36.

Difference between 2 stroke and four
stroke engines

S.No

Four stroke engine

Two stroke engine

It has one power stroke for every

It has one power stroke for each revolution

two revolutions of the crankshaft.

of the crankshaft.

Heavy flywheel is required and

Lighter flywheel is required and engine runs

engine runs unbalanced because

balanced because turning moment is more

turning moment on the crankshaft

even due to one power stroke for each

is not even due to one power stroke

revolution of the crankshaft.

.
1.

2.

for every two revolutions of the
crankshaft.
3.

Engine is heavy

Engine is light

4.

Engine design is complicated due to

Engine design is simple due to absence of

valve mechanism.

valve mechanism.

More cost.

Less cost than 4 stroke.

Less mechanical efficiency due to

More mechanical efficiency due to less

more friction on many parts.

friction on a few parts.

More output due to full fresh charge

Less output due to mixing of fresh charge

intake and full burnt gases exhaust.

with the hot burnt gases.

8.

Engine runs cooler.

Engine runs hotter.

9.

Engine is water cooled.

Engine is air cooled.

10.

Less fuel consumption and complete

More fuel consumption and fresh charge is

burning of fuel.

mixed with exhaust gases.

11.

Engine requires more space.

Engine requires less space.

12.

Complicated lubricating system.

Simple lubricating system.

13.

Less noise is created by engine.

More noise is created by engine.

14.

Engine consists of inlet and exhaust

Engine consists of inlet and exhaust ports.

5.

6.
7.

valve.

More wear and tear of moving parts. (the end of the compression stroke) the compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited by a spark plug (in a gasoline engine) or by heat generated by high compression (diesel engines). 18. Both the intake and exhaust valves are closed during this stage. At this point the crankshaft has completed a full 360 degree revolution.C. The four separate strokes are termed: 1. and ends at T.) and ends at bottom dead center (B. Petrol engines uses spark plugs to ignite the fuel which is nothing but a mixture of air and petrol. forcefully . 16.15.D. In this stroke the intake valve must be in the open position while the piston pulls an air-fuel mixture into the cylinder by producing vacuum pressure into the cylinder through its downward motion.C. While the piston is at T. More thermal efficiency. What is the difference between a diesel engine and petrol engine? 37.D. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder. Used in cars. Whereas diesel engines compresses the air which creates a high temperature which in turn ignites the fuel. 3. 38. Less wear and tear of moving parts.C. 17. In this stroke the piston compresses the air-fuel mixture in preparation for ignition during the power stroke (below). motorcyclesetc.D.C. It consumes less lubricating oil.). In brief petrol engine uses spark to ignite the fuel and diesel engines uses compression process to ignite the fuel. scooters. in either direction. or just at the end of the suction stroke. Used in mopeds. Compression: This stroke begins at B. Intake: This stroke of the piston begins at top dead center (T. Less thermal efficiency.D. trucks etc. 2. It consumes more lubricating oil.C. Combustion: This is the start of the second revolution of the four stroke cycle. buses.D. explain the working of a four stroke petrol engine A four-stroke engine (also known as four cycle) is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning a crankshaft.

the complete cycle requires two revolutions of the crankshaft to complete. and exhaust. explain the working of a two stroke petrol engine A two-stroke.D. the piston once again returns from B. the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen simultaneously. Exhaust: During the exhaust stroke.D.C. with the intake and exhaust (or scavenging) functions occurring at the same time. or two-cycle. 39. compression. . This is in contrast to a "four-stroke engine". to T. engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. therefore. In a two-stroke engine. Draw a four stoke diesel engine and explain its working The four strokes of the cycle are intake. while the exhaust valve is open. which requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle. This stroke produces mechanical work from the engine to turn the crankshaft. Each corresponds to one full stroke of the piston. power.returning the piston to B.C. This action expels the spent air-fuel mixture through the exhaust valve.C. 40. 4.D.

most modern engines incorporate an extra cam/lifter arrangement as seen on the exhaust valve. the poppet valve is forced shut by the increased cylinder pressure. drawing a fresh charge of vaporized fuel/air mixture. the piston moves downward. . however. The exhaust valve is held shut by a spring (not illustrated here). compressing the fuel/air mixture. Flywheel momentum drives the piston upward.Intake During the intake stroke. Compression As the piston rises. The illustrated engine features a poppet intake valve which is drawn open by the vacuum produced by the intake stroke. Some early engines worked this way.

driving the piston downward. Exhaust At the bottom of the power stroke.Power At the top of the compression stroke. 41. the spark plug fires. Sketch and describe the four bar chain mechanism . the exhaust valve is opened by the cam/lifter mechanism. As the fuel burns it expands. The upward stroke of the piston drives the exhausted fuel out of the cylinder. igniting the compressed fuel.

may be found . By proper choice of link dimensions useful curves. A simple example will be to convert a linear scale to a logarithmic scale within a certain range. b) Link that has no connection to the fixed link is known as the coupler link. which is called the coupler-point-curve.1.7. Some typical applications will involve: a) Correlation of the angular rotations of the links connected to the fixed link (commonly known as correlation of crank angles or function generation). A point on this link (which is known as the coupler point) will describe a path on the fixed link. In such applications we would like to have a certain functional relation such as 14 = f(12) to be realised by the four-bar mechanism. such as a straight-line or a circular arc. FOUR-BAR MECHANISM A four-link mechanism with four revolute joints is commonly called a fourbar mechanism. Application of four-bar mechanisms to machinery is numerous.

minting. It consists of two shuttles which are confined ('trammeled') to perpendicular channels or rails. each along its channel. the end of the rod moves in an elliptical path. produces identical movements in a second pen."to write". and a rod which is attached to the shuttles by pivots at fixed positions along the rod. explain with the help of neat sketches a single slider crank chain and its various inversions . The semi-axes a and b of the ellipse are the distances between the end of the rod and the two pivots 43. an identical.42. engraving and milling. describe an elliptical trammel A Elliptical Trammel is a mechanism that traces out an ellipse. As the shuttles move back and forth. from their original use for copying writing) is amechanical linkage connected in a manner based on parallelograms so that the movement of one pen. explain the working of a pantograph A pantograph (Greek roots παντ. Using the same principle."all. in tracing an image. every" and γραφ. or miniaturized copy will be drawn by a pen fixed to the other. 44. different kinds of pantographs are used for other forms of duplication in areas such as sculpture. enlarged. If a line drawing is traced by the first point.

. prove that the condition for a self-locking machine is that its efficiency should be less than 50% If a machine is not capable of doing some work in the reversed direction. pendulum pump or Bull engine.. The condition for a machine to be non-reversible or self locking is that its efficiency should be less than 50 %.. Fourth inversion This inversion is obtained when link 4 (slider) is fixed..Whitworth quick return mechanism.Slotted crank mechanism. Reciprocating compressor etc.Reciprocating engine..Hand pump. Application.. Application. Oscillatory engine etc... then the machine is known as non-reversible or self locking machine. Application. Application. Rotary engine. Second inversion This inversion is obtained when link 2 (crank) is fixed.. Third inversion This inversion is obtained when link 3 (connecting rod) is fixed. etc. after the effort is removed. 45.First inversion This inversion is obtained when link 1 (ground body) is fixed. etc.

differentiate between stress and pressure Pressure is defined as force per unit area applied to an object in a direction perpendicular to the surface.46. explain the first system of pulleys 47. what are the temperature stresses and strains . And naturally pressure can cause stress inside an object. The intensity of these additional forces produced per unit area is known as stress 48. It is defined as a reaction produced by the molecules of the body under some action which may produce some deformation. Whereas stress is the property of the body under load and is related to the internal forces.