Summary and Conclusions

3 lines of approximately 1km length were selected.3 Location The survey location is in Block 2/3. For this test Block 2 was chosen as this area has the land compensated and drilling already completed provides a reference for the geolgy in the area. Seismic survey was conducted in block 2 to test the benefit of this type of survey to reveal geological structure below the ground.2. An uncompensated weather-layer thickness variations on the order of 1m across the length of geophone array can distort the spectrum of the signal and resul in aberrations on final stacked data. It is our hope to develop seismic as a tool to be able to identify structures in the coal and determine their type and orientation. 2. Seismic can provide resolution of the coal deposit structure that drilling alone cannot. In some cases 25 X 25m spacing has been insufficient to define the coal structure with enough detail to facilitate mining with certainty. The precise location is shown in Figure 1.0 Introduction Shallow seismic reflection surveys can assist in determination of velocity and/or thickness variations in near surface layers.1 Objectives The main objective is to determine the geological structure of coal deposits underground and minimize the requirement for drilling. . 2. 2.2 Background In the past coal deposit definition has required close spaced drilling to measure the coal deposit. P-wave velocities in areas where the weathered zone is composed of unconsolidated materials can be substantially less than the velocity of sound on air. Static correction to seismic reflection data compensate for velocity and thickness variations within the “weathered zone”.

3.1 Equipment Used           48 geophones + spares 2 spread cables 2 geode adapter cables 48 channel seismograph with Frequency 10Hz 12 volt battery power laptop (plus Ethernet cable) weight drop base plate trigger and trigger cable tools .Figure 1 proposed seismic survey location map 3.0 Method A description of the method used to carry out the seismic survey is described as follows.

beginning at the start of the survey line. 2 the geophone spread cable was then laid out with Channel 24 and 48 of the survey line and the connectors were placed near the geophones 3 geophones were then connected to the spread cable after ensuring plugs were clean. Geophone spacing was generally 4m apart. soil and moisture 4 both 24 channel cables were then connected together in the centre of the array with a 48 channel adapter Figure 2 shows the seismic survey equipment configuration Geophones were placed in the following pattern to maximize the reflected seismic data particularly from shallow depth (0-100m). .2 array layout Initially to set-up the array the following procedure was followed. free of dust. 1 geophones were inserted into the soil at 4m geophone intervals.Photo 1 Geometric geodes and cables 3. a the ground was cleared of humus to uncover the soil b the geophone probes were inserted into soil vertically c geophones were forced in as far as possible to ensure a good coupling between the probe and seismic signal and also to reduce the sensitivity of the geophone to wind generated noise. Line preparation was as follows.

3 acquisition method Before any equipment could be set-up in the field the following preparation had to be made. control box. from the previous array. and geophones 25-48. 1 geophones 1-24 were unplugged 2 geophones 1-24 were then further along the surveyed line repeating the initial array set-up procedure 3 geophones 1-24 then become 25-48. 1 the survey line was cleared from bush and humus or any form of obstruction where possible 2 the seismic line was then surveyed for topography to record receiver (geophone) and shot-point positions 3 receiver and shot-point positions were marked using flagging tape . the PC.Figure 3 geophone array layout Moving the array along the line was achieved as follows. seismograph. batteries. become 1-24. To ensure the change was properly received in the software live checking the geophone response was carried out 4 as the array was moved along the survey line the seismograph. and air tank were also moved because of cable length limitations 5 Once the array was been moved a system check was carried out before the next shot was fired 3.

Photo 2 seismic line cleared. The recording trigger was then set-up by connecting the trigger to a geophone at the base plate where the accelerated weight drop impact occurs. Before firing the weight drop a complete system check was carried out to do a final check on all systems and confirm their full operational condition. a b c d e place base plate in position load weight drop fire a test shot to settle the plate ensure that the trigger geophone has a secure coupling with the plate reload the weight drop . When this was confirmed the weight drop was prepared for firing by following operating procedures. surveyed and marked with flagging tape The cable spread was then connected to the seismograph. The opposite end of the recording trigger cable was then attached to the seismograph. The seismograph was connected to a 12 volt battery and computer so that the survey was ready for recording.

The results were then checked by looking for noisy. dead or random channels.4 source type An accelerated weight drop was used. 3. .Photo 3 weight drop setting in the field The recording mode in the PC software was then selected and the weight drop fired. Shots were generally fired 3-6 times to ensure sufficient data was recorded. If there were too many bad channels then the shot was re-taken.

This was then added to 120kg of force provided by a rubber accelerating device tightened by a hand winch to provide a total force of 200kg for each impact. Photo 5 hand winch for loading weight drop .Photo 4 weight drop tripod device The weight used is 80kg.

north to south for line2. Array 1: First live station: 0.3.125 ms record Length: 500ms delay: 0 sec acquisition filter: filter out gain: all low gain shot interval: 4 meters geophone interval: 4 meters stack acquisition: 1-12 times .          survey mode: reflection sample interval: 0.6 Seismic Acquisition Parameters The following parameters were used in acquisition of the seismic data.5 First live channel: 13 Last live station: 72.5 Last live channel: 84 3.5 First live channel: 37 Last live station: 24.5 shot pattern The configuration of survey is started from south to north for line1. But sometimes at line 2 array 5 and array 6 from north to south. For line2 9 arrays and for line 3 5 arrays. and others line each array difference orientation(south-north or north-south).5 and end at station 72. and north to south for line3.channel 1 at station 13 channel 48 at station 60. For line1.5 Last live channel: 60 Array 2: First live station: 96.arrays is used to 6 and the orientation of array 1 started at station 0.5.

and killing traces. muting. 5. Detail information of source and receiver). reject bad shot and bad channel. . Frequency filtering(band pass filter. Anothers stacking with residual static to get more good data with reCDP shorting and reStacking.Figure 4 shot data FFID 1350. The processing flow can be summarized in the following. 4. The recorded data(SEG2) were converted into segy data. Merger data with geometry information(ie. a set of commercially available algorithms.7 Processing Procedure Data processing was done using ProMAX. 2.scaling).stack 4 3. Simple analysis of direct and refracted wave was conducted from the data no obtain the accurate weathering and sub-weathering velocities quantitatively. 1. 3. 7. Data conversion. Velocity scanning(determination of NMO[normal move out] velocities) and stacking. spectrum analysis. 8. Edit shot and receiver. Migration is final process(time migration and depth migration). attenuate noise with apply deconvolution. CDP (command depth point) shorting 6.shot location 348.

gain Brute_Stack VELOCITY ANALYSIS(1) Velocity Analysis Precompute Velocity Analysis VolumeViewer/Editor RESIDUAL STATICS 1 DMO VELOCITY ANALYSIS(2&3) Processing step seismic data 4.bandpass.reverse) Deconvolution. Results .DeconGate Elevation Statics PREPROCESSING Disc Data Input Editing(killing.muting.fk -filter.INPUT DATA Segy Input GEOMETRY Matching the data with geometry STATICS CORRECTION Firs Break.

7). delineation of structure is good. .6. The result(figure 5.The data is difficult to find good reflector due to noise data and high frequency data at near offset. Identification coal very difficult but generally. Thickness of coal between 1-2 ms but in the data. We have done process the data with low frequency (5-70Hz) as shown above. all line very complex strutures. vertical resolution between 10-20 ms. Generally.

Figure 5 seismic interpretation of line 1 .

Figure 6 seismic interpretation of line 2 Figure 7 seismic interpretation of line 3 .


Recommendations .5.