba2+ Transition metals will form cations having various charges 2– – F2 Be Mg Na 2+ Be2 Rn The reason that metals tend to lose electrons is that they are to the left of the Periodic Table – it is simpler for them to lose electrons to acquire the electron count to the noble gas of the preceding row.The Periodic Table is useful for determining the type of ion that will form. In general. Br. Likewise.

the electrons are shared between two atoms. . In covalent bonds. 10Ne.4.F F ° Each fluorine atom seeks to seize one electron from the other fluorine atom while retaining all of its own 9 electrons. – Consider the case of a sample consisting only of 9F atoms. °. F x • F This type of bond is known as a covalent bond.2 Covalent Bonds – We have already said that nonmetals tend to gain e to attain the electron count of the nearest noble gas – (to the right). This is fine when there is a nearby atom willing to supply e ‘s. One can think of F as having an electron hole that needs to be filled. no such supplier – exists in the container. however. If. located between the two nuclei. 9F requires one e to acquire the electron count of the nearest noble gas. page 32 . one from each fluorine atom. Covalent bonds are formed between nonmetal atoms. another method of acquiring e ‘s must be found. The result is that the two atoms are drawn together with the two electrons.

3 Nomenclature Nomenclature is a system of naming compounds so that: • • given the name of the compound. or given the formula of the compound. C2H2Cl2 7. page 33 . Binary ionic compound = metal + non-metal Whenever one of the atoms is a metal the compound is an ionic compound.g.1 BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS The term binary compound means that the compound consists only of two different types of atoms. 4. It is the signature of binary compounds. Before giving the system for naming compounds. you can write the name uniquely.4. Which of the following compounds are binary ionic compounds? CO2 Review: You must be able to recognize a metal from its location in the Periodic Table CaO CaCO3 FeCl3 NaNO2 CCl4 4. look to see if there is a metal. Simple Binary Ionic Compounds Name each of the following compounds. Thus there are two things to look out for: 1.1.3. Is it ionic? look for the suffix –ide. Exercise: State whether the following compounds are binary.g. CO2 6.3. metal + non-metal + ide The suffix –ide is very important.1 e. HCN Binary ionic compounds are formed from single atom (metal) cation and single atom (non-metal) anions. CH3CH3 8. Is it binary? 2. 4. e. CO 5. it is necessary to know something about the nature of the compound. you can write the formula of the compound uniquely.

we have been given the formula and from the formula we provided the name.Exercise: NaBr CaCl2 BaO Li3N NaNO3 4. To put together the formula of a binary ionic compound you must: 1. e. One electron is produced to form K and one electron is absorbed to – form I . K – I + Write an equation showing the gain or loss of electrons by each type of ion: K K + + e– I + e– I– d. It is binary – it has the suffix –ide. Write the formula of the compound with the cation + number of cations (subscripted) + anion+ number of anions (subscripted) e. Identify the type of compound This is ionic – calcium is a metal. Identify the charge of the cation and the anion. Calcium chloride a. Write the formula for each of the following compounds. Write the charges of each ion: Ca belongs to Group IIA so it has a charge of +2: Cl belongs to Group VIIA so it has a charge of –1: c. Write the charges of each ion: K belongs to Group IA so it has a charge of +1: I belongs to Group VIIA so it has a charge of –1: c. b. Put together the formula KI 2. given the name of the compound. It is binary – it has a the suffix –ide. 2+ Ca – Cl Write an equation showing the gain or loss of electrons by each type of ion: page 34 . b. Identify the type of compound This is ionic – potassium is a metal.3. the final formula must have an overall charge of zero (0). Chemical Formulas from Names In the previous section. we must be able to unambiguously write the chemical formula. Potassium iodide a.g. Multiply each cation and each anion by small integers so that the total charge supplied by all the cations equals the total charge supplied by all the anions. 3. Multiply each half equation by small integers so that the number of electrons produced in the 1st equation equals the number of electrons absorbed in the 2nd equation + This one is easy.1. 2. Name Rule: Formula When we put together a formula from the name.2 Determine whether each of the following is a binary ionic or binary covalent compound. That is. A functional system for naming compounds requires that the reverse also be true. 1.

Ca Ca 2+ 2 x [Cl + e – + 2e – – Cl ] e. Multiply each half equation by small integers so that the number of electrons produced in the 1st equation equals the number of electrons absorbed in the 2nd equation Each Cl absorbs only one e–. magnesium chloride barium sulphide aluminium selenide rubidium oxide strontium fluoride calcium bromide indium oxide page 35 . Put together the formula CaCl2 Exercise: Write the formula for each of the following compounds.Ca Ca Cl + e – 2+ – + 2e Cl – d. Thus we need 2 Cl’s to absorb both electrons produced by the Ca.

Care should be utilised here. 4. Ag always has (+1) 3+ Zn always has (+2) Al Cd always has (+2) 2+ 3+ Zn Ga Ag + 2+ Cd 3+ In 6. Group VIIA elements (Halogens) will have (–1). Thus: • • • Group VA elements (Nitrogen group) will have (–3).3. In will always form cations having (+3) charge. Thus. page 36 . FeO grey colour Fe2O3 reddish brown (rust) According to the rules learned in the previous section.2 BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS: CATIONS WITH VARIOUS CHARGES Most metal atoms can show several charges in different compounds. Usually. for example. Ga.2. 2.1 Rules for Assigning Oxidation States to Atoms These are to be memorised in the sequence provided. 4. you can use them to name the compound. the name of both of these compounds would be: iron oxide (the compound is binary). Ca. Na.4. iron is capable of forming two types of compounds when combined with oxygen having completely different physical and chemical properties. The difficulty with this system is that you have to either know or calculate the charges. Ba will always form cations having (+2) charge. H will usually have (+1) charge. but not always the Group A nonmetals will have a charge associated with the group number. 3. Group IIIA elements: Al. Fe2O3 would be named iron (III) oxide. ************ Once the oxidation states of all atoms in the compound have been calculated. 7. 8. 5. Rb. The sum of the oxidation numbers of all atoms in a chemical substance must add up to the overall charge of the substance. because the name would not give us a unique chemical formula. K. The exception is when H is bonded to a metal. 1. Group IA elements: Li.3. The oxidation number of all other atoms must be calculated. Group VIA elements (Oxygen group) will have (–2). Sr. in this case it will have an oxidation number of (–1). The nomenclature rule for these types of compounds is as follows: metal (charge of the metal in roman numerals) anion-ide Thus in the examples cited above: FeO would be named iron (II) oxide. The charges carried by atoms in a compound are known as oxidation numbers (or oxidation states). Mg. This is not adequate however. Group IIA elements: Be. Cs will always form cations having (+1) charge. There are many exceptions.

Cr2O3 a. Choose bromine according to its group number. You must choose a value of oxidation number for one of the atoms. 1. (O) = –2 • Substitute this into the equation above. The priority is given to Group A atoms. Write the name of the compound. The priority is given to Group A atoms. chromium (III) oxide Cr has a charge of +3 2. ionic compound. CoBr6 a. tin (IV) sulphide It is a binary. Determine the oxidation state of each element in the compound • Use Rule 1 to set up an equation 2(Co) + 6 (Br) = 0 • This is an equation with two unknowns. Write the name of the compound. (S) = –2 • Substitute this into the equation above. ionic compound. Sn has a charge of +4 page 37 .. Determine the oxidation state of each element in the compound • Use Rule 1 to set up an equation (Sn) + 2 (S) = 0 • This is an equation with two unknowns. Choose sulphur according to its group number. 2(Cr) + 3 (–2) = 0 2(Cr) = +6 (Cr) = +3 b. cobalt (VI) bromide It is a binary. Choose oxygen according to its group number. Write the name of the compound. Write the name of each of the following compounds. Co has a charge of +6 3.e. ionic compound. The priority is given to Group A atoms. You must choose a value of oxidation number for one of the atoms.g. (Sn) + 2 (–2) = 0 (Sn) = +4 b. You must choose a value of oxidation number for one of the atoms. (Br) = –1 • Substitute this into the equation above. SnS2 a. It is a binary. (Co) + 6 (–1) = 0 (Co) = +6 b. Determine the oxidation state of each element in the compound • Use Rule 1 to set up an equation 2(Cr) + 3 (O) = 0 • This is an equation with two unknowns.

Identify the charges of the ions (Hg) = +2 (N) = –3 b. Mercury (II) nitride a. Iron (III) chloride a. Write the formula: O2– ] Mn2O5 3. Write the formula: – + 3e – – Cl ] FeCl3 2. 3. See Rules 2. Combine the two types of atoms so there is a net charge of zero Mn5+ + 5 e– ] 2 x [ Mn 5 x [ O + 2 e– c. Write the formula: – + 2e ] 3– N ] Hg3N2 *********************************** General Rule for the Nomenclature of all Binary Ionic Compounds Metal F Charge of I anion GH metal JK ide Do not put this in if the metal has only one oxidation state.. e.e. Write the formula for each of the following compounds 1. Identify the charges of the ions (Fe) = +3 (Cl) = –1 b. Identify the charges of the ions (Mn) = +5 (O) = –2 b. 4 and 5.g..g. Write the names of each of the following compounds K2S W 2O5 CdO ZnCl2 AgCl page 38 . Manganese (V) oxide a. Combine the two types of atoms so there is a net charge of zero Fe Fe 3+ 3 x [ Cl + e c. Combine the two types of atoms so there is a net charge of zero 3 x [ Hg Hg 2+ – 2 x [ N + 3e c.

For our purposes. Possible combinations include: NO N2O NO2 N2O3 N2O4 N2O5 Since the products are not predictable when nonmetals react. there is only one way to put the compound together.3 BINARY COVALENT COMPOUNDS These can be recognised because they contain no metal atoms. nonmetal + nonmetal Binary covalent compounds: Binary covalent compounds are named quite differently from binary ionic compounds. The case of the reactions of nitrogen (N2) with oxygen (O2) demonstrates this. In the case of binary ionic compounds. Memorise the following list of numerical prefixes 1 mono- 2 di- 3 tri- 4 tetra- 5 penta- 6 hexa- 7 hepta- 8 octa- 9 nona- 10 decaNomenclature: (prefix) nonmetal (prefix) nonmetal -ide Number of first nonmetal atom (omit if it is mono) First nonmetal is named. In the case of binary covalent compounds. the situation is completely different. only nonmetals form covalent bonds. We use numerical prefixes to state explicitly the number of each type of atom present in the molecule.3. It is the one closest to the metal side Signature of binary compounds page 39 . once the oxidation numbers of all species are known. we must use a different system of nomenclature.4. The same pair of atoms may form several covalent compounds.

Number of N-atoms = 2 Number of O-atoms = 3 (it is covalent and binary) prefix = di prefix = tri c. Name the compound prefix = tetra prefix = hexa tetraphosphorous hexoxide page 40 . Name the compound dinitrogen pentoxide 7. NO2 a. Name the compound (it is covalent and binary) prefix = mono prefix = mono mononitrogen monoxide nitrogen monoxide 2. Is it ionic or covalent? Is it binary? b. Name the compound dinitrogen tetroxide 6. Name the compound prefix = di prefix = mono dinitrogen monoxide 3. Is it ionic or covalent? Is it binary? b. N2O4 a. Number of N-atoms = 2 Number of O-atoms = 1 c. N2O3 a. Number of N-atoms = 1 Number of O-atoms = 1 c. Is it ionic or covalent? Is it binary? (it is covalent and binary) b. Name the compound (it is covalent and binary) (it is covalent and binary) prefix = mono prefix = di mononitrogen dioxide nitrogen dioxide 4. NO a. Number of N-atoms = 2 Number of O-atoms = 4 prefix = di prefix = tetra c. Is it ionic or covalent? Is it binary? b. Is it ionic or covalent? Is it binary? b. P4O6 a. N2O a. Number of N-atoms = 1 Number of O-atoms = 2 c. N2O5 a. Number of P-atoms = 4 Number of O-atoms = 6 c. Number of N-atoms = 2 Number of O-atoms = 5 prefix = di prefix = penta c.1. Is it ionic or covalent? Is it binary? (it is covalent and binary) b. Name the compound dinitrogen trioxide 5. Is it ionic or covalent? Is it binary? (it is covalent and binary) b.

POLYATOMIC IONS NH 4+ Ammonium C2 H3O2 Acetate Hg22+ Mercury (I) C2 O42 Oxalate MnO4 Permanganate OH Hydroxide Cr2 O72 Dichromate CN Cyanide CrO42 Chromate SCN Thiocyanate SO42 Sulfate ClO4 Perchlorate SO32 Sulfite ClO3 Chlorate PO43 Phosphate ClO2 Chlorite PO33 Phosphite ClO Hypochlorite NO3 Nitrate CO32 Carbonate NO2 Nitrite 4. acids are ionic compounds in which the cations are all protons.4 Naming Acids + Acids (Arhennius definition) – substances which. + By implication then. hypochlorite HClO. when dissolved in water. H . produce H ions. hypochlorous acid Examples: HI hydroiodic acid HCN hydrocyanic acid HIO4 periodic acid HBrO2 bromous acid page 41 . chloric acid ite ous acid ClO . chlorate HClO3 .3. hydrochloric acid ate ic acid ClO3 . Nomenclature of Acids is based on the nomenclature of the anion as there is no need to reference the cation which is always H+. chloride HCl. Anion ide Corresponding Acid hydro ic acid Example Anion Corresponding Acid Cl–.

Thus for example. + As you would expect. For example. the anion in these hydrogenated anions includes the hydrogens. Cation (Cation Charge) + (prefix for the number of hydrogen – omit mono) hydrogen + root anion. Thus the following substances decompose as follow: Na2 HPO4 2 Na + + HPO42 Anion = HPO42 not PO43 NaH 2 PO4 Na + H 2 PO4 Anion = H 2 PO4 not PO43 + page 42 . compounds such as: Na2HPO4 NaH2PO4 and Ba(HCO2)2 are possible. the combination of lithium and ammonium cations with phosphate can have: (NH4)Li2PO4 Ammonium dilithium phosphate (NH4)2LiPO4 diammonium lithium phosphate Note that the sequence in which the cations are named is alphabetical. The nomenclature is based on the anion root. ionic compounds having one or more H cations.5 Acid anions For anions having multiple charges. but not all. are special cases.4. there is no reason for the cations to be identical.3. Thus Na2HPO4 sodium hydrohen phosphate NaH2PO4 sodium dihydrogen phosphate Ba(HCO2)2 barium hydrogen carbonite Note that although the name is based on the anion root. It is perfectly legitimate to have an ionic compound with a formula that combines several different cations.

Hg(BrO3)2 37. Zn(NO3)2 23. calcium hypochlorite 4. iron (III) sulphide 26. K2SO3 35. 2004. NH4NO2 27. This assignment will count as part of the quiz grade. Al(ClO2)3 21. write the formula. It is due on Thursday. March 18. cobalt (II) acetate 8. carbonic acid 34. Use the Periodic Table as your main reference. Cr2O3 . lead (II) iodide 32. H2O2 31. barium hydroxide 6. CdCl2 17. HCN (aq) 39. SnS 9. CaCl2 6H2O 25. manganese (II) oxalate 16. KMnO4 5. if the formula is given. 1. mercury (I) chloride 20. page 43 .Exercises on Nomenclature For each substance whose name is given. mercury (II) chlorate 12. iron (II) sulphate heptahydrate 28. provide the name. barium bromate 30. carbon dioxide 2. calcium fluoride 10. BaCl2 3. you may look these up in your textbook. sodium sulphite 36. gallium selenate 24. H3PO3 (aq) 29. Al2(Cr2O7)3 13. aluminium oxide 22. periodic acid 38. CBr4 11. sodium carbonate 18. KH2PO4 19. magnesium hydrogen sulphate 40. Ammonia 14. Ca(OH)2 33. If you encounter ions with which you are unfamiliar. FePO4 7. Al2(SO4)3 15.