Practice 1:
Brain drain, which is the _________________ of having highly skilled and educated people
leaving their country to work abroad, has become one of the _________________ countries
concern. Brain drain is also referred to as human capital flight. More and more
_________________ world science and technology educated people are heading for more
_________________ countries seeking higher wages and better working conditions. This has of
course serious consequences on the sending _________________.
While many people believe that _________________ is a personal choice that must be
understood and respected, others look at the phenomenon from a different perspective. What
_________________ those educated people leave their countries should be seriously
_________________ and a distinction between push and pull factors must be made. The push
factors include low wages and lack of satisfactory _________________ and living conditions.
Social unrest, _________________ conflicts and wars may also be determining causes. The pull
factors, however, include intellectual freedom and substantial funds for research.
Practice 2:
The existence of _________________ may be explained by the need of groups of people to view
themselves as more normal or more superior than other groups. _________________,
stereotypes may be used to justify ill-founded prejudices or ignorance and _________________
people of stereotyped groups from entering or succeeding in various activities or fields. The
stereotyping group are, generally, _________________ to reconsider their attitudes and
behaviour towards stereotyped group. Stereotypes may affect _________________ negatively.
This includes forming inaccurate and distorted images and _________________ of people.
Stereotypes may also be used for scapegoating or for making _________________ erroneous
judgments about people. Some stereotyping people may feel comfortable when they prevent
themselves from _________________ identification with the stereotyped group, which leads to
xenophobic or racist _________________. Finally another serious consequence of stereotypes is
the feeling of inferiority that the stereotyped people may have and which may
_________________ their performance.
Practice 3:
The modern _________________ was originally invented in Naples, Italy but the word pizza is
Greek in origin, derived from the Greek word pēktos _________________ solid or clotted. The
ancient Greeks covered their bread with oils, herbs and cheese. The first major innovation
that led to flat _________________ pizza was the use of tomato as a topping. It was common for
the _________________ of the area around Naples to add tomato to their yeast-based flat bread,
and so the pizza began. While it is difficult to say for sure who invented the pizza, it is
however believed that modern pizza was first _________________ by baker Raffaele Esposito of
Naples. In fact, a popular urban legend holds that the archetypal pizza, Pizza Margherita, was
_________________ in 1889, when the Royal Palace of Capodimonte commissioned the
Neapolitan pizzaiolo Raffaele Esposito to create a pizza in honour of the visiting Queen
Margherita. Of the _________________ different pizzas he created, the Queen strongly preferred
a pie swathed in the colours of the Italian flag: red (tomato), green (_________________), and
white (mozzarella). Supposedly, this kind of pizza _________________ then named after the
Queen as Pizza Margherita.
Practice 4:
Mr. Bean is a series of fourteen 25-minute _________________ written by and starring Rowan
Atkinson. This British situation comedy television program is based on a character originally
_________________ by Atkinson while he was studying for his master's degree at Oxford
_________________. The series features funny situations occurring in the life of Mr. Bean. The

Practice 6: Was Atlantis real? The mythical _________________ of Atlantis has often been depicted in creative works such as films. Breathing involves expelling _________________ water from the blowhole. rose to 25 percent and in some _________________ rose as high as 33 percent. Mr. written in about 360 B. but the origin of the _________________ come from Timaeus. and wonders if he and his guests might recollect a _________________ which exemplifies such a society. Practice 7: Smoking is one of the most _________________ forms of recreational drug use.PT3 LISTENING EXERCISE (STARS) latter was _________________ by Atkinson as "a child in a grown man's body".S. _________________ in Plato's Republic (c. In contrast. forming an upward spout. as well as Britain's _________________ to return to the Gold Standard at pre–World War I parities. baleen _________________ have two and toothed whales have one. Unemployment in the U. some economists point to monetary _________________ such as actions by the US Federal Reserve that contracted the money supply. _________________ and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by approximately 60 percent. . Some of the substances are classified as hard narcotics. Practice 8: Whales breathe via blowholes. Personal income. These are located on the top of the head. Construction was virtually halted in many countries. Bean tries to solve various problems presented by everyday tasks and _________________ causes disruption in the process. representing the very antithesis of the "perfect" traits _________________ in the Republic. and follows by describing Atlantis as is recorded in the Critias. profits and prices dropped. allowing the animal to remain almost _________________ submerged whilst breathing. 380 BC). It is a habit which consists of breathing in a smoke from a burned _________________. Tobacco smoking is the most popular form of smoking. In the introduction. and the _________________ physical humour of the series is derived from his interactions with other people and his _________________ solutions to situations. books and paintings. followed by inhaling air into the lungs. by Plato. This substance contains the active alkaloid nicotine which is absorbed into the bloodstream. ancient Athens seems to represent the "perfect _________________ " and Atlantis its opponent. but the use of these substances is very limited as they are usually not _________________ available. Bean rarely speaks.C. Cities all _________________ the world were hit hard. Socrates muses about the perfect society. Critias mentions an allegedly historical tale that would make the _________________ example. followed by an account of the creations and structure of the universe and _________________ civilizations. Less common drugs for smoking include _________________ and opium. of whom the majority are in the developing world. The Timaeus _________________ with an introduction. It may cause various diseases and dysfunctions. It is _________________ by over one billion people globally. a Socratic dialogue. Historians emphasize structural factors like major bank _________________ and the stock market crash. In his account. tax revenue. Practice 5: There were _________________ causes for the first downturn in 1929 but the real causes are still unclear. like _________________. rich and poor. The Great Depression had devastating effects in virtually every _________________. while international trade plunged by more than _________________ percent. especially those dependent on heavy industry.

was _________________ in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961 but was found not _________________. the Civil War veteran William Jackson Smart. was a single parent who raised his _________________ children there. on this day people _________________ have a party celebrating male parenting or simply make a phone call or send a greeting card. . a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician who served as President of South Africa _________________ 1994 to 1999. Besides. Practice 9: Nelson Rolihlahla _________________ (also known as Madiba). and the first _________________ in a fully representative. Practice 10: Historically. a comb-like _________________ that filters the baleen whales' food from the _________________. Mandela was born to the Thembu royal family. obtained by filter feeding through baleen. In recognition of what fathers do for _________________ families. _________________ the celebration was deferred to the third Sunday of June. she told her pastor that fathers should have a similar holiday honouring them. Washington at the YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) on June 19. Although she initially suggested _________________ 5. 1910. he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and. Sonora Smart Dodd was the _________________ behind the celebration of male parenting. After the Afrikaner _________________ of the National Party came to power in 1948 and began implementing the policy of apartheid. Although initially committed to non-violent protest. schools help children prepare _________________ gifts for their fathers many days before the _________________. he rose to prominence in the African National Congress's 1952 Defiance Campaign. with the ANC leadership. multiracial election. the pastors did not have enough time to prepare their sermons. In fact. and sentenced to _________________ imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial.PT3 LISTENING EXERCISE (STARS) Spout shapes differ among _________________ and can help with identification. After _________________ a sermon about Jarvis' Mother's Day in 1909. her father's birthday. the blue whale is the largest animal known to have ever existed at _________________ m (98 ft) and 180 tonnes. The first _________________ was in Spokane. He attended Fort Hare University and the _________________ of Witwatersrand where he studied law. Her father. Working as a _________________. convicted of _________________ and conspiracy to overthrow the government. was the first black South African to hold the office. The largest whales are blue _________________. a _________________ of racial segregation. These huge animals eat about 4 tons of tiny krill each day. he was arrested in 1962.