CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

1

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Play has been defined as the essence of childhood. Its
informality and comparative disregard of purpose and reality

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

2

lend it a quality that makes it readily distinguishable from
work and structured goal-seeking. In play, the ratio between
the influence of imagination and the physical dimensions of
the environment for almost the reverse of that found in the
ordinary means – ends activities of everyday adult life.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

3

Children spend much of their time with things called
toys that have little use beyond the play itself. Yet play
may occupy a vital position in the life of every person at
all

stage

of

the

life

cycle,

merely

varying

in

form

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

4

according to the culture, situation and type and stage of
development.
Play at every age has multiple functions. Not every
person

enjoys

all

of

them

nor

does

every

type

of

play

permits all of them to be expressed. But, whatever its

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

5

varieties, play is principally defined by its detachment
from purpose external to itself. Whatever end or personal
needs it satisfies must be sought in the character and
processes themselves. Although play may in fact contribute

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

to

the

individual’s

development

or

goal

6

seeking,

the

relations between play and goal-seeking activities are more
indirect than direct. When children play with toys or adults
play games they are often performing tasks in which they
employ means to work towards ends.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

7

Play is filled with many other qualities that enrich
the child’s development. It is the process that combines
many of the sets and sequences of mental operations that
make up problem solving and reasoning. The exploration of a
situation or a problem, an inquiry orientation, scanning and

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

8

analyzing, identification and synthesis of means – ends part
and relations are all built into many of the activities of
playing with toy people, vehicles and blocks, form boards
and activities with playmates in socio-dramatic play. The
quality of problem solving will depend on circumstances and

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

9

how the child has been stimulated during past and current
development.
The purpose of this study is to find out the level
kindergarten
Structured

pupils’ performance
Play

which

in

relation

is beneficial to the

to

of
the

kindergarten

Statement of the Problem This study on the Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Academic Performance in Relation to the Structural Play aims . Negros Occidental pupils of the Division of La Carlota City 10 and its Relation to their Academic Achievement.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Specifically it aims to answer the following questions: 1. Negros Occidental to assess the academic performance of the 11 kindergarten pupils through the use of a structural play.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Age profile of the . What is the socio-demographic respondents in terms of: a.

Exploratory/ Manipulative Play Construction/ Creative Play Symbolic Play . b. c. What is the level of Kindergarten Pupil’s performance on a. Sex c. Father Educational Attainment e. Family Monthly Income d.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 12 b. the Structured Play in terms of. Mother Educational Attainment? 2.

What is the level of Kindergarten pupils’ 13 Academic Performance? 4. Language Play e. Is there a significant difference on pupil’s Academic Performance when grouped according to their profile? . Instrumental Play? 3. Negros Occidental d.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 5. Is there a Kindergarten significant Pupils’ difference Academic on 14 the Performance level of on the Structured Play when grouped according to respondents’ profile? .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Is there a significant relationship that exists between the level of Kindergarten Pupils’ performance on the Structured Play and their Academic Performance? Hypotheses . Negros Occidental 15 6.

There is no Performance significant when difference grouped according 16 on to pupil’s their . Negros Occidental 1.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Academic profile.

There is no significant difference on the level of Kindergarten pupils’ Academic Performance on the Structured Play when grouped according to respondents’ profile. . Negros Occidental 17 2.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

There is no significant relationship that exists between the level of Kindergarten Pupils’ performance on the Structured Play and their Academic Performance.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 18 3. .

Negros Occidental 19 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Mother’s Dependent Variable . Negros Occidental 20 Pupils’ Academic Performance I. Age b. Father’s Educational Attainment e. Family Monthly Income d. Socio-demographic Profile of the Pupils Independent Variable a. Sex c.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental II.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Language Play e. Symbolic Play d. Instrumental Play 21 . Construction/ Creative Play c. Exploratory/ Manipulative Play b. Types of Structured Play a.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 22 .

Negros Occidental Figure 1: 23 Schematic Diagram illustrates the relationship between the Independent Variable Dependent Variable.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Theoretical Framework .

” According to him. Play processes .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. It is similarly organized around the exercise and mastery of cognitive rules for doing things. like planned and striving. play may not follow a steady course or work but. Negros Occidental This study was anchored to William 24 Fowler’s Book entitled “Infant and Child Care.

are 25 concerned with the development of competence systems cognitive rules processes are as integral to the many types of play as they are to formal tasks. though both are integral to it: there is an . Negros Occidental like all other activities.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Play is not a mere expressions of feelings and fantasy .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 26 organization to play. in which even the simplest touching and searching activities are patterned by rules of how things are structural and the relation. however primitive of means to work. .

Play is concerned with experimentation and fancy. Negros Occidental 27 He added that play is bound by the limits of materials and the structure of activities and can no more transcend the iron framework of reality and activity organization than any other activity.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. its organization increase in complexity through .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Knowledge (2) Problem Solving (3) Language . Negros Occidental the development of competence in the 3 28 basic types of processes with which all mental activities are structured that is (1) Processes.

of its progression determine by the successive learning of rules and concepts.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental The mental general process character is one of of structural increasing 29 development complexity. As more rules are acquired. the child is able .

Negros Occidental 30 to act in play more intricately. and in more generalized. more abstractly. Part I was the Socio-demographic Profile . Conceptual Framework In this study it illustrated the Independent Variable that had 2 Parts.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

. in terms of Age. Father’s Educational Attainment and Mother’s Educational Attainment. Sex.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Parents’ Monthly Income. Negros Occidental 31 of the Kindergarten Pupils of 3 Urban and 3 Rural School. Construction Creative Play. Part II was the Types of Structured Play in terms of Exploratory/Manipulation Play.

In Dependent Variable. it tells the Academic Performance of the Kindergarten Pupil’s. Negros Occidental Symbolic Play. Language Play and Instrumental 32 Play.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Scope and Limitation of the Study .

SY.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 33 This study was limited only to the 90 kindergarten of the three Urban and three Rural Schools in the Division of La Carlota City. 2015-2016. Negros Occidental. Significance of the Study .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental The findings of this study were beneficial 34 to the following: School Administrator – the findings of this study guide them information about the kindergarten program on play curriculum that they may be able to provide the different .

. Negros Occidental 35 kinds of toys and materials from their MOOE to be used by the kindergarten pupils.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. manipulative and active in participating the different play activities. Pupils – the findings of this study helped the children to become creative.

Negros Occidental 36 Teachers – the findings of this study let them know the importance of play in the kindergarten classes.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. They should do some activities like indoor and outdoor activities that can be conducted with proper instruction and orientation. .

They must understand that play was one of the developmental task that children should perform. Definition of Terms .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 37 Parents – the findings of this study let them know that play was needed by their children.

things. . It is organized around the exercise and mastery of cognitive rules for doing Operationally.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. it refers to the title of the study. Negros Occidental Structural Development of Play – a 38 play which has planned goal striving.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the structural . This is based on sensorimotor enjoyment of exploring shapes. it refers to one of development of play stated in this study. texture and changes in environment. Operationally. color. Negros Occidental 39 Exploratory/Manipulative Play – is the simplest level of activity.

. Negros Occidental 40 Instrumental Play – is a model for means-ends goal striving and problem solving for almost all activities throughout life.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Operationally it refers to one of the plays conducted in this study.

is the process by which children come to understand and communicate language during early childhood. . Operationally.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. it refers to one of the structural play. measured in this study. Negros Occidental 41 Language Development .

a method of group psychotherapy in which each patient assumes and dramatizes a variety of roles.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. it refers to the same in meaning conceptually. Negros Occidental 42 Socio-dramatic Play . . Operationally. usually focusing on problems and conflicts arising in group situations.

it is the grade point average (GPA) ranked according to special designation. it refers the performance of children in school in different subject areas rated through different criteria. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 43 Academic Performance – Conceptually. Operationally.

one of the respondents profiles used in this study. Operationally.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental Educational statisticians Attainment- refers to is a higher term 44 commonly degree of used by education. .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental CHAPTER II 45 .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 46 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Descriptions of Child Language Development for Parents Parents are sometimes concerned about their children's progress in learning to speak. My first son was born in mid2002 and has grown into a boy who is articulate in two .

. having a large vocabulary and good reading ability in each language now. born in 2007. is also developing normally. My second son. Negros Occidental 47 languages (English and Mandarin Chinese).CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. My oldest son had occasional dysfluency (stuttering) while age four that went away when he was less distracted by his play.

preferring to use English at . Negros Occidental 48 and although he initially seemed more precocious in learning to speak more languages than his older brother.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Now he is articulate in Mandarin and adequate in English as we live in Taiwan. particularly in English. later he seemed to be somewhat speech-delayed.

and have gathered this information both for .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. But before my older son was born I was concerned about the issue of child speech development as a talkative firsttime parent. Negros Occidental 49 all times he speaks to me. His older brother prefers to speak to him in Mandarin.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. on the former Other . Negros Occidental 50 parents of "normal" children and for parents concerned about speech delays in their children. I have learned much about the issue of childhood language delays from the speechlanguage pathologists (SLPs) who networked for years with parents on Prodigy's Medical Support BB.

My reading list on language development of . all opinions expressed on any page on this site are my own. 1-6YO SPEECH DELAY subject. unless attributed specifically to someone else.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. however. 51 I gratefully acknowledge their support and encouragement in preparing this list. Negros Occidental Medical topic.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. The books are listed in order of most to least hands-on advice for helping young children. . Negros Occidental 52 children gathers resources for parents that inform them of what they can do at home to help their children. and how to seek professional help for language delays when necessary.

Negros Occidental 53 Childhood Speech. 0-471-03413-4 suggested [pbk. ix and glossary.]). . 2005) (ISBN guide. Language.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. index. 213 pages. reading. and Listening Problems: What Every Parent Should Know Patricia McAleer Hamaguchi (New York: John Wiley. resource bibliography.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 54 Book by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) outlining the various diagnostic categories used by SLPs in current practice. reduce childhood language development . Includes suggestions for parents on in-home steps to take to difficulties.

MA: Brookline Books. Negros Occidental 55 Talking from Infancy: How to Nurture and Cultivate Early Language Development William Fowler (Cambridge.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. in-home program for . Fowler lays out a practical. references and index. xv and 236 pages. 2000) (ISBN 0-914797-71-9). Dr.

Both Fowler and Baron (an author reviewed below) tackle the issue of age norms for levels of speaking ability.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 56 parents helping the speech development of their children. with Fowler suggesting they now don't take into account what's possible with early language enrichment. There is also a .

Growing up with Language: How Children Learn to Talk Naomi (ISBN S. . 269 pages. xvi and MA: Addison-Wesley. Baron 0-201-55080-6).CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 2002) index. notes. (Reading. Negros Occidental 57 great videotape version of Talking from Infancy available from the book's publisher.

Negros Occidental 58 Baron's book is the most general in scope and has excellent lists of additional resources for parents. Baron and Fowler agree . Baron reports a great range of differing ages at which "average" children reach different language milestones.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental that appropriate parental involvement can 59 significantly speed up and enhance a child's language development. Baby Talk: Toddlers The Art of Communicating with Infants and .

Baby Talk: How to Help Your Baby Learn to Talk language . Negros Occidental 60 Monica Devine (2001) (ISBN 0-306-43762-7). Devine is a speech-language pathologist whose book gives many examples of activities parents can use to promote development in their children.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

viii and 133 pages. MN: Meadowbrook 61 Creations. Much hands-on advice for activities for children of various ages. 1986) (ISBN 0-671-60570-4).CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. including language games. Negros Occidental Bruce Lansky (Deephaven. list of recommended books for reading aloud to children at various ages. .

Negros Occidental 62 Late-Talking Children Thomas Sowell (New York: Basic Books. notes.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. index. x and 180 pages. appendix. and report on his work with a support group . 2007) (ISBN 0465-03843-4). Author's first-hand experiences with a son who experienced speech delay.

. but much comfort for parents who feel they are alone in this situation. Negros Occidental for parents with similar experiences. including the full survey form. to promote further research.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Not much howto information. Includes 63 appendix reporting on a survey of the support group.

Negros Occidental 64 Talk With Your Child Harvey S. Wiener (New York: Viking. list of books to read to children. 0-1400-9652-3 [pbk. index. 1988) (ISBN 0-67081411-3.and 276 pages.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.?]). This title and the next title .

And Other Playful Ponderings: How to Have Intelligent and . Negros Occidental focus especially on teaching children conversation 65 and thinking skills. . Is Your Bed Still There When You Close the Door? . .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

MA: Harvard U Press. Locke (Cambridge. 2003) (ISBN 0-674-11640-2). The Child's Path to Spoken Language John L. xi and 517 pages. credits.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. references. . Negros Occidental 66 Creative Conversations with Your Kids (Jane Healy (2002) (ISBN 0-385-41762-4).

readable .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 67 index. Checking Hearing language development. Locke's book is a good recent book for persons with a professional interest in enough for general readers.

Negros Occidental 68 Scientists who have spent their professional careers studying children all agree that steady language development is essential for well-rounded social development. Always be alert to the possibility of low-grade hearing loss if your child is slow in learning language after following the .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

White's excellent and helpful book The New First Three Years of Life (revised and updated edition 2005) (ISBN 0-684-80419-0) on pages 271-75 and page 283 has excellent advice for parents on how to prevent or at least observe hearing loss (which is often caused by ear . Negros Occidental 69 suggestions above. Burton L.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. there is enough other useful content in The New First Three Years of Life to make that book well worth buying for any parent. (By the way. Negros Occidental 70 infections) long before it would be noticeable without daily visits by an audiologist or physician. .

Negros Occidental Early childhood hearing loss is a 71 treatable or preventable problem.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. not always sufficiently attended to in pediatric practice. Note that there is a dispute among physicians . Making sure your children can hear well is an indispensable first step to encouraging their language development.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. But do seek professional advice if you have any reason to think your child is not hearing . Negros Occidental about how useful aggressive antibiotic treatment 72 is in treating ear infections. and there is even dispute about how often ear infections can be correctly diagnosed just by looking in a child's ear.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla." I've heard of too many parents whose children had frequent ear infections. and then "dyslexia" to take this matter lightly. and get a second opinion if the advice is only "don't worry about it. Negros Occidental 73 normally. Before Talking: Sign Language for Babies . then delayed speech.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental I haven't tried this out myself. 74 but while doing research to update this page I came across some on-line descriptions of books about using sign language (not necessarily standard sign language used by deaf people) to .

Negros Occidental 75 "talk" to babies before they are old enough to speak words. It begins as soon as the baby is aware that something shiny . That sounds like an interesting idea. Exploratory Play Exploratory play is the stuff of curiosity and inquiry.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 76 is dangling over her head and she reaches out to examine what it is.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Children who have been encouraged to explore . exploratory play is soaring. By age four. Exploratory play is highly physical in the early stages as the infant or toddler uses all of his body to explore the world around him.

there is nothing that holds more interest .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental freely and without undue limits will continue 77 to use exploration as a means of learning about the world in which they live. By the middle years. as any teacher of the Junior Division knows.

Children learn about the characteristics of materials as they interact with them and this knowledge is important for . Negros Occidental 78 for many at this age than taking things apart and putting them back together. Materials are an important part of exploration.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 79 scientific experiments. themselves and .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. position as With they or without move materials. They learn about the characteristics of shapes as they build with blocks – an important learning for understanding children explore geometry.

Position is relevant to movement and dance. Placing too much emphasis on the end product or on using .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. curiosity. Exploration flourishes in an emotional environment that encourages initiative. Negros Occidental 80 objects in different spatial configurations. as well as geometry. and problem solving.

.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Teachers will know when to interject prompt questions or demonstrate how some tools work so that the exploration does not become frustrating for the child. Negros Occidental tools in the “correct” way causes children 81 to lose confidence in them and inhibits risk-taking.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. it might be said that they are keen observers of the world as a result. Negros Occidental 82 As the child matures. They absorb a great deal of information as they watch the emergence of the butterfly . all five senses are engaged in exploring and learning about the world. Children use their senses so much.

as they smell the fragrances of the different flowers. They bring this world knowledge to their reading and writing. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. as they listen to the seeds shaking in their pod. and they use this ‘data’ to make comparisons. and as they touch a sample of snake skin. Negros Occidental 83 from the chrysalis.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 84 Children have been involved in some form of inquiry from infancy as they explored their effect on objects in their world. kindergarten Inquiry program is and an important the primary component grades as of the children continue to experiment in an effort to discover more about a .

inquiry. Negros Occidental 85 particular interest that intrigues them. and the artist to create innovative works. . By the end of the Intermediate scientific Division.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. It exploration is the is the essence of process that enables the researcher to find solutions for the many challenges in our world.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental The Ontario Technology Curriculum uses experimentation. the The Grades words Ontario 1-8: 86 Science investigate Curriculum and through Grades 1-8: Mathematics refers to children developing problem solving strategies as they pose and solve problem and conduct .

While exploration is acknowledged in these curriculum areas as an important component of learning. Instrumental Play . Negros Occidental 87 investigations.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. it is not explicitly connected to the elements of play.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . Olson and Reynolds (1983) described a means-end chain with six levels of attributes. Negros Occidental 88 A means-end chain is a simple knowledge structure that links product attributes to the consequences produced by these attributes (Gutman 1982).

and values. a couple may decide to deposit money at a small. ordered from 89 less to more abstract. personal service (functional . local bank because it is nearby (concrete attribute) and provides friendly. Negros Occidental consequences.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. For example.

Negros Occidental consequence).CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. A means-end chain is the . because the Personalized couple service wants to is 90 seen as important establish a trusting relationship with the company responsible for managing their money (psychosocial consequence). in order to satisfy their need for security (terminal value).

Negros Occidental cognitive representation of the connection 91 between a person's knowledge about a product (salient attributes and benefits) and their self-knowledge (important psychological and social consequences and values). the end . Thus.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. The means-end approach is based on the assumption that consumers see products as means to important ends. Negros Occidental 92 consequences of some means-end chains can be quite abstract. a person's life goals and personal values. This means that the personal consequences produced by a product .

When means-end knowledge is activated from memory or formed in a situation. A product is selfrelevant to the extent a consumer sees it as instrumental in achieving important consequences or values.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . Negros Occidental are more important (more self-relevant) 93 than the characteristics of the product itself.

means-end knowledge structures are the cognitive basis for involvement.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . Negros Occidental 94 the person perceives the product to be personally relevant and feels involved with it (Celsi and Olson 1988). They also account for how and why consumers feel involved with a product in a particular situation. Thus.

and to engage in mental and physical experiences that are new. unique.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. to see and solve problems no one else may know exists. or different. Negros Occidental 95 Creative Play Creativity is the ability to see something in a new way. Creativity is a critical aspect .

Although many people equate creativity with intelligence. starting from inside the womb onward through adulthood. the two terms are not synonymous. and it is not necessary to have a genius-level IQ in order to be . Negros Occidental 96 of a person's life.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Researchers have found environment to be more important than heredity in influencing creativity. While creative people do tend to have average or above-average scores on IQ tests. and a .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 97 creative. beyond an IQ of about 120 there is little correlation between intelligence and creativity.

Negros Occidental child's creativity can be either strongly 98 encouraged or discouraged by early experiences at home and in school. creativity involves divergent .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Standard intelligence tests measure convergent thinking. which is the ability to come up with a single correct answer. However.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

99

thinking, which is the ability to come up with new and
unusual answers.
Creative

individuals

tend

to

share

certain

characteristics, including a tendency to be more impulsive
or spontaneous than others. Nonconformity (not going along

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

100

with the majority) can also be a sign of creativity. Many
creative individuals are naturally unafraid of experimenting
with new things; furthermore, creative people are often less
susceptible to peer pressure , perhaps because they also

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

101

tend to be self-reliant and unafraid to voice their true
feelings even if those go against conventional wisdom.
Creativity in childhood is typically assessed through
paper-and-pencil
Creative

measures

Thinking.

These

such
tests

as
are

the

Torrance

designed

to

Test

of

measure

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

divergent

thinking,

such

as

fluency,

102

flexibility,

originality, and elaboration. Signification criticisms have
been raised about these tests as measures of creativity.
First is the general problem that there are no universally
accepted

definitions

of

creativity.

Second,

critics

of

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

creativity

tests

argue

that

these

tests

do

103

not

measure

creativity per se but instead reflect the specific abilities
that are assessed by the tests. Third, the scores on these
tests often depend partly on speed, which is not necessarily
a

criterion

for

creativity.

A

final

consistent

concern

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

relates

to

the

scoring

of

creativity

tests,

104

which

by

definition are somewhat subjective. Thus, the reliability of
such tests is commonly questioned.
Socio-dramatic Play

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

105

Presently, in my classroom, socio-dramatic play occurs
daily:

during

morning

sessions

of

free

play

which

last

approximately 30-40 minutes integrated into lessons, for
example role-play in SPHE, dramatization of a scenario in
English or re-enactment of a story in history.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

106

I schedule sessions of free play into my weekly timetable
for English, math, SESE and SPHE by using a combination of
the

allocated

time

in

the

Primary

School

Curriculum.

Children experience many aspects of these curriculum areas
while

they

are

playing.

During

free

play,

the

children

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

107

choose the theme, resources and location for their play. I
prioritize their choice in play to motivate them and make
learning enjoyable.

The Classroom Environment

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

108

Along the back of my compact classroom, you will find
the socio-dramatic play area. The play equipment is stored
here but the children are free to move their play to other
spaces in the classroom, moving tables and chairs if they
wish. It is at this stage that you have to be able to let go

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

109

of that image of your tidy organized classroom and let the
children use the space creatively. Don’t get too sentimental
over your nature table display as often I have found it
being shoved to one side and doubling up as a bank counter

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 110 where the pine cones were being used to stamp the lodgment slips! Remember your classroom can always be restored to its former glory at tidy-up time. The Play Props .

and old clothes for . baby clothes for the dolls. From home. Unfortunately. I wish I could have that high gloss play kitchen or those period costumes. children bring in old toys.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. empty food containers. Negros Occidental As I flick through those educational 111 supplies catalogues. they are out of my league.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. can we play with this? . I source whatever I can myself such as magazines. Negros Occidental 112 dress-up. and accessories. supporting teaching and learning supporting teaching and learning old handbags. Before I throw anything in the recycle bin I ask myself.

Negros Occidental These toys and props find new homes 113 in plastic containers with an image that corresponds to their contents. house. Our .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. They are used to play shop. the doctor’s surgery and the secretary’s office. Lengths of cloth represents sea waves one day and saris the next. post-office. bank.

Negros Occidental 114 adjustable Styrofoam frame is often constructed into the children’s dream home without the worries of their planning permission being refused! To avoid over familiarity with the play props.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. I vary them throughout the year and try to include resources that relate to a theme that is being .

travel brochures. when we’re discussing holidays in SESE.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 115 explored in different curriculum areas. and a beach towel magically appear. My Role in Play . empty sun lotion bottles. For example. sunglasses.

observe and intervene in the children’s play so as to support and extend their learning. Negros Occidental 116 I listen. sidestep the doctor’s surgery . think of me placing an order at a Chinese take-away while I weave my way around a row of aeroplane seats. In other words to visualize playtime in my classroom.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 117 while leaping over Sleeping Beauty. Learning Through Socio-Dramatic Play . the rewards are immense. all to the tune of a child pretending to be a dog barking! And while this image may seem daunting and tidy-up time may take a little longer.

I justify my use of play in my junior infant . Through close observation and involvement in the children’s play. Negros Occidental 118 My understanding of how socio-dramatic play contributes to children’s learning and in particular to their literacy.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. has been strengthened through my classroom experiences.

Learn to work and play together. The children develop key early literacy skills which will support them as they move on through the school. Negros Occidental 119 classroom.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. develop and communicate to make a narrative or . to improvise. negotiate.

Negros Occidental play script which can include tension. language. space. Use object substitutions which echo children’s later ability to use words to represent objects and ideas: how often have you seen a child use a hairbrush as a microphone? . symbols.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 120 roles. time. and plot.

Both language and symbolic play involve .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. actions and emotions and learn about others’ experiences and feelings. Negros Occidental 121 extend their knowledge of events. Language Play There is a strong relationship between language and make-believe play.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. In this . that the developmental patterns of language and play are parallel and that language impairment is related to deficits in symbolic play. therefore. It is not surprising. Negros Occidental 122 the ability to represent the world mentally to oneself.

. There is evidence to suggest that the very experience of playing can benefit children's language abilities in a number of ways. Before discussing language play. however. we will examine the ways that play can facilitate children's language development.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 123 article.

Aspects of Human Language Human language consists of several different aspects.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 124 let us look briefly at some of the major components of the human language system. each related to the formulation of rules pertaining to a .

The phonological aspects of language are those that pertain to the production of sound. Knowledge of phonology allows a person to pronounce. and . Negros Occidental 125 different area of language production. and the pragmatic. These aspects are the phonological. the semantic. the syntactic. put together.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 126 properly stress the sound system of a language (Hughes. Menyuk. 1982).CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. when English-speaking people ask a question. 1988. For example. Noppe. & Noppe. whereas this sound pattern would not occur in making a . they proceed toward the end of the utterance with a steadily rising intonation.

" The syntactic aspects of language concern the rules by which words are put together . Even toddlers recognize 127 this phonological rule.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. saying "Ball?" to mean "Is that a ball?" or "Where is the ball?" and at other times saying "Ball!" to mean perhaps "I want the ball. Negros Occidental declarative statement.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. For example. for example. Negros Occidental 128 into sentences. that the order of words in a sentence is changed in a systematic manner when a . in English we typically place the adjective before the noun ("the red hat"). whereas in French the order is usually reversed ("Ie chapeau rouge"). Young children realize.

For example. A young child may be able to produce words and to put . "The hat is red" becomes "Is the hat red?" The semantic aspects of language are those that deal with the selection of words that appropriately convey the intended meaning (Menyuk. Negros Occidental 129 statement is transformed into a question.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 1982).

Negros Occidental 130 them together correctly in a sentence. Three-year-old Laura says. for example. Laura says. "No! How far?" and her mother tries . "How far is it to day care?" and her mother answers in terms of the distance from their home to the daycare center.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. but still be unable to convey intended meaning.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Gradually Laura's mother realizes that the child wants to know when she will be going to the day-care center again. Negros Occidental 131 again to describe the distance from one place to the other. . The child is frustrated and continues to ask the question because she is not receiving a satisfactory answer.

.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Semantic confusion of this type is a common feature of the conversations of preschool children. Negros Occidental 132 "How far?" referred to time and not to distance. Finally. the pragmatic aspects of language refer to the rules that govern the behaviors for engaging in effective communication (Menyuk.

gestures. For example. and personality characteristics of the speaker must be taken into account when interpreting speech. as must the features of the social . Negros Occidental 133 1982). They involve the recognition that the meaning of language depends to some extent on the social context.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the facial expressions.

The words "You look wonderful today" convey a very different meaning when spoken by an acquaintance whose opinion is highly valued but who rarely pays a compliment and when spoken by someone who always tells us we look wonderful. Negros Occidental 134 setting. Pragmatics also involves the recognition that .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

for example. We must tailor our speech to the needs of listeners. We must take turns in conversation and must recognize when it is acceptable to interrupt another speaker and when we should not do so. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. we speak differently to a child. Negros Occidental 135 effective speech must follow certain social conventions.

and we may alter our speech when interacting with a foreigner who has limited knowledge of our language. Types of Language Play .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 136 than we do to an adult.

In fact. These are (1) play with . 1985). that there roughly are four corresponding different to the types of different aspects of language discussed above. 1982. 1984) suggested language play. Garvey (2007.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental Children play with all four aspects 137 of the human language system (Kuczaj.

and (4) play with the . such as those involving word meanings or grammatical constructions. Play with Sounds and words. (2) play with linguistic systems. (3) play with rhymes conventions of speech. Negros Occidental 138 sounds and noises.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Garvey. 1984. at least to an adult eye. it is an intrinsically motivated and freely chosen activity that lacks external goals. to afford the child a . Negros Occidental 139 As an example of play with sounds and noises.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 2007). take the spontaneous babbling of the infant in the first year (Athey. and it appears.

Even though psychologists no longer believe that adults train children to speak by the use of reinforcements.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. How might the sound and noise play of infancy aid in the child's intellectual development? Such play seems to be an important element in the development of language. Negros Occidental 140 good deal of pleasure. .

influence their does Therefore." . child 141 to occur parents make in may sounds appropriate to the language they speak. "Da-Da" is more likely to gain a favorable adult reaction than is "Ga-Ga.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental it is likely response to unintentionally that infant social reinforcement babbles.

smacking their lips. bubble blowing. the sound play of the infant may ultimately result in advances in sound production (Athey. play with the . Indeed. and so forth. 1984). Negros Occidental 142 In that sense.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. By the end of the first year. infants will produce a variety of playful sounds with their mouths—humming.

children at about the age of three or four become fascinated with songs. For example. And play of this .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. and rhymes and enjoy producing nonsensical rhyming patterns. Negros Occidental 143 sounds of language occurs not only during the first two years but can also be round among older children. chants.

as Certain being words or particularly amusing. and they may repeat them until eventually they lose . Negros Occidental 144 type in older children is related to language development: The ability to rhyme is highly correlated with early reading achievement sounds may in children strike (Athey.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. preschoolers 1984).

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

145

their comic effect. Preschoolers also play with sound by
"talking funny" (Garvey, 2007): They distort their voices,
attempting to speak in a high-pitched squeak, in a throaty
rasping sound, or in the flat monotone of a favorite robot
character.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

146

Play with Grammatical Constructions
During the second year of life, when the child is
producing one-word utterances and, by 21 months of age, twoword phrases, there is even greater evidence of play with
language

(Athey,

1984).

Toddlers

continue

to

play

with

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

147

sounds and noises, but now they also experiment in their
solitary play with the syntactic and semantic elements of
language, such as word order and the uses of different parts
of speech. For example, they repeat sentences, each time
substituting a new word of the same grammatical category: A

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

148

child might say, "Daddy go out," "Mommy go out," "Baby go
out"; again, "Doggie fall down," Kitty fall down," "Baby
fall

down"

(Weir,

1962).

They

build

up

and

break

down

sentences (e.g., "Give it to me," "Give the cup to me"), and
in doing so they isolate sentence components and come to a

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

149

better understanding of their functions (Garvey, 2007). They
ask questions and then provide the answer themselves. They
recite lists of words, numbers, or letters. They engage
themselves

in

conversation.

They

comment

on

their

own

behaviors. It has been suggested that solitary experimental

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

150

play with the rules of word order may form the basis for the
development

of

the

grammatical

structures

of

language

(Bruner, 2004; Garvey, 2007, 1984; Ratner & Bruner, 2008).
As Garvey (2007, 1984) noted, the private language of the
solitary monologue gives children a perfect opportunity to

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

151

experiment with the elements of speech; the language of
social interaction, on the other hand, is goal directed and
lacks

the

element

of

playfulness

found

in

the

solitary

monologue. In language play, children can take apart and put
together the building blocks of speech in ways that they

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

152

will not be able to do consciously until the early years of
elementary school.
Symbolic Play and Language Comprehension
Symbolic,

or

make-believe,

play

can

also

benefit

a

child linguistically. As an example, Terry, Jill, and Mark

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

153

listen to a story being read to them by their kindergarten
teacher. Then they are asked to assume the roles of the
story characters and to enact the scenes they have just
listened to. They do so with great enthusiasm under the
gentle direction of their teacher. Later, the teacher asks

to see how well they understood it and how much they can remember. Negros Occidental 154 the children a number of questions about the story.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Is it possible that the story was more understandable to the children and easier to remember because of their experience in acting out the roles? Some psychologists believe so. .

1984).CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Research on the role of play in language comprehension typically takes the form described above: One . Negros Occidental 155 suggesting that the strength of the language-play connection in early childhood leads to a natural conclusion: Play can help children better understand the spoken word (Williamson & Silvern.

The finding that emerges repeatedly in studies of . Negros Occidental 156 group of children listens to a story and then plays out the scenes. the children's memory for details of the story is tested.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. while another group either engages in discussion of the story or becomes involved in unrelated activities. Later.

1982. . Williamson. Silvern. Williamson & Silvern. Saltz. 2007. the story's details (Pellegrini & Galda. Taylor. & Johnson. and memory for. Negros Occidental 157 this type is that the play group displays the greatest understanding of. & Waters. 1982. 1982. Dixon. Silvern.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. & Kelly. Surbeck. Williamson.

Children do not have to play out a specific story in order to understand it completely. The link between play and language comprehension is not a simple one. when . however. Negros Occidental 158 1984). However. Many stories are quite understandable to children without the necessity of playing them out dramatically.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

1984).CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 159 children regularly engage in the enactment of scenes from the stories they listen to. meaning from spoken language . they seem to improve over time in their ability to draw (Williamson & Silvern.

Negros Occidental The importance of play to young children’s 160 healthy development and learning has been documented beyond question by research.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. We believe that the stifling of play has dire consequences—not only for . Yet play is rapidly disappearing from kindergarten and early education as a whole.

.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This report is meant to bring broad public attention to the crisis in our kindergartens and to spur collective action to reverse the damage now being done. Negros Occidental 161 children but for the future of our nation.

Children now spend far more time being taught and tested on literacy and math skills than they do learning through play and exploration. exercising their bodies. Negros Occidental Kindergarten has changed radically in 162 the last two decades. Many kindergartens use highly .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. and using their imaginations.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. In an increasing number of kindergartens. which are not well grounded in research. Negros Occidental 163 prescriptive curricula geared to new state standards and linked to standardized tests. violate long-established principles of . These practices. teachers must follow scripts from which they may not deviate.

will be dismissed and even . The argument of this report. Negros Occidental child development and good teaching. that child-initiated play must be restored to kindergarten. It is 164 increasingly clear that they are compromising both children’s health and their long-term prospects for success in school.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

many people believe that play is a waste of time in school.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. they say. should be a place for learning. In spite of the fact that the vital importance of play has been shown in study after study. Negros Occidental 165 ridiculed in some quarters. Skepticism about . School. There’s plenty of time for play at home.

such as phonics and letter recognition.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the more likely they are to succeed in school. Negros Occidental 166 the value of play is compounded by the widespread assumption that the earlier children begin to master the basic elements of reading. And so kindergarten education has become heavily focused on teaching literacy .

Negros Occidental and other academic skills. and preschool 167 is rapidly following suit. We see the difference between superficial play and the . The common misconceptions about young children’s play fall apart when we look closely at what is really going on.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

fueled by their own original ideas and rich use of language.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . Negros Occidental 168 complex make-believe play that can engage five-year-olds for an hour or more. We start to distinguish between the sound of a chaotic classroom and the hum of energy when children are deeply engaged in the flow of play.

decoding. Negros Occidental 169 We also see the difference between didactic teaching of discrete skills in phonics. and word recognition. which may yield short-term gains in test scores in the early grades.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. and the deeper experiential learning whose benefits last into fourth grade and Crisis in the Kindergarten Why .

greatly increased the .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the $6 billion federal program designed to help children from low-income families. Reading First. Negros Occidental 170 Children Need to Play in School Summary and Recommendations of a report from the Alliance for Childhood by Edward Miller and Joan Almon Summary & Recommendations beyond.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. but failed to improve reading comprehension. Play Builds Competence in Many Domains . Negros Occidental 171 amount of time children spent being taught discrete prereading skills in kindergarten and the early grades.

They invent scenes and stories. Because their motivation comes from . and negotiate their way through social roadblocks. solve problems. Negros Occidental 172 Young children work hard at play.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. They know what they want to do and work diligently to do it.

Negros Occidental 173 within. Research shows that children who engage in complex forms of socio-dramatic play have greater language skills than non-players. more . more empathy. they learn the powerful lesson of pursuing their own ideas to a successful conclusion.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. better social skills.

and more of the subtle capacity to know what others mean. They are less aggressive and show more selfcontrol and higher levels of thinking.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 174 imagination. Long-term research casts doubt on the assumption that starting earlier on the teaching of phonics and other discrete skills leads to .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. kindergartens in For example. But research comparing 50 play-based classes with 50 early-learning centers found that by age ten the . Negros Occidental better results. Germany were most changed of the into 175 play-based centers for cognitive achievement during a wave of educational “reform” in the 2000s.

Negros Occidental 176 children who had played in kindergarten excelled over the others in a host of ways.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. oral . They were more advanced in reading and mathematics and they were better adjusted socially and emotionally in school. They excelled in creativity and intelligence.

S. and “industry. But one rarely hears about their approach to schooling before second grade.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. math. for their success in teaching science. China and Japan are envied in the U. which is . Negros Occidental 177 expression.” As a result of this study German kindergartens returned to being play-based again. and technology.

too. go to playful kindergartens. Finland’s children. They enjoy a lengthy. Negros Occidental 178 playful and experiential rather than didactic. Yet Finland consistently gets the highest scores on the respected international PISA .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. and they enter first grade at age seven rather than six. playful early childhood.

. . It is true that poverty does not afflict Finland’s children as it does children in the U.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. and those children of poverty need special attention in preschool and kindergarten. But what they need is extra support to reap the full benefits of a play-based.S. Negros Occidental 179 exam for 15-year-olds.

They may need more structure to begin with and guidance for entering into play. for many is inexperienced with it. and they need to hear language used in . Negros Occidental 180 experiential program.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. which most middle-class children have from infancy onwards. They need a solid introduction to books.

Play is the foremost way that children use the language they are hearing. All young children.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental conversation. song. 181 Equally important. they need to use language. not just those living in poverty. storytelling. need the support of teachers who understand the . and verse.

Negros Occidental 182 value of play. They struggle to bring their own ideas to the fore. For the fact is that most children today don’t have enough playtimes even at home. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Many affluent children now need help entering into creative play because of the surfeit of media and organized activities in their lives.

they don’t know what to do. No human being can achieve his full potential if his creativity is stunted in . “If I give the children time to play. Negros Occidental 183 As one kindergarten teacher put it.” This is a tragedy.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. both for the children themselves and for our nation and world. They have no ideas of their own.

And no nation can thrive in the 21st century without a highly creative and innovative workforce.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Nor will democracy survive without citizens who can form their own independent thoughts and act on them. Negros Occidental 184 childhood. How Kindergarten had changed .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. practicing social skills. Negros Occidental 185 The traditional kindergarten classroom that most adults remember from childhood—with plenty of space and time for unstructured play and discovery. art and music. and learning to enjoy learning — has largely disappeared. The results of three new studies. supported by .

Negros Occidental 186 the Alliance for Childhood and described in this report. replaced by lengthy lessons and standardized testing. suggest that time for play in most public kindergartens has dwindled to the vanishing point.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. The studies were conducted by .

A. and Sarah Lawrence College in New York. Long Island University. Negros Occidental 187 researchers from U. The researchers found that: On a typical day. kindergartners in Los Angeles and New York City spend four to six times as long being instructed .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.C..L.

Standardized testing and preparation for tests are now a daily activity in most of the kindergartens studied. despite the fact that most uses of such tests with children . Negros Occidental 188 and tested in literacy and math (two to three hours per day) as in free play or “choice time” (30 minutes or less).CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Classic play materials like blocks. sand and water tables. and props for dramatic play have largely disappeared from the 268 full-day kindergarten classrooms studied. Negros Occidental 189 under age eight are of questionable validity and can lead to harmful labeling.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. In many kindergarten classrooms there is no .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Teachers say the curriculum 190 does not incorporate play. Kindergartners are now under great pressure to meet inappropriate expectations. and many school administrators do not value it. including . Negros Occidental playtime at all. there isn’t time for it.

is contributing to a rise in anger and . Negros Occidental 191 academic standards that until recently were reserved for first grade. At the same time. many experts believe.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. they are being denied the benefits of play—a major stress reliever. This double burden.

. it is critically important that early education practices promote physical and emotional health and not exacerbate illness. Given the high rates of psychiatric disturbances among children today.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. reflected 192 in increasing reports of severe behavior problems. Negros Occidental aggression in young children.

Negros Occidental 193 High-stakes testing and test preparation in kindergarten are proliferating. and placement in gifted programs or special education classes on the basis of test scores. Yet relatively few kindergarten tests meet . as schools increasingly are required to make decisions on promotion. retention.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental acceptable Observational standards and of reliability curriculum-embedded assessments should be used instead. CHAPTER III and 194 validity.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. performance .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . the Validity and Reliability of the Research Instruments and procedures for Analysis of Data. the Research the Research Instruments. chapter the presents Respondents of and discussed the Study. Negros Occidental 195 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This Design.

This study likewise presents the level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Academic . Negros Occidental 196 Research Design This was the descriptive study utilizing survey questionnaires and Documentary Analysis Methods.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Respondents of the Study .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 197 Performance in relation to Structured Development playing the Division of La Carlota City.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. School Year 2015-2016. Data Gathering Instruments . Negros Occidental 198 The respondents of this study are the 90 Kindergarten Pupils of the three Urban and three Rural Elementary Schools in the Division of La Carlota City.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. book Academic entitled . Negros Occidental 199 The validated Self-Made Test questionnaire was used to determine the Socio-Demographic Profile of the respondents and to determine Performance based the from Kindergarten William Pupils’ Fowler’s “Infant and Child Care” pages 144-164.

Negros Occidental 200 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument In this study. the researcher used Content Validity questionnaire adapted from William Fowler (2001). The jurors are the .” Infant and Child Care” which was validated by the jurors who are knowledgeable in this study to validate.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental Kindergarten/MTB Division Coordinator. . Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao Division Coordinator.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Education 201 Program Specialist in Science. and Principals of the Division of La Carlota City.

the experts checked the options per item.5 to 3. 1.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.(revised) 1 -(deleted) and the mean per item is 2. retained.4 deleted. Negros Occidental 202 To validate each item.4.(retain) 2.5 to 2.0 to 1. revised. 3. 1. Data Gathering Procedure .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the researcher wrote a letter for approval of the schools Division Superintendent to conduct the study. Negros Occidental 203 In data gathering procedure the researcher follow the following procedures. this would be forwarded to the Principal’s Office for his or her . After given the approval. Firstly.

Orientation and . Second. Negros Occidental 204 permission. Secondly. after the permission was granted the secured a permit from the Principal’s Office to conduct a study. after the permission was granted.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the researcher goes to the kindergarten classroom to conduct study with the help of teacher adviser.

after the questionnaire was answered. Data Analysis . the questionnaire gathered. tallied and analyzed the data with tools that are fitted to survey problem stated. Negros Occidental 205 instruction given before answering.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

1 – to determine the Socio- Demographic Profile of the 90 respondents in terms of Age. Fathers’ Educational Attainment . the following statistical tools were utilized. Negros Occidental 206 To satisfy the statement of the problem. Family Monthly Income.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Statement Problem No. Sex.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Construction – . Statement Problem No. Negros Occidental and Mothers’ Educational Attainment. 2 – to determine the level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play in terms of: Exploratory -Manipulation Play. Frequency 207 and Percentage Distribution were used.

Mean and Standard Deviation were used. Statement Problem No.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Mean and Standard Deviation were used. Symbolic Play. and Instrumental play. Language 208 play. Negros Occidental Creative Play. . 3 – to determine the level of Pupils’ Academic Performance.

Statement Problem No. Negros Occidental 209 Statement Problem No. Pearson’s Relation was used. 5 – to determine the significant difference on the Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance . 4 – to determine the significant Difference on Pupils’ Academic Performance when grouped according to their profile.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 210 on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to respondents’ profile. Pearson’s Correlation was used.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 6 – To determine the significant Relationship that exists between the levels of Kindergarten . Statement Problem No.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. CHAPTER IV . Pearson’s R Correlation was used. Negros Occidental Pupils’ performance on the Structured Play 211 and their Academic Performance.

ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA This chapter presents the analyses and interpretation of data gathered to answer problem under study. 1 – Stated about the Socio-Demographic Profile of the respondents in terms of . Negros Occidental 212 PRESENTATION.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Statement Problem No.

Family Monthly Income. Frequency and Percentage Distribution were used. Negros Occidental Age. 213 Father’s Educational Attainment and Mother’s Educational Attainment.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. (n = 90) PROFILE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE . Table 1 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents’ Profile. Sex.

1 62.9 51.000 10.8 64.001 to 20.3 .1 7 58 21 7.001 to 10.2 36.7 44 46 48. Negros Occidental AGE 4 years old 5 years old 6 years old and above SEX Male Female FAMILY MONTHLY INCOME 900 and below 9.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.4 23.000 214 1 56 33 1.

4 48.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.0 .9 6 40 44 90 6.7 52.2 38.4 6 47 35 6.7 44.000 FATHER’S EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Elementary Level/Grad High School Level/Grad College Level/Grad MOTHER’S EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Elementary Level/Grad High School Level/Grad College Level/Grad Total 215 4 4. Negros Occidental more than 20.9 100.

It was followed by the 6 years old and above with the frequency of .2. Negros Occidental 216 Age In terms of Age of the respondents.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 5 years old got the highest frequency of 56 and a percentage of 62.

and the last was the 4 years old with the frequency of 1 and a percentage of 1.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.1. Negros Occidental 217 33 and a percentage of 36. According to the Department Order 32. Implementing the rules and regulations RA . The table showed that most of the respondents were Kindergarten pupils.7. series of 2012.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 218 No. 10157 otherwise known as “the Kindergarten Education Act” It is institutionalizing the Kindergarten Education into the basic Education System and ensuring that all 5 year old children are enrolled in kinder. .

Five year olds can sit on lap and can grasp objects. Enrolling them in . Negros Occidental 219 According to Jean Piaget. the individuals must adjust to the dynamic society all throughout life. Coping is action in response to the environment.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Motor skills become the first and foremost reaction to the external world.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Furthermore. . Piaget believed that maturation and learning are basically measured through motor effectiveness and facilitating response. Negros Occidental 220 formal training allows them to adjust themselves with other children and develop their motor skills.

9 . female had a highest frequency of 46 with a percentage of 51.1. Negros Occidental 221 Sex With regards to the Sex of the respondents.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. while male had a lowest frequency of 44 with a percentage of 48.

It implied that most school of year the was kindergarten female pupils children. enrolled William for Fowler this (2001) shared this idea that the rise of women’s consciousness . the female group had the highest frequency compared to male. Negros Occidental 222 The study revealed that in terms of Sex.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Family Monthly Income .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 223 through the women’s liberation movement is also a generally significant force spreading of rational and humanistic principle that women can occupy position in leadership and other functions.

001. It was followed by a Family Monthly Income of Php 10. a family who had a Family Monthly Income of Php 9.4. Negros Occidental 224 In terms of the Income received by the family every month.Php 10.000 got a highest frequency of 58 with a percentage of 64.001.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. having a frequency of 21 .Php 20.000.

and the last was the Family Monthly Income of more than Php 20.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.8. Negros Occidental 225 with a percentage of 23. Next was the Php 900 and below who had a frequency of 7 with a percentage of 7.000 having a lowest frequency of 4 with a percentage of 4.4. .3.

001. 000 which belong to under poverty line. Negros Occidental 226 The table showed that most of the respondents belong to the families who received the Family Monthly Income between Php 9.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.Php10. And it was observed that there was an increasing demand on meeting the family needs first and sacrificing the .

Eron. Huesmann. Researchers also had showed that behavioral problems such as early aggression impair children’s academic and intellectual development over time (e.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 1987). 2002.g. Negros Occidental children’s time in assisting their school 227 requirements. Hinshaw. and Yarmel.. .

followed by the College/Level Graduate having a frequency of 35 with a percentage of 38.9.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. High School level/Graduate had a highest frequency of 47 with a percentage of 52. and the . Negros Occidental 228 Father’s Educational Attainment In terms of Father’s Educational Attainment.2.

Negros Occidental 229 last was the Elementary Level/Graduate that had a lowest frequency of 6 with a percentage of 6. This implied that the extent of fathers’ involvement with their children changes as the children grow older and also varies by wither the children are boys or girls.7. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

studies often 230 find that fathers are more likely to be involved with their son than with their daughters (Marsiglio.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 1986. Radin. Lamb. but . It also appears that the nurturance of fathers is associated with the cognitive abilities of the boys. Negros Occidental Regardless of the Childs’ age. 2001. 1981).

fathers. protector. provider. like mothers. encourage Close the 231 father-son development of analytic skills. nurturer. to 1981). .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental less so of girls relationships appear (Radin. disciplinarian. companion. have multiple roles. Nowadays.

most families do not divide all . Negros Occidental 232 teacher and instiller of societal norms to name just a few (lamb. The term “co-parents” is often used to describe the situation where mothers and fathers share equally the responsibilities of maintaining a family. In reality.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 2007. Margsiglio. 2003). however.

Negros Occidental 233 household and child rearing tasks equally between mothers and fathers. More often not.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 2007). this division of labor falls along traditional lines with mothers assuming more responsibility . divisions of but labor rather within work the out their family own (Pleck acceptable and Pleck.

Becker. Parke. 1981).CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental for raising the children and fathers taking 234 primary responsibility for providing the economic well-being of the family (Lam. Mother’s Educational Attainment . 2007. 20095.

9.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. College/Level Graduate had a highest frequency of 44 with a percentage of 48. followed by the High School Level/Graduate having a frequency of 40 with a percentage of . Negros Occidental In terms of Mother’s Educational 235 Attainment.

The table showed that most of the respondents’ fathers were High School level and graduates while their mothers reached college level or college graduates.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. and the last was the Elementary Level/Graduate that had a lowest frequency of 6 with a percentage of 6. Negros Occidental 236 44. By this.4.7. it .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental reveals that education a mother plays a (www. Researchers are in . crucial Mothers role are 237 in child’s responsible for day-to-day care of children.com).mentor. especially young children.ielts. they are assumed to be too emotional and too indulgent to properly raise children (Demos. 1986).

Negros Occidental 238 agreement that mothers and fathers interact differently with their children (Parke. while mothers spend a greater proportion of their total time with their children in caretaking activities (Lamb. Fathers spend proportionately more time playing with their children. 2005). Because mothers spend .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 1986).

Negros Occidental 239 a greater amount of time overall with their children.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. they may actually spend more time playing with them than do fathers. while play best characterizes overall time with their children. yet caretaking is still what best characterized their time. the fathers’ .

with fathers much more likely to be rough and tumble (Parke. Negros Occidental 240 Fathers and mothers also play differently with their children. ‘Fathers are tactile and physical and mothers tend to be verbal.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 20095. didactic. Hetherington and Parke concluded. . Clearly. and toy mediated in their play.

It is not only fathers’ stimulation influences them. p. however.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. of their children.33). that . but 241 not a only more qualitatively different stimulatory pattern” (2005. Negros Occidental infants and stimulation young from children their experience fathers.

Exploratory -Manipulation Play b. a. . Negros Occidental 242 Statement Number 2.What is the Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play in terms of. Construction – Creative Play c.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Symbolic Play .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Language Play e. Negros Occidental d. Instrumental Play Table 2 Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation MEAN STANDARD INTERPREPERFORMANCE DEVIATION TATION 243 .

238 1.49 4. Negros Occidental 1. Symbolic Play 4.913 .87 . Exploratory -Manipulation Play 2. Construction Creative Play 3.11 4.90 .462 Very high High Very high Very high . Language Play 5.737 High 4.38 1.096 .475 Very high 3.56 4. Instrumental Play As a whole Scaling: 244 4.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

475 and .41 2. Negros Occidental 4.80: 245 VH – Very High H – High A – Average L – Low VL – Very Low The table showed that in Exploratory-Manipulation Play.60: 1. the mean was 4.20: 3.61 1.21 3.90 with the standard deviation of 0.81 1.00: 4.00 – – – – 5.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.40: 2.

This implied that pupils are learning faster in this type of play. colors. textures.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . and changes in environmental characteristics. Negros Occidental 246 it was interpreted as “Very High”. for this is the simplest level of play activity for it is based on the sensorimotor enjoyment of exploring shapes.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.737 and it was interpreted as “High”. Negros Occidental 247 In Construction-Creative Play. the mean was 3.87 with the standard deviation of 0. The . This implied that the pupils are not well-versed in this type of structural play because at this stage children are not good in distinguishing relationship.

238 and it was interpreted as “Very High”.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. In Symbolic Play.49 with the standard deviation of 1. the mean was 4. Negros Occidental constructive-creative play objects are related 248 to one another. This implied that children learned well in this type of .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This type of play rooted in the early activity vocalization enjoyed and by babbling the play children where like the primitive sounds they . Negros Occidental 249 structural because children love to make sounds and mimic sounds in their environment.

this implied that the pupils are still improving their language . the mean was 4.096 and it was interpreted as “High”.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. In Language Play.11 with the standard deviation of 1. Negros Occidental 250 produced do not appear to have meaning but later on was being developed.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the Mean was 4.913 with the Standard Deviation of .56 with the standard deviation of 0. they try out expressions and the use of questions. In Instrumental play. instructions and conversational dialogues they overhear in family and community life. Negros Occidental 251 skills.

Negros Occidental 252 0.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.462 and it was interpreted as “Very High”. Through exploring they . This implied that learned much with these types of structural play because children love to explore and experiments through the use of different instruments.

462 and it was .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 253 encounter many things that can develop their skills and abilities in very young age. the Mean was 4.38 with the Standard Deviation of 0. As a whole in the level of kindergarten pupils’ performance on the Structured Play Evaluation.

“As children According develop to child they will development move from individual play to group play. They learn a lot through play and it was very info. Negros Occidental interpreted as “Very High”. How an older child chooses to .com.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This implied that 254 play was relevant among children. therapeutic.

What is the Level of . Negros Occidental 255 play may depend on how they feel at the moment or a personal preference. The way most children play usually varies from day to day and situation to situation.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.” Statement Problem Number Pupils’ Academic Performance. 3.

211 Approaching GRADE POINT Proficiency AVERAGE Interpretation based on Enclosure #8 DepEd Order #73 s.Proficient .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.63 2. MEAN STANDARD INTERPRETATION INDICATORS DEVIATION 83. Negros Occidental 256 Table 3 Level of Pupils’ Academic Performance.Advanced 85% to 89% . 2012 90% and above .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.Approaching Proficiency .Beginning the Level in the Pupil’s Academic Performance.Developing .63 . Negros Occidental 80% to 84% 75% to 79% 74 and below In terms of 257 . the Grade Point Average had a Mean of 83.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Kindergarten The grade Pupils are which was Approaching Proficiency can give the parents the assurance .211 and it was interpreted as “Approaching Proficiency”. Negros Occidental 258 with the Standard Deviation of 2. The learning table showed the required that the skills.

Negros Occidental 259 that their children are gaining knowledge which prepared them for higher concepts. Statement difference on Problem Number pupils’ academic according to their profile. 4. Is there performance a significant when grouped .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

477 CONCLU SION DECISION FOR H0 Not. Sig.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Failed to Reject . Negros Occidental 260 Table 4 Difference Analysis on Pupils’ Academic Performance when grouped according to their Profile PROFILE Age STATISTICAL TOOL ANOVA COMPUTED VALUE .747 PVALUE .

011 t-test ANOVA Not.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Sig.426 .774 4. 261 Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Reject . Sig. Sig.792 .371 . Not.157 . Negros Occidental Sex Family Monthly Income Father’s Educational Attainment -1.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Sig. – Not Significant is greater than 0.293 . Negros Occidental Mother’s Educational Attainment 1.05 Not. For the . . Sig.Significant if p-value is lesser than 0.280 Not. 262 Failed to Reject Interpretation Sig.05 In terms of the Difference Analysis on Pupils’ Academic Performance when grouped according to their profile.

This implies that the Age of the kindergarten pupils does not directly as .477. of the This Pupils reveals had no that the significant difference when grouped according to their Age.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.747 with a p-value of . interpreted Academic as not Performance significant. Negros Occidental 263 Age it had a computed value of .

426 with a pvalue of .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This reveals . For the Sex it had a computed value -1. Negros Occidental 264 basis for its achievement in terms of Academic Performance because children’s cognitive development varies from one another. interpreted as not significant.157.

children . This implies that the sex of the pupils does not tell their academic performance. Negros Occidental that the Academic Performance of the 265 Pupils had no significant difference when grouped according to their Sex. it depends on how then respond to the task and activities handed to them.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 266 With regards to the Family Monthly Income it had a computed value . interpreted as not significant.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.774. This reveals that the Academic Performance of the Pupils had no significant difference when grouped according to their Family Income. This implies that the .371 with a p-value of .

Schools can help children and provide them with what they need to reach their academic achievement regardless of the family income. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental academic performance of the kindergarten 267 pupils is indirectly affected by the family income.

792 with a p-value of . interpreted as significant. This .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This reveals that the Academic Performance of the Pupils had a significant difference when grouped according to their Fathers’ educational Attainment. Negros Occidental In the Father’s Educational 268 Attainment it had a computed value 4.011.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 269 implies that the fathers’ educational attainment greatly affects the Academic Performance of Kindergarten Pupils. According to Hurlock (2000). The Kindergartens repeat the skills learned . the early childhood stage is known as the “teachable moments”. There was willingness to acquire skills.

Negros Occidental 270 until they can do them well. As the head of the family whose voice was being heard and listened to. . They begin to imitate actions done by the adults. what they say and command greatly influenced their children in their growth processes.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Fathers are looked up to by their children at home.

Their presence affects their children’s emotional and mental responses in school. 271 children’s assignments and attend school activities.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental In the absence of the working mothers. .

Table 5. Negros Occidental Statement Problem Number 5.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Is there 272 a Significant Difference on the Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to respondents’ profile.a .

Sig.733 4.312 . .710 .011 Failed to Reject Reject CONCLU SION Not. Negros Occidental 273 Level of kindergarten pupil’s performance on the Structured plays Evaluation when grouped according to Age PROFIL E FACTORS Exploratory -manipulatio n play Construction . Sig.creative STATIS -TICAL TOOL ANOVA COMPUTED VALUE PVALUE DECISIO N FOR H0 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

104 . Sig. Negros Occidental 274 play Age Symbolic play 2.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.336 Instrumental play Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Not.445 .219 . Not.804 1. Sig.093 Language play . Sig. Not. .

023 Reject Interpretation: Sig. – Not Significant if p-value is greater than 0.05 Not. Negros Occidental 275 Reject As a whole 3. .938 .Significant if p-value is lesser than 0. .05 Sig.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Sig.

ANOVA was used. Negros Occidental In the Level of Kindergarten 276 Pupil’s Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Age.312 and a pvalue of . With regards to Exploratory- Manipulation Play it had a computed value of .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. The study . interpreted as Not Significant.733.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 277 revealed that there is no significant difference that exists between the Age of the Kindergarten pupils and the Exploratory-Manipulation Play. Any age of children undergo need this play for it is satisfies the . It implies that pupils’ age is indirectly related to the type of play.

This revealed that there is no significant difference . texture and changes in environmental characteristics.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. interpreted as Not Significant also. Negros Occidental 278 sensorimotor enjoyment of exploring shapes. For the Symbolic Play had the computed value of 2.445 with the p-value of .093. colors.

or moving which enable them to coordinate and sequence visual and auditory . reaching.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 279 that exists between the Age of the Kindergarten pupils and the Symbolic Play. It implies that the children all children undergo in this stage of development through the use of play. Children do grasping.

the This p-value revealed of . that Age interpreted of the as Not Kindergarten .336. Negros Occidental activities and able to understand codes 280 for mentally representing and symbolizing events.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.104 with Significant. With the Instrumental Play had the computed value of 1.

This implies that the children at all ages stats in coordinating their sensorimotor systems to do things with objects like reach out and touch what strikes their eyes.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . Negros Occidental 281 pupils had no significant difference with the Instrumental Play.

710 and a p-value of 0. interpreted Significant. They . This revealed that the Age of the Kindergarten pupils had a significant difference with the Construction – Creative Play.Creative Play had the computed value of 4.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.11. This implies that the children learn by doing. Negros Occidental 282 For the Construction.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. once thought of as an innovative and revolutionary system of teaching young children (Meisels. was first pioneered . 2002). Negros Occidental 283 easily grasp new ideas when they are engaged in different activities. It implied that the history of kindergarten.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 284 by Friedrich Froebel. a 19th century German educator and scientist.938 with the p-value of . the Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play when grouped according to Age. As a whole. had the computed value of 3.

It implies that the age of the pupils. Meisels .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.023. Negros Occidental 285 0. children really affects the performance of the This in anchored on the theory of Froebel that children must undergo kindergarten in order for the children to learn through play and socialize themselves. interpreted as significant.

Negros Occidental 286 (2002) indicated that the activities in Froebel’s garden were meant to promote creativity by encouraging playing with toys such as develop freely play as tool. building blocks.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. and that children should according to their individual nature. using .

.537 Failed to Reject Not. Negros Occidental 287 Table 5. Sig.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.b Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Sex PROFILE FACTORS Exploratory -manipulation play STATIS -TICAL TOOL t-test COMPUTED VALUE .619 PVALUE DECISION FOR H0 CONCLU -SION .

Negros Occidental Construction creative play SEX -1. Not.021 . Sig.763 .310 288 Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Not.082 Symbolic play .448 Language play -1.762 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. .259 Instrumental play -1. Sig.135 . Sig. Not. Not. Sig.

05 Not.966 . – Not Significant is greater than 0. .337 289 Failed to Reject Not. Negros Occidental As a whole -.05 In the Level of Kindergarten Pupil’s Academic Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.Significant if p-value is lesser than 0. Sig. Sig. Interpretation Sig.

interpreted as not significant. it was computed using the statistical tool T-test. With regards to Exploratory .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 290 according to Sex.619 with a p-value of 0.Manipulation Play had a computed value of 0. This revealed that there is no .537.

it .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This implies that both male and female learning through exploratory and manipulation play is not automatic. Negros Occidental 291 significant difference that exists between the sex and the exploratory-manipulation play of the kindergarten pupils.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. In the Construction .762 with a p-value of 0. This revealed that there is no significant . interpreted as not significant. Negros Occidental 292 varies with the effectiveness with which the child’s world is organized and interpreted.537.Creative Play had a computed value of -1.

This implies that both sexes of the young children occur mainly within bounds of constructing with physical materials. as with all other types of play. . Negros Occidental 293 difference that exists between the sex and the exploratorymanipulation play of the kindergarten pupils.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

This implies that children of different sexes had .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. interpreted as not significant.763 with a p-value of 0. This revealed that there is no significant difference that exists between the sex and the symbolic play of the kindergarten pupils. Negros Occidental 294 In the Symbolic Play had a computed value of -.537.

symbolize. and continues to bring to situations experience. Negros Occidental 295 the capacity t symbolize things in play. as well mental as experience using words drawn to from describe prior and .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

This revealed that there is no significant difference that exists between the sex and the language play of the kindergarten pupils.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.135 with a p-value of 0. Negros Occidental 296 In the Language Play had a computed value of -1.259. This implies that children whether boy . interpreted as not significant.

Negros Occidental 297 or girl can observed and spend time trying out the forms of language directly related to their experimentation with others. instructions and conversational dialouge4s they overhear in the family and the community. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. They try out the expressions and use the questions.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. interpreted as not significant. Negros Occidental 298 In the Instrumental Play had a computed value of -1. This implies that children’s sex .310.021 with a p-value of 0. This revealed that there is no significant difference that exists between the sex and the exploratory-manipulation play of the kindergarten pupils.

sometimes repeating with endless interest targeting tasks they originate. the various placing or . Young children enjoy experimenting in instrumental play. Negros Occidental 299 is not a basis what stage a child need to undergo.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

This implies that play is a child’s . Negros Occidental 300 As a whole it the Sex had a computed value of -. This revealed that there is no significant difference that exists between the Sex and the Structured Play Evaluation of the kindergarten pupils.337 interpreted as not significant. 966 with a p-value of .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

. Negros Occidental 301 business. He added that “The presentation of doll figures is stereotypic sex-linked occupational and social roles.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. W. Fowler in this book said that “Children’s play is influenced as much by the form of materials as by the child’s purposes in play”. Boys and girls alike learn through play.

women . as well as narrowing social development of both boys and girls. At the very least.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. when occupational roles are ascribed to toy figures (or to pictures in children’s books). Negros Occidental 302 Masculine and feminine stereotyping serves the traditions of male dominance.

c Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Family Monthly Income .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 303 need to be shown in a variety of occupations to aid in breaking prejudices and barriers for women in the coming generations.” Table 5.

780 304 DECISI -ON FOR H0 Failed to Reject Reject CONCLUSION Not.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.913 .039 . Sig. Negros Occidental PROFILE FACTORS Exploratory -manipulation play Construction creative play STATIS -TICAL TOOL ANOVA COMPU -TED VALUE . . Sig.363 PVALUE 2.

.689 Instrumental play .408 305 Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Not. Not.492 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Sig. Negros Occidental FAMILY MONTHLY INCOME Symbolic play .486 . Sig.976 . Sig.693 Language play . Not.

Sig. .653 .583 306 Failed to Reject Not. Sig. Interpretation Sig.05 In the Level of Kindergarten Pupil’s Academic Performance on the Structured Plays Evaluation when grouped .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. – Not Significant if p-value is greater than 0. Negros Occidental As a whole .Significant if p-value is lesser than 0.05 Not.

This reveals that there is no significant difference that exists between the Exploratory-Manipulation play and Family . in terms of 307 Exploratory- Manipulation play it had a computed value of . where it was interpreted as not significant.780.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.363 with a pvalue of . Negros Occidental according to Family Income.

For the . parent participation is encouraged because every school is not merely a convenient parking place for thoughtless parents who do not like their children responsibility seriously. Negros Occidental 308 Income. That’s why. It implies that these plays materials are at times limited at home and school.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 309 Construction-Creative play it had a computed value of 2.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.913 with a p-value significant. reveals where that it was there is interpreted a as significant difference that exists between Construction-Creative play and Family Income. of This . It implies that a restless child for .039.

Negros Occidental example when given the opportunity to be 310 involved in construction building play with two or other children as interested children block who builders. showed an or obvious two in otherwise counting isolated will become .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

In the Symbolic play it had a computed value of . This where reveals it that was interpreted there is no as not significant .693. Negros Occidental stabilized and eventually form 311 relatively permanent alliances.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. .486 with a p-value of significant.

. increase It that exists implies parental between that Symbolic involving satisfaction 312 play parents through is and Family likely to furthering understanding and helping to find solutions to conflicts with children. Negros Occidental difference Income.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

This reveals that there is no significant difference that exists between Language play and Family Income. it had a computed value of . where it was interpreted as not significant. It implies that it’s costly to provide .689.492 with a p-value of . Negros Occidental 313 With regards to the Language play.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Parents . Negros Occidental 314 this assistance but can help boost the child’s academic performance. test materials and staff or administration expenses. They understand that school fees are included whenever their child was enrolled in a private or public school which subsidizes the school needs such as programs.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. And for the Instrumental play. where it was interpreted as not significant.653 with a p-value of .583. Negros Occidental 315 are aware of this need which occupies a big part in their monthly budget. This reveals that there is no significant . it had a computed value of .

blocks and similar toys to elaborate their children’s . It implies that most patterns provide additional toys. Negros Occidental 316 difference that exists between Instrumental play and Family Income.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. play zone with various sorts of sensorimotor puzzles.

interpreted as not significant.583. This reveals that the Structural play had no significant difference with . Exposing a child to the different play equipment develops their creativity and flexibility. As a whole it had a computed value of . Negros Occidental 317 experiences at home.653 and a pvalue of .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

This implies that the Family Monthly Income was involved in the Academic Performance on the Structured Play of the Kindergarten Pupils because child care was a partnership between the home and the school. According to .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 318 the profile of the Kindergarten pupils in terms of Family Income.

Negros Occidental 319 William Fowler in his book. “Infant and Child Care”. Group care programs are characteristically organized and operated by specially .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. what most distinguishes day care and nursery schools from any of the traditional forms of child rearing was the professionalization of practice.

according to planned methods spelled out in the clearly defined duties and limited personal commitment on job.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. a . travel and communication was. The continuing growth of urbanization. Negros Occidental 320 trained personnel. however. bringing about convergence in practices between home and group care.

Negros Occidental 321 Table 5.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.d Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Father’s Educational Attainment PROFILE FACTORS STATI STICAL COMPU -TED VALUE PVALU E DECISION FOR H0 CONCLUSION .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.312 .creative play Symbolic play ANOVA . Sig.075 . Not. Negros Occidental 322 TOOL FATHER’S EDUCATIONAL Exploratory -manipulatio n play Construction .928 1.599 Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Not. Not.179 . Sig. . Sig.515 .

Negros Occidental ATTAINMENT Language play 2.097 As a whole 2.012 .011 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. .140 323 Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Not. Not. Sig. Not.395 .140 Instrumental play 2. Sig. Sig.

05 In the Level of Kindergarten Pupil’s Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to . – Not Significant if p-value is greater than 0. . Negros Occidental 324 Reject Interpretation Sig.Significant if p-value is lesser than 0.05 Not. Sig.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

the decision for Ho was failed to reject and the conclusion was .928.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. it was computed using the statistical tool Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). With regards to Exploratory.075 with the p-value of 0. Negros Occidental 325 Father’s Educational Attainment.Manipulation Play had the computed value of 0.

This implied that fathers’ 326 educational attainment does not affect how their children learn through structural play in terms of exploratory-manipulation play.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. because children could learn on their own exploration about . Negros Occidental not significant.

Negros Occidental 327 the things surrounded them. and be able to discover how to manipulate these.179 with the p-value of 0. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the decision for Ho was failed to reject and the conclusion was not significant. the computed value was 1.312. In the Construction-Creative Play.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 328 This implied that fathers’ educational attainment does not affect how their children learn through structural play in terms through of constructive-creative their observation can play. gain construction something out of a thing. because knowledge on children how to .

Negros Occidental 329 In Symbolic Play. .515 with the p-value of 0. This implied that children learn through symbolic representation. the computed value was 0. the only limit is their imaginative capacity. the decision for Ho was failed to reject and it was concluded as “not significant”.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.599.

the computed value was 2.140.011 with the computed value of .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 330 In Language play. play where This children . the decision for Ho was failed to reject implied and it that was concluded children learn as “not through significant”.

In Instrumental Play.097.395 with the p-value of 0. the decision for Ho was failed to reject therefore the conclusion was “not significant”. Negros Occidental engage themselves into chanting and 331 singing where unconsciously memorizes the whole song.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the computed value was 2. This .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Children learn to calculate using words alone. Negros Occidental 332 implied that fathers’ educational attainment does not affect how their children learn through structural play in terms of instrumental play. . for example. shifting form the need to manipulate objects as they add or subtract.

Negros Occidental As whole in the Level of Kindergarten 333 Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Father’s Educational Background. the computed value was 2.012 with the p-value of .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the decision for Ho was failed to reject and the conclusion was “not .140.

. Negros Occidental 334 significant”.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This implied that increases the development of mental processes in increasing complexity. the emphasis is on types of play in terms of cognitive development. more than on the forms of play determined by the structure of materials.

e Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Mother’s Educational Attainment PROFILE FACTORS STATIS -TICAL TOOL COMPU -TED VALUE PVALU E DECISION FOR H0 CONCLUSION .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 335 Table 5.

Sig.450 336 Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Not.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Not.031 .919 . Negros Occidental MOTHER’S EDUCATIONAL ATTAIN- Exploratory -manipulation play Construction . .403 . Sig. Sig. Not.969 .creative play Symbolic play ANOVA .805 .

Negros Occidental MENT Language play 1.595 .237 . Not.254 Instrumental play 1. Sig. Sig.295 As a whole .394 . Not. Sig.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. .554 Interpretation 337 Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Not.

Exploratory . – Not Significant if p-value is greater than 0. Negros Occidental 338 Sig. it was computed using the statistical tool Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). .05 In the Level of Kindergarten Pupil’s Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Mother’s Educational Attainment.Significant if p-value is lesser than 0.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Sig.05 Not.

exploratory-manipulation different with the mothers’ play had it no educational attainment. that significant the interpreted as not significant. Negros Occidental 339 manipulation play had the computed value of 0.403. This implies that even a mother did not finish a .919 with the p-value revealed of 0.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

In the Construction-creative play. interpreted as not . Negros Occidental 340 high level of education she can still guide their children in doing some exploratory play which can enhance the child knowledge and skills.031 with the p-value of .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.969. the computed value was 0.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. It revealed that the construction-creative play had no significant different with the mothers’ educational attainment. Negros Occidental 341 significant. This implies that a mother educational attainment is not a baseline for the achievement of their .

805 with the p-value of 0.450. it depend how the mother use the available sources to develop the creativity of their children. It revealed that the symbolic play had no significant different . Negros Occidental 342 children. interpreted as not significant. In Symbolic Play.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the computed value was 0.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 343 with the mothers’ educational attainment. will not be a . This implies that a mother will strive to develop the child’s capacities and abilities. its educational attainment hindrance to nurture their child.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This implies that mothers are the first person who teaches their child despite .394 with the p- value of . It revealed that the language play had no significant different with the mothers’ educational attainment.254. the computed value was 1. Negros Occidental 344 In Language Play. interpreted as not significant.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental of the educational level they attainment. 345 mothers guide their children in sounding out vowels and consonants through babbling. . wording out single words. and constructing simple conversational sentences.

Negros Occidental 346 In Instrumental Play.295.237 with the p-value of 0. This implies that a child can learn to do simple manipulations of . It revealed that the instrumental play had no significant different with the mothers’ educational attainment. the computed value was 1. interpreted as not significant.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Inserting blocks of varied shapes in form board holes which does not need a high level of educational attainment to fulfill their activities. Negros Occidental 347 objects guided by their mothers like placing a series of rings. graded in size. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. on peg relations.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. the computed value was 0.595 with the p-value of . interpreted as not significant. Negros Occidental As whole in the Level of 348 Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Mother’s Educational Background. It revealed that the Level of Kindergarten .554.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. among children . This implies that Mother’s education is used as an indicator of parental education in this report because. Negros Occidental 349 Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Mother’s Educational Background had no significant different that exists with each other.

Negros Occidental with a parent in the home. the vast 350 majority lives in mother-only or two-parent families. that .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This approach provides a consistent measure of parental education for most children who live with at least one parent. only four percent live in father-only families with no mother present.

between Is there Level of a significant Kindergarten .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 351 is. Statement relationship Problem that Number exists 6. for the 96 percent of these children who have a mother in the home.

Relationship Analysis between the Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation and their Academic Performance using Pearson’s R Correlation Coefficient. Table 6.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 352 Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation and their Academic Performance. .

Negros Occidental ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE VS Exploratory -Manipulation Play Construction Creative Play 353 CORRELA TION COEFFIC IENT 0.44 Not. Failed to Reject 0. Reject .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Sig.218 0.039 Sig.082 PVALUE CONCLU SION DECISION FOR H0 0.

05 354 Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Reject Failed to Reject .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.112 Language play 0.977 Instrumental play 0. Sig. Sig. Not.195 0.Significant if p-value is lesser than 0. Not.041 0.066 As a whole Not. Negros Occidental Symbolic play 0.702 0. Not. Sig. . Sig.003 0.169 0. Interpretation Sig.

Negros Occidental 355 Not.082 .05 For the Relationship Analysis between the Level of Kindergarten Pupil’s Performance on the Structured Play and their Academic Performance. Sig. in terms of Exploratory- Manipulation Play had a correlation coefficient of 0.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. – Not Significant if p-value is greater than 0.

Negros Occidental 356 with a p-value of 0. Performance had It no implies and the significant that the exploratory play is a preliminary orientation and search .44 where interpreted as not significant.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This reveals Exploratoryrelationship that the Manipulation with each Academic Play other.

For the Construction.039 where . Negros Occidental 357 activity preparatory to approaching and defining tasks and is integral to analyzing new problems as they appear at any point in an activity cycle.Creative Play had a correlation coefficient of 0.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.218 with a p-value of 0.

Negros Occidental 358 interpreted as significant. William Fowler. . This reveals that the Academic Performance and the Construction- Creative Play had a significant relationship with each other.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. It implies that the Construction-Creative Play contributes to the academic performance of the kinder pupils in school.

Negros Occidental 359 the author of the book. extends from the infant’s first efforts to place any two objects side by side to the mist intricate musical compositions and . or scientific. functional.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. aesthetic. “Infant and Child Care” mentioned in his book that the range of skill complexity for creating new forms.

ball. the more they become responsive to the academic performances. This proves that the more Construction-Creative Play materials such as puzzles.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 360 revolutionary scientific theories. . and toys are exposed to the kinder pupils.

it had a correlation coefficient of 0.112 where interpreted as not significant. Negros Occidental 361 In the Symbolic Play. This reveals that the Academic Performance and the Symbolic Play had no significant relationship with each other.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.169 with a p-value of 0. It implies that the through language they child .

through language she can call a block a boat or a stick a sword. . the things they represent.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 362 discovers that any object can become symbols for something else. and transport herself into a different world. Once the child learns this power of arbitrary symbols.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. This reveals that the Academic Performance and the Language Play had no significant relationship with each other. It implies that all part take of the same cognitive . Negros Occidental 363 In the Language Play. it had a correlation coefficient of 0.977 where interpreted as not significant.003 with a p-value of 0.

bound only by the rules of structuring. Negros Occidental 364 effort toward the imaginative integration. or .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. like clay. and of which materials can form what structures. whether concrete materials abstract symbols like musical notes.

202 where interpreted as not significant. It implies that . This reveals that the Academic Performance and the Language Play had no significant relationship with each other.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental With regards to the Instrumental 365 Play.041 with a p-value of 0. it had a correlation coefficient of 0.

things move on their own . they learns to distinguish the movements they in initiates form movements the tool object makes itself.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 366 the child learn to their hands then use other objects as instruments. finally noticing that certain without effort on her part.

It implies that inherent in creative.066 where interpreted as not significant.195 with a p-value of 0.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 367 As a whole it had a correlation coefficient of 0. This reveals that the Academic Performance and the Structural Play had a significant relationship with each other. combinatory .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . a creation following certain principles of structure. The task structure is never linear and the final outcome is not a single end but a new from. Negros Occidental 368 play of this kind is a concern with principles of structure and systems.

Negros Occidental 369 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental CHAPTER V SUMMARY OF FINDINGS.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 370 .

Income received by the majority The of Family the Monthly respondents .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 371 Summary of Findings Socio – Demographic Profile of the Respondents On Age. mostly of the respondents were 5 years old and most of them were female pupils.

Negros Occidental ranged from Educational High School Educational Graduates.001 to Attainment. Php 9.000.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Level or Attainment Php 10. majority of On the Graduates. while belonged to 372 the Father’s Fathers their College were Mother’s Level or .

Negros Occidental 373 On The Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Academic Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation In the Performance on of Exploratory Level of Kindergarten the Structured - Manipulation Play Pupils’ Academic Evaluation in terms Play. Construction – .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

475 the the and Mean and it was lowest on the .90 Symbolic Play.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental Creative Play. Instrumental Play of was 4. the biggest Play. Language Play type Structured Exploratory – Manipulation and interpreted as Standard “Very Deviation of High” while 374 Play of with 0.

737 the Performance. pupils’ Average Standard had Academic Mean of . Negros Occidental Structured Creative Deviation On Play Evaluation Play having a of 0.87 interpreted of the Point 375 the Construction- with The as “High”. Mean and level the Grade was of 3.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 83. Sex.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Analysis grouped of 376 on according Monthly Pupils’ to their Income. Academic profile Father’s .211 and it Proficiency”.63 with the was interpreted On the Performance such as Standard as “Approaching Difference when Deviation Age. Family 2.

011 was .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.77 value significant” and to While reject. Negros Occidental Educational Attainment Attainment. the Family p- of 0. the the And Monthly which Mother’s Income Educational had was concluded decision for Ho lowest 377 made p-value the highest as was “not failed of 0.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. The the Level Structured of Play Kindergarten Evaluation Pupils’ when Performance grouped on according . Negros Occidental found to be the was concluded as Father’s Educational “significant” and 378 Attainment that the decision was to reject the null hypothesis.

379 the H o of was 0.537 referred Play. the highest p-value Exploratory – Manipulation significant” reject.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental to the Sex. concluded decision for p-value Play. The and the lowest Construction – Creative was 0.082 decision as failed to “not to was the for Ho was .

value . 380 the of as “not Kindergarten Play computed Evaluation p. Negros Occidental failed to reject significant”. As Pupils’ when a Performance grouped and whole on according it in the to was the concluded Level Structured Sex.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

337 reject and the On on and the according the the decision conclusion Level of Structured to Age. for was “not Kindergarten Play Language Ho was failed to significant”. Negros Occidental was 0. Pupils’ Evaluation Play 381 had Performance when the grouped highest p- .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

As 382 to significant”.733. conclusion Ho was “not had the decision Ho was “significant”.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. and the the decision for conclusion was While Construction – Creative Play value of for the 0.11. the was a failed lowest rejected whole in pand the . Negros Occidental value of rejected 0.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental Level of Structured Age. Performance grouped 3.023. of the Kindergarten Play Pupils’ Evaluation computed value when was 0. the decision for conclusion was “significant”.938 Ho 383 was with on according the rejected the to p .value and the .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. and the had the for Performance when Educational Exploratory – Manipulation of Pupils’ Evaluation Father’s 384 grouped Attainment. Negros Occidental In on the the according Level of Structured to the Kindergarten Play Play value decision 0.928. biggest Ho was p - failed .

As the the conclusion Instrumental of 0. to reject a was Play therefore the whole.140 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental to reject therefore significant”.value of the for was 0. lowest Ho was While p .097. the and the 385 “not had decision conclusion had a p.value failed “significant”.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . Kindergarten Play 386 Pupils’ Evaluation Educational Performance when grouped Attainment. Negros Occidental and the decision therefore the In of the according the for Ho conclusion Level of Structured to was was Mother’s failed to reject “not significant”.

and the reject therefore it .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.254. the Play the decision conclusion got decision was the for Ho Play for “not lowest was had Ho was a highest failed failed to of p -value to significant”. p -value 387 reject of and While Language 0.969. Negros Occidental Construction – Creative 0.

As a whole. On the of Relationship Kindergarten Structured Play Analysis Pupils’ Evaluation between Performance and their the Level on the Academic .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. it was concluded as “not significant”. Negros Occidental was concluded as “not 388 significant”.

therefore Language It the was Play concluded decision was While Construction – Creative -value of 0. Negros Occidental Performance.977.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.039 and it got was the as highest “not failed Play 389 to got concluded significant” reject the Ho. the as p -value lowest p “significant” . of 0.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.value of “not significant” reject the Ho. Conclusions 0. Negros Occidental therefore the decision was to it had a p . As and it was the decision a whole concluded was as failed to . therefore 390 reject the Ho.066.

the formulated: respondents of this old female children.000.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental Based on the following conclusions Most year a of the findings were of 391 the study. The majority Family Income between 9.001 Php study of to were them 5 have Php 10. .

Negros Occidental The Father’s Educational those of types of Structured Level of Kindergarten interpreted their as Mother’s “Very Attainment Educational Play were used was lower than Attainment.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Five to find Pupils’ Performance High”. 392 and out the it was .

Negros Occidental The Level of Pupils’ Academic Performance interpreted as “Approaching Proficiency”. it Family 393 The difference Performance when was found Monthly was grouped out that Income in and . Academic profile. Analysis on according terms of to Pupils’ their Age. Sex.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental Mother’s while Educational the “significant” Performance. Attainment Father’s difference had Educational on the “No 394 Significance” Attainment Pupils’ had Academic .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

395 according to the significant” while according Manipulation Play. Language grouped was “not ExploratoryPlay and . Negros Occidental On on the the level of Structured Kindergarten Pupils’ Play Sex. Symbolic Evaluation when conclusion to Age Performance .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Play.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. significant” found out On on the but be as the it the was found out Construction –Creative 396 as “not Play was “significant”. Negros Occidental Instrumental Play. Level of Kindergarten Structured Play Pupils’ Evaluation when Performance grouped .

While the Construction – was found out as “Significant”. significant”. as Creative Play Language “not Play and Income 397 and Parents’ Manipulation Play. Negros Occidental according to Educational Symbolic concluded the Family Monthly Attainment. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Instrumental Play. Exploration- Play.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

On
of
Play

the

Relationship

Kindergarten
Evaluation

Pearson’s
Manipulation

R

Pupils’
and

their

Correlation
Play,

Symbolic

Analysis

between the

Performance
Academic

on

Level

Structured

Performance

Coefficient,
Play,

398

using

Exploration -

Language

Play

and

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

Instrumental

Play,

they’re

concluded

399

as

significant”. While the Construction – Creative Play
found out as “significant”.
Recommendations

“not
was

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

Based

on

recommendations
1. The
Kinder
Action

the
are

school

teachers
Cell (LAC)

findings

forwarded

to

and
the

administrators
to

seminars
sessions

to

conclusions,

following:

must
and

400

send

enhance
upgrade

their

Learning
their

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

instructional
should

allocate

materials

like

2. Teachers
and

materials
budget

and
for

methods
the

blocks, puzzles
should

unstructured

play

employ

activities

in

teaching. They

purchases

and
the

401

more
use
in

of

learning

toys.
of

structured

their

classrooms

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

to

make

learning

include creative
children’s
talents.

more
role

experiences

fun

and

playing
and

in

402

challenging. They
programs

discover

to

their

must
enrich
hidden

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

403

3. Pupils are the beneficiaries of this study.
will

benefit

develop
when

good

from
habits

instructed

Providing

them

routines
and

properly
plenty

and

learn
and
of

will

to

given

be

able

structure
more

time,

Their
to

things

opportunities.

age- appropriate

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

materials

on

hand

and

experiences

and

their

potential.

human

4. Parents
home. They

enough

allow

should not
must

them

space can
to

excel

404

widen
and

their
develop

deprive play experiences at

provide play

area

where

their

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

children

can

have

should

appreciate the

bring

at

their

home

children’s

and

more

spaces

outputs
spend

assignments.

more

to

that
time

405

explore. They
their

children

to

follow-up

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Moises Padilla, Negros Occidental

5. The

results

give insights
past

time

for

processed and
child

and

that

used

become

of

this

play

is

children
can
more

study
not

are
just

and

change

406

being
a

shared

mere

to

play or

adults. When properly
the

responsive

study
to

habit

learning.

of

a

This

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental study within their play. will encourage their teaching area of them to conduct lateral preferences performances among to 407 studies further improve kinder pupils through .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 408 .

Books 409 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental REFERENCES A.

Negros Occidental Samuel Lorenzo Knapp (1843). Ausbildungsstätten für Kindergärtnerinnen. "Kurze Chronik der ehemaligen und gegenwärtigen Kleinkindlehrerinnen. 230. .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. in different nations and ages. Philadelphia: Thomas Wardle. containing notices of distinguished women. Female 410 biography. p. Manfred Berger.

ed. Journal International Journal of Early Childhood (Springer) 7 . Negros Occidental 411 Hortnerinnen . Martin R. 2003 B. Otto (March 2005).. "The Influence of the English Infant School in Hungary".. und ErzieherInnen in Bayern" in "Das Kita-Handbuch". Budapest Lexikon. The Importance of Educating the Infant Poor.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Textor Vag. London.

co.uk. Socialist-courier. Retrieved 2013-11-27.blogspot.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. . Negros Occidental 412 New Lanark Kids: Robert Owen Education in Robert Owen's New Society: the New Lanark Institute Wilderspin. C. Media "Socialist . Samuel (1823).Courier: Robert Owen and and New Schools Lanark".

Negros Occidental 413 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental A P P E N D I C E S 414 .

Negros Occidental Appendix A Research Instrument LEVEL OF KINDERGARTEN PUPILS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN RELATION TO THE STRUCTURED PLAY PART I.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. SOCIO.DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS 415 .

Negros Occidental Direksyon: nahanunggod blangko nga Edad _____ ______ ______ ______ Kasarian 416 Basahon ang masunod nga impormasyon nga sa imo kaugalingon. 3 4 5 6 katuig paidalum katuig katuig katuig pataas . Butangan sang tsek ang kada nagapakita sang imo matuod nga sabat.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

000 paitaas Tinapusan sang Ginikanan Iloy Amay 417 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.000 – 20.000 ______ 21. Negros Occidental _____ Lalaki _____ Babayi Estado sang Palangabuhian sang Ginikanan _____ 900 paidalum ______ 1000 – 10.000 ______ 11.

Negros Occidental _____ Elementarya _____ Elementarya _____ Hayskul _____ Hayskul _____ Koleheyo _____ Koleheyo PART II. Butangan sang ekis ang laragway nga lain sa grupo.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 418 . TYPES OF PLAY EXPLORATORY –MANIPULATORY PLAY Direksyon: Lantawon ang mga masunod nga laragway.

419 . Negros Occidental 1.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 2.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 3. 420 . 4 5.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 421 CONSTRUCTION-CREATIVE PLAY Direksyon: Anu nga butang ukon laragway ang imo mahimo sa paggamit sang mga masunod nga kurte? Idrowing ini sa sulod sang kahon. .

422 . Negros Occidental 1. 2.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 3. 423 .

Anu ang bag-o nga kurte ang mahimo kung upudon ang duha ka kurte sa sulod sang kahon. Bilugan ang letra sang insakto nga sabat. b.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. C. Negros Occidental 4. a. d. 424 .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Anu ang bag-o nga laragway ang mahimo kung upudon ang tatlo ka kurte sa sulod sang kahon. d. c. Bilugan ang letra sang insakto nga sabat. . a. c. Negros Occidental 425 5.

SYMBOLIC PLAY 426 . d.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental b.

Negros Occidental 427 Direksyon: Butangi sang tsek ang mga letra nga magakumpleto sang mga tinaga sa wala. 1. b a__ a __ t __ b __ v __m .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 2.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. m __n o k ___a__ e__ i __u 428 .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. __ s d a ___h__ g__ j__i 429 . Negros Occidental 3.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. bo__ a __ l ___ m___ n ___ p 430 . Negros Occidental 4.

b a s __ m ___n___o___ p 431 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 5.

ARKO A D. KOAR N . A A.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. A KROA K L O C. Negros Occidental 432 LANGUAGE PLAY Direksyon: Bilugan ang pareho nga tinaga sa may kahon sa ibabaw. D RB. 1. AKRO 2.

TAWO a W C. LANDA TOWA O a 433 D. n C. DALAN 3.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. A. OTWA . 4. ANALD A B. TTWOA p B. ALNDA D. Negros Occidental A.

PANA C. LASI D. ISLA . I A. NAPA 434 D. APAN B. SILA AC. ANAP 5.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental A. LAIS S L B.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental Appendix B Frequency and Percentage of the Respondents’ Profile 435 .

Negros Occidental 436 Age Frequenc y Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 4 yo 1 1.7 36.0 .1 1.0 Total 90 100.1 1.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.7 100.2 63.1 5 yo 56 62.0 100.2 62.3 6 yo and above 33 36.

Negros Occidental 437 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

0 .9 48.0 Total 90 100.1 51. Negros Occidental 438 Sex Frequency Valid Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent boy 44 48.1 100.9 48.0 100.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.9 girl 46 51.

Negros Occidental 439 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

001 to 10.2 10.8 7.001 to 20.8 9.000 58 64.3 95.3 23.6 .4 72.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 440 Family Monthly Income Frequenc y Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 900 and below 7 7.000 21 23.8 7.4 64.

Negros Occidental 441 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 442 Father Educational Attainment Frequenc y Percent Valid elementary level/grad Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 6 6.2 53.2 college level/grad 35 38.8 hs level/grad 47 52.8 6.0 .7 6.9 39.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.8 100.4 60.

Negros Occidental 443 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

9 100.1 college level/grad 44 48. Negros Occidental 444 Mother Educational Attainment Frequenc y Percent Valid elementary level/grad Valid Percent Cumulative Percent 6 6.4 44.0 .7 6.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.4 51.7 hs level/grad 40 44.7 6.9 48.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 445 Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation .

475 construction creative play 90 1 5 3.87 . Deviation exploratory -manipulation play 90 1 5 4. Negros Occidental 446 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.737 .90 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental Level of Pupils’ Academic Performance 447 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 448 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum GPA 90 Valid N (listwise) 90 79 Maximum 88 Mean 83. Deviation 2.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.63 Std.211 .

Negros Occidental 449 Significant Difference on Pupils’ Academic Performance when grouped according to their Profile .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

288 . Negros Occidental 450 Group Statistics sex GPA N Mean Std.108 . Deviation Std.96 2. Error Mean boy 44 83.345 girl 46 83.311 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.30 2.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 451 Independent Samples Test Levene' s Test for Equalit y of Varianc es t-test for Equality of Means 95% .

Negros Occidental 452 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

00 1 . 5 yo 83.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.211 . Negros Occidental 453 Report GPA age Mean N Std.172 6 yo and above 84.41 56 2.291 Total 83. Deviation 4 yo 84.00 33 2.63 90 2.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 454 .

346 2 3.673 Within Groups 427.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 455 ANOVA Table Sum of Squares GPA * Between age Groups (Combine d) Mean Square df 7.900 89 F .554 87 4.477 .747 Sig. .914 Total 434.

Negros Occidental 456 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

000 83.633 .67 58 2.001 to 20.29 7 1.43 21 2. Negros Occidental 457 Report GPA family monthly income Mean N Std.00 4 1.000 83.001 to 10.251 10.604 9.000 83.420 more than 20.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Deviation 900 and below 84.

Negros Occidental 458 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

774 4.992 .371 .553 3 Within Groups 429.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 459 ANOVA Table Sum of Squares GPA * family Between monthly Groups income (Combin ed) Mean Square df 5.347 86 Total 434.851 .900 89 F Sig. 1.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 460 .

50 6 1.230 .63 88 2.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 461 Report GPA father educ attain Mean N Std.28 47 2.378 hs level/grad 84.94 35 2. Deviation elementary level/grad 82.209 Total 83.154 college level/grad 82.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 462 .

Negros Occidental 463 ANOVA Table Sum of Squares GPA * Between father educ Groups attain (Combin ed) 43.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.792 .835 Mean Square df F Sig.574 .790 85 Total 432.011 Within Groups 388.918 4. 2 21.625 87 4.

Negros Occidental 464 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 465 Report GPA mother educ attain Mean N Std.245 Total 83.33 6 3.211 .59 44 2.011 hs level/grad 83.88 40 2.63 90 2.028 college level/grad 83. Deviation elementary level/grad 82.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 466 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 467 ANOVA Table Sum of Squares GPA * mother Between educ attain Groups (Combin ed) Mean Square df 12.29 .278 1.900 89 F Sig.280 3 4. 6.345 87 Total 434.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.555 2 Within Groups 422.855 .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 468 Significant Difference on the Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation when grouped according to Respondents’ Profile .

845 .87 .127 . Error Deviation Mean exploratory -manipulation play boy 44 4.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.93 . Negros Occidental 469 Group Statistics sex N Mean Std.73 .038 girl 46 4.091 construction creative play boy 44 3.255 . Std.619 .

Negros Occidental 470 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 471 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variance s t-test for Equality of Means 95% .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 472 .

100 89 F .143 2 Within Groups 19. .229 Sig . Negros Occidental 473 ANOVA Table Sum of Squares exploratory Between -manipulatio Groups n play * age (Combin ed) Mean Square df .072 .957 87 Total 20.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. 733 .312 .

Negros Occidental 474 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

71 4. Negros Occidental 475 Report family monthly income 900 and below Mean explor atory -manip ulatio n play 5.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.00 4.00 4.46 .00 constr uction perform ance in creati symbol langau intrum structu ve ic ge ental red play play play play play 3.57 5.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 476 .

251 Mean Square df 3 F Sig.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. .363 .780 .084 . Negros Occidental 477 ANOVA Table Sum of Squares exploratory Between -manipulatio Groups n play * family monthly income (Combin ed) .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 478 .

83 constr perfor uction mance in creati symbol langau intrum struct ve ic ge ental ured play play play play play 4.83 4.47 .67 4.00 4. Negros Occidental 479 Report father educ attain elementar Mean y explor atory -manip ulatio n play 4.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.00 4.

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 480 .

.035 Mean Square df 2 F Sig.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.928 . Negros Occidental 481 ANOVA Table Sum of Squares exploratory Between -manipulatio Groups n play * father educ attain (Combin ed) .075 .018 .

Negros Occidental 482 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

00 constr perfor uction mance in creati symbol langau intrum struct ve ic ge ental ured play play play play play 3.00 5.83 5.00 4.CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.00 4.57 . Negros Occidental 483 Report mother educ attain elementar Mean y explor atory -manip ulatio n play 5.

Negros Occidental 484 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.

Negros Occidental 485 ANOVA Table Sum of Squares exploratory Between (Combin -manipulatio Groups ed) n play * mother educ attain .416 Mean Square df 2 F Sig.403 . .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.208 .919 .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 486 Significant Relationship that exists between the Level of Kindergarten Pupils’ Performance on the Structured Play Evaluation and their Academic Performance .

08 .CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla.052 . Negros Occidental 487 Correlations explora tory -manipu lation play explora Pearso tory n 1 constru ction creativ e play perfor mance in symb lang intrum struct olic auge ental ured GP play play play play A .259* .000 .046 .026 .

CENTRAL PHILIPPINES STATE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL Moises Padilla. Negros Occidental 488 .