Cornell University Library

DS 53.R4T68


ancient times.

3 1924 028 550 980

archive. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. .Cornell University Library The tine original of tliis book is in Cornell University Library.



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vases. R.PREFACE. mentatio exhibens Rhodi descriptionem Macedonica is thorough T. chiefly in the excavations on the sites of lalysos and Camiros and of some town near the modern may be of these village of Siana seen in the British and the Berlin Museum. But no complete statement has yet been attempted of the results derived from these new materials as well as from those previously accessible. Much light has been thrown Some condition of Rhodes. forgetfulness and the references are very vague. . Meursius. in collections archjeological coins. finest the Louvre. and sometimes with amusing contexts . and also one inscription found at the These Brindisi. Rhodus. 18 18. very brief and deals mainly with b . passages are heaped together without regard to their relative value. 1675. tions the have been found first in 1837. journals. also been found there within the last thirty years. ComCBtate. and the Museum. : but it is of their Paulsen. gems. Apparently the only modern works dealing with the subject are these. in in late years on the ancient three hundred and and these have been published of inscriptions and Large numbers of in fifty inscrip- the island since Hamilton found the various statuettes. have etc. contains about two- thirds of the passages from the classics that bear on subject.

1823. Die Gotterdienste auf Rhodus im Alterthume. else. Rhodus. there in travelled Newton He 1837. 1856. mediaeval Researches in Asia Minor. tion des momiments de Rhodes. slight. deals mainly with political them very thoroughly 1 affairs and treats but relies entirely upon the classics Salzmann. fiu&in. and Armenia. exhausts Schneiderwirth. briefly sketches the ancient condition of the island. but the some remarks on almost are plates of all its ruins. Geschichte der Insel Rhodus. 1862. to be feared that have been sacrificed to the The Admiralty Charts of Rhodes Island and of Mediterranean . 1827. contains sixty chromolithograph plates of objects found in the excavations at Camiros between 1858 and 1865. vols. tary. political affairs. and Dis- coveries in the Levant. and III. and Newton. Hamilton. deals mainly with the island itself only incidentally with its Mr 1843 and 1845. contain the first accurate accounts Hamilton of the ancient remains and inscriptions in Rhodes. Pontus Reisen auf die griechischen Inseln des dgdischen Meeres. Vorgeschichte von Rhodus. The text was Biliotti et Cottret. 1865.PREFACE. creditable facts . Descrip- light.. its Liiders. 1830. Biliotti's Abb6 Cottret's eloquence. 1875. de Rhodes. Die Insel ancient history. Ross in resided there for the greater part of 1853. 1833. Der Koloss zu Rhodus. Travels IV. L'lle de Rhodes. 1881. are thorough : but their subjects are just those on which the have since thrown most inscriptions Rottiers. and Specielle Geographie der Insel Rhodus. touches lightly on the ancient history: but the text is throughout subordinate to the them very good. 1868. : many of 865. The but it chapters on the topography and ruins are is many of M. 184S and 1852. text 1830. for material. Ross. contains the ancient history of the island. careless Menge. much subject and illustrations. plates 1828. and and Berg. 1842. VI Rost. not published owing to Salzmann's death. 1827 is — and fragmenaccurate but is HeffUr. Rhodus. Ndcropole de Camiros.

is . add that Murray of the British his advice has often Museum.VU PREFACE. have received throughout the course of S. Lincoln's Inn. Old Buildings. and that he not responsible for the faults of this book. 19. I that Mr gladly acknowledge the kind encouragement and advice I A. but did not keep his promise. as far as from antiquities found at Rhodes which have not previously been published. CECIL TORR. The illustrations of this possible. volume have been taken. my It is work from only just to been neglected. a great work on the island by Professor Hedenborg was said to be ready for the press five it and twenty years ago but he . is dead and has not appeared. maps of the island Heffter promised a history And of Rhodes. Archipelago (south sheet) are admirable itself and of its neighbourhood.

R. Rev. = Ross. Corpus F. Inscriptiones Graecse Ineditae. et Latines Foucart. = Le Bas and Waddington. B. collections : Inscriptionum Graecarum.= Archaologische Zeitung. = Mittheilungen des deutschen archaologischen Institutes in Athen. The collection of ancient Greek inscriptions in the British Museum.=Wescher and Inscriptions are cited following periodicals en Grece et Inscriptions Grecques en Asie Mineure. A. W. Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum. = Newton. H. = Loewy._U. Archaologische Aufsatze. F. J. L. R.— — NOTE ON REFERENCES. M. in the Revue Arch^ologique for 1865. recueillies W. = Ross. Unediertes aus Rhodos. Inschriften griechischer Bildhauer. = Loewy. C. I. = Mnemosyne. in the Archaologisch-epi- graphische Mittheilungen aus Oesterreich for 1883. = Kirchhoff and Koehler. H. = Boeckh. by the page and by the year or volume from the . Z. = Ross. and 1867. S. Inschriften von Lindos. .=Journal of Hellenic Studies. A. N. = Revue Arch^ologique. 1866. K. A. = Foucart. Hellenica. A. M. = Bulletin de Correspondance Hell^nique. R. H. Inscriptions are cited '^ by number from the following B. I. L. Inscriptions recueillies k Delphes. Inscriptions in^dites de I'lle de Rhodes. B.

Topography i Public Affairs 6 III. II. On Shore 53 V. Learning up VIII. Legends 139 Index 153 . At Sea 31 IV.CONTENTS. VII. PAGE I. The Gods 73 Art 93 VI.

and the gem. See Aristotle. To face page ' 1 Plan of the City and Island of Rhodes. The knives and B and the sword blade D have nails for attach- A ment 108. from Camiros. b. player made (ix. D. were found in the thirds of actual size. actual Pollux says of Eros. like it now in the I tomb at Camiros which contained the vase painted with Peleus and Thetis published by Mr Newton in the Fine Arts Quarterly Review for 1864. in. from Camiros. of handle. two- the stick be caught in the noose. from lalysos. Alabaster box. pp.LIST OF PLATES. B. jeux des anciens. See page . Plate To face i A. A. that in the a noose with two cords. The gold box. with relief to dis- stick without letting See Becq de Fouquiferes. with another exactly Louvre. a. Gold reel. in the ' ' ^ 115. Poetics. A. On it. D. one-third of actual size. Chalcedony intaglio. game of i^iavrikiy^m one and the other had entangle the cords by a thrust from a little Title. Plate To face page 58 3 Bronze weapons. on does with stork with antlers. actual size. p. xxvi. i. 10. provenance unknown. Gold box. The knife F retains its ivory handle. Its lid. from Camiros. a C. antlers in paintings. 294 ff. 7) size. alabaster box. I Plate 2 . with relief of Thetis. See pp. Its foot. actual size. Les 2nd Ed. C. A. Ii6.



Plate 4

To face page 76

Bronze figure of a bull, from Rhodes and probably from Mount
Atabyros, extreme height 6i inches.
Part of the tail and- the
lower part of the left fore leg and of both hind legs are restored
in the drawing.

extreme height


Bronze figure of Helios, provenance uncertain,


See pp. 75, 76.

To face page 112


Terra-cotta " Melian

" relief,

from Camiros, actual size. Faint
traces of black, white, red, yellow and blue paint. See page 113.

Plate 6

To face page \Z

A. Terra-cotta hydria, from Camiros, extreme height 13^ inches.
Dull orange coloured clay, decoration in black with white and
purple accessories, details marked by incised lines.
A. a. Its
upper frieze. A terra-cotta amphora, from Camiros, extreme
height 23I inches, bears the panels B. a. and B. b. on either side.
The panels are orange coloured with decoration and details as
For other vases with
in A: the body of the vase is black.
Heracles and Geryon, see Klein, Euphronios, pp. 28 ff. and Mr
Cecil Smith in the Journal of Hellenic Studies for 1884, pp.
176 ff. For other vases with Heracles and Cycnos, see Mr Percy
Gardner in the Journal of Philology for 1877, pp. 215 ff. and
See pp. 114, 115.
Plates A and B.

The above

plates, except the second, are

from drawings by

Elson from antiquities in the British Museum.




I 1 A chain of mountains with many spurs on runs along the length of the island either side. and a flower down in a hollow are those of another temple. opened to the north. and is about 49 English miles: is about 2 1 English greatest breadth at right angles to this miles. There a long point of land runs out toward the mainland.TOPOGRAPHY. R. The Island of Rhodes lies in the Mediterranean off the south-western angle of Asia Minor. to its S. and had the shore on the west and south and a mole on the east. and overtops (the rest by some 1300 feet: this must be the Atabyros of ijthe ancients. about a mile from the end. little probably of Athene. 1 J I The 1 Strabo. The mole of the Little Harbour 1 T. W. Each Little Harbour. On the western jside also about a mile from the end rose the Acropolis. 655. A mountain about the middle \i[ the chain rises 4070 feet above the sea. I . for it was the highest mountain there'. The harbours were on the eastern (side of this point. p. while descending gradually on the other The northern was the side in terraces toward the harbours. fsome twelve miles distant. On the \ 'top are the ruins of the temple of Zeus Atabyrios. by N. City of Rhodes stood at the north end of the island.E. Its greatest length is from N. and the southern the Great Harbour. by S. a 'long hill running nearly parallel to the shore and shewing an abrupt front to it.

and that of the Great Harbour about 300 yards in length. probably to the south of the others. XIX. Mith. The Greek masonry remains in the A spit of land sheltered the Little lower courses of each. The temple of Dionyso. 26. Mith its ridates tried to surprise No it it was weak The temple o because the wall near other site within the city has been fixed. 98.RHODES. p. 45. ^ lb. and thi { Theatre higher again and near the walls^ The positions ol the other public buildings are unknown. the walls are of poorer work and later dati than elsewhere. Isis was near the walls by the sea°. In late times a rhetorician talks of three harbours one fitted for receiving ships coming from Ionia. while the Great Harbour was exposed to them. and of many tombs. to northerly winds' As it the harbour Acanias was exposed may have been the Great Harbour under another name. de - Aristeides. and the Deigma were in the lowest part of the city near thi sea. another for ships from This third harbour was Egypt. Starting from the east : side of the point just north of the harbours the city walls crossed to the west side and followed the coast to the north end of the Acropolis they next ran along the seaward edge of the hill and then leaving its south end made a wide circuit : across the point reaching the east side south of the harbours. Some remains suggest that this mole ran to the Khatar Rocks about 600 yards out. and like them open to the north with the shore on the west and south and a mole on the east. The finding there of a dedication' to Zeu Atabyrios has probably fixed the site of his temple. \ Lindos stood near the middle of the east coast of the island. There are remain^ of a stadium. . another for ships from Caria. At some way to the the south end of the Acropolis highest point. < Appian. » Diodoros. 973. 2 was about 500 yards. p. 346. Harbour from northerly winds. ' N. of several temples and other buildings. of roads) and a bridge. xx. 341. Cypros and Phcenicia". bel. 27. the temple of Asclepios was a little higher up. promontory there breaks at the end into several small bays two of these formed the harbours and the city A : 1 Aristotle.

I [must be the third of these. one in the temple of Alectrona. 655. under another name. I — . and the third on the way down from the city Achaea." Camiros was also on the west coast about twenty miles 1 Strabo. p. a long men There sea. 7. " Ergeias. Ochyroma''. E. entrance to the Acropolis seems to have been by a passage carried up through the hill from an opening at its base toward the city. p. An abrupt hill some six hundred feet from the sea at the end of the was the Acropolis. gales. • Strabo.) is thus Ochyroma when he plays on talking of " the very strong {ox'JpojTaTri) city called Achaea. lalysos was on the west lorth end of the island". Schedia^ Dther side of the city rose evel hill nearly its two miles from the bearing a decree ° of the the Acropolis. ground on the other side of the city. Fr. . 3 lay between them. i. and apparently in its original place: so it tself pillars. " N. 655. The harbour to the north is exposed to S. is a pillar of lalysos that the decree and certain other matters be engraved on three stone and the pillars be set up. the worst on that coast. luole: coast. At its highest point and on the very rising city edge of the cliff toward the sea are the ruins of a temple marked by its position' as that of Athene Lindia and near them those of another temple. and close by the ruins There are many tombs in the rising . The cities of Rhodes and Lindos still exist their harbours have saved them. The . his pillar was found on the slopes of Ochyroma some way [from any ruins. Fr. and the sites of few of them are known Island : vith certainty. By about nine miles from the the shore are the remains of a On perhaps at the ancient harbour. the word Ochyroma The city Achaea Ergeias" hints this in (ox'jp'u/J. 3 Dieuchidas. 2 Strabo. On the southern slope of the hill are some rock-cut seats belonging to a theatre af another temple. but the small harbour to the south is well sheltered by high rocks.a.2 TOPOGRAPHY. p. The other ancient places in the have perished. 349. another at the entrance for people coming from the ity. 655. perhaps of Zeus Polieus.

277.ibo. From this harbour the city ran inland rising with the ground along a series of terraces to the Acropolis. s. V. 655. 44.S. 8 Stephanos.. its site. This' village of Apolakia. iv. The harbour Thermydron was near Lindos'. ^N. 4 A little cape close by is from the north end of the island. are traces of a small theatre. Strabo. H. I. and the ruins of a mole by its side mark the ancient harbour. Stephanos. 5. and had a harbour*. may mark south of the island®. p. " s. j A hoard of coins of Astyra was found among some ruins' between the modern villages of Archangelo and Malona. J. decree" of the men of Camiros that the pillar be bought and and the pillar be set in Athene and fastened there with lead. 43. 276. H.p.iI. for may be Cretenia it lay below Mount Atabyros^ Places and apparently Angyleia and Roncyos are' an inscription" found near the modern village' : called Hippoteia mentioned of in Embona as if they lay near its original site. the highest point of the hill and about half a mile from the shore. in the district of R. •> B. As these coins bear Rhodian types. 655. 138. Near the modern village of Tholo are remains of a temple shewn by inscriptions"' found there to be that of Apollo Erethimios and close by . R. 1 Stephanos. C. s. Cyrbe was « ' 3 Apollodoros. Kpr)Ti]vla. v. The pillar in some rums on the Acropolis has fixed certain matters be engraved thereon. The late' excavations near the modern village of Siana shew that there was a large and wealthy town there from early times. u. H. The tombs are on the landward side of this There is a pillar bearing a hill and in the valley below. the temple of finding of this the site.RHODES. which wa^ presumably in that neighbourhood. Some consider ' able ruins. v. and this may be its site. * ' Str.'354. 'I^iat. . Mnasyrion was also in the Netteia was probably near the moderrf an inscribed pillar' that once stood in' a temple at Netteia was found not far from there. probably Mylantia'. JiUXmHa. 35. Ixia or Ixiae was tc the south of Lindos". this Astyra was probably in or near the island. p. p. including a mole in the bay between capes Istros and Vigli.

nd Sibythios were probably not in the territory of Lindos ut there is nothing to shew the position of any of these. p. Camyndios. . v.. &c. for it was overwhelmed by a Near the city of Rhodes was the sacred plain called Elysion'. 357. 57. and perhaps the fountains Esos and Inessa°. K. xcept that Rynchidas may be the ethnic of Roncyos. flood'. Diacrios. Bulidas. * Strabo.\u- Irioi/. Brasios. Amnistios. whose ethnic was ^ett^das^ The places whose ethnics were Amios. ^ Etymologicum Magnum. Erinaeus. Brygindarios. Geographia. as also was Netteia. J \stypalseeus. 235. de fontibus. s. 655. Pontoreus. « N. Neopolites. 226. 5 and in the plain. Istanios. The Thoanteion was the headland just opposite the group of islands round Chalce^ The headland of Pan was on the coast between lalysos and Camiros^ The names of some other places may be inferred from tlieir ethnics which occur in inscriptions. The places whose lalysos . were Argeios. CEiates. were in the Iterritory of Lindos. ! Dryites. J Brycuntios. I. ^ Ptolemy. ejthnics Cfclasios. Ladarmios. Pagios and Pedieus. 5 Vibius Sequester. Rynchidas . Casareus. Cattabios. V. *E. 3. TOPOGRAPHY. V. 1 Diodoros.

144. IV. — — . The Rhodians. age shew. VII. as the ruins and remains of tha' Earlier settlers in the island . lalysos and Camiros Then were large towns as well. The Greek ^46 B. cities on the mainland were taken by Cyros in islands has as yet nothing Rhodes and the other 1 Thucydides. I. . Ionic Dodecapolis'. and the other Dorian cities near had always been excluded ^ From this religious l eague arose a pol itical alliance main ly directed against the alien states o n the mairiland. .II. These Rhodian cities were I-inHn s. 57. 25. the Doric Pentapolis holding a temple in common on Halicarnassos had once belonged to this the Triopian Cape. league. but there is no trace of joint action here like tliat of the twelve Ionian cities further north that formed the . but it had been expelled in very early times. when history began. league. ' Dionysios of Halicarnassos. were Greek by race! had been absorbed or expelled and the whole people called themselves Dorians and claimed Argos for their parent stated In most of the .C. PUBLIC AFFAIRS. then the Doric Hexapolis. but the three cities alone governed the island anc With Cos and Cnidos they formed a religious its possessions.^gean islands there was but a single city but in Rhodes there were three/ and it was called the island of three citie s T/otVoXt? vaao's just as Crete was called the island of a hundred cities. 2 Herodotos.

". id Rhodes among When fleet.. Athenian Em- was the grasp of Athens on Rhodes that on ie Sicilian Expedition (415 B. Leaders of this party I'ere exiled. I. ' Timocreon. . 3 Timocreon. later there its to to independ- . But the Phoe- this security did many years. a strong oligarchic party in the island. Thucydides. and Rhod es was among the con There was a Persian party in the island was natural among a rich commercial society of ffi t rrVianLs ffho valued sec urity above liber ty. i. Persffi. with a taste for court life. \^^A fallpn into the. The struggle between Athens and Sparta proved for the hodians mainly a question of democracy and oligarchy.) she forced the Rhodians to :rve not merely against their Dorian kinsmen of Syracuse ire'.C. PUBLIC AFFAIRS. 7 command the Persians could not then fear. i. The Persians levied troops for the present and ten years Xerxes on ind took hostages for the future*. 99.£-^Egeaa^ the m. « Herodotos. and wealthy men. 9. 57. ° lb. but there is no record of resistance to the Persian bt endure for nests of Dareios" . and probably j^emocracy had now been established for many years.C. it So firm against their own colonists. vere Rhodian seamen in the fleet of After the battle Salamis". XI. but at I43. In Lindos and le age of the despots Cleobulos had ruled at amagetos at lalysos'. but as time ent on most of the allies found foreign service irksome. 2 ^schylos. 24. IV. ei . 3.vii. Rhodes with the Athenian Themistocles its way came down and restored fleet. 99. 3. but that was long past. for cian fleet and had none of their own'. 5 Diodoros. Fr. VI. fi ^ leet in 490 B.nce°. ' Pausanias. " 891. Plutarch de 1 Herodotos. 3. At first it was an alliance of jidependent states with Athens at their head. and istead of fitting out ships paid their cost over to the Atheians who suppIFed them: and thus they put themselves at Q the mercy of the Athenian le /ar broke out in 4^1 B. indeed. the pplj^pr^nnPtJ^n nearly allJJlP is1ands-o. like imocreon. The Greek islands were soon after united against Persia Confederacy of Delos. Delph. Fr. n.C. 174. There Vas. the men of Gela'.



the beginning of the war Athens had driven Dorieus and
its leaders into exile'.
Thus when Chios, Cnidos

others of

and many other
in the


time remained

came down

states of the

Aigean revolted from Athens
Rhodes for the

after the disaster at Syracuse,



in the





to Cnidos with twelve ships and put pressure on

the Rhodian merchants by capturing the trading vessels tha*
touched at the island on their way from Egypt. The Athenians soon stopped this, and then cruised off the coast with
twenty ships to keep the enemy in check. But by the end of
the year their squadron had been beaten off, and a Spartan

of ninety-four ships had assembled at Cnidos.



garchic party in the island asked the aid of this fleet ; and the

admirals were ready to give it, as they hoped to raise men
and money at Rhodes under an oligarchy. So in the early
days of 411 B.C. the fleet appeared off Camiros. The populace knew nothing of the negotiations and took to flight from
their supposed enemies.
The people of the three cities were,
however, soon after called together, and the arguments or the
ships of the Spartans persuaded them formally to revolt from
Athens. The Athenians at their head-quarters at Samos hac
heard what was doing and came down with their fleet to stoj
the revolt. They appeared in the offing when it was just toe
late, and after a stay at Chalce went back to Samos.
paid dearly for her
talents {£7680)


on the



idle there for nearly three

the coast.

The Spartans

and though

levied 32
their fleet stayec

months, they did not even protec

The Athenians were allowed

to make Chalce, a:
island within five miles of Rhodes, their base
of operations
and from there they came over to ravage the

country, oncu
landing in force and defeating the Rhodians in battle
they came out to protect their fields. At last the
fleet moved ofl", and the Athenian followed
The Rhodians
being thus left to themselves tried to revolt from
Sparta; but
Dorieus came down with thirteen ships to keep them
in order

Xenophon, Hell.


5; Pausanias,


Thucydides, vni.





and stayed
attempt at


In 407



After that there was no further

the winter'.



Alcibiades ravaged the island

carried off vast supplies for the Athenian forces.

taking over the Spartan




same year Lysander

Rhodes, and the year after his successor
Lysander was again there with the whole
Spartan fleet just before .^Egospotamoe (405 B.C.), and at the
end of the war in 404 B.C. Rhodes remained in the power of
Sparta ^
Meanwhile the ancient cities of Lindos, lalysos and Camiros
[had joined in founding (408 B.C.) the city of Rhodes, and had
'surrendered to it the government of the island'. Though the
icities had always acted in concord, they had been separate
for example, they had separately joined the ConfederIjicy of Delos, for there was a dispute about the tribute payable
luo Athens by Lindos*
and they remained separate states,
imach with its senate and commons, in the days of the Roman
The Rhodians, who had hitherto been at the mercy
bf the strongest fleet in the ^gean, found formidable means
in the fortifications of the great city; and the
irpf defence
(Rapidly increasing wealth and power that enabled them to.
[found it soon allowed them to have a policy of their own.
After the war the annoyances inflicted by Sparta through
the oligarchy led the Rhodians to set the example of revolt
Spartan fleet of 120 ships was lying in the
in 395 B.C.
harbours of the great city; but this was driven out, and Conon
who came up with an Athenian fleet from Caunos was allowed
(requisitioned ships at

did the





to enter.

Next year Conon

utterly defeated the Spartans off

Cnidos, and thereby freed the Rhodian democracy from any

danger from abroad. The revolt had been so unexpected
that a convoy of corn coming from Egypt for the Spartans
had sailed into harbour without suspicion and been captured".
Some coins shew that an alliance, presumably for maintaining
independence, was now formed between Cnidos, lasos,

Xenophon, Hell.





2 lb.


XIII. 6g, 70.



XIII. 38, 45.

S, 6, II.





Diodoros, XIII. 75.
Uarpocralion, s.vv.
Diodoros, XIV. 79.





Samos and Rhodes. The leaders of the oligarchic
who were expelled at the revolt found their way tc


and urged on the government the danger of allowJ
Rhodes to be ruled by a democracy
pledged to Athens. A Spartan squadron was at length sent,
over— the first that had ventured across the ^gean sinci)
but when it arrived oiif Rhodes (39c
the defeat at Cnidos
B.C.) the admiral found the democrats carrying all before
them ashore and afloat, and cruising with a squadron twice
as large as his own. After a time the Spartan squadron
was made up to 37 ships and then gave some support tc,
The Athenians were alarmed, and
the oligarchic party.
next year Thrasybulos was sent out with forty ships. He
did not go straight to Rhodes, thinking he could not easily
damage the oligarchic party, as they held a fort and had thd:
Spartan squadron there to help them; while the democrat;!
held the cities and had defeated their opponents in battle, and;
so could be in no need of support'. There is another versiorVj
of these events. The year before the Spartan ships camt
over, the oligarchic party had risen against the democrac^
and seized the great city, while the democrats retired to a fort
The oligarchy had then defeated the democrats in battle witl
great loss and proscribed the fugitives and after that hac
sent to Sparta for aid as a rising was expected ^
The forme)
version is on the better authority.
The fleet under Thrasy S
bulos came down to Rhodes after his death (389 B.C.) ancf
gave some aid to the democrats, but the Spartan squadron
was off the island most of that year, and returned again the
nextl The Peace of Antalcidas in 387 B.C. must have put an
end to this civil war: its result is not known, but the oligarchy
was in power a few years later. The Persian party of a century before was not yet wholly extinct, for it was believed at
Athens in 380 B.C. that if the Persians got a really firm hold
on the Greek cities on the mainland ceded to them at the
Peace of Antalcidas, Rhodes would throw in her lot with
them*. But when the new Athenian Confederacy was formed

ing a great island like







Xenophon, Hell.


Diodoros, xiv. 97.

IV. 8.


lb. xiv. 99.


Isocrates, p. 75.

Xenophon, Hell.

v. i.

p. (363 B. 22.C. and supported them against Athens'. There was an action on shore without result. This Confederacy. like that of Delos a century before. but the other two did not support him as they thought the sea too rough. 191. as a ruler 21. A general action was stopped by a storm. But when he died and was succeeded by his widow. others already at sea. 79. ' XV. XV. 2 lb. 7. The war had lasted three years*.C. xvi. plundering the Athenian islands. and recognised the secession of the states. Mausolos of Halicarnassos for his own last ends urged them on.PUBLIC AFFAIRS. p. At length Athens made an effort to finish off the war. incautious enough to fight a battle for a rebel Persian satrap against the king's forces. for a woman « Diodoros. Mausolos used the influence acquired through his support during the war to establish an oligarchy at Rhodes''. and sent out an expedition to Chios where the allied forces had assembled. Athenian admirals tried to attack. The Athenians therefore thought it well to make peace. and fitted out sixty ships to join sixty These went up to besiege Byzantion. U. ^ Demosthenes.) from the Confederacy on the pretext that Athens had designs on them. but the Athenian fleet was repulsed in an attack on the harbour and the expedition retired. K. II in 378 B. submit. Artemisia.). Thus a naval power the Rhodians readily assented to his plans^ At Byzantion. but the allied fleet followed and overtook them in the HellesOne of the pont. It was soon rumoured that the king would reply by joining the allies with a fleet of 300 ships. 17. and the The pugnacious admiral was then affair ended in nothing. the Rhodians with unwarranted contempt 1 Diodoros. Chios. Cos and Rhodes formally seceded (357 B. Demosthenes. After this the allies with their fleet of a hundred ships sailed about as they pleased. began in alliance on equal terms but soon tended to Athenian Rhodes was now too powerful to when Epaminondas hoped to make Thebes empire. 28. . the Rhodian democrats at once expelled the oli- garchy and joined Athens'.C. 191. The Athenians at once made war on the seceding states.

and her most famous age now ' Vitruvius. 8. XI. . iv. the Persian fleet (then commanded by a Rhodian admiral) kepi the islands from him. Arrian. But during the siege of Tyre teri Rhodian ships came to assist him^ and upon its capture iri 332 B. 8. xviii. p. for Caria and Persia itself were soon after crushec^ by Macedon. Rhode.C. Besides. Arte misia by a stratagem seized Rhodes instead'. 190 ' lb.)'.)*. had to seize the place afresh a year or two later (346 B. On hearing of his death in 323 B. and declared themselves again independent^ Alej^anderhad greaUy advanced Rhodes. But in a few years Rhodes was again free and had no more troubles frorr this source. 2 Demosthenes. « — «oi. pp. Six years latej when Alexander the Great marched through Asia Minor. 63. neither Arte It is noi misia nor the Persian king would care to fight^ known when or how Artemisia's troops were driven out: bu' the fact is certain. 11.C. that if th prospered. 5 11. Rhodes formally submitted^ A Macedonian garriil son was placed in the city. the} fancied that if Athens shewed herself in earnest. She it by executing the democrat! leaders and stationing a Carian garrison in the Acropolis reinstate! the oligarchy. 77. and if the revolt failed. and secured The Athenians in spite of the late least diplomatic aid. 41. Justin. Idrieus. ^ ii. 12 ejected this oligarchy and tried to seize Hah'carnassos. On the first advance eastward of the Macedonians. 4 Diodoros. for her successor. 20. Artemisia wouh Egyptian revolt against Persia hand over Rhodes to Egypt. th island would remain an outpost for her suzerain the Persiai king: and Rhodes in the power of either Persia or Egyp would be a standing menace to Greek freedom. Quintus Curtius. partly out of but chiefly in their own war gave the Rhodians a sympathy with democracy They thought interest. Alexander next year promised to withdraw it'. the citizens expelled it. but it was still there when he died. Anabasis.C. IV. ' lb. xvi.RHODES. » Diodoros. . joined Athens and other Greek cities in forcing Philip tc raise the siege of Byzantion (340 B.C.

. 46. They did not ^ want to fight. and aJJ-hodians easily repelled . fearing they would join Ptolemy during the war. But Demetrios now required them to give a hundred of their this men as hostages and admit his fleet to their harbour. de rebus successorum.3 t PUBLIC AFFAIRS. 82.h f Jxal^naval power of the -fEgean'. the strongest and nearest of At first they declined to join him in attacking i^hese kings. ^ Arrian. They decreed various honours to Antigonos. however.of freedom was given to Athens'. )| ii and in the end some degree But they could not risk a mm war with Ptolemy. This suggested some design on the city and negotiations were broken off. and beat off his men of war. refused to be plundered. finding that Demetrios was actually marching against them. and prepared to invade them. xx. and sent envoys to point out that they had treaties of amity with Ptolemy. . . The traders. ' 1 she was no longer merely an equal of Chios or i. 57. I neutrality. Upon he charged the Rhodians with beginning a war without provocation. for tVip bul k of their revenue cameJ dues on the tra ding vessels running to Egypt. they betrayed their sympathy with Egypt and Antigonos. In the wars between Alexander's successors it was no ebegan : . XX. 58. saying their policy was universal jhis I . they granted the alliance.). [jCassander. J. 81. they treated again before the fighting began . 77. xix. and most„of heir s up plies^ we re drawn thence] Solvfien Antigonos sent son DemetrioB FoUorcetes to ask their alliance against Ptolemy they refused it. Cassander of Macedon and Lysi^ Diodoros. The an attack by Attalos'' but they had yniiore to fear from Antigonos. 39.C. but without resulf*. While observing this policy in their public acts. forced a crisis by sending a squadron to plunder the Rhodian trading vessels on their way to Alexandria. even after he had landed on the island. Then. hiif I i [Jfeht thing to maintain independence or even neutrality. 81. Still. ' ' * Diodoros.(Byzantion. On finding war inevitable. they became his allies (312 B. though allowing him to have ships built at [(Rhodes but when he made the freedom of the Greek cities ([3 pretext for the war. : 3|fitted out ten ships of their own . lb. they allied themselves chief with Ptolemy of Egypt.

RHODES. XXX. and they used it skilfully. : even with xx. 14 machos of Thrace. and to place no garrison in the| floating siege-engines that attacks . Plutarch. A : : : city^ I The Rhodians had now proved their power. 22. Afte this the Rhodian cruisers cut off the invaders' supplies. they bound themselves to none ' Diodoros. and reinforcements came in from Egyp and Crete. who had been Thg against Antigonos'. whilf provisions were thrown into the city by Ptolemy. Rome seem for some years political relations of in albancj Rhod egjyit have begiUL. but no one holding office to be named Antigonos to respect the independence and revenues of Rhodes. 95. ^ Diodoros. Some months were now spent in building th( Helepolis and other engines for the assaults by land. trios. Rome Deme- . and established a camp and harboi' near the great city. advised the Rhodian< to accept any reasonable terms. ^ Polybios. XX. 5. 93—98. or else of Athens The terms were these Rhodes to be an ally of Antigono against all his enemies except Ptolemy. . « lb. xx. His assaults were at first mainly directe' against the harbours. Cassande and Lysimachos. 82—88. But at the end of year Rhodes was still untaken^ Mediation had already been attempted by Cnidos ant then by Athens and many other Greek states. and (probably) excep Cassander and Lysimachos a hundred hostages for this to be chosen by Demetrios from the citizens. The city was for a time in grave peril but at last the Rhodian sailors inflicted such damage on th( to by sea were abandoned and with them all hope of starving out the garrison. 99. 84. But now Antigonos directed Demetrios to make peace and Ptolemy who was the mainstay of the defence. and the decisive action wai fought in the very streets of the city.« without opposition. treaty was soon mad( on the mediation of the ^tolian League. Witl these the walls were breached. Though most states were seeking alliancd with them.aJaout-tlM»4i«ie Demetrios Poliorcetes landed in the spring of 304 B.




was merely of friendship and equality*. They
were thus at liberty to take either side in a dispute, and
strong enough to turn the scale in most wars. Few states
Tailed to conciliate their favour with gifts, and become in
Isome sense their tributaries^ When the city was shattered
their treaty

by a great earthquake about 227 B.C. the immense gifts sent
by Ptolemy of Egypt, Seleucos of Syria, Hiero and Gelon
of Sicily, Prusias, Mithridates and the other sovereigns of
Asia Minor, Antigonos of Macedon and by independent
cities without number shewed the width of Rhodian influence^ But it was not the policy of this commercial people
to take any active part in the quarrels of other states they
seldom fought unless their home or their trade was threatened
and not then if the danger could be averted by diplomacy.
They interfered in 220 B.C. in the interests_oOrade_whenjthe
Byzantines began to jevy^u^s on the exports from the Black
Sea to Greece. War was not declared till remonstrances,
backed by preparations for war, had failed. Even then the
Rhodians employed very few ships, and no troops. But they
incited Prusias of Bithynia, who had grievances against the
Byzantines to advance on the Bosporos. Byzantion met this
by an alliance with Attalos of Pergamos and with Achseos, an
independent sovereign in Asia Minor who could invade the
dominions of Prusias or the Rhodian possessions on the mainland.
The Rhodians thereupon fell back on negotiations
and left Prusias to carry on the war alone. Meanwhile they
obtained from Ptolemy the release of Andromachos, the
father of Achaeos, who was then a prisoner at Alexandria


and so won over the strongest ally of Byzantion. The
negotiations soon after ended in a treaty binding the Byzantines not to levy the dues*.


years later,

when Eumenes

blockade the Hellespont during a war
of Pergamos
with Pharnaces of Pontos, a Rhodian squadron stopped him
without actual fighting". Again, Rhodes supported Sinope,
another commercial city, against the kings of Pontos. When
tried to



Fr. 161





Livy, xlv. 25.

Diodoros, XX. 81.





Polybios, v.




lb. xxvii. 6.




46— S2.



the Rhodians vot^
for the de
(;£'S,6oo) to purchase supplies
they sen
it in

Mithridates attacked the place in 220




and when Pharnaces captured
envoys to the Roman Senate to complain": but



Some of the ships fitted out for thf
case did they fight.
war with Byzantion in 220 B.C. were sent to assist Cnossos it
and Eleu
Crete against Eleutherns, another Cretan city
thernje replied by threatening reprisals

In sending these ships the Rhodians seen
It may b
to have abandoned their policy of neutrality.
that they had a defensive alliance with the Cnossians, and i
against Rhodes'.

notable that the first reinforcement thrown into Rhode
during the great siege came from Cnossos* but probabi
Sixt een year s_l ater sev e:
there ^»rag ^, fjnp<;tinn of piracy.


pirate^ips were


m g^

out by t he Cr^ans, and Rhodes
Piracy in general

>var onHBehalf of the tra ding~w"orld


down Tinheir own



and they alsc
Demetrios of Pharo:

interest °,

stopped pillaging by belligerents. When
began plundering the Cyclades in 219 B.C., they drove him
without involving themselves in the war'.


The advance of Macedon under Philip V seemed to thi
Rhodians to threaten more than their trade. They fanciec
monarchy became closely involved in the
it would be a standing menace tc
So, when the Macedonians marched down intc
their liberty.
southern Greece in 208 B.C. Rhodes joined Chios, Athens and
Egypt in sending envoys to arrange a peace. For over twc
years these Rhodian envoys urged peace on Philip, followin§
him about on his marches, and getting from him nothing but
They also met the Romans
civil and evasive answers.
who were now in active war with Macedon. At last they



that great

politics of

Greece proper,

gained their point



Greek enemies, and soon

Polybios, IV. 56.




lb. IV. 63.


Diodoros, XX. 88.


lb. xxvii. 3.

XXIV. 10; Livy, XL.


made peace


with the




lb. xx. 81.


Polybios, IV. 16, 19.






with his



100; Livy, xxvii. 30,



elnodians suspected the king's sincerity, and readily believed

admiral Heracleides when he appeared at Rhodes as a

euppliant saying he had been dismissed for dissuading his

from a war against Rhodes, and gave up despatches
them to carry through
heir war with the Rhodians.
But as soon as the wind suited
Ifiis purpose, Heracleides set fire to the dockyard and went off

Philip to the Cretans urging



a boat.



Philip disclaimed the act, but did not dismiss his

In 201 B.C. the Macedonians crossed into Asia

and began to seize the independent cities. Rhodes
Pergamos at once reported this at Rome. The Senate
ItTeplied that it would attend to the matter, but referred the
and nothing was done^.
ilitnilitary question to the
jMeanwhile Philip had taken Cios; and while his envoys at



jRhodes were proclaiming that as a proof of goodwill to the
jRhodians their master would not harm the Cians, news came
jin that he had razed the city and sold the people into slavery^
(After this Rhodes did not hesitate, and Pergamos and
|Byzantion soon joined her in declaring war against Macedon.
It was now known that Philip was allied with Antiochos of
ijSyria for the conquest of Egypt and the division of its
(Possessions* so great Rhodian interests were at stake.
Macedonian squadrons attacked Chios and Samos while
jPhiHp with the main body of his fleet blockaded Pergamos,
thinking the allies would come too late to save the city, if
But Theophiliscos the Rhodian admiral,
{they came at all.
who was almost the only man that felt himself a match for
Philip, prevailed on the allies to sail at once instead of waiting till their preparations were complete and the blockade



was raised. The Macedonian fleet slipped away to join the
squadron at Samos before the engagement, but it was overtaken in the Straits of Chios and forced to fight there. The

though vastly outnumbered, were stronger

in ships


the largest size and far superior in seamanship and they had
the best of the action. Thinking, however, that Attalos the


Polybios, XIII.


Livy, XXXI.

T. R.

4, 5;

Polyaenos, v.


Polybios, xv. 23.


Livy, x.KXi. 14.



they sent uij only three ships to join it.RHODES. and their station at Lade While the Rhodian fleet retired to Cc of the enemy'. and another action w| followed by the Rhodians fought off Lade near Miletos. ' Livy. loss own their ^| they destroyed half Philip's fleet. Macedon. 6 Polybios. XVI. The Rhodf^ but a single ship froil and 300 men from Attalos were all the reinforcemenf sent to the unfortunate city. prepare for another campaign. 3. <> Appian. But when this squadron hai taken Philip's stronghold of Chalcis in Euboea. When Roman squadron at last arrived in the Peiraeus. 14 2—9. XVI. passage of the Hellespont by taking Abydos. The remains soutt of the Macedonian fleet went alone. — 17. XXXI. and Romal ambassadors had arrived at Rhodes to advocate war^ thej 'shewed more spirit and sent up twenty ships to join the) this fleet . they could merely sail over ^gina and wJ induce the Athenians to join them in the After this the Rhodian fleet went round the islands af brought them all over to the alliance except three whj| were held by Macedonian garrisons and then went ho^ for the winter. blunder in failing to cut off his retreat with their fleet! they might then have secured the liberty of Greece withoJ After allowing him to retire to Thrace aid from Rome. = lb. and readily listened to an embassy from tbl Achaeans in the interests of peace. . 35. They had reported il Rome the designs of Philip and Antiochos on Egypt and ii possessions* but Rome had so far contented herself wi<j blunt speeches to Philip from her ambassador. The Rhodian ships sheerd the han. seizing the Rhodian him forced winter of approach the mainland. though the allies could easHj have raised the sieged The Rhodians were now hesitatiri about the war. But the Here the allies made their fatj recross the Hellespont. 1 ashol king of Pergamos had been killed when his ship went S1| they lost heart and did not follow up their advantage.| was left in off one by one. while slight'. cities Philip marched through Caria. 15. Next spring (200 B. XVI.C.) Philip secured 1k| . 1 Polybios. fleet moved up to Tenedos to observe . de reb.

but a year later a Rhodian ssquadron went to help the Roman and Pergamene in putting down Nabis of Sparta. 33. He thus gave time for the garrison to ^recover from its panic and the remains of the Macedonian 'forces to come in. XXXIII. and found the place too strong for him^ . 6. demand 28. But he did not follow up his victory. XXXI. of the Greeks that Philip should 47. XXXII. The twenty Rhodian ships joined the Pergamene '''"nd Roman squadrons and the fleet thus formed. xxxiv. %nd spent time in occupying outlying posts and villages "instead of marching at once on Stratoniceia. evacuation of the Carian cities and of Sestos and Abydos on the Hellespont for the freedom of all the markets and and for the restoration to Byzantion ports in Asia Minor of its subject state Perinthos^ When the negotiations were referred to Rome the Rhodian envoys went further and sup'Hf the "' Vinter I — ' : : ported the general ' Livy. ^ lb. after some °iomans. 35- 2 — . but went home early for '^be winter as there was no fighting. * Polybios. and in the he was treating for peace. —9 1 These were used as a squadron of observation on 'lae Macedonian fleet during 199 B. 2. 26.C. Their' 'general Pausistratos invaded Caria with about 3000 mer''cenaries and defeated the Macedonians. 16. XXXII. 18. Livy. During the siege most '"liccesses in Achaean cities declared against Philip. .'Peace was concluded in 196 B.. 22. at Alabanda. the chief fortress 'of the country. 23. Next year Flaminius '""rrived in Greece and the war was pushed on with more 'igour. 46.C. But the negotiations fell through. taking the phalanx in flank and 'Inflicting great loss. the port of Corinth..C.C. The Rhodians had meanwhile retaken their ""cities on the mainland captured by Philip in 201 B. who were in nearly "equal force. toolc Cenchreae. 18. XVII. ^hile Corinth was itself besieged'. Flaminius utterly defeated him at •'tynoscephalae. and in 197 B. ' lb. who was still holding out^ In the abortive negotiations for peace before Cynoscephalee Philip offered to restore to the Rhodians the Peraa the itract comprising their ancient possessions on the mainland These were for the but refused the rest of their claims. Euboea.2 PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

Just then news came of the defeat of the Macedonians at Cynoscephalae. offering at the same time to renew the treaties between Syria and Rhodes. The Rhodians saw the danger of allowing his forces to unite with the Mace- him in his camp before Coramust not pass the Chelidoniae by sea or by land and that their fleet and army would stop him if he tried.C. xxxiii.C. sending information of his movements to some and auxiliaries to others". donians. so the Rhodians saw no further need for the present of opposing the advance of Antiochos. de 2 Polybios. They merely helped the cities threatened by him. This bold message was put in civil terms. and merely joined in blockading the enemy at Ephesos'. These islands were chosen as an ancient boundary fixed by Athens and Persia. 22. till At first the Rhodians had little share * squadron was too late for the defeat of the Syrial fleet by the Roman and Pergamene off Cyssos in 191 B. This support by the Rhodians of claims that did not concern them very closely and their refusal of the restoration of give up 'the three mark their altered policy securethecityandJUljade. xxxvi.' Chalcis. reb. Livy. it : their They sent out thirty-six ships under Pausistratos in good time ' Appian. xxxiii._bul^^ the Peraea alone to : nojonger nigrely -^^ ^^^ treaty of to'^overn~th rGreeirdtie s_ofAMa-Mi peaceTir79§^C. -The war did not begin k. 20 fetters. and it was Antiochos of Syria who obtained the place for Rhodes".RHODES. Syria. . earnest 192 B. 6. Corinth and Demetrias'. 30. XXXI. 45. and their envoys told cesion that he .) Antiochos had moved up along the south coast of Asia Minor with his fleet to support Philip and had taken many of the coast towns. xviii. > Livy. During the war (197 B. Macedon. 24.6. which the Rhodians had not yet takeii. the Carian cities that Philip had occupied were granted to the Rhodians who now held most of them. Livy. ' Polybios. 18. Appian. de reb. But the Romans did nothing to carry out the treaty as regards Stratoniceia. jo. 7. and the king gave a civil answer that he purposed no injury to them or their allies.

XXXVII. 15 de * 18 25. while Pausistratos himself next year. ' lb. and went with them to make a demonstration off Ephesos. The Rhodian ships at Samos went home to wait for it but Syrians retired. The Roman and Rhodian fleet moved up to Elsea to support the city. the design on Patara was given up. 9—14. were sent on with the others. and these joined the Romans at Samos. and then to the mouth of the Eurymedon.— . thirty-six in all. and there seemed so Polyxenidas did not chance of further fighting that some of the Rhodian ships were detached to act as convoys*. Hannibal soon came up with forty-three ships. was killed. with the double object of capturing the ships fitting out there for Antiochos. 1 most of them larger than Livy. a Rhodian exile and only seven ships escaped. PUELld AFFAIRS. first to Phaselis. and so went on to Telmessos. and then to Adramyttion when that place was threatened: but the of the During fleet returned to Samos. . Antiochos offered to treat for peace. Later on the main body Roman fleet was brought down to seize the place but after getting as far as Loryma. •24. The fleet coming up from Syria under Hannibal was now expected. the admiral found an excuse for going backl Meanwhile the Syrians had laid siege to Pergamos. the metropolis of Lycia. picked up others at Rhodes and sailed for Patara. respond. Polybios. Syria. In the xxxvii. 8. Twenty fresh ships were sent out in a few days. just opposite Rhodes. but Eumenes of Pergamos utterly refused and the matter ended'. descent on Patara. 21 These were surprised in harbour at Samos through the treachery of the Syrian admiral Polyxenidas. xxxvil. which was untenable for fever. and of setting free the Rhodian forces employed in defending their possessions on little A Some Roman and Rhodian the mainland against the Lycians. teb. Appian. A storm prevented them from making ships the harbour and they ran for shelter to Phcenicos : there they had a struggle to keep off the citizens and some Syrian After this miscarriage troops. xxi. 21. • . came down from Ephesos. his opponents'. and the Rhodians were ready to come to terms. Livy. and the this siege . — 17. was now planned.

22. and then went horned Roman troops Scipio soon after defeated Antiochos with a loss of fifty thousand men at Magnesia.. Hannibal went on to Patara. Syria. but the Rhodians threw part of the enemy's line into confusion. and a Rhodian squadron lay off The Romans there to prevent a junction with Polyxenidas. s lb.RHODES. xxxvij. 22 action the Rhodians at into confusion in forming. eighty-nine ships under Polyxenidas engaged the allied fleet of eighty ships. They 1 Livy. . In the end nearly half the Syrian fleet was sunk. he left his ships and continued his retreat overlandl By the treaty of peace Antiochos gave up his fleet. 27. 28. seeing that the war was over. fairly victory as most of their rowers were weak after the fevers. and more than half the They could not follow up their enemy's fleet was disabled. XXXVII. intendinf. At first the S5'rians were likely to outflank the Romans. and the Syrian ships at . would have nothing more to do with Patara. xxxvn. 39. to be first their patrons and afterwards their sovereigns while' . Romans'*. who was already the sovereign of some of them and had designs on the rest. 45. to the number of were burnt there by the fifty. fell first engaged. the better build of but as soon as they were their ships and their seamanship told. Appian. 22 — 24. After the defeat of Antiochos Rhodian envoys arrived in and were received with honours second only to those granted to Eumenes of Pcrgamos. The operations round Ephesos soon after ended The Syrian fleet of in the decisive action off Myonnesos. The Rhodian squadron next went to — the Hellespont to help in transporting the into Asia. Syria. Patara. though the Rhodian admiral was ordered to use all his influence to bring them there'. xxxviii. Eumenes. 29—31. Appian. of course opposed this. and then the Romans broke through and took it in the rear. 2 lb. de leb. Polyxenidas. burnt or taken. twenty-two of them Rhodian and the rest Roman. The Rhodians asked for Rome the independence of the Greek cities in Asia Minor. de reb. * lb. retired from Ephesos and sailed as far as Patara but hearing there that a Rhodian squadron was cruising near Megiste.

' Polybios. Syria. 25. 2 Polybios. 3. The Senate pointed out to the Rhodians that by the records of the ten commissioners the Lycians were to be their friends and allies. Ten commissioners went over to Asia Minor to settle the details\ The treaty of peace made upon their report in 189 B. of compromise. 7. xxn. xxii. Senate. xxxvn.C. 52 The estrangement 14. 38. and a strong party in the island held that the true policy for the Rhodians was to support the other states of the East against Rome. 4+. XXVI. xxiii. 6. granted Lycia and Caria as far as the Mzeander to the Rhodians and the rest of the dominions of Antiochos west of IVIount Tauros to Eumenes: and confirmed the independence of all the Greek cities of Asia Minor that had paid tribute to Antiochos except those that had previously been tributaries of Pergamos. Appian. Livy. 23 also asked for the independence of Solce. and if necessary to oppose her themselves. — 56. 26. . Diodoros. xxix. she sent comrnjssioners to regulate war followed. Rhodes now became somewhat estranged from Rome. ' lb. xxxviii. which had been fighting a few years before against the Macedonians and Syrians and then there were The growth : ostentatious manoeuvres of the whole of this fleet as a hint to Romans^ the 1 Polybios. XXI. XLI. with a view to getting a hold on by way Cilicia. of Rhodes from Pergamos. The Rhodians thought the Senate had been misled and sent envoys to Rome to argue the point*. Livy. The but did not press the claim. 39. On hearing this the Lycians took up arms again and seem to have been fighting for the next three years. » polybios. and when the Lycians were their affairs^ beaten they complained at Rome of Rhodian oppression. the bride was escorted to hernewhome' by the Rhodian fleet. and not their slaves. their relations with her were not clearly settled. A of Roman power in the East clearly threatened Rhodian independence. Thus when Perseus. the Romans having meanwhile seized the place and given it to Eumenes^ When the Carians and Lycians were thus handed over to Rhodes. Livy. the young king of Macedon. 1—7. 11. married Laodiceof Syria. and while they sent envoys suggesting an alliance. excepted Telmessos from the grant of Lycia to Rhodes. 8. xxvi. 27.PUBLIC AFFAIRS. de reb. 7.

26. his sacred. . <> this. had begun Asia Minor. A became head of the Rhodian government. to blockade the Hellespont the attempt of during his war with Pharnaces was an interference with com- Eumenes Then merce that a Rhodian squadron had checked almost by Moreover. ' 45. But the Roman legates who were then in the island to renew the treaties of friendship.embassy to the festival of Helios at Rhodes was turned back^ and he was violently attacked by a Rhodian envoy before the Roman Senate. 1 " ' that parties were now nearly evenly balanced But the Senate ignored Polybios. but wishing to shew the Romans that Rhodes would not go out of her way to help them. XXV. were dismissed with an answer that though Rhodes desired peace she could not en- danger her friendship with Rome. 4. 14. or at any rate the neutrality.C. reported that the strong partizan of Rome. troops ostensibly sent to assist the Rhodians against the Lycians had been plundering in the Pera. and determined its policy for a time. As the war dragged on and was more and more mismanaged by the Roman commanders. and confirmed the xxi'ii. XLU. 24 the firm ally of in the contest for Rome.selves. His and the this irregularity to cast doubts on the authenticity of the despatch not doubting it them. de reb. Appian. Envoys sent by Perseus to suggest that the Rhodians might arrange terms of peace and if necessary enforce them. Livy. ' 6 • ' U\y . however^ people were wavering'. of just then a fleet of forty ships then fitting out at Rhodes. request had not been forwarded anti-Roman party fixed on by the proper official.RHODES.a\ At last when Eumenes brought on the war between the Romans and Perseus in 171 B. 56. and it became notothere rious in Rome in the island. 6. went back convinced that the people could be trusted. 19. Polybios. Further legates who came from Rome to secure the assistance.. 46. the Rhodians declared themselves more plainly. xxvii. Macedon. 5. 9. and another was sent to protest the fidelity of Rhodes to Rome. The ships soon returned as : was no fighting*.sent to the Roman Five Rhodian ships were admiral when he asked for them. 3. XLII. Pergamene force. In this attack the envoy shewed too much sympathy with Perseus.

PUBLIC AFFAIRS. but he merely said he would answer in a fortnight*. 24. * Uvy. They at once retired without waiting for an answer. de reb. saying they had determined to put an end to the war in the interests of commerce and would attack any state that declined their mediation". 6. and also gave thenii£asieJ. who was now in alliance with Genthios of Illyria. 14. l-ivy. XKX. 14. Livy.a_ex£ort_corn from Sicily. they could perhaps have destroyed several Roman fleets Rome 1 than Polybios. 7. Diodoros. XXIX. XLIV. the anti-Roman party carried the day. and now had only to congratulate the Romans on their glorious victory. .C. Appian. Rhodian envoys were sent to Perseus and the Consul at the seat of war and to the Roman Senate^ Before the Senate they spoke as a superior power. The Consul was even more angry than the Senate when the Rhodians arrived with their message a few days before the battle of Pydna. 2. XXIX. Rhodes soon after offered to mediate between Egypt and Syria. " Polybios. but nothing was then done as to Rome and Macedon\ The Consul's request came to the ears of the anti-Roman party and confirmed their opinion that Rome was unequal to the task before her. xLIV. 35. After his victory the envoys who were still in Rome were sent for by the Senate. xlv. 2. 15. but the Senate replied by a despatch pointing out the facts °. ig. But the Consul Quintus Marcius very curiously hinted to a Rhodian envoy at his camp that Rhodes might arrange a peace. They went so far as to inform Perseus. 4. 25 treaty of friendship with the Rhodians in i5g^. Envoys from these kings were received with marked honour at Rhodes. Fr. Had war followed then. 15. XLIV. and after a stormy debate on their proposals for an alliance against Rome. 159. 19. 3. and privately asked him to mention the matter at home. in the xxviii. who were now at war. as she was the power from whom an offer of mediation could best come. The blunder of the Rhodians lay less in their action against time of taking it. Livy. Macedon. without remark. Their chief calmly said they had desired peace in the best interests of Rome. Cassius. that they were ready to join him in the war. 2 lb. ^ Dio 23.

but the negotiations at them from crushing the 1 Polybios. Aulus Gellius. 4. and she would have fared badly had not Cato taken her part. VI. XLV. had not a Tribune of the Plebs very irreguThis Tribune then larly pulled him down from the rostrum. 3. Dio rebels*. they thought it necessary to determine their relations with Rome even at the cost of fettering their policy for the future. At Rome a Praetor would have proposed to the people a war against Rhodes. 51. Fr.RHODES. and went to Loryma on the mainland instead. Sallust. '^°3 Rome cf. xxvni. but it was carried out as far as might be''. 10. Rome that the suggestion of mediation to the Rhodians by the Consul Quintus Marcius was intended simply to make them commit themselves^ Some Roman legates now refused to touch at the island on their way to Egypt. Cassius. " Livy.C. 26 before they submitted. 5 . and on a hint from one of them ordered the execution of all who had spoken or acted against Rome during the war. but they might have checked the eastward advance of the Romans for many years. 15.) to negotiate a treaty of now that a treaty of friendship was out of the question. He reminded them that Rhodes had not actually taken up arms. Mylassos and Alabanda. and could not in any case be blamed for protecting her independence'. had they joined It was believed at Perseus while he was still successful. In the end the Senate cancelled the treaty of friendship with the Rhodians and ordered them to evacuate those parts of Caria and Lycia granted them after the war with Antiochos. xxx. fearing that if they lost Caria and Lycia their other possessions would revolt or be seized by the neighbouring states. -20— 25. Many had anticipated this decree by flight or suicide. XLV. The senators who had served in the war were bitterly opposed to Rhodes. Livy. An for the treaty hindered order for the evacuation Cataline. alliance for Meanwhile they put down a revolt of Caunos. introduced to the Senate some further envoys from Rhodes who had previously been refused audience and ordered to leave the city. Dio Cassius. i6i. . Their admiral came over next spring (167 B. The Rhodians at last persuaded them to cover over. Fr. ^ Polybios.

XXIX. Minor The king whole of Asia southward by sea was stopped easily occupied the (88 B. civ. Appian. Fr. but the sailors no match for their and badly built the ships were and he was completely defeated'.7. for some of the ships they had fitted out for it went in 154 B.17. The reputation of Rhodes was restored by her resistance to Mithridates. 31. " Memnon. xxxui. sovereign. XXX. and she sought foreign aid.C. The Roman still alliance was refused later (164 Gracchus. and the most that the Rhodian admiral could obtain from the Senate (153 B. Rhodes declared war against the Cretans as pirates but some reverses reduced her to despondency. de bel. Rhodes had been on good terms with Crete during the war between Perseus and the Romans. 71. to the several Cretan cities as well as to the assembled Cretans A dozen years later to renew their treaties of friendship.C. The Romans would do nothing decided. 15. When the opponents at Myndos by the Rhodians. chiefly Rome had deprived the Rhodians of Caunos and Stratoniceia as well as of the territory she had herself granted them twenty-five years before sacrifices in putting down . ip.PUBLIC AFFAIRS. ' 2 Polybios.C. iv. Meanwhile the Rhodians had probably dropped the war.C. .C. sending envoys in 168 B.) but his progress His fleet was the stronger. 4. II. though a year later the Rhodian claims to private property in Lycia and Caria were allowed by the Senate and the city of Calydnos was permitted to exchange Caunos for Rhodes as its But the power of the island was not broken.) but was granted a year through the influence of Tiberius for the present.) was an offer of mediation. . though it suffered in repute'. B.xxxi. but : could do nothing without the consent of Rome. None of these measures were withdrawn. obeyed. 2/ of Caunos and Stratoniceia was then obtained from the Senate by those cities. and the Rhodians who were anxious for the success of the negotiations. The Achseans were inclined to assist her. and also of all return for their the revolts in Lycia and for the money spent there. 1. 14. She had also damaged them indirectly by proclaiming Delos a free port to divert trade from the island. lb. 16. to assist the Pergamene fleet against Prusias".

C. The great city was at once prepared for a siege. 61. Mith. ^ Plutarch.11. je 3 bel. ^6. bel. The leaders of the Civil War were well known in the on the winning and did not follow either party very eagerly.> 1 «. off Lectum and again off Tenedos^ At the peace (84 B. 6 Florus Appian. 2. 24—27. and then with some part of the fleet •with which he gained successes in 85 B.C. / . and Caesar then gained some island. de 7 c^. * Strabo. by sea.) the Rhodians received some reward from Sulla for their fidelity to the Romans': probably the confirmation of their title to Caria and Lycia. and was soon attacked. Rhodian ships formed one of the squadrons of his fleet. civ. . Fr.. 50. The Rhodian fleet was almost surrounded when it went out to oppose the landing of the enemy and had to retire without fighting. This squadron was wrecked in the Adriatic. When Mithridates renewed hostilities with the Romans.C.C. Mithridates pitched his camp close to the city and made his first attacks that occurred during the siege tages. III 6 bei. There were also Rhodian troops among Pompey's forces at 1 Appian. the few that escaped found refuge at Romans were Minor by Rhodes.RHODES. The citizens repulsed these and destroyed the float- ing siege-engines: they baffled an attempt to surprise the harbours and the Acropolis by a night attack and at last they : Next year Rhodes supplied LucuUus with three ships when he went round to stir up the allies of Rome. Pompey was popular for his campaign against the pirates in 67 B. 28 shortly afterwards massacred throughout Asia his order. in which many Rhodians had served under him^. Mith. to oppose Caesar. Rhodes next became involved in the party politics of Rome..3. and in the small engagements it gained only slight advanFollowing the example of Demetrios. . p.„. de s Memnon. of Heracleia'. for Caunos was in revolt against Rhodes soon forced the king to raise the siege'. 5. and when he raised forces in the East in 49 B. but the people merely desired to be side favour by sending the survivors of the crews safe home'. 651. twenty Rhodian ships served against him at the siege after*. Lucullus.

thinking it was high time to change sides. bel. The great city was then invested by sea and land. The populace thought they could resist Cassius as well as Demetrios or Mithridates. and beyond executing some fifty of the citizens and proscribing a few more. 83. 11. Cassius kept his troops in order. 7r. but when some of his party came to Rhodes. but the rest did all the hardest fighting at the capture of Alexandria. that they would be no parties to a civil war and had merely intended the ships with Dolabella as an escort. the Romans suddenly appeared in the middle of the "city. bel. and at length retired Pharsalos. Afric. In another action when the enemy two more ships. At all events. the Rhodians attacked the Roman fleet there. with a loss of five ships. When Caesar crossed to Egypt soon after this. and partly to fill their military chest. agreed to open the gates. but the more sensible people dreaded a contest with Romans. the people sent them off. ^ Auhis Hirtius. debel. After abortive negotiations at Myndos. saying. de bel. At first their seamanship gave them the advantage. but refused any to Cassius. but they were far inferior in the number and size of their vessels.. . de = CjEsar. Their admiral was afterwards lost with his ship in an action off the Canopic mouth of the Nile. but the others went on with Caesar to his African campaign ^ After Caesar's death the Rhodians fitted out ships for Dolabella in 43 B. 106. III. civ. where Cassius was fitting out. 20. believed that some of the leading men. de 11— IS. 102. ^5 . and its capture was It was inevitable. Upon this Brutus and Cassius determined to crush Rhodes before they marched on Rome: partly to secure their advance from the Rhodian fleet. knowing that resistapproached the island they lost ance was hopeless. 1 Appian. did no harm to the city or the people: but he seized all gold and silver. 29 After the battle Pompey himself escaped from Lesbos on Rhodian ships'. Alexand. for there had not been time to provision it. when he pressed his demand. He left 3000 and then went on his way to legionaries to hold the city. it was with ten Rhodian ships^ One of these deserted on the way.C. clearing the temples and the treasury and even the wells and tombs in which valuables had been hidden.PtTBLIC AFFAIRS. civ.

v. v. ° Tacitus.RHODES. 25.D. 19 ^ lb. de bel. Annates. ^ Appian. xn. patian. 30 After the battle this garrison was withdrawn. because they had crucified Romans. Under the Empire Claudius withdrew their independence in 44 A. 33. Cassius. 24. 6o — 74. provinces''. but in 53 he restored if*. . XLVii. 1 Dio Appian. and after that it was several times forfeited for intrigues against Rome and then regained by services in war^ At last Vespasian placed Rhodes among the Roman the grant'. de bel. 58. Suetonius. 2. and it no longer mattered what side Rhodes might take". 7. civ. Claudius. Cassius. civ. " Dio bel. civ. de ^ Eutropius. IV. had carried off all the Rhodian ships he Parmensis Cassius could man and burnt the rest. LX. Suetonius. 8. The Rhodians never recovered from this blow. VII. Antony granted them several islands as some compensation for their losses: but these they governed so harshly that he revoked Philippi'. Ves- .

' 884 B. or Rhoda at the northeast corner of Spain ^ Rosas inherits the name. known of the Rhodian colonization of this age in There was Rhodos. Pomponius Mela. In the lists of powers holding the Thalassocratia. Stephanos. far as . but the site of the old town is toward the headland at San Pedro de Roda. 654.^>i*acy and for trade and colonization gave a claim to the Thalassocra tia. It was doubted in ancient times whether it was founded by Rhodes or by the neighbouring city of Emporion.Spai n and founding divers colonies ^ T he use of naval power for putt ing itself first dosgx. itself a Little is the West.v. More is learnt from the statement that before the Olympic games were founded the Rhodians for years together sailed far from (. anno p. Rhodes stands sometimes fourth and sometimes fifth. This Thalassocratia could be claimed on many grounds. . and it is not clear on what grounds it is here assigned to Rhodes. The place 654.) home for the safety of mankind. 181. the sovereignty of the seas. voyaging a^. • Eusebios. 'PiS?. s. holding it fnr fwpn<-3^-#Hs«<'=-y^nr-'i nbniit This probably means that the power standing next 900_RC. iioo. lb. ' Strabo. pp. Syncellos. AT SEA.' below Rhodes in the lists began to be reckoned among the sovereigns of the seas twenty-three years after Rhodes was reckoned among them. 6. Rhode..C. colony of the Phocaeans of Massalia (Marseilles). 160. ' II.III. p.

'Podavovala. The Rhodian and is colonization in Sicily belongs to a later age well known. Lastly. p. 6^4. the Rhodians under Tlepolemos after the return from Troy planted colonies in the parts about Sybaris on the Gulf of Taranto and in the Balearic Islands*. There was also Rhode. Rhoda. for a time the most powerful city in Sicily and itself the founder of When Camarina and Acragas. city. Silius Italicus. was founded by colonists from Rhodes and Cos under a certain Elpias in one ancient account. 1 ' Strabo. 32 hands of the Massaliots. Strabo. and it may be that these settlers founded the neighbouring city. Strabo. p. but in another Diomed founded it together with Canusium and Arpi. or Rhodanusia somewhere near Massalia It was also doubted whether this was a colony of itself. state. . was commonly held to be a colony of Cuma. 654. 39. It was said that the city had its name from Rhodes and gave it to the Rhodanos (the Rhone). just to the di Salpi by the Gulf of Manfredonia. and the belief that it was founded by them may have arisen after that. and then a body of Dorians from Rhodes and Crete founded Gela (Terranova) about the middle of the south coast (690 B. 4. 654. however. v. p. of which it was the port'. That Opici". p. but it seems more likely that the river gave the name to the fell into the and that the name then suggested Rhodes as the parent The Rhodians also founded Parthenope among the This Parthenope would be Neapolis (Naples). ' lb. Greek colonists first the island they planted five Greek cities there in came little to more These were all upon the eastern coast. five years.). 364. ' Aristotle. Salapia. Vitruvius.RHODES. p. On south of the Lago the other side of Italy. in. in. 840. Stephanos. Palaeopolis. . s. Rhodes or of Massalia. I.C. Other states joined Rhodes in sending out some later colonies and it may be that in these early migrations the colonists were of several stocks and that each stock afterwards claimed for itself alone the honour of founding the city. i8o. There was a pause for nearly forty years. Antiphemos the Rhodian and Entimos the Cretan were reverenced together as joint founders but the Rhodians probably had the than . Their chief colony was Gela . Pliny.

Rhodians from necessity. 57. which was the city of Antiphemos and The name Gela was taken from the river close by\ In the Sicilian Expedition of 415 B. 4. But the famous bronze fathers The statement city'. This Gelon. which had been seized by and Camarina was Gelon. but their new colony. 3.C.C. to Pin- PolyKnos.. Herodotos. was at first the despot of Gela. and planted Seven years later these colonists were transported to Syracuse. 119. Acragas. Camarina was refounded by Gela. cf. 1 Thucydides. 4. . VI.C. xxxiv. 3 i . dar.C. for Lindice after Lindos. both Rhodians and Cretans fought for Athens against the Geloans who were his followers. ^ Polybios. v. 19. 153. VII. It Its ruins are not far from Vittoria. the greatest sovereign of the from Syracuse. 87. the brilliant despot of Syracuse. and the Dorian customs that their had brought from Rhodes were established in the new that Acragas was colonized directly from Rhodes is on less authority*. to the east of Gela. IX. acquired the place in 492 B. the Cretans Further to westward on the south coast. Scholia VII. and to have been building a temple to that great god of Lindos. . 33 the Acropohs was called greater share in the colony. 4. bull of Phalaris recalls certain bronze kine that bellowed on mount Atabyros while Phalaris himself seems to in Rhodes have been born at Astypalsea near Rhodes.AT SEA. R. was founded by the Geloans in 582 B. against their parent state and were expelled. a colony of Syracuse. were descended from a native of Telos near Rhodes who had come age. ^ Thucydides. . ° Pliny. but the colonists revolted Hippocrates. and Hiero. VII. Ol. fighting for Syracuse: the for pay^ afterwards Agrigentum and now Girgenti. in exchange for the Syracusan prisoners taken at the Heloros. when he seized the supreme power at Acragas^: and no doubt many Rhodians came over to help the Geloans in peopling Camarina also lay on the south coast. the successor of Hippocrates But on the fall of the Gelonian dynasty in destroyed. and probably peopled with its former colonists who had now been expelled there a colony of Geloans. T. 27. Zeus Polieus. Epistles of Phalaris. VI. ' lb. 465 B.

(666 612 B. 7 Herodotos. They found Selinos. VI. and took part with Many of them were killed when the Selinuntines were defeated in battle whereupon the rest agreed to go home again. ^ 153 Thucydides.'AwoWavla. These now numbered only five hundred. for the leader was a man of Cnidos. 34 over to Gela with Antiphemos'. on the Roumelian coast of the Naucratis.RHODES. Herodotos. Halicarnassos and Phaselis'. 150. s.C. 5. II. a body of colonists from Rhodes and Cnidos sailed for Sicily and landed at the western end of the island. and sailed off round the north coast of Sicily. ^ Epiphanios. de fontibus. Selinos at war with Egesta. Passing over a vague statement that in Macedonia there dwelt a race of Cypriots and Rhodians*. Miletos had no exclusive claim on the a trading station place and was not among the nine cities that were presidents of the market and founded the chief temple there. and the new comers joined them in founding their city afresh. commonly called a colony of Syracuse. any other distant Rhodes but Apollonia and colonies of Sizeboli.C. by Milesians and Rhodians'. 9. On their way they touched at the island of Lipara. was founded in 609 B. p. . the HelFour of the nine cities were Doric Rhodes.) by a body of MileIt was never a colony in the usual sense. The city seems to have been founded in the reign of Psametik I. Diodoros. contra h^ereses. Apollonia. - Vibius Sequester. p. now Black Sea. XI. was said to take its name from the fountain at Rhodes^ About 580 B.v. The city of Inessa on the southern slopes of Etna. As to these four: Cnidos and Halicarnassos belonged to the Doric Hexapolis Phaselis was Naucratis have lately been found near el — : : . Soi. as the place is The also called a colony of Miletos alone. and were welcomed there by the Children of iEolos. ' Diodoros. — 156. Cnidos. lenion. but merely sians'.C. ' Stephanos. Teh ruins of Barud in the Delta of the Nile. The Cnidians probably outnumbered the Rhodians in this colony. no records remain of . Probably few of these colonists came from Rhodes. and when he fell in the battle three of his kinsmen succeeded him'. 178. ^ Strabo. VII. 76.' V.

i6. 3—2 1. the great mole joining it to the mainland'. 671.C. however. now island of Megiste. 297. the Oracle bade him sail toward the sunset and found a city of Laughter (Gela). and the whole story is very doubtful. The report that the migration to Phaselis was from Argos probably refers only to few miles south of Phaselis were the worship of Apollo". was a colony of Rhodians from Lindos. and Gagse. ' Etymologicum Magnum. T"^'- Strabo. A little island in the eastern harbour of Alexandria with a palace and a port was called Antirrhodos. -JgS Stepha- . 7. off the Lycian coast seems from the types of its coins to have been but this only after very closely connected with Rhodes 408 B. 5 Athenffios. Soloe in Cilicia was commonly called a colony of Rhodians from Lindos and of Argivesl But when the Rhodians asked the Roman Senate for its independence in 189 B. 794. when the great city was founded. nos. The Heptastadion.. Va. and Pompey refounded it in ^'j B.C. now Tekrova. " Marcellinas. ' lb.AT SEA. ' Stephanos. 5. Aristophanes. as if a rival of Rhodes^ On the coast of Asia Minor. I. It is not clear whether Corydalla and Megiste were true colonies of the Rhodians or merely places held by them. lalysos and Camiros had . Kopi)5aXXa. v. p. a Rhodian a colony of Lindos . 606. The Delphic Oracle.- . The southern : ' Ammianus 2 Strabo. xxn. A The colony*. was built before then. who led the Rhodians to Sicily. xxxvn. Phaselis on the eastern coast of Lycia. Castel Rosso. p. it is said. I. It is said that the Rhodians levied custom dues at the island of Pharos off Alexandria till Cleopatra made the island part of Egypt by building the Heptastadion. Livy. a city of the Rhodians'. 56. Its ruins are near Mersina. The place afterwards decayed. and the It was founded in 690 B. 671. s. bade Lacios sail toward the sunrise and when Antiphemos laughed at this.C. v. at the same time as Gela colonists were led by Lacios. the brother of Antiphemos. cf. Corydalla. KXa. s. they merely said that its people were like themselves colonists from Argos*.C. . Pomponius Mela. as Poiipeiupolis^. 35 and Rhodes must mean Lindos. for little to do with Egypt. < Polybios. A- charn. p. XXII. pp.

Polybios. ' Strabo. . v. '» 7. V. 7. 27 ' p. .C. Casos and Carpathos (Scarpanto) further to the south.C. 26. 54. presumably just after its capture by the Egyptians in 309 B. Under Antony they held the more distant islands of Andres. 18. XXXVIII. JDiodoros. did not have undisturbed possession. to Mount Phcenix on the tongue of land just opposite Rhodes\ This tongue of land was sometimes called the Rhodian Chersonese''. but under the Empire they still held Caria and some part of Lycia". " lb. which lay in the Peraea. ^ XXXI. v. Rhodes bought the city of Caunos. and Syme. They also occupied Nisyros when the colonists from Cos who dwelt there had perished in a plague". Further north. * jEneas.C. Livy. Under the Roman Empire they governed Chalce (Karki) and Thalassocratia ofif the west coast of Rhodes. V. 7. p. XXII. Tenos and Naxos for a short time'". Dio Chrysostom. bel. 36. Calymna. 57. 620. 39^ Pomponius Mela. 16. Strabo. from Ptolemy's generals'. QuEES. Leros and others to the north off the coast of the other islands Asia Minor". " I.RHODES. 18. It had a coast line of about 175 miles from Dsedala on the Lycian frontier at the Gulf Glaucos. ^ Pliny. Nat. Livy. and founding a temple there". the rest of Caria south of the Maeander and the whole of Lycia except Telmessos was granted to them by the Roman Senatel They . In the . 651. in. Roman In the south of Caria there were some Rhodian colonies'. ' Polybios. Poliorc. de " Pliny. '^ Appian. The city of Stratoniceia in Caria was acquired by the Rhodians shortly before their war with Antiochos* and after his defeat in 189 B. Nisyros.^gean the Rhodians justified their claim to the by venturing before all others to an island that was upheaved between Therasia and Thera (Santorin) in 196 B. 36 seaboard of Caria was called the Rhodian Peraea. 652. XXXI. . ^ Pliny. and probably took the rest of the district about the same time. pp. and ^antion the in Troad is said to have been founded by them'. Teos in Ionia is spoken of as a city of the Rhodians'. 20. civ. Seneca. now the Gulf of Makri. 33. XXXIII. XXXI.

37 Lindos was the parent state of Gela.C. 2 Homer. 9. Two Rhodian pentecontors served with the Athenians on the Sicilian Expedition in 415 B. When the fleet of Xerxes was numbered at Doriscos on its way to Salamis in 480 B. Cos and Calymna send thirty between them. have sent some of the three thousand smaller vessels of the fleet. n. " lb. sent only Thus Rhodes and her neighbours were still weak. but she tion. while Syme sends three. but the rest of their settlements were by the coast where their.C. is harbours and more fortune abroad. but these were small vessels". When the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 B. . vii. XLV. 654. may have supplied ships herself in the earlier years of the Confederacy of Delos. XI. 3 Herodotos. including Rhodes. ' Diodoros. lalysos and Canniros. and these must all have been weaker than the Greek states in Europe. Carpathos. thirty'. Bold voyages to distant parts of the Mediterranean in very early times and constant warfare with pirates are implied by this widespread colonizain when but the naval power of Rhodes did not rise till the new was founded (408 B. Thus at the date of the Catalogue Rhodes could have been no stronger than the neighbouring islands. C. of Phaselis and of and of these three alone among the Rhodian colonies the parent state known. city . there were present 307 trieres sent by the Greeks of Asia and the islands but of these the Dorians of Asia and the islands. 25. and Nisyros. 3. fruitful territories. 43. In the Catalogue of the Ships Rhodes^ sends only nine out of 1 186 sent by all the Greeks. " Thucydides. Iliad. II. The lists of the money payments to Athens are so much broken that very few of the — ' Livy. maritime genius could have free play. Casos. The Rhodians had had less reason to seek to extend their territory Asia Minor inland to obtain supplies for the great city it had outgrown the resources of the island'. 93. It is said that Xerxes prepared the trieres and the Greeks merely manned them^ Rhodes may.) and culminated two centuries later.AT SEA.. Rhodes was paying money to Athens instead of supplying ships^.C. vi. however. with poorer SoIce.

231. ' lb. iireiireTi'. I. although the lalysians and the Camires paid only 600 that The Pedieis paid something over 80 in 428 B. * lb. duty on exports and imports '°. and' may be the Rhodians with similar ethnics.". 237. 5 sixtieth payable to Athene. . 5.^ and the lalysians the same sum in 450 B. 14 lb.C.^768o) island a few years later. and by the Camires in 441 B. and the Bricindarice are named in the lists. VII.' the Lindians paid something over 840 drachms. vm. while the The Lindians paid 1000 in CEiatse of the Lindians paid 55. I. 238. Thus the direct payments of the Lindians sometimes 200.^. 226. &c.C. 44.C. 233. 13 Thucydides. Hell." and 447 B. 235. the much as 1 500 while the lalysians paid only Lindians paid as 500: the Pedieis paid 100 and the Diacrioe in Rhodes paid The Erines. 256.) from the Pedieis to 1500 drachmae {£60) from the Lindians can be only small fractions of the whole sums due. 244. B. s. '2 Harpocration.C.C. 6. 239. e lb. the ships the lb. » lb. " 2 lb.'".* The Lindians paid 600 in 445 B. — In 412 B. 44. because of the its seamen". and the same sum was paid by the Lindians and by the Camires in 443 B.'. c". In a year. by the Lindians in 442 B. They requisitioned war ships there multitude of in 407 and 406 B. Lysander thus taking all 1 K. 262. apart from their indirect payments through the OEiatae of the Lindians and the Pedieis from Lindos.'. This may have been the ground of the dispute between Athens and Lindos about these payments'^ The sums in these lists ranging from I drachma 4 obols (16 d. They levied by the Spartans on the are out of all proportion to the 32 talents (. = lb.C. 449 B.C. and 441 B. 7 lb. 15 Xenophon. and also in 428 B.* Lindos paid I drachma 4 obols in 445 B.".C. the They may be a Spartan admirals wished to bring Rhodes over to their side. 230. » lb. vni.C.C.RHODES. by the The Pedieis from lalysians. but apparently later than 425 B. list of uncertain date. 28.C. and by the Lindians.C.C.C.C. exceeded those of the lalysians and the Camires. the Brycuntia:. w. 38 sums paid by the Rhodians are quite In 454 certain. nor could the Athenians have proposed to exchange these for a per cent. The Lindians again paid 1000 in 436 B. » lb.

C. 8.) eighteen Rhodian ships helped the fleet at the Peirseus. Pergamos and Byzantion at the battle of Chios 201 B.AT SEA. Hell. 20. 50.C. In 390 B. 21. or rather. x. numbered trieres: but the allies". xxxi. 26.C. In the difficulty with Byzantion in 220 B. Roman "jj in 65 of them being larger than how many were sent by each of ships. and afterwards three squadrons of three cruisers each but they did not use the rest of . . IV. 89.) they sent out 36. the Rhodians had over sixteen trieres at seal In the Social War of 357 B. 93. the gifts to The with three smaller vessels to aid Cnossos*. V.C. ' lb.C. 3 Diodoros. were surprised' at Samos and only five escaped. Cos. were ten penteres fully equipped from Seleucos.. 70. Anabasis.xxii. but the separate fleets of the three cities are not mentioned again. the first year of the naval war with Antiochos. " Livy.C. This was after the great city was founded. Still they sent out 20 others in a few days. . the ship called Peripolos and with her nine trieresl They also sent ten ships with Ptolemy on his expedition to Athens in 312 B. xvi.C.. the Rhodians sent out ten ships. IV.C. Later on in the same year they sent three of the six ships their fleet". xix. " Xenophon. " Diodoros. allied fleet of Rhodes. 53. and in the autumn they engaged Hannibal off the Eurymedon with 36 ships 32 — 1 Diodoros. Among Rhodes after the great earthquake about 227 B. Rhodes. ' Polybios. 1. they once sent out a squadron of three cruisers. 39 cities had*. and timber for building six others from Ptolemy'. Romans in putting down In 191 Nabis'". not known Next year three Rhodian it is tetreres joined the and there were twenty Rhodian ships with the Romans during the two following years and three years later (195 B. XX. but these ships. 84. ' lb. 46. * Arrian.C. xiii. B.C. the Rhodians sent out 25 Next spring (190 B. 52. * lb. 22. Chios and Byzantion had a fleet of a hundred ships: but it is not known how many were sent by each of the alliesl The Rhodians sent ten ships to Alexander at the siege of Tyre in 332 B. xvi. 77. II.C. 16. xxxiv. but four of these were supplied by their allies.'' During the great siege of 304 B.

28.C.C.C. The trieres pentecontoroe were vessels of fifty oars. presumably in one In the legend of Danaos and his bank. xxxvii. Livy. II. trieres*. de bel. ships with two banks. ' 16. X. but only five of them went on service": and only five trieres served with Attalos during the war with Crete in 154 B.C. Aiisteides. ' Diodoros. • Polybios.. As At Lake Fucinus. XXXVI. . 45.^ Black Sea Twenty in 74 out 16 ships for of their ships served against him in the b. 26. Appian. 2. tetreres and penteres are of course ships with three. After the great city was taken by him 30 of their war ships were carried off and the rest burnt others with Csesar to Egypt'. ' Caesar. -2 2. 6.* They did not use a large fleet against Mithridates in 88 B. and tetreres and penteres were first being Nor is it clear that Rhodes had any ships larger than used. It is not clear that trieres were used by Rhodes before about 400 B. 620. when they had been three centuries in use. 30. -24. trieres. 50. 45. Mith. p.DioCassius. 341. tt. 66. p. times there were in the dockyards ships with as many as seven and nine banks". 24. n. 5.C. except the Sacred Ship". 33. 3. 9. bel.: the greatest number they had at sea in any off In late times a rhetorician talks of their fleets of is no trace of them in history. ° Memnon. IV. some was given between fifty.C. 56. '" III.C.xvil. de ^ Suetonius. LX. Civil War they fitted and next year sent ten They used 33 picked ships against Cassius in 43 B. civ. till some penteres were given her about 227 B. 21 . XLii. * Polybios. the bel. Livy. de fifty daughters. 2 Dio Chrysostom. or of Sicily. to the ships used.° In the' Pompey in 49 Roman B. C. four and five banks of oars. The In late dicrotce seem to be dieres. dius at the a contest the naval fifty games held by Clau- miles inland from Rome.CIaudius.RHODES..C. Fr. the fleets of Rhodes and of each consisting of twelve. A little later they had 20 ships trieres at the Patara and 22 others with the Romans at the battle of Myonnesos\ Thus the Rhodians had over 70 war ships at sea in 190 B.XVII. 106. 40 tetreres the and 4 Romans — and seem to have had eight ships with same time. xx. XXXIII. V. a hundred ships^ but there Forty ships were fitted out in 171 B. ^ Appian. 27. civ. 23. single year. for the war with Perseus.

82. ' Cicero. without a fighting deck from end to end.. The Rhodian aphractce are said to have been bad sea The ship called Peripolos was perhaps the guardship and the phylacides cruisers to defend the A Sacred Ship was maintained by most Greek naval powers. VII. Possibly the Lindians introduced this type of ship for long sea voyages. * Diodoros. C. . . the first that the Rhodians waged on their own account. 97. The triemioliae were fast vessels without a deck. coast of the island. ad Atticum. Three of these suddenly attacked his ships as they were ravaging the coast of the island. and the action at the Hellespont ended in nothing^. 41 ship that came from Egypt to Greece came by way of Lindos and was called the Pentecontoros*.C. 9. After this three phylacides went to Carpathos. 57. and had the pirates for aUies: yet he was at the mercy of the Rhodian cruisers. three triemioliae to Patara and three others round the islands: these sank and burnt his ships with impunity and captured his supplies on their way to the island and the plunder that was being carried off. Demetrios had 200 ships and 170 galleys besides transports. and then went safe home. they managed to bribe the enemy's admirals not to attack them. boats'. 93. pp. 92. 13. XX. that is. Diodoros.AT SEA. 84. Epoch = Pliny. and they also took many of the pirates and the Arch-pirate himself ^ The usual tactics of the Rhodians in action were to run through the enemy's line and break the oars of his ships as they passed and then turn and ram them at the great city.C. for in 305 B.110. In later wars they relied on and they were generally successful. " Diodoros. swift vessels also with one bank of oars. v. XX. . were invented by the Rhodians''. though their seamanship very often opposed by fleets vastly stronger than their own At the great siege of 304 B. sank many of them. ran others ashore and burnt them. The aphractcE seem to be of the same first class. ' Deinarchoi. XVI. they beat off the war ships of Antigonos*. The Rhodian traders plying to Egypt must have been well armed. In the Social War of 357 B. 12. The celoces or celetes. 1 The Parian Marble. in number and in size of ships. 21. 82.

Appian. the enemy were disconcerted by the Rhodian tactics and the sinking of a Syrian ship of seven banks of oars by a single blow from the ram of a Rhodian of much smaller size^ At the battle of Myonnesos that same year the anchor of a Rhodian caught in a vessel she rammed and. xxxvii. and she was disabled and taken. * Livy.C. XVI. he re-embarked his men and tried to fight his way out to sea. . ' lb. XXXVII. and sailed out of action one by one to stop their leaks till few were left to fightl At the battle of the Eurymedon in 190 B.C. xxxvil. 5. The Syrians surprised the Rhodians by night. At this battle the Rhodians carried braziers of fire hung over their prows and in trying to avoid these. left her ram fixed and herself filled and went down'. 27. few weeks later the Rhodians suffered action off Lade a the In severely under the enemy's rams. 30. 5 Livy. de reb. de reb. hoping to keep out the enemy by a cross fire from above. always carrying away something working the ships even if they did not sink them. The Rhodian admiral at once occupied the two cliffs that form the harbour's mouth. however. ^ Livy. 15. and so received the enemy's blow high up while in the stern or needed for striking him deep. 4. One pentere.RHODES. 24. Five Rhodian ships and two from Cos carried braziers. . ramming stem to stem the Rhodians in some way depressed their prows. ' Polybios. But here he was attacked by troops that had been landed on the other side of the island and supposing in the dark that these were part of a large force. . 11 Syria. as she tried to back off. the cable became entangled in her oars. the Syrian ships exposed their sides to the Rhodian rams^ These braziers had alone saved the ships that had escaped at Samos a few months before. when lying in harbour there. XVI. At the battle of Chios in 201 B. 24. . . and the enemy opened to let these pass. but all the rest were lost^ The Rhodians were much embarrassed by the swift little vessels of the Cretan pirates in in a vessel she thus sank. 42 on the beam. Syria. Appian. the enemy's small craft hampered them in this by crowding round them and spoiling When thus reduced to their skilful steering and fast rowing.

closed ' Diodoros. a Rhodian Off squadron came down on them and inflicted great loss'' Heracleia in 74 B. either through a blunder or from cowardice. 26. having 80 ships to 33. the wind suddenly changed arising king's transports .C. Fr. once more used their old tactics with success in the action off Myndos in 43 B. In the Adriatic in 48 B. 15. de bel. And when the king's transports were in difficulties in a storm. how- king seemed likely to surround them with and they thought it prudent to retire without ever. de bel. de bel. non. In the end the Rhodian admiral found himself with six ships opposed to twenty-five of the enemy. which had engaged the enemy to give time for the rest of his fleet to get into line. de bel. till Cassius. 25. 31. 38. civ. 50. 43 154 B.'. . When the enemy had just made and the whole the harbour. twenty Rhodians began the attack on the Heracleots. in. ^ Appian. were attacked by some forty ships at once but they were so well handled that they gave their opponents no chance of ramming them or breaking their oars. and also the only case in which a Rhodian squadron was commanded by a foreign admiral. Fr. and before these he kept giving way but as they were turning to go back at dusk.C. thirty in number. off Myndos'. squadron went ashore and broke up. the fleet. 27. and at the first shock three Rhodians and five Heracleots went down*. their usual tactics again succeeded in a smaller action from an attack by a Rhodian dicrotos on one of the and the arrival of supports on both sides. This is the only case of the loss of Rhodian war ships through bad weather. But they easily defeated the unwieldy ships of Mithridates in 88 B. and was surrounded and sunk^ The Rhodians . a Rhodian squadron of sixteen ships under Coponius sighted some of Cffisar's ships crossing from Italy to Greece and went in pursuit. " Memnon.C. 24—26. civ. . XXXI. ^ Mem- Mith.C. IV.C. yi lb. In the action off the Canopic Mouth soon after this the admiral's ship was not supported by the rest.. In the next action. But his huge fighting. Alexand. " Caesar. In one of Csesar's actions off Alexandria that same year four Rhodians. Aiilus Hirtius. AT SEA. he attacked them and sank two by ramming.

and The Little Harbour was defended by booms and by engines placed on merchant ships near its mouth. During the sieges there was some fighting by the harbours. and a wall across it about half way down. Deck-houses with portholes were fitted on the strongest galleys for the long-ranged catapults and the Cretan archers. All this was done under a heavy fire. the Sambuca. xx. and floated each of these four engines on two merchant ships. A week later three of their best ships with picked crews rammed the raft to bits. 85—88. sank two of the engines and damaged many of the enemy's ships.C. 72. In 304 B. and armed with battering rams: boats followed it carrying soldiers with scaling ladders to climb from ' Appian." RHODES. The end in. 44 on them and confined the fighting to ramming stem to match for the heavy Roman ships: and in the second action he followed the same in stem. Demetrios built two towers and two shelters for throwing shot. Fire balls were thrown from the enemy's fleet into the Rhodian ships with great effect^ The booms were again used for the defence in 88 B. it to the . s Diodoros. and an engine that he afterwards built threefold the former in height and width foundered in a squall before it came into action. in which they were no plan'. but only one of the three Rhodians was walls were raised. On the first day of the attack the Rhodians drove the raft and engines out to sea by means of fire-ships. de bel. citizens held the breach against the burnt the boats they had landed enemy's troops. lost. civ. as they were overtopped towers The . the citizens recapturing it on a stormy day when the enemy's ships could not support its garrison.C. It was floated on two ships. In rough weather. however. iv. they proved unmanageable. And to protect the engines from the Rhodian ships a long raft was built with an iron-plated bulwark along it. 71. There were engines on the mole of the Great Harbour. Mithridates built a huge engine. by the The city floating but they were soon breached by shot from the ships. of this mole was surprised and held for a fortnight by four hundred of the enemy under shelter of barricades.

C. Intruders into some parts of it were punished with death as at Carthage and elsewhere*.. 2 lb. debel. " v. but he supplied his own timber'". SEA. the ships on returning dressed with laurel as if for their victory were admitted to the harbours without suspicion. for command of the harbours gave command of the city. for he could only batter with missiles and his storming party had to cross some ground to change was perhaps made about 227 B. 8. 54.' 27. but this perhaps by surprised The dockyard was maintained at great cost long after the Thalassocratia had passed from the Rhodians'.^ On the other hand. = Diodoros.C.C. civ. For this reason again the citizens would not allow Demetrios to bring his fleet into harbour in 304 B. Amoies. 72. p. When Heracleides set fire to it in 204 B. The queen had seized the empty ships when their crews had landed to occupy her city and had sailed back to Rhodes in them with her own troops on board''. thirteen of the sheds were burnt. IV. A Later on there was space for merchant vessels touching at the great city to be drawn up on shore and for their crews to pitch tents near them^ This was perhaps inside the harbours there would be no walls there. < Vitruvius. Mith. : The sheds were thus like those at the Peiraeus those at Syracuse and some other places held two trieres each. " Polysnos. 341. 41. each with a triere in it".AT But city walls. Long afterwards 1 Appian. 79. ' Aristeides. 82. = Lucian. ' lb. In 43 B. 45 effected nothing. the Roman ships were able to attack the walls for they had towers on board that took to pieces and were put up Thus the city walls were close to the water at some point in the days of Mithridates and Cassius: apparently for the siege^ not so in the days of Demetrios. p. they had driven the Spartan fleet out of harbour in their revolt of 395 B.C. xiv. the Rhodians built ships for Antigonos. Diodoros.C. Besides : building for themselves. XIX. after the great earthquake. Thus when the Rhodians went over to deliver Halicarnassos from Artemisia in 351 B.C. get to the breach. XX. 653. and the city was taken. 11. 58. 17. it and at last collapsed'. . * Strabo. de bel.

armour. Immense quantities of ship timber were presented to Rhodes after the great earthquake about 227 B. After the earth265. hemp. month". just as the ladies of Carthage and Massalia had given theirs*. ' N. These figures point to commisIn the list 151 sions for six months and for five months. 1852. 88—90.000 drachmae (^^5. after tar. this corn would last five months. ' lb. 3 quake Ptolemy sent 20. 89. ^ Aristeides. . Jud. lead. Aliens and strangers gave as well as citizens. 8 Polybios. and fifty years later Perseus presented morel The presents for the dockyard the earthquake also comprised iron. drachms are also given for rations for a year. I.000 drachms per trieres'. V. 3 for some other time. when a fresh list rations for six months. 56. 2 would be for rations for 16 months.600) in sending 1 50 cwt. i. the daily ration at one choenix. and 302 for two years. 50 cwt.000 artabes of corn as rations for ten Taking each crew at 200 men. 7. 343.C. ' Polybios. 46 Herod of Judsea had a large triere built at Rhodes'. p. and the Egyptian artabe at 15 choenices. resin. Rhodian list perhaps belonging was sent out after the disaster a 190 B. " M. p. In the list the man who proposed the subscription gave 7000 drachmae (^^280) while the rest gave from 5000 drachmae (.RHODES.. 4 catapults with men to work them. 1000 suits of wine". 355. of hair. These ropes were long afterwards shewn to strangers who came to Rhodes I The Rhodian commissioners appointed to send stores to Sinope when besieged by Mithridates in 220 B. < Frontinus. pitch. to to for If i be for rations for six months. spent the vote of 140. 79. IV. XXVI. de bel. of sinew. 14.C. ^ Polybios. 7.000 jars of Subscriptions for the navy are partly in wine and partly in money in fleet In the Pausistratos'. v. hair and sailclothl Once in time of need the Rhodian ladies cut off their hair and gave it for making ropes.C. 99 drachmae 4 obols are given and obol be for some fee and 99. Many of the subscriptions are for ^ Josephus. 265.^20o) down to 50 drachmae {£2). 3000 pieces of gold and 10. By the treaty with Hierapytna in Crete each Rhodian triere serving there was to be paid 10.

p. There is a story" of a Rhodian captain muttering while expecting to lose his ship in a storm. ./iej5 Siica 'FoSioi SiKa vyjef. ^ Diogenianos. i. ^525. 23. the master of the ships". Thus a Rhodian is called trierarchos of an aphractos. N. XXXVII.H. the but then only one or two aphractos went no further than Corinth^ In decrees 'service on ship during war' is distinguished from 'service on ship' simply: this last being perhaps on these yearly voyages^ There is no trace at Rhodes of the Athenian trierarchy. and was once overthrown for refusing to hand it over to the trierarchs*. " Aristeides. 3. A Rhodian squadron went out every going as year. 23. p. 346. xxx. 353. 1 Dio Chrysostom. 5. the trieres The custom remained under far as the Atlantic. "Well. * B. an officer to command every three. 22. for self.. 88. ' Strabo. * Aristotle. or of multiples of three ships. 5. Other offices were pilot of trieres and master of aphractoe^ Rhodian squadrons were commonly of three and there may have been ships. and the trierarchos. AT SEA. ' Livy. 621. children and wife and father: and one child gives for self and grand- self for self papa. for self and daughter. At the Eurymedon the fleet had three but it had been formed from three separate fleets". ^ Diodoros. i." And they were fine swimmers. » F. the master of the trieres. <> F. p. being apparently its captain °. for nothing accounts for these numbers. Poseidon. '' Polybios. Tolitics. 2524. R. Parcemioe. 653. and their fine seamanship was acknowledged as much by Romans as by Greeks. A Rhodian fleet in their tactics commonly had one commander. r. seems an officer lilie the nauarchos. B. the duty of fitting out a ship for the public service. 47 and son. having power to make alliances for the state'. V. XX. out. It was a proverb that ten Rhodians were worth ten ships'". . though many voluntary payments for the navy were expected'. and sailed The nauarchos was at the head of naval affairs and was of high political rank. Roman Empire. you must own I'm sending her down in good trim. The democracy had to supply pay for the seamen.

» Dio Cassius. 86. and made alliances with Demetrios and with Antiochos against Rhodes". 87. Cresar. though he commanded only foreign mercenaries ashore'. 11. and in late times trophies of ships' rams and other spoil stood in many parts of the city. 7.C. Caesar was captured by pirates on his way to Rhodes. V. were dedicated'. had their throats cut before they were nailed up". the somewhat degenerate Rhodians cruised off the mainland to shew his troops the fetters they had collected for them'. * PoIyKnos. but Caesar in return for some courtesy these had shewn him. 2 Diodoros.C. they lost only sixty men though four of their ships were sunk. XLVII. 1852.000). ^ Aristeides. When Pompey pirates.^i 2. Hierapytna agreed with Rhodes to attack the pirates by land and hand over them and their ships to the Rhodians'". The Rhodians had put down piracy on their early voyages to the western Mediterranean*. p. With regard to Cretan piracy. 27.C. while the Macedonians lost 9000 men besides prisoners': and when they went out to burn the siege engines of Demetrios in 304 B. ' Strabo. The ships' ornaments captured from Demetrios in 304 B. 654. XVI. 33. and these trophies may date from that age. they simply swam home if their own vessels took fire^ It is notable that Rhodian youths of the noblest families eagerly served under Pausistratos at sea. '» M. " Suetonius. Just before the siege by Cassius in 43 B. 2 Livy. some of it taken from the Etruscan pirates'. Livy. " Diodoros. 12. 82. p. The pirates there were well organised under an arch-pirate. 342. . 4. 48 At the battle of Chios in 201 B.C. 18.RHODES. p. He perhaps doubted how long the zeal of these sailors would last. XX. XX. XXXIII. ^ Polybios. and then put sentries to see that it remained as security for their return*. for when they assembled in gorgeous armour he took them on board and ordered them to stow their armour there. Piracy in the Levant they never put down thoroughly. but he got some Rhodian ships and took the in getting together his directly he was free The Romans always sent pirates to the cross. 74. 79. His friends were six weeks ransom of 50 talents (. xxxvn. XX. " Diodoros. XXXVII.

After the battle of Chsroneia in 338 B. The owners.AT SEA. 13. had desired Rhodes as an alternative port to Athens in the charter-party. and he was the sole survivor. 49 with the aid of the Rhodians crushed the pirates a few years later {^"j B. 67 in 1296. probably touching previously at Lindos like the Pentecontoros in the Corn was also imported from Sicily but after legend*. Demosthenes congratulates himself in his speech for the charterers that he not before a Rhodian court. must therefore have favoured the trade with Rhodes. the Rhodians sent out men of war to bring in passing merchant ships. 81. leave was that her granary. 4 . it appears. 79. VIII. this was only Rome made pp. an Athenian called Leochares fled to Rhodes. 2 ' Lycurgos. p. saying that Athens was taken. R.) he could not crucify twenty thousand prisoners. xiv.C. 12S4. I. in whose service they were*. i«97- r. little later most of the supplies of the great city were drawn from Egypt'. who had a monopoly of the export of corn from is Egypt. 150. 35. * Demosthenes. A : Thus Senate and in limited quantities. for in that case the owners might be favoured for bringing corn to the island. presumably by the direction of Cleomenes.C. the power of Athens was really broken. and even before its foundation they came round the north end of the island. 1285. Merchant ships touched at the great city on their way from Egypt to Greece. ^ Diodoros. This satrap. satrap of Egypt. Xenophon of Ephesos. turns on the capture of the hero and heroine by a Phoenician pirate triere that had been lying in harbour at Rhodes as a merchant ship and had fol- lowed theirs out to sea^ Trade was sometimes attracted by dubious means. 1 Strabo. and he Solce'. most of them in the old Rhodian colony of Piracy was again familiar in late times. D. T. XX. by leave of the 169 B.C. in which a ship chartered to carry corn there from Egypt had discharged at Rhodes on the way. apparentSo in a case at ly to enforce some right of preemption ^ Athens. e xhucydides. the Thinking Peireeus besieged. p. Diodoros. de amoribus Anthiset Abrocomaa. for the plot settled of a novel written about 200 A.

largely exported from Rhodes both to Egypt and to Sicily.C.C. XXXIV. XXVIII. 5 Polybios. Alhenffios. -i. 50 Wine was given to import 20. i. XXXVIII. 944. It was to maintain the freedom of this trade that Rhodes. as the chief naval power amo}^ the commercial states. for when Antigonos went to war with Rhodes in 304 B. = lb. v.: and among the products of the island exported thither under the Empire were chalk. p. 71. white-lead. 63. wax and pickles. 89. Phoenicia. went to war with Byzantion in 220 B. verdigris. and the saffron unguent^ After the great earthquake about 227 B.. the Rhodians were exempted from all custom dues in Syria and The continuance of this exemption in Syria was in Sicily^ secured for them by the Romans under the treaty with Antiochos in 188 B. 88. the capacity of the jar: it certify can hardly refer to the vintage. IV. An emblem probably belonging to — some magistrate is — the names of The stamp would often added. the handles of the jars being found throughout Sicily and at Naucratis and Alexandria. for the Doric months occur. xxii. Livy. Cilicia. as were also their real property and rights of action in his dominions^ They had long before been encouraged to settle there. sponges.'''.RHODES. 54. 26. and the their recognized 1 Polybios.C. XXIV. These handles are found at many other places on the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Many of these are stamped like the coins with the head of Helios or the wild rose.oil seems to have been exported to Athens'. xxviii. . There was a commercial treaty between Rhodes and Rome as early as 306 B. Pliny. • XXXI. Wine and oil were the staple exports from Greece to the Black Sea. ' Polyrenos. Lysist. * lb. They bear the name of some priest of Helios the dignitary that gave his name to the year at Rhodes in all cases. glue. 1. iv.C.000 quarters'. 65.C. 38. Rhodian myrrh. 6. 688. unmolested'. 38. purple. and also honey. ' Arislophanes. and Pamphylia should be The Rhodians occupied a central position for commerce of the ancient world. and in many cases the name of some month as well. 47. 26. he directed that the Rhodian merall chants in Syria. xiii. vii. Vitruvius. while the imports were cattle and slaves.

many 51 foreign merchants to settle Thus the report of the taking Rhodes by Leochares was spread over in the island'. ' Lycurgos. This standard seems to be the Persian: but the Rhodians. on founding the great city. Early in the Ilnd century B. 2334. coins that circulated coins with the types of Alexander the Great and of the Attic standard: a measure necessary for their trade with European Greece now that the Rhodian standard had fallen. i. the Rhodians alone refused it^: and remained liable for the full payment of his after the whole And young men residing there'^ were sent there to learn business'.500 cistophorce is mentioned. but the passage is probably corrupt^. Plautus. 602. 84.C. * Festus. of Athens he could escape at Rome by liability at Rhodes a son father's debts long renouncing the inheritance^ Rhodes had close commercial relations with Cnidos. p. v. ' p. 11. 100 Rhodian drachmae seem to have been reckoned equal to 105 Athenian'. XX. Cnidos. prologue.AT policy of neutrality brought SEA. . lasos. called the Rhodian. and probably became the unit of the cisto- A throughout the Levant. In a century and a half this standard fell to about 50 grains to the drachma. as appears from the issue by these states of coins of a uniform standard and with the same type on the obverse. Halicarnassos. 149. Rhodian talent of 4. Cyzicos and other states as far north as ALnos and Byzantion. Hypotyposes.. " Sextus.d. Samos. This was soon adopted by Cos. 82. B. The Rhodian standard fell still further. commonly of about 60 grains to the drachma.C. Mercator. Talenta. for at Cibyra in 71 a. '^ s. which thus appear to have been under the commercial influence of Rhodes. Ephesos and Samos soon after 400 B. a Rhodian drachma was 1 Diodoros. had issued coins of a new standard. Dio Chrysostom. Chios. brought to earth by the merchants Romans It is said that when the offered a general remission of debts after the Civil War. Rhodes and several other states of the ^gean were striking phorce.C. 149. These are sometimes a trifle heavier than the corresponding Athenian coins: and in a certain payment made at Tenos shortly before 167 B.

Let the matter be judged by the naval law of the Rhodians. who flourished under Antoninus Pius. and probably much else of the naval law of to-day has come down from the Rhodians. . principle of general average': —"that to lighten the ship. in so far as any of our own laws do not conflict with that." ments of Salvinus Julianus. but the law rules the sea. II." if This is the cargo be jettisoned make good This principle the loss instill obtains maritime nations. The response of Antoninus Pius is preserved": "I rule the land. are the earliest now extant on the only principle of — Roman naval law that is certainly Rhodian. xiv. The comgive. 4380. 9. ' lb. This same judgment did Augustus This last sentence is perhaps doubtful. is '^ a forgery of the Middle Ages. all contribute to curred for the benefit of all. ad. a. Nothing is heard of these laws at Rhodes itself. xiv.RHODES. i. The Jus among all Navale Rhodioriim ' B. 52 worth only ten sixteenths of a denarius when that coin weighed about $2 grains'. II. The maritime law of Rhodes was adopted by Rome. The Pandects.

It The strange is that its site was not corn ships passing round the north end of the island on their way from Egypt to Greece must often have anchored where its harbours afterwards were while waiting for the prevailing N. and perhaps the islanders could not previously have peopled Hippodamos of Miletos was Pericles the architect : the had entrusted the rebuilding of the notable that a Deigma —a man to Peiraeus'. place. p. xx. The first of these was soon after the city was founded. '' lb. XIX. 83. ON SHORE. bazaar of the Oriental type it. . 83.W. the old But in storms all the rain water rushed and in the first century of the city there were three serious floods. whom It is — was in few Greek cities but the Peirseus and Rhodes.IV. ' Diodoros. The City of Rhodes was built in the closing years of the Peloponnesian War. winds to fall. occupied before. 65+. 45. the city was compared to the body of a Greek theatre^ Thus the people could watch found the fleet of Demetrios as ing on the walls and the it crossed the women and the men standmen on the roofs strait. XX. The site. however. while there was still much vacant of their houses^ down 1 to one Strabo. Covering the level ground near the harbours and then rising gradually along the terraces of the Acropolis hill to the vast circle of walls with their lofty towers. for the only hill that could was more than a mile from the harbours as a citadel serve . demanded a large city.

More damage was done by the second and more still by the third. Two 85. ' lb. stones from the outer wall of the theatre and from some of the temples being used for this. V. de * Strabo. marble theatre was afterwards promised by Eumenes. we cannot call any its it so sur- equal. " B. A A . but was not built ^ The city was ruined by a great earthquake about 227 B. XIX. 2 lb. and a second line of defence. was built within the walls on the landward side. 54 ground and was the least destructive. 87. 88 XX. — 90. " Justin.. in walls. probably temporary." 1 Diodoros. 45. The extension of the south end of the Acropolis was earlier than the siege by Mithridates in 88 B. p. C.C. 652. for the wall there is of very inferior work.C. the walls and the temples were rebuilt with greater splendour than before^. The suburbs were levelled by the citizens before this siege'. 36. quake. ' Appian. This was in 315 B. H. x.U. 93.' Some Rhodian monuments to the victims of earthquakes still exist.C. 100. There were channels under the walls to prevent these floods but the people had not kept them clear. Mitli. When the siege was over. in streets. It was the city of this age that called forth Strabo's opinion that " in harbours. 26.L. : . bel. RHODES.) Demetrios destroyed all the trees and buildings near the city for material for his camp..C. when the Colossos and the greater part of the dockyards and the walls were overthrown ^ It was soon rebuilt by aid of immense but it was again shaken by the gifts from foreign powers earthquake of 196 B. 4.xxi. and also inscriptions recording repairs to older monuments that had been thrown down". as they fancied the winter rains were over\ few years later (304 B. 83. The walls by the sea were raised during the siege. V.C. when five hundred lives were lost. but apparently much later than the rebuilding of the walls after the great earth. u.. and in other buildings passes all other cities that less its supsrior®. much centuries after him. 617. . 9. a grove within the city was enclosed with porticos and dedicated to Ptolemy and the theatre. the rhetorician xxx. The lower part of the city was inundated till the walls gave way under the pressure and let the water fall into the sea. 24. 33i. * Polybios.

* Arisleides. broad streets and the absence of vacant ground between the walls and the buildings a thing rare in Greek towns'. 342. The slaves were armed for the siege.C. if half the able bodied slaves were armed. .000 free persons. and assuming that the 400. — in a wave the buildings fell in a shapeless mass of ruin and broke out that burnt on day and nightl The Emperor Antoninus Pius rebuilt the city'. Many. 349.D. 396. 55 Aristeides talks of the sacred groves in the Acropolis .000 aliens. •' Pausanias. 6000 citizens and 6000 aliens would imply 60.: ON SHORE. Allowing for women and children. 1 Aristeides. fires the great siege of 304 B. ^ Pausanias.000 for the whole population. 343. had gone away with their alien masters. . Thus in times of peace the aliens may well have been as numerous as the citizens. In a census taken at Athens a few years earlier 21. 43. This was before the city's great prosperity but most of the islanders must have come proportion held at . 345.000 slaves or 220. 31. the free are to the slaves as three to eight. It was probably after this rebuilding that Pausanias reckoned the city walls among the finest he had seen^ Six thousand citizens and a thousand aliens bore arms at then . The sea went back. : into the city for protection during the invasion. This city perished in the earthquake of 157 A.000. and in a few years Aristeides could again call it the fairest of Greek cities*. and many would not be trusted still. The whole to the 7000 free reinforcements were 150 later on. and returned . 351. pp. The men from Crete and 500 from 1500 more from Egypt. and 400. this implies a free population of about 150. If this Rhodes. and so 160.000 slaves include women and children. no doubt.000 citizens. 2 lb. The aliens that refused to bear arms had been expelled they were chiefly merchants who : had been attracted to the island by its steadfast neutrality in that age of warfare. so that it seemed a single house rather than a town the long.000 Egypt: and men for the garrison. they added some 16. IV. 353. and not more than one man in six of this class would care to fight. vill. pp. the symmetric building of the rest of the city.000 slaves were returned. . 10. p.

82. For the attack Demetrios engines. The Rhodians forthwith made him state first . The citizens once knocked off some of this covering with their shot and set fire to the woodwork but there were water tanks in the upper parts of the engines. variously given Plutarch puts Its size is by 72 broad: Diodoros at 150 feet by 75: Vitruvius at 125 by 60. the Great Helepolis. Pointed shot nearly two feet long were used. . In a night attack many were killed because they could not see the stone shot and the pointed shot coming and get out of their way. but no stone shot heavier than J cwt. attack a very massive tower built of squared stone was thrown down and the wall on either side so damaged that the citizens could not get to the battlements.. 84. going very steadily though with much creaking and straining and was propelled by a body of soldiers underneath. The attacking force was 40. It is said that a little before the siege a certain Callias of Arados came to Rhodes with a design for a huge crane to stand on the city walls it would grapple a common helepolis as it came up and lift it over the walls into the city. The Helepolis itself was designed to resist stone shot of 2J cwt. and huge tridents were carried for breaking away obstacles. and gives its weight as 125 tons. It moved on wheels. so the velocity was low. There were portholes for discharging shot at each story of the tower. and were connected by a covered way for the men working them. and the fire was put out.000 men. seem to have been used at the siege. These siege engines were built only of wood and so were covered with basket v/ork and raw hides to resist fire balls and the heavy stone shot. In this night attack over 1500 pointed shot and 800 fire balls were discharged by the citizens. These shelters also moved on wheels. 88. the engineers and the sailors*. ' Diodoros. XX. .. 98. On either side of the Helepolis were four shelters to cover the miners and two others with huge battering rams like ships' prows. RHODES. S6 garrison would thus be about 25. At the : it at 99 feet high . built the Colossos of siege This was a moveable tower the base square and the sides sloping inward. besides the cavalry.000 men.

95 Ammianus Ransoms were arranged with Dememan and half that sum looo drachmae (^40) for a free — 97. 91. killed the guards at the trench. and very few of them escaped. trios at ' Diodoros. but with very poor success.ON SHORE. Demetrios. but of Miletos and in command of the mercenaries from Egypt: and they hoped by this to attach the other mertalents (. half-moons were built to cover weak points and a great trench was dug round the first breach made by the Helepolis. Plutarch. and occupied a portion of the city near the theatre. till at last he was moved by the prayers of ingenuous maidens and youths escorted by priests. and the workmen their work. Marcellinus. After the siege he brought to the people. But next day they were attacked by the best of the Rhodian troops and the fifteen hundred mercenaries from Egypt. The rich had readily given their money for the defence. The citizens rewarded him with a golden chaplet and five these the betraying this attempt. XXIII. which soon clave to the swamp and could not be moved. for the crane. Diog- netos would do nothing. some at arms and ammunition. Vitruvius. He then diverted the sewage of the city toward the Helepolis. . architect in place of Diognetos.^I200) for cenaries. 21. The mines were met by countermines: enemy tried to seize by bribing the officer of the guard. X. XX. He was not a Rhodian. They attached the slaves by a decree that all who fought well should be purchased by the state and enrolled as citizens: and the decree was carried out. their parents strengthening the walls. But the Great Helepolis was too who much 57 then held that office. 4. their daughters dowered on marriage and their sons on reaching manhood crowned in full armour in the Theatre at the Festival of Dionysos. 46 — 48. but most at selves were encouraged be buried at the public cost. it Besides the second line of defence erected within the walls during the siege. It it within the city and dedicated was designed by Epimachos of Athens'. got through this breach by night. however. Fifteen hundred picked men. a certain Athenagoras. The citizens them- by a decree that those who fell should and children maintained out of the treasury.

It is said that at the siege of 88 B. bearing in low relief an arrow head on one side and on the other their owner's name. Among the mercenaries sent in from Egypt during Rhodians who had taken siege of 304 B C. for not a next action Tissaphernes soon Rhodian missed his man.C. as slingers^ Early in the retreat of the Ten Thousand in 401 B. nearly three centuries earlier. Ptolemy'. Some sling bolts lately found in the island are about an inch in length and shaped like filberts. " Diodoros. 84. XX. were the service with Telephos of lalysos who has carved his name on Abu Simbel seems to have come there among the Greek troops in the service of Psametik coin with the lion's head II.C. 7.RHODES. 93. The force with which Pausistratos recovered the Peraea Diodoros. Mithridates intended to surprise the south end of the Acropolis by night and thence give the signal by a fire for his troops to attempt exchanged all his the city walls with scaling ladders while his ships attacked the harbours. ' Thucydides. Xenophon found there were Rhodians among them and formed a body of two hundred slingers. on his restoration at Cyrene in 530 B. 43. thinking it better to endanger his success than prove ungrateful ^ In that siege there was little fighting byland. Mith. and in the retired out of range. Bagyptas. XX. ^ Appian. They had obtained the cords and lead from the villages they passed'. de bel. the leg of one of the colossi at A of Lindos and the silphion tree of Cyrene on the obverse and the eagle's head of lalysos on the reverse was probably struck as pay for Rhodian mercenaries in the army of Arcesilaos III. ^ Valerius Maximus. 4. and in the sjege by Cassius none at all. Xenophon.C. Ext. 94. . and his troops finding the walls did not deliver the attack °. Seven hundred Rhodians served on the Sicilian Expedition of 415 B. v. 88. vi. In later times the Rhodians kept mainly to the sea. ^ ill. 98. Their leaden bolts carried twice as far as the stones from the Persian slings and further than most arrows .C. Mithridates Rhodian prisoners for Leonicos. who had saved his life. 3. ' 100. 97. 2. lighted the manned fire But the discovered his plans and citizens themselves. 58 for a slave'. Anabasis. 26.

Afric.C. 29. 10. 59 comprised Achseans. Gauls. 79. XXXVII. apparently compromising himself irrevocably by letters written with his own hand and sealed with his seal. 24. Transport for these was to be provided by the Rhodians and pay from the date of arrival at the rate of nine obols (15^'. Polyxenidas. 11. p. ill. By men among the Rhodians eagerly served the treaty with Hierapytna two Rhodian be demanded for service off Crete and two hundred heavy armed Cretan soldiers for service in Rhodes. Tamiani. ' Polybios. de p. and liberated his political prisoners. and Rhodes was to do the like for Hierapytna in Asia Minor" The forts in the Rhodian possessions in Asia Minor were garrisoned with foreign mercenaries'. ' Livy. Pisuetas. but no Rhodians: yet when this same Pausistratos commanded in 197 B. 18. 1852. Hierapytna was to aid Rhodes in levying mercenaries in Crete. X. Anabasis. had thirty years earlier strongest commanded Cretan mercenaries in Hyrcania'. Caesar employed them as light armed troops to act with his cavalry^. Syria. de reb. In the war with Nabis five years later they helped to construct the works for the siege of Gytheion and took part in the assault on Sparta*. Appian. xxxvil. 12. Memnon the Rhodian. ' Livy. the Rhodian exile who commanded the fleet of Antiochos the Great against his own countrymen.ON SHORE. 5. In 190 B. XXXI. Nisuetas.C. 10. he treated with Pausistratos the Rhodian admiral for his recall from exile in return for the surrender of the king's fleet. . In Cento's descent on Chalcis in 200 B. they forced Philip's jail.) a trieres could day a man and two drachmas (201^.) a day for officers commanding not less than fifty men. the fleet the best under him'. XXXIII. At Ruspina in 46 B. It is characteristic that when the Ten Thousand were stopped in their retreat by the river Tigris a Rhodian came forward with a plan for crossing it on a pontoon of inflated skins". and then surprised Pausistratos in his false security*. Arei from Africa and Laodiceni from Asia. The Rhodian sailors were capable of service on shore. xxxiv. 38. 611. bel. ig. ' Livy. ° Xenophon.C. 23. 2 M. * Aulus Hirtius. 8 Dio Chrysostom.C.

20. as those in whom politi- had bribed him to he addressed were would rather be bribed by them for and they bribed him. I. and he had there arranged with some Greek mercenaries serving on the other side that Bagoas should be taken prisoner and then had rescued him from them. as was his Mentor had held a joint combrother Mentor before him. mand in Egypt with Bagoas. had previously Persian fleet commanded against Alexander the against him on land at the battle of the Granicos and at the siege of Halicarnassos. Aristoteles. ' lb. he was enabled to save the state the Then he obtained some wealthy citizens on the security of certain revenue shortly due: but when this revenue was paid he felt bound to apply it to the pressing needs of government. n. I. 50. by delaying three days one month and five days another till he made up thirty days. and when he had really obtained a bribe from them. he formed a new court and ordered that all better administrators. the mother by Alexander the Great of Heracles'. a loan from governor of Phocaea. cost of a month's provision for the army. informed the leaders of one of the cal parties in that city that the other party put them power. he formed a coalition government. 28. but. Anabasis. xvi. That young prince had no small chance of obtaining the throne of Macedon at the time of his assassination in 311 B.60 RHODES. - Diodoros. A sister of Mem- non and Mentor married Artabazos. Again. XX. the satrap of lower Phrygia. and the citizens had to be content with a promise of interest while Another Rhodian. ao. He then used the same argument to the leaders of the other party. . Under Memnon's government at Lampsacos it was the custom to give the But soldiers their rations on the second day of the month. perceiving that many heavy lawsuits were pending. when their loan remained. and from this marriage sprang Barsine. and had alone urged the true policy of Persia when the war began defensive operations in Asia and an attack on Macedon by sea\ He was satrap of the west of Asia Minor. the chief eunuch of the Persian l<ing. 23. : Anian. who commanded the Great. he that purpose ' II.C. He owed his satrapy — to the eunuch's gratitude for this escape".

. A. ig. 353. he fining those litigants that did not appear simply ordered the governor of the province to catch the slave pay the insurance \ Another Rhodian placed in office by Alexander was jEschylos. There were probably twelve generals. 642. rege Deiotaro. 88.) a-head per annum for whatever sum their owners chose to name. Sd. 2 Quintus Curtius. ON SHORE. There were probably more than two. I. Economics. 3 Appian. de bel.. at Rhodes. ^ The prytaneis. ' '. whereupon the king slew Castor*. N. C. however. sometimes took during the siege of 304 command both by B. When Antimenes the Rhodian was warden of the highways arourld Babylon under Alexander the Great. n. Mith. who opportunely betrayed the city and the king's sons to Pompey in 63 B. This son unluckily made political charges against Dei- Rome in 45 B. • Aristotle. of whom the strategos e/c "TravTaiv was presumably the chief: one of them commanded in the Persea and another in the parts of the island which lay outside the cities'. and his son and grandson held royal dignity. 568. but it is not clear how many there were. Djodoros. by land These prytaneis were at the sea and head of the state. IV.I.C. They presided at assemblies Reports from abroad were * Strabo. They probably held office for a year. ii. pro 11. strategce. and when a slave ran away. the able king of Galatia. 214. II4- ^ ' j. Then he insured slaves at eight drachmae {6s. J. 15. of the citizens in the Theatre. whom he made governor of Alexandria just after its foundation I Long afterwards Phanagoria on the Black Sea was held for Mithridates by Castor the Rhodian. R.C. xx. 8. he discovered an obsolete right to a tithe on imports and suddenly revived it when certain high officials and others well able to pay were expected. This brought in a good revenue. M. pp. One was president during the first six months and another during the last six. 108.. 98. 275. and was rewarded with the title or ' Friend of the Romans He married a daughter of Deiotaros. pending and by suits 6l should be at once brought before it or be barred and by taking bribes from both sides at the trials he greatly augmented the revenue. to the great advantage of the treasury. otaros at No other military officers are mentioned. Cicero.

343 I. of the foreigners.C. commander in Caria and commander in Lycia'". ^2 Appian. 2416. H. The Rhodians certainly governed their subjects harshly. XXXI. • F. A. ad. episcopoe the latter with a secretary^ There were officers of revenue. xlii. for . At Lindos there were probably three commanders. epimelets. The islands subjected to them by Antony were soon forfeited through their oppression 'I The Lycians. I. "the prostatas. found they had fared better even under Antiochos: actual violence was now offisred to them and their wives and children. I. when subjected to them in i88 B. and so also the admirals' despatches. poletae. astynom^e^ — — 1 XV. 224. XXIX. R. . Polybios. p. 2524. p. 11. There were probably seven treasurers. 337. of whose oppression envoys came from lasos to Rhodes to complain". civ. could tive. p. b. dying on active service. M. I. bel. 15. This was probably the office of Podilos.. tamiae. They received foreign ambassadors in the prytaneion at the state altar. A certain Rhodian was commander in the territories presumably on the mainland in time of war". these last acting in committees. appoint his own successor^.RHODES. C. M. 6. 251. and five intendants. There were also guardians of public Probably all these offices were elecAn admiral. and the same office was probably introduced at Naxos when that island was subjected to Rhodes'. ' B. p. 23. those with Charinos" are mentioned: and there were also five overseers. II. This" led to three wars in the next twenty-five with a secretary'. ^ B. V. 224. II. 9. XVI. . 124. i« M. 9. buildings. XVI. 45. de ' Polybios. 275 . 6. 1885. p. 2 R. however. H. 59. v. 23. » B. C.At Camiros the demiurgos appears to be the chief magistrate after the founding of the great city". 62 addressed to them. 106. 1524. ° B. 5. and they were contemptuously insulted merely that the Rhodians might shew their mastery". A. slaves. u W. XLI. 7. Livy. agemones'. and three others were respectively commander at Caunos. 7. " Livy. and guardians of foreigners times despatches from the : and prostata. XXVII. A. " Polybios. for these were preserved in the prytaneion. 3 N. B. H. In later Roman Emperor were directed to them'.

Rhodian envoys were constantly at Rome. In their prosperous days they were entertained at a public mansion and escorted thence to the Senate and then to the Capitol to make their offerings. ' M. 32. = Polybios. " Livy. ' Dio Cassius. Diodoros. i. XLIV.toward the Senators^ A few years earlier some Rhodian envoys had lost their temper in the Senate and others had declined the customary present of 2000 asses {£$) offered to each envoyl Long afterwards some Rhodian magistrates sent despatches to Tiberius without the clause that they would ever pray. years. who had always power to conclude alliances. 3656. B. Tiberius. 25. de reb. 251. to insert the clause*.ON SHORE. XXX. . the Rhodians were able to negotiate quietly with Rome for a treaty of alliance after the war with Perseus. ' Cicero. XV. Senate as well as before an Assembly of the citizens in the Theatre. XXXI. But those that came just after the blunder about the war with Perseus were forbidden to stay in the city and could hardly get lodgings for money at a wretched inn in the suburbs they put off their white robes and went in mourning to the houses of the leading men to beg their aid with prayers and tears. LVII. 5. p. 23. Honours granted to Rhodians by foreign states with which they had by five men dians of full elected age . 5. ' the Emperor ordered them By sending Rome to over their admiral. A 63 century later the tribute was so rigorously exacted Roman Senate that might be collected by publicans from Rome'. 9. 20. ' Livy. and in the Senate they bowed to the ground holding twigs of olive. W. ' Polybios. and various honours were granted them'.' and that the Caunians and others begged the it . 79. IIJ Suetonius. Macedon. 15. i. negotiated a treaty were proclaimed at Rhodes at the Festiad Quintum. Appian. XLV. 1852. when they feared damage to their reputation if it were generally known they had asked for such a treaty without success^ Their treaty with Hierapytna was to be sworn to by the Commons on behalf of all Rhoand the like oath was to be administered by the prytaneis to the envoys from Hierapytna at an Envoys from abroad were heard before the Assembly".

361.. 1^ B. Still the Rhodians occasionally made some return for the gifts that were always being sent to them. 2526. p. Glaucon son of Eteocles. a Rhodian statesman of the period of the war with Perseus. 18. r4. xxviii. Demetrios. bel. was consul (proxenos) . After the great earthenvoys were sent to nearly all the Greek states to ask for assistance and the same course was proposed after the earthquake of 157 A. even from sovereigns as remote as Herod of Judaea'. The grant was to him and his descendants. 5 B. Upon this the Rhodians were granted such rights of citizenship at Athens as Athenians then had at Rhodes". » Polybios. VIII. 2905. 88—90. 21 . ' ' R. 61. quite as a favour to the givers'. . xvi. Jud. 403.D. dedicated a statue in the great Zeno son of Nahum. B. But the immense gifts sent in response were received in a patronizing way. C. p. i.C. seems to have been consul for Delphi. as did Delphi for in the list for 180 on the south wall of B. 19 . i-. Plutarch. in several cases in Priene to the arbitration of Rhodes'. and the recompense for their duties to Delphians at Rhodes included priority in consulting the oracle'^. " B. * Josephus. 64 Rhodian envoys were also employed abroad mediating between belligerents^ Similarly.RHODES. 8. de D. XXII. 18. i' W. they bought her and sent her dressed as a queen to her capital'.o- doros. 3047. During the siege by Demetrios they captured the ship bringing his royal wardrobe. a disputed claim to territory was referred by Samos and val of Helios'. VI. apparently the Olympic victor. Nine Rhodians are named among the consuls city at .ivy. I. de ant. v. ' Polybios. 16. ' F. H. Some time afterwards. who was consul for Rhodes Arados'". Pausanias. XIV. 93. Four Athenian ships captured by the Macedonians in 201 B. 63. V. . Jud. ' PolyEenos. 93.C. V. were recaptured by the Rhodians and sent back to Athens. xxxi. Philophron. inscribed the enclosure of the great temple of Apollo". * Polybios. Aristeides. F. I. 26. and sent it to their ally Ptolemy^ When the wife of Seleucos was taken by the Gauls and brought to Rhodes quake about 227 B. 22.C. Rhodes for He at Athens". XX. to be sold as a slave.

357. ^ m. : among the Commons in the Theatre. Great had previously recognized of the uprightness the Rhodians by leaving his will in their keeping'. n. F. ord. At Lindos there was the Commons (o S^/xo?) of the Lindopolitae'': and also the Entire Commons (0 o-y/tTra? 8)7^0?) three ancient cities. > de repub. ' Diodoros. Beside the Senate in the great 65.ON SHORE. It was by means of a party among the citizens. existed as late as the Roman Empire'. * Aristotle. city. A Polites was presumably a citizen of the great city. HI. Before his days the administration of the democrats had sometimes been so incompetent and corrupt that the wealthy classes had been compelled to put an end to their government in self-defence'. 35. 194. listhenes. 2. Alexander the in . together with the Lindopolits. of places in of Lindos. Bulidas. when the prytaneis changed office. " Demosthenes. Pseudo-Cal- 33. Brasioe. the Senates of the any rate of Lindos. There was a secretary to the Senate in the great city. A. I. . or at : Camyn- apparently consisting of the Argeice. of Lindos CEiatae. N. R. who were citizens Nettidae. 345 F. 224. remains of Cicero's account of the constitution But it appears that the Senators were not a class the same men sat as Senators in the Senate House and little about 100 B. 68. 3. dice. R. At this period all citizens served as jurymen without regard to their wealth or poverty and they were proud of the justice thus administered". H. M. xx.C. which he afterwards repudiated. serving for some months one place and then for some months in the other and they were paid for attendance in both places". 6. 23. . V. 24. de jepub. 5 . Clasioe. 81. Politics. but were distinguished as citizens from the People {to TrXijOo'i) of the Lindians. = N. R. Very itself*. 5. 21. and an undersecretary to the Senate and apparently to the Prytaneis as well and also a public secretary''. Cicero. N. These changes probably occurred every six months.' and Pedieis. ° p. T. 275. 346. Pagice the territory who were citizens These were all termed Lindians. I. and not by foreign troops that Mausolos upset the democracy". Ladarmioe. 3 SalluBt. By the treaty between Rhodes and Hierapytna each state was bound to oppose any attempt 1 R. A. Cattabioe. cf.

But Lycia and Caria remained subject.C. though Caunos had been purchased rather more than a century before Rome replied to the conceit for only 200 talents (. 1852. in As late as Domitian's time the clumsy government of the democracy the Rhodians were though other Greeks seldom met^ Even under the Antonines they had energy enough for political disturbances. An ancient .ooo). pp. or emancipated slaves.£'48. reip. and in one case of much later date a slave was emancipated by the City and made Guest of the Senate and Commons'. slaves belongp. 7.RHODES. V. ' Polybios.8oo). and it was a saying that they would refuse immortality itself unless assured of eternal caused serious disturbancesl still meeting daily for Later still.C.. XXXI. as late as the Roman Empire and in those days there were many other tributary Besides the immense gifts from abroad. 652. custom.oooy. 19. state number of citizens^ Many of the made citizens after the siege of 304 B.000) a year. 567. prjEcept. About 170 B. * Dio Chrysostom. and Caunos alone paying 120 talents (. democracy*. The revenue was large.^40. deliberation. large sums states^ used to be presented to the state by private citizens for public purposes and especially for maintaining the poor. Hiero and Gelon sent ten talents citizens did not want'. city. with some intervals. 278.000 drachmae (£6. .£"28. for after the great earthquake about 227 B. p. ' Polybios. ^ Plutarch. of the Rhodians during the war with Perseus by making Delos a free port.40o) to increase the slaves were dedications have been found in numbers near the great were mostly natives of Asia Minor. Most of Lycia and Caria was at this time tributary the cities of Stratoniceia . their harbour dues had fallen to 150. p. ^ Strabo. " R. * Aristeides. the harbour dues reached a million drachmae (.C. 79. 88. pp. 385. 384. 653. 66 to upset the democracy established the other'. required the rich to see that the poorer Fees must have been paid to the on admission to citizenship. He was of foreign birth. The slaves. There were ^ M. I. " Dio Chrysostom. 670. whose (i!'2. ger. and by 164 B.C. moreover.

ON SHORE. Pausanias. Dorieus. and brought to Athens. A little earlier the leading aristocrats had been driven into exile by Athens. 4. 84. Xenophon. they Twelve years later he set him free without even a ransom. vi. 67 ing to the City. Nearly half the Rhodians named in inscriptions are : described as 'son of so-and-so. Hostages were taken by Demetrios after his siege and by the Persians just before Marathon. the despot of lalysos.' Pliny in one instance has evidently mistaken the Rhodian phrase Ka0' vodecriav by adoption for Kad' inr66e(Tiv by hypoand has founded a curious story on his blunderl Public life brought many dangers. When his ancestor Damagetos. XXXVI. 346. After misia killed the leading war with Perseus the citizens tried to exonerate themby executing the leaders of the anti-Roman party. 7. ^ his days'". vin. Cassius and Arte- thesis . . Pliny. retired to Thurii and there fitted out ships to serve against Athens during the Peloponnesian War.C. and Aristomenes did not refuse him his daughter's hand. IV. ^ Thucydides. His men were devoted to him and when Astyochos once raised his the selves : staff against him. men on capturing the great city. while the leaders of the Persian party were exiled by their fellow-countrymen. The people had already decreed his death but on seeing a man so famous for his Olympic victories in chains before them. but by adoption son of so-andso. was in Peloponnese when news came that Rhodes had again gone over to Athens and he was put to death at Sparta in blind vengeance for the revolt. i. and probably a board of masters to them manage they seem once to have rebelled \ Adoption was very popular. the god bade him wed a daughter of the best man among the Greeks. There was civil war in the island soon after the great city was founded. Hell. the act nearly cost the Spartan admiral his hands of the indignant soldiers and sailors^ He was taken in 407 B. the most famous of these. 24. enquired of Apollo at Delphi whence he should choose for himself a wife. 5 . The hero of the Messenian Wars came with his daughter to the life at the : : island and there ended * ' N.

^ Vitruvius. divit. 26. ' ate. down to the time chief remains at Camiros are At of structures for the supply of water. From these main galleries many others diverge.£'i8. j.. he rle ciipid. made Rome sides. * Polybios. These conduits are about four feet high Pliny mentions a Rhodian marble with golden but the ruins throughout the island are of stone." Roman Empire the gymnasiarch of the young men in the veins''. though lalysian decrees occur of the Emperor The Titus'. 3426. the top of the Acropolis a gallery about two feet wide and six high runs under the surface for about 230 yards in a straight line. supply and not for drainage. as the bases of the shafts are always lower than the galleries leading to them. 652. having on one side three branches of about 27 yards each. XXXVII. that : it many had a colonnade on facing the "They citizen and builders invented a type of courtyard that was afterwards adopted in wealthier houses at for officer all of the the four south was carried on higher build for eternity. one at the centre and one at each end. and columns'.C. ^ B. A. name great city gave his to the year. vr. The city straight through the eastern limb of the Acropolis hill to a cistern on the east side and this was itself fed by another conduit running southward under was supplied by a conduit hewn . ' ' 23. It is clear they were for water . R.RHODES. 68 lalysos and Camiros were in ruins before the earthquake of 157 A. Pliny. p. V. The gymnasion in the great city was a magnificent building. the hill to a were sent by Hiero and Gelon to supply oil for Under the it after the great earthquake about 227 B. R. 83. * Plutarch.D. 5 Strabo. 62. and two wide. 354. p. full No less than 75 talents of famous pictures and statuesl (. generally one or two yards in length and none longer than ten yards and these all end in shafts opening to the surface. 50. but they eat as though they were to die to-morrow" was an ancient saying against the Rhodiansl They judged H. man by what a Aristeides. but presumably only purposes of the gymnasion °: and a great athlete and of the gymnasion at Philadelphia was The Rhodian senator of Rhodes'. A .

A popular saying advised a gourmet who could not afford a Rhodian alopex to steal one even if he died for it.' its fish and praises the aphye sword-fish). Sat. however.C. 102. XV. The peach tree. and must have been largely grown bituminous earth found there throughout the island'. IX. Some of it was sweetened with boiled must. ^ Martial. 11. XV. Then in the matter of milk cakes. But the wild figs were admired by Lynceus. * 360. 4. 5 ' Strabo. Macrobius. 19. Pliny. pp. p. proved sterile and tantalized the people by merely flowering^. ' Athenaeos. and was widely exported. georg. xiii. p. 109. Pliny. 654. For dessert he approved the Rhodian escharites. XIV. hist.C. " Athenseos. for the ethnic of one of the demes Lynceus also commends a grape called is Brygindarios'. de re rust. 75. their appetites. 6. 28. 80. 68. in which he compares the delicacies of Rhodes and of Athens. 79. 16. " Vergil. The dried figs called brigindarides were a local growth in the island. Varro and Pliny. ON SHORE. thought the ellops the greatest delicacy of the island'. 316. Lynceus of Samnos in an epistle** written about 250 B. a well-known species.. 13.. suggests that a need not break his slave's jaw with a blow: he might give him a Rhodian cake*. Pliny. : ' ^lian. var. 647. p. The figs had a fine flavour and were known in Rome°. Lynceus thought highly of the Rhodian echinos at the second course of a dinner. Roman gentleman A proved very useful in killing the insects off the vines'. however. Aulas Gel- . 5. ' AthenEeos. connoisseur in was fish at 69 once pronounced a gentleman : and man who was content with meat. and also the custom of eating them before dinner instead of after. The Rhodian wine was in repute at Athens and at Rome". the ellops (. 295. I. 285. a made drinkers sober and restored to gour- sweet cake that mands Martial. 11. a mere shopkeeper'. " Varro. the fox. hist. but most of it was pure and a delicate about 100 B. The Rhodian grape was hipponios that ripened in July. a calls (. lius. xvi. II. when introduced from Egypt.' the island admirable in anchovy). " Theophrastos. the orphos {? sea-perch) and a kind of shark called the alopex. iii. Pliny. plant. 652. XIV. 47.

X. 113. * lb. i. 2. vi. 12. He had been struck with the climate and the beauty of the island when touching there on attracted ' Athenaeos. 11. c. afterwards talked of abdicating the Empire for a life of leisure at Rhodes". 6. Jud. II. ^ Athenaeos. de cohib. 464. mint. Caesar. rence. ^ Anacreon. 58. Herod of Judaea came there to meet Octavian after Actium". Wealthy Romans frequented the island. Cassius and Cicero. ' Pliny. 34. II. 10. i . Pliny. ^ " II. Athenaeos. Pliny. often very curious for Their fighting and cock-fighting was common. 16. 444. eunuch. with divers beneficial results'. 492. de ant. 31. xxsii. Columella. Nero. 70 was imparted by just the right quantity of sea water'. 7. . I. p. Te- viii. Titus visited'' the island in 68 A.D. 6. Odes. Plautus. 24. Tiberius lived there for seven years. pp. 68. p. epid. pp. ^"* Suetonius. before he became Emperor. XV. 2. 565. III. " Horace. cinnamon. 34. '" Plutarch. 17. 112. hist. Brutus. 352. iv. viii. 10. ^* Josephus. 115. Pompey halted there in 6"] and 62 B.RHODES. 2. Juvenal. 55. etc. hist. ira. var.. who had as a boy pleaded the cause of the Rhodians before Claudius. cocks rivalled those of Tanagra. and flattered himself that it passed for Rhodian or the kindred Coanl The Rhodians frequently drank theirs mulled with myrrh. Martial. and became favourites at Rome^ sumptuary law could not be enforced even against shaving^ And in many ways the austerity of these Dorians was tempered with Oriental luxury'. A Roman later times the other hand there Roman a is satirists On did not spare them". III. » Cato. Cato economized by flavouring his home-made wine in this way. 7. Martial. ^ /EHan. igS. all stayed there to study rhetoric. X. " 129. 29. Tacitus. Pliny. 62. on his way between Rome and his commands in the East''. Athenaeos. IX. Its sunny climate them". Nero. 32. 31. There was much drinking and gambling with dice among the flavour Rhodian aristocrats in early times. p. The Rhodian youths disturbed Diogenes by appearing at the Olympic Games in more costly attire than any of the Greeks': and in stakes*. the a story of a grave Rhodian rebuking lictor for fussiness". p. de re rust. i. vii. '^ Strabo. XIV.

1 Pollux. One day when he was going to visit the sick. He was tribune but he lived as a private gentleman with a moderate house in the great city and a villa outside. 22..C. ' Suetonius. LVI. vi. Roman officials There he devoted himself to the study of astrology. 41. and he stayed on at Rhodes. and in a few days news came of his recall.D. 71 from Armenia. and many Romans must have lived there in like case. exchanging the Roman toga and sandals for the Greek cloak and slippers probably the peculiar Rhodian shoes' and — — retired to the country to avoid the visits of the touching at the great city. Hnd much of the old Doric They kept gladiators out of century A. however humble. he had the man killed that he might not go about He had been virtually an exile during the last talking of it'. . that exiles interdicted from fire and water should live in no island within forty miles of the continent ^ the general corruption of the Greeks in the Amid severity and quiet good vn. He was now in daily fear of assassination. sense. * 11 — 14. When Emperor he once wrote a friendly He letter to a Rhodian acquaintance inviting him to Rome. 27. 4. and so chose it for his retreat. X. 20. jr. Tacitus. Augustus forbade his return to Italy. Cassius. At last an eagle. On finding out the blunder. in groups according to their complaints for his convenience: and there was not one of them. Tiberius. for Rhodes was excepted in the decree of II A. When the term of his office as tribune expired in 2 B. keeping a stalwart slave in attendance to throw untrustworthy astrologers down the cliff to the sea as they left his house. mixing with the Greeks on almost equal terms. some blundering official caused them all to be brought down to one place and arranged his return . and would stroll about the gymnasion without lictor or attendant. annales. to whom he did not apologize.ON SHORE. 62. and he absently ordered him to be tortured.D. years of his stay in the island. 2 Pliny. the Rhodians retained Dio I. was absorbed in his enquiries into the murder of Drusus and was torturing everyone for evidence when the guest arrived. a bird then rarely seen in the island ^ perched on the gable. He gave up exercise with horse and arms.

651. pp. just as they kept the public executioner out of the city and held trials for murder outside the walls. pp.679. and cared more for conversation than for drinking.RHODES.. 353. 72 the island. They did not bustle about the streets and if strangers failed to fall in with their pace and walked about without looking where they were finish. them to order\ word that elsewhere meant a jester. At the Theatre they listened in silence and did not applaud till the end. The rest of the Greek world could not rival them in wealth or culture. They dined quietly like men who knew how to order a dinner. 373. . 360. Their dress was simple and strangely moderate in the use of purple. liar^ . v. 620. going. Aristeides. 650. TryXatatrrT/s. 632. they called ^ Dio Chrysostom. The every-day duties of life were performed with perfect and even the rustics seemed less clumsy than usual in the gymnasion there. ^ It is at significant that a Rhodes meant a Hesychios. s.

56. in September ^ team of four horses was then sacrificed to him by casting them into the sea'. The team was in this case referred to the chariot of the sun and within the temple was a statue of the god standing But every ninth year in in the chariot with its four horses\ devoted to Poseidon was horses four Illyricum a team of The festival . as Cythera was sacred to Aphrodite or Delos to Apollo. = Scholia to Pindar.V. A of Helios was yearly. however. Helios was the great god of Rhodes. : been needed in which lalysos and Camiros should have as and it was probably then that Helios large a share as Lindos : His temple in the great city is often mentioned. 80. But when the great city was founded. lalysos and Camiros. October. Ol. ' Festus. . Horses were sacrificed to him in many places but not in teams of four. nor were they cast into the sea. xxxiv. The people revered him. V. cities. The Colossos and the coins of the great city bore his image. The worship. was not so marked in early times Athene of Lindos had then the greatest honours. The whole island was sacred to him. the grandsire of the heroes Lindos. * Pliny. some worship must have His race'. THE GODS. s. VII. as ancestor of their gave the name to the year. was priest in his likeness. : ' Diodoros. 19. but there is no record of any temple to him in took the first the ancient place. v.

v. L. ^' Suidas. white poplar^ The were victorious also and great The for was a wreath of prize contests were severe at the Pythia. ' Festus. like it worth their while to compete". 2. it was in her temple at Lindos that Pindar's ode From dedicated'. . The ancient sacrifice HeHos to of white or tawny lambs was also offered in the In the games at the festival there were races island'. ^' Athenseos. Ephesos. RHODES. thought still flourishing centuries afterwards*. measuring externally some sixty feet by twenty-five. Greeks sent offerings to Helios. 201. In the great days of Rhodes the neighbouring independent states and the kings of Pergamos sent envoys to the festival': and it was piades. vii. 13. H. B. Isthmia and the Nemea Marcus Aurelius Ascle- athletes from abroad. U. the Roman in his praise was over the sea Egyptians. Fr. it victim was slain on an altar of burnt offering in a grove on the The sacrifice fire was not set to the altar".v. . " Pindar. 10. v. p.Diodoros. 01. v. 1 1 s.48. 5913. 12. ' R. Phoenicians and her. horses and for chariots. The ruins shew that the temple consisted of a cella. 01. 74 Hippios and cast into the sea^: and at Lindos Poseidon was worshipped as Hippios I Thus the custom may have arisen from some blending of the worships. 30. 12. Though Diagoras was of lalysos. Xenophon of 11. H. 1" Plutarch. 'Podliov xp^^t^^' Anthologia Palatina. but Acropolis. 7. ' Appian. 5913. Macedon. The order cannot be traced. s. ' F. 80. xv. . U. F. ' Scholia to Pindar. de * reb. was made ready and the sent gifts to her temple". Gorgon. 55. and probably a portico of four columns at each end. Athene Lindia was greatly reverenced throughout the island and abroad. with two columns in antis in both pronaos and posticum. B. 12. 13. 3208. R. B.C.VIi. 3. A. 9. Marcellus. " L. She was worshipped " with flamewould seem. 2i. and contests in music*. but the was daily. L. Even her eclipse by after Marcellus on taking Syracuse in 212 B. » 561. the for men and for victors there . A rock-cut inscription on the Acropolis records the planting of a grove of olive trees there in honour of Athene". = R. 45. Hippius.56." Fire.. and the victims were eaten within the temple". less sacrifices. gymnastic contests for boys.

protector of trees'. at Netteia as Patroios. GODS. R. 71. and on Mount Atabyros as Atabyrios^ Athene was worshipped with Zeus Atabyrios at Acragas. 6. and Zeus Atabyrios at . the people''. ' B. guardian of are the ruins of another small temple. Mith. and also the walls of a peribolos about forty yards square but no columns have been found. but in later times the victim was a criminal already condemned to death. 16. '" vv. 337. 4 lb. 63. 7. S7. . guardian of the city. 655. 65. Camiros as Teleios. Ol vii. s F. 4. The bronze bull of Phalaris at Acragas bellowed when a man was put inside and a fire lighted beneath. 14. V. 15. 11. In the temple on the mountain were certain bronze kine that bellowed when any evil was to happen". On the Acropolis of the great city was another temple of Zeus Atabyrios'". 354. II. de " Scholia " F. C. N. near the temple of Artemis Aristobule. as Endendros. J. 27. who was commonly worshipped with Athene Lindia'. Polybios. Strabo. 75 About the middle of the Acropolis which was certainly Doric and of the best period of Greek art. 28 . Appian. Zeus was also worshipped in Rhodes as Paean. 1 19. 17. 8 Diodoros. H. ' . This perhaps belonged to Zeus Polieus. Athene Polias and Zeus Polieus were worshipped together both at Camiros" and in the great city': where Athene lalysia Polias and Zeus Polieus Camires were also worshipped*. And it is to be feared that when the bronze kine were heard bellowing on Atabyros the priests were offering baked sacrifices to avert the coming evil. 5. Then a man was always sacrificed to Cronos in August. 66. 3. A. 59. fulfiller of prayer'. abstineiitia. the healer^. guardian of the family". 26.THE was presumably Doric. Porphyry. 5 Hesychios. 71. 353 ' s. H. IX. lo. to Pindar. 59. V. wine was given him to drink and he was slain'^ Human sacrifices to Cronos were common among the Phoenicians. 54. bel. He was led outside the city gates and then. as Eridimios. "EvSei'- S. F. 8. 'EpidliMio!. Spas. This custom endured after the founding of the great city. de p. <> naidf. and therefore probably with him on Mount Atabyros ^ In the ruins of his temple on the top of the mountain the walls of a cella measuring some forty-five feet by thirty-five can be traced.

' R. Hermes was worshipped in Rhodes as Epipolaeos. . 399. His altar was probably the chief place in the Agora*. the people straightway decked him with garlands and offered him to Zeusl Small bronze figures of bulls (Plate IV. 76 seems closely related to the Canaanite Molech of Mount Tabor. protector of traders '^ and as Chthonios. 343. a Rhodian the vines were trimmed. 27. p. pax. I. S. IV. Lambs were : sacrificed to festival him when The in the island'. whether holding land or merely resident.) which probalineage of bly served as offerings to Zeus Atabyrios are sometimes found upon Mount Atabyros. VII. whatever that in the deme and Hera was be'. Semele a phallic rite'. b. At his festival at Lindos there were contests. worshipped in the great city as Basileia. 8. ^^ Gorgon. must have been sacred He was also worshipped in Rhodes as Thyonidas. did not fall at the same time ". These rites would therefore have been brought to Rhodes by the Phcenician settlers. guide of the dead". the queen'. Hesychios. amor. The Roman pomp Trieteris. 277. ^ Herodotos. 197. Pagladia. grsec. either directly from their homes or by way of Crete. child of : . 2525. vv. p. 352. every third which was also kept in the island. processions and sacrifices and both citizens and foreigners. i» . Fr. Qvu Mas. Dionysos was much honoured in the great city. His temple was the richest in offerings. and was crowded with works by the greatest painters and sculptors'. The custom that no herald should enter the shrine of Ocridion' like those of the Athamidse may human point to at Alos. " Scholia to Aristophanes. s. 71. B. 6jo. Lucian. na7Xii5ta. could be called on to supply a choros'. ' Strabo. festival of Bacchos. " N. H. celebrated with greater year as the Trieteris". 3 F. 47. p. Zeus and Hera were worshipped together may Pontoreia as Orolytoe. qiisest. 652 ® Aristeides. There also the tripods given as prizes at his festival were dedicated'. " R. sacrifices If the eldest of the Athamas entered the prytaneion there. ^ J. ' H. In the great city there was also a worship of Dionysos Bacchos to which belonged the to him'.RHODES. 1 Plutarch. 2.

s. and again as Pythios*.THE GODS.C. and at Lindos as Pergsea'". 74. but nothing further is known it. averter of mildew. at Camiros as Epimelios^ guardian of flocks. in the island. 272. H. » 4. H. ' Strabo. F. v. 3 J. '^ Porphyry. p. He was worshipped at Lindos" and in the great city"" as Hippios. V. 337. both at Lindos and in the great city. '" R. 100. C. at Ixia. 'Acri^iSeXos. for Philodemos or Philomnestos wrote a book concerning the Sminthia in Rhodes^ Artemis was worshipped together with Apollo Erethimios". II. and as Loemios^ averter of pestilence. R. 613. ' Macrobius. IX. 65. * I. admirable in counsel. 71. goddess of plenty. 276. I. p. of 272. as Euporia". 12. 277. 445. the Rhodians built there a temple to him as Asphaleios. p. H. ^' Suidas. S. bringer of safety". R. B. '" F. IV. R. s. 58. for there were sacred enclosures for the festivals at both places' and these festivals differed from the Sminthia elsewhere. destroyer of mice. 6. 17. 8 Strabo. de ahstinentia. 605. provillage of Tholo. also at Lindos" and near the modern hamlet of Artamiti on Mount Atabyros'^ as in Cecoea or simply as Cecoea. H. 44. On occupying the volcanic island upheaved between Thera and Therasia in 196 B. I. as Carneios*. as Olios'. F. pp. And it was a custom in Rhodes to crown the statues of Artemis and of Persephone with asphodel'". 8. apparently of Perge in Pamphylia. whatever that may be. as Erethimios. I. 43. -j-j Apollo was worshipped at Lindos as Pythios'. " Diodoros. A. guardian of mills. as Aeigenetes^ averter of death. v. V. near the modern where the temple and a marble omphalos forming part of the statue have been found'. B. as Ixios". perpetual giver of increase. ^ Stephanos. as Mylas'. 'l^^ac. as Aristobule". or Erysibios. The worship of Poseidon at lalysos was in the hands of a priesthood of Phoenician origin". . near the great city. 65. A. '- H. 351. 7. god of corn. " F. A. v. and as Smintheus. -I. 15. C. Strabo. Erythibios. : bably as deities of the nether world. 2" F. ^^ Hesychios. 43. '* ' Athenaeos. EyTrop^a. 71. 66. Sat. 54. " R. 57. s. again as Pythios in the great city". 67. 1 R. R. R. 7.

vv. 55. V. ' fj. 396. fflav. says that two oxen of the plough were sacrificed yoked together on an altar called Buzygon. Nar.D. The temple of Asclepios was an important place in The guild of the Asclepiadae. was great city*. as Cyreteios^ apparently of Curfis in Camiros. 11.RHODES. also as Gilseos'. Hestia was worshipped with Zeus Teleios at Camiros^ References to the worship of Apollo Telchinios at Lindos. Lactantius. at random. ' N. but the legends about this have perished". and of the shew only that the statues of temples were held to be the handiwork at lalysos Telchiniae at lalysos the deities in certain of the Telchines\ At Lindos there was a strange worship of Heracles. imag. med. II. V. the priest heaped curses and abuse upon the hero. 78 creator of the horse. While the sacrifice was offered. and near the modern village of Yannathi as Phytalmios. and it may have arisen from some outburst of the Egyptian settlers at Lindos against "Lindians at the sacrifice of animals that they held sacred. but in a fixed sequence handed down from early times*. the ex- in the Ilnd century A. de meth. The worship probably came from Epidauros in very early times. however. with sacrifices of mature pigs'. AlvSloi ttJc Ou- Qvaiav. If this was so. in the great city. . however. the rites of Heracles Buthcenes. The ancient tree worship perhaps survived at Lindos in Rhodes tinct at Cos and 5. There was nothing like this elsewhere in Greece. 74. 337. 1 F. the beefeater. ' Galen. 2 g_ Q^ 3 ji3_ II. « Conor). 343. Aristeides. Italy. 71. i. however.. 21. their sacrifice" or "Rhodians at their sacrifice" became a pro- verb for bad language in sacred places'. giver of life. at of Hera Telchinia Nymphs and at Camiros. Hesychios. I. not. ApoUodoros. 'PdStot T7}V 5ig. Philostratos. apparently of Gela in Sicily. 59. had been blended with those of the harvest festival Buzygia at which a yoke of oxen was thus sacrificed. Lactan- " s. though the guilds at Cnidos were still flourishing'. p. ' Diodoros. The sacrifice was probably of one ox of the plough. * F. at tius. 11 .

Ol. v. Phorbas''.THE GODS. 24. 59. M-vXavTla. v. jennet. 56. v. v. he shall pay one obol (twopence) for each sheep'. i. v. Mylanteia. ' N. Sarapis was worshipped in the great city" and at Lindos". Pausanias. It is not clear in what part of the island the temple of Tlepolemos stood. donkey. geographia. Althaemenes of Crete'. MuXas. Ocridion^ and Tlepolemos" had the honours of heroes. 12. 27. Aristomenes of Messene*. nor shall any man bring in shoes or anything made of pigskin: whosoever breaketh this law shall purify the temple and precinct and offer sacrifice or else be liable for impiety: but if any man drive in sheep. 655. xxiv. at Camiand a promontory near there was sacred to him". 6i6. p. =. and contests wherein the prize was a wreath of white poplar. *. "There shall enter in to the precinct no horse. 1 Pausanias. Fr. 55. " R. 58. ' Scholia to Pindar. IV. In like manner another promontory was sacred to Pan". Stephanos. in. vii. of whom nothing is known 'I There was also in Rhodes a worship of the Macrobioe. Egyptian gods of course found followers in Rhodes. qusest. as in many ship of the river Among 79 running streams were reveby the wor- all parts of Greece. Mylas. the bride of Poseidon. ig. Every year there was a solemn assem- bly there with a procession. mule. the elderly nymphs". nor shall any man drive any of these into it. one of the Telchines. " F. and a third to a certain Thoas. ^ Polyzelos. that of Helen Dentritis': and renced in the island. ^2 Strabo. grsec. or any other beast of burden. . " Ptolemy. s. a burnt sacrifice of sheep. '" Hesychios. was held to be the founder of the sacred rites some festival of the millers. ^ Scholia to ^ Diodoros. presumably ros'. There is extant a curious decree for keeping holy the temple and precinct of Alectrona near lalysos." To Phorbas the Rhodians sacrificed for good luck before setting out on a long voyage". s. Acheloos^ the characters in Rhodian history or legend Halia'. 71. ° II. ' Plutarch. 349. " Homer. i' Hesychios. was worshipped as an immortal under the name Leucothea and therefore as a sea goddess: while Alectrona'. 77. A.

i. A. 100. siege engines'. I. 163. Z. it The there with nails. XX. nassos. R. ' A. Agasicles by name. The festival of the Doric Pentapolis at the Triopian Cape brought over the islanders with their wives and children. IV. Mitli. the walls and towers of the Acropolis of Lindos were thoroughly restored as late as the time of Hadrian^ The panegyreis. de ° Diodoros. 696. . After the siege by Demetrios the Rhodians by leave of the oracle of Zeus Ammon began to worship their ally Ptolemy Soter. Although religious zeal was then dying out in Rhodes.. p. ^ Athenasos. and Long they called the Ptolemaeon^ mained afterwards it re- custom to chant a paean in his honour'. s. ' Dionysios of Halicarnassos. and during the siege goddess was seen to hurl down a mass of Thus the Rhodians gained something from wisdom of the Egyptians the phantom goddess that came to the Greeks at Salamis gave only good advice. 1878. festival called Episcaphia was celebrated in the island. ' Hesychios. and led to much friendliness between the people of the three Rhodian cities and those of Cos and Cnidos. 'ETrur/cd^ia. The prizes were bronze tripods. The temple of Isis in the great city stood near the walls by by Mithridates a spectre of the fire upon his floating the sea. They dedicated to him a square grove within the great city. ix. of the Lindians were yearly. presumably when the seed was sown. ° B. fixed ended 109. good faith. in the dispute expulsion of Halicarnassos ". 1 H. C. p. Herodotos. and then there were races for horses and gymnastic and musical contests. ' R. the : and this built on each side of it a portico a furlong in length. seems of Roman origin*. the solemn assemblies. 27.80 RHODES. vv. 144. bel. p. but the winners were expected Once a man from Halicarto dedicate these in the temple. 25. The goddess Pistis. 277. Te- Xeadla. and at Lindos there was a sacrifice called Telesthia'. IX. carried off the tripod he had won their A to his own house and arising from this from the league Appian. An inscription found at the temple of Apollo Erethimios mentions "the panegyris after the war" and also a festival called Dipanamia". They met at the temple of Apollo and sacrificed together.

" R. Near them was a statue bought with a fine paid by the Rhodians to Olympian Zeus because a wrestler from bribe offered Rhodes had cheated. A. of Agesistratos the men of Lindos set it up^ Diagoras claimed descent from Heracles in the male line through Damagetos the despot of lalysos who was moreover of the royal line of Argos. woman group in the Altis at Olympia.C. Eucles won the boxing for men and Peisirrhodos that for boys.C. twice ' Pausanias. and another bought with a by a Rhodian in 68 B. Of his sons. 15. Diagoras was at Olympia with Acusilaos and Damagetos when they won. At the Olympic games Leonidas greatest of all runners. and after of these victories. 7. After her husband's death she accompanied her son Peisirrhodos thither disguised as his She was discovered. and the young men carried him on their shoulders through the assembly while all the people cast flowers on him calling him blessed in his sons. cf. VI. Diagoras himself won the boxing for men in 464 B. and in the female line through Aristomenes the Messenian hero who had thrice offered the sacrifice of him v/ho had slain a hundred foemen: and he was himself a huge man and 6ft. Of his grandsons by his daughter Callipateira. No won the boxing for men.1: THE GODS. R. Callipateira was the only woman that ever ventured to the Olympic games. ^i. T. 6.C. for Dorieus and Peisirrhodos were in exile when they won and entered as men of Thurii. in height'. Damagetos won the him Dorieus the youngest won the pancration in 432. The statues of the Diagorid^ formed a notable trainer. 6 . Aulus Gellius. 15. V. itself. III. to the wrestler Eudelos\ Replicas of the statues of the victors would have been set up At Lindos there is the base of a statue who won the wrestling for boys at Olympia in their native island. 428 and 424 B. 25. family could rival the Diagoridae of Rhodes. but they considered of what family she was and sent her away unharmed. vii. He was also victor four times at the Isthmia. ' Scholia to Pindar. 5in. 01. 13. He was 8 of Rhodes was the four times victor in the race and was twelve times crowned as victor in the heats. Rhodes did not reap all the glory Acusilaos also pancration. and there was a law that any found there should be cast from a certain rock.

For example. priests of Hierapytna were bound by the treaty with Rhodes to pray to Helios. Ol. to Rhodos. Near Beyrut in Syria a drinking fountain was set up by a man "from afar. b. When Naxos was subjected to Rhodes about 40 B. « B.C. 88. io6o. and her priest took precedence of all others". the worship of Rhodos was introduced And the there. •' B. and to the rest of the gods and deities 1 Pindar. " " Polybios. pouring out face Isthmia. a Rhodian was among those who dedicated the table of libation^ Other Rhodians. 4702. V. a desired piece of handiwork. the Pythia and several other festivals'. <• B. ' F. Sometimes the Rhodians imposed the worship of their own on foreign countries. 2 Pausanias. ad. for mortals .. vi. a=. on pedestal offering of Peisicrates the Rhodian another. B. . ad.C.C. and Ptolemy of Egypt sent stores of corn for sacrifices and games'". his three victories at the him I Another Rhodian was afterwards victor at the Nemea. 2860. from island Rhodes. where they were probably serving with Agesilaos and Chabrias about 360 B. c. ad. ad. .: 82 RHODES. a bronze image of horned Ammon. 4778. after the great earthquake about 227 B. 89. 4807. X." When certain Greeks set up a statue of the god Tanos near Memphis in Egypt. 7." The gods at Rhodes were in their turn largely endowed from abroad. VII. 2416. holy running water'. b. b. on pedestal six feet high offering of Sophanes chief envoy and the other envoys from Rhodes^ At Odessa a Rhodian was honoured for giving money to pay for the sacrifices°. At Delphi the Lindians set up a statue to Apollo*. while at the Pythia no one would at the often elsewhere'. 80—87. * Pausanias. 4789.400) for sacrifices. " B. 4535. 18. the — . shewed little respect for the deified Pharaohs by scrawling up their own names on the tombs of the kings at Bab el Moluk near Thebes one of these names was written in 75 B. however. Hiero and Gelon of Sicily sent ten talents (^^2. In a list of plate in the temple of that god at Miletos are entries: vase. plain.C. gained eight at the Isthmia and seven at the Nemea. 4789. ' B. Nemea and His son Dorieus besides Olympia. ad. 14. d. The Rhodians were generous to the gods abroad.

and in the great city". 71. I. V. 9 10 17. N. 353. or Exieristes. for the public secretary in the great city. IX. who had been priest of Zeus Atabyrios. I. 21. Thus at Lindos a man was priest of five deities'. C. H. p. R. ^ N. . F. 83 goddesses and founders and heroes of the city and country of Rhodes*. 337. and presumably other purifiers'. ' B. 353. * F. but in one case at Lindos a man held the office for thirteen months'. 13 IX. 7. this rule must often have brought several priesthoods to one man or the same priesthood to several members of one family. and in the great city a man and his two sons successively held the priesthood of Helios*. in the temple of Alectrona near lalysos".THE GODS. I. R. . N. C. " N. dedicated to that god on behalf of the masters of the public slaves ^ At Camiros there was an Archiaristas. B. = B. p. I. R. H. 16. The were not a caste. 79. They had a hall there. and probably there was the priests ship of Poseidon at lalysos. there were Hierothytse: fiifteen of them at Lindos with an Archierothytes. p. R. C. 9. the Histiatorion. H. 16. and maintenance in it was granted by the Lindians just as maintenance in the Prytaneion was granted by other cities '^ There was also a hall of feasting. like rule in the other cities ^ In late times when some families had died out and others had grown too poor to hold the office. except perhaps in the worAt Lindos they were to be chosen from the Lindians alone. 112. a chief purifier. C. ' 1852. 96. 108. B. N. IX.A. At Lindos". ^^l B. 357. « H. * F. : 1 M. p. and in late times it may have been held for life". A. Perhaps a retired priest had some status in a temple. but in Rhodes they apparently formed a board appointed by the manage state to public worship. 346.. H. the Hierothyteion. In most places the Hierothytae were attendants who slew the victims. 35j. There were twelve Hieropoece at Camiros and six at the temple of Apollo Erethimios and the office existed at Lindos". V. 337. 349. 6—2 276. 11 F. N. Most priesthoods were held for a year. 357. 351. 21. The priesthood of Helios was at one time obtained by lot'. A. 12 R. p. 6. C.

they became admirals. A man could be Hierotamieus more than once. like the priests themselves. They probably managed its property. 17. for religious divided into districts called Ctoenae'.RHODES. 23. Apparently it was sometimes claimed by intruders who were seeking the position of Ctoenatae. 351. Dionysios the historian was priest of Helios and a retired priest became public secretary^: but the men who held these other offices were of another type. The inhabitants of each district who had the right to share in the sacrifices to Athene at the city in whose territory the This right passed by dedistrict lay were called Ctoenatae. and at Camiros and at the temple of Apollo Erethimios a Tamieus. R. guardians of the temple. N. A. R. for it was ordered at Lindos that no one should in future share in the sacrifices who had not before. At Lindos near Miletos. scent: and perhaps also by adoption. At Lindos there was a Hierotamieus. interpreter of oracles^ At the temple of Apollo Erethimios there were the office of Prophetes. ambassadors or Prytaneis". R. a Rhodian was sent as Hieropceos to Didymaeon In one instance Lemnos and to the presumably to attend sacrifices offered there by his city. Ctoenatae of the I admitted to the sacrifices only in the presence For such registration the Ctcenats in Hieropceoe. treasurer of the temple'. to be chosen from the Lindians alone. Those of Camiros extended to the mainland of Asia Minor and to the island of Chalce. and at Camiros that the Ctcena should be registered and the purposes. and in the great. the islanders having some sort of home rule. H. . In the great city and at Lindos and Camiros there was the office of Agonothetes. judge in the festal contests*. 84 The Hieropoeoe generally were magistrates who saw that the victims were without blemish: and at Camiros they were to see that no intruders beheld the sacrifice. for they had a secretary and an undersecretary^. The territories of the three ancient cities were. these officers were.

At Lindos there were again three Episand thirty men were elected to aid them in carrying tats. ^^6. the election being These Mastrce Thus at lalysos held in the most holy temple in the Ctcena. they set up men for their piety. by the Commons of Lindos apparently Epistatae sent out to some of the neighbouring islands are mentioned. Patrae. and they passed a decree in men who had carried on lawsuits against intruders statues to honour of There was a secretary of the Mastrce both Lindos and at Camiros^ The form of the decrees is "by the Mastrce and the Lindians. C. and the highest offices in them could be held by foreigners and persons born in slavery'".R. for example. The guilds. R. U." officers in religious matters. F. A. each Ctoena elected an officer. 15 s. three Doric tribes 349.THE GODS. These numbers point to and their thirty clans. 331. v. At the temple of Apollo Erethimios there were three Epistatae and also an Episcopos". women as well as men'. A. in the great city Certain an "Epistates of the boys*". B. 8S the Mastros. A. 47. at Mastrce probably acted as a senate in initiating the Some of these decrees the decrees to be laid before the people'. they passed a decree for keeping holy a certain temple: and at Lindos they conducted the election of choregce. how- the consent of the Epistatae. It is notable that some family names are found more than once in the same clan and also in more clans than one. luuTrpoi. H. . 2625. 345. from Althaemenes. 9. IX. 'N. and these again into families. but these were natives of the islands to which they were sent'. Other tribes" existed in the island. 47. 353 ' Hesychios. 351. ever. R. . * F. 357. 357. R. These tribes apparently survived as religious societies based on the sacred rites of the family. v. B. 352 . on the lawsuits against intruders'. 2 N. b. 20. These were divided into clans. « R. 61. were open to all. Phratriae. p. H. . L." or as the case maybe: so to the sacrifices'. C. » R. H. I. superintended religious matters in general. 8 n. 121 w 1. H.. . R. are made "with bably the chief who were proThere was. Erance. I. apparently named from the legendary leaders of the peoples that had migrated thither. 271. B. " F. 6. 26. by the election ' N.

U. 353. the Athenaistae. the Soteriastai. I . and another. 2 B S. the Samoand the Lapethiastas". that of Epistates.A. Union of the Islanders that set up a statue Rhodian at Delos seems such a society^ At the there was a union of the young men'. the guilds themselves. the Dionysiastae of Chaeremon the . the Agathodaemonaistae. C. and the Hieroceryx. many years together and was auditors. Synodos. the Serapiasts. the Nacoreioe. the Dionysiastae. B. The guilds Lemniastae. the Panithe astae. were yearly. p. b. the Athenaistae Lindiastae. and from Lapethos in Cypres. 2528. secretary . or unions of guilds broke up into temporary branches: the Diosatabyriastae of Euphranor. Soteriastae of Lysistratos . These guilds broke up into sitae. and Lapethiastae may have been for people from Lemnos. the union of the Samothraciastae and the Lemniastae. the Thia- the Pyrganida. and Eranistae. those with Gaius. These guilds were the Heliastae and Heliads. F. the Poseidoniastae. Asclepiasts. 2525. 61.N. p. second day after 1 B. Rev. 64.469. from Samothrace. c. pro- There was a meeting. the Euthalids. the Diosatabyriastas. I. 354. the Hermaistae. the the the were the Epistates. the herald. the treasurer. there for Hierotamieus. the Lemniastae. the Heroeistae. and the These unions were members might be entire They were probably temporary or for limited purposes. the Diosxeniastee. ad. the the festival. ' F.122. 1864. the bably at the Baccheia.H. the guild of Apollo Strategics. be held could office quite distinct from Hiera. the Panathenaista. the Athenaistae Lindiastae. R. IX. Samothraciastae. When named together entire guilds take precedence of groups or branches. the president.. for the same guild often figures in different unions. Then these groups. J. H. II. respectively: the to a certain great city The officers of a guild Grammateus. 2283. the The members were This was an Archeranistes. i. L. The festivals. Syllogos. of Philon the Samothraciastffi of Meson. those with Athenffios of Cnidos . thraciastae groups probably named from their founders: the Diosatabyriasts of Euphranor. p. 86 RHODES. called the Logistae. 1-281. . the Agathodaemonaista. 358. 50. of two or three members. guilds or groups or branches. those who went to sea with so-and-so.

2525. The dedication in a temple of a pillar bearing the decree of a guild in a man's honour > B. but in all others the rewards are granted by a guild or by a union of guilds. Land was held by guilds and by unions of guilds for their festivals and also for the burial of their members. 331. With chaplets of leaves it was an honour to be crowned first at the synod. 100 for buildings on them and another 100 probably for furniture: and an archeranist rebuilt certain walls and monuments after an earthquake at his own cost and paid over to the guild the money colThese men were all rewarded.THE GODS. p. The Epiwas another of their ceremonies. 138. burial-ground: another paid 550 drachms {£22) costs in a lawsuit to defend the title to the grounds of a union of guilds. The chaplet of gold was most commonly granted 'for virtue. of young olive or of white poplar the synods of a man's good works and : a proclamation at his rewards : the dedication in a temple of a pillar engraved with a decree in a man's honour. and a separate account. were others who had enlarged a guild or paid for its sacrifices'. 560 to put the grounds in order. and for this it provides a sinking fund. 358. 354. trustees. In one case an archeranist receives rewards from his fellow eranists. imposes a fine of 100 drachmae {£4) on any one failing to carry out any part of these honours or bringing forward a motion to discontinue them. another of the largest size allowed by law. and declares that such motion should be of no effect. H. B. v. The rewards were the title of Euergetes. IV. C. 11. . p. as lected for the rebuilding. J. b.' One decree orders that a man's tomb be crowned with a chaplet of gold every year — in Hyacinthos (July August). the benefactor a laudatory speech remission of all dues payable to the society for one or for two years a wreath : : : of gold. N. 87 and perhaps every month. one is to be made from ten pieces of gold {£^). p. and that his good works and rewards be proclaimed at the yearly synods for evermore. H. an eranist gave his guild a piece of land 50 yards by 32 in extent as a month after the synod. S. Thus. With chaplets of gold the degree of the reward could be measured by the size: thus. the libations. chyseis.

R. 2525. U. to be up in the temple of Athene at Lindos. Rev. directed the treasurers to see that three pillars were made and the decree engraved thereon. required the consent of the Senate and whose in territory the guild The end was Commons of the city established'. The treaty between Rhodes and Hierapytna was to be engraved on two pillars. F. S. 50. 2528. served as notice boards. when ordering the at Netteia. and the treasurer was to pay the cost. 358. . another in the temple of Asclepios." The Mastroe and Lindians who decree puts it. p. 354. The decree forbad various things to be brought into the temple. 61. II. 1864. and these two last pillars must have Three copies of a subscription list navy were set up in the great city. 64. one in the Theatre. as one "that it may be manifest to all that may herebe born that the Lindians make a memorial of their worthy men to all time. L. and the treasurers were to pay for it. setting it in the temple of Athene and fixing it there with lead in all security and seemliness. J.88 RHODES. temple of Alectrona to be kept holy. I. 469. and that one was set in the temple and the others on roads leading to it. 52. p. of setting up such engraved pillars was. The poletae were to contract for making these pillars and putting them up. N. which referred to their sacrifices. 20. The guild of the Euthalidje directed their treasurer to spend no more than fifty drachma {£2) in setting up a pillar engraved with a decree in honour of a member in the temple of Zeus Patroios The mastroe and lalysians. 282. A. H. inscribing and engraving the Ctcen^ thereon. The poletae were to contract for the Rhodian copy at a price not exceeding 100 drachmae {£^. after ordered this decree. b. one for Hierapytna and the other for the temple of Athene in the city of Rhodes. Foreign states sometimes engraved their decrees in honour of Rhodians on pillars and set them up at Rhodes. I. The Camires directed set the three men conducting the registration of the Ctoenae to contract at the lowest tender for supplying a pillar. for the : 1 B. and the third in the Agora near the altar of Dionysos presumably for greater publicity. directed the priest of Athene to pay for the pillar and inscription and the epistatae to see that the work was done.

their Roman who touched cared more for a statue at Rhodes than at Athens old statues. and then proclaiming the place holy ground so that none might go therein I Just before the siege of 304 B. 81. 5. from a statue. in Vetrem. II. U. pp. 2o. they respected the statue of Mithridates. To meet this demand the Rhodians The strategos would take off or Byzantion. Indeed. sacrilege protected material honours. xx. S. ^ * Diodoros. Mere portrait statues were protected by this law if the formula "to the Gods" was added to the inscription on the base^ On capturing the great city. 354. L. N. 79. 11. 357. though they were daily shooting at the king himself. F. During the siege the Assembly was urged to cast these down. 28. 29. 343. 9. 93. 351. p. 65. Romans. ' Vitruvius. M.C. ' — 614. The citizens held that it was not lawful for them to cast it down: but they removed it from their sight by building a wall round it and roofing it over. Dio Chrysostom. Sometimes the strategos was careless and assigned an old man's statue to inscriptions ' II. 6io 612. Macedonians and Persians. F. used up the old and put up others till some figures had done duty for Greeks. 8. word on an inscribed pillar. H.C. 2. 41. 7. were set up not only to the Csesars and their wives" and the officials of the province' but to nearly every Romans at the island. 349. 30. A. 185-2. as it was not seemly that men who besieged the city should be honoured like those who aided it: but the motion was to erase a to steal a spear or a shield or a horse's bit angrily thrown out*. 54.THE GODS. Artemisia set up there a bronze group of herself scourging Rhodes and dedicated it to the gods. And during the siege of 88 B. or even to carry off a faded wreath from a tomb: and for sacrilege a man was liable to torture on the wheel or to death. J. p. ' Cicero. In late times the custom of setting At Lindos and in the great city statues up statues was abused. Some 89 of the decrees order the stone of the pillars to be Lartos. when there was still hope of peace the citizens set up statues of Antigonos and Demetrios. . " R. probably a local name: The law against Thus it was sacrilege it is in fact foetid limestone'.

xxxi. 3598. cf. 2 F. A. 88. II. Hiero and Gelon set up in the great city a group of the Commons of Syracuse crowning the Commons of Rhodes'. 106. and proclamation of those honours for ever- more. Portrait statues were often set up by the people themselves or by their rela- Thus tions. 70. for international courtesies. A uncle. and her mother's second husband". 569. her set her maternal grandfather and grandmother. But when a statue was once named after a Roman they hesitated about changing the name. 589. C. At Camiros they engraved the names and honours of commanders on shields of white marble*. or an athlete's to an invalid. a girl's statue was up by her mother. At Lindos the same group of honours was commonly granted and women could receive it with a few variations. H. H.C. 22. 623. her maternal sister. 96. B. 6i2. cheaper honour was to set up a silver mask: this could be done for nine drachmae {7l6y. v. and then set up in the temple of Athene in the great city a statue of the Commons of Rome forty-five feet in height'. 'J R. 613. XLV. 4. 10. 69. . 90 a young man. 21. 648 . ix. 1570. is. 26. * B. maintenance in the Hierothyteion. the Athenians sent a wreath of gold to the Rhodians for their valour. R. 353. 5. B. 16. H. a bronze statue. or from twenty thousand according to another account. ix. a the right to wear a wreath and sacred games or at the wreath of gold. 5 R. ' Polybios.RHODES. In 201 B. 68. A. ' R. the Rhodians sent to the Romans a wreath made from ten thousand pieces of gold (. or that of a general on horseback marshalling his troops to some man too lazy to leave his litter. xxx. 13. and in 167 B. pp. C. B. of Rhodes". and the Caesars were always allowed new statues'.^8. " N. 23. In some cases a tenth or a firstfruit was spent in setting up a statue^ The road leading up to the Acropolis of Camiros on its landward side seems to have been a sacred way bordered ' Dio Chrysostom. It con. 25. xxxi. xvi. A. sit in a place of honour at the solemn assemblies. 23. p. ' Polybios. Livy. A similar group honours served mons was granted of Ilios crowned the Commons Such Thus the Com- in the great city'.C. I. F. R. sisted of a laudatory speech. H.

91 with statues. little trace of other Tiberius was living in the island there were made no offering. rather Phcenician than Greek in character. it a square base of about 90 feet each rose vertically to a height of about 20 feet. These are unfluted and their capitals are lost but they were probably Doric. like the typical Egyptian tombs and in many cases large jars containing children's bones have been buried in these shafts after the tomb chambers themCuriously the finest tombs contained selves had been filled. In late times the authorities merely followed public opinion in changing the inscriptions on the statues of the gods so it was hard to know one from another. is nothing to shew its age. there way and above Three steps led to the base. they had sacrificed'. frieze and cornice: and upon that four marble altars. however. hewn out of a sand- On stone hillock. coins of the great city.C. In front there have been twelve Doric columns about 15 feet high hewn in the rock. . religions. but they and then went their way deeming There is. 570. have been architrave. The finest tomb at Lindos apparently belongs to the Ilnd century B. and from the highest of these rose twenty-one en- gaged columns on each side. Many of the tombs in the valley below are rock-cut chambers ap- proached by vertical shafts. When ^ Dio Chrysostom. as they have no bases. 569. for all the often that gods were then commonly regarded as a single power and Nor did they spend more on sacrifices than on new statues: they put on their garlands and went to the altars. The entrance to these is : ostentatiously marked by the The monument but there is altered spacing of the columns. that was probably a pyramid. Just to the south of the present city of Rhodes are remains of a remarkable monument. four in the centre standing clear and giving access Above these to the tomb chamber. pp. These chambers together occupy only about a quarter of the area of the base. THE GODS. and there may be others entered by some hidden door. Within are two chambers surrounded by various niches. of which fragments have been found. the other eight engaged. force. and therefore were in use when Camiros was presumably falling to decay..

: ^ Tacitus. Rhodes was of importance a century before'. 92 many Chaldseans there. . who gained a livelihood by casting About this time Diogenes the grammarian disputed only on the seventh day". This points to the Jewish influence. Tiberius. horoscopes and teaching astrology'. 23. 32. xv.RHODES. ^ Suetonius. 21. I. Annales. vi.' i. but apparently did not land*. that might be expected And the Jewish community in in a great commercial city. xxi. The Apostle Paul passed Rhodes on the return from his third journey. There is a tradition that he afterwards preached at Lindos probably when he visited Crete and Ephesos in the time of the Pastoral Epistles. * Acts. ^ Maccabees. 20.

and again Hera Telchinia at Camiros'. The Telchines probably reappear in a Rhodian legend as the Heliadas. Of the works thus noticed there remain only the Laocoon in the Vatican and the group commonly called the Tore Farnese in the Museum at Naples. Hera and the Nymphs Telchinis at lalysos.VI. These all belong to minor arts that were ignored by ancient writers but they are of interest now in the absence of greater works. . On the other hand are several thousand antiquities discovered in the island of late years. for the Telchines were the patrons of metal work just as the Cyclopes were the patrons of stone work. 55. v. 1 Diodoros. These statues must have been of metal. Apollo Telchinios at Lindos. The into : groups are so distinct that they are best treated apart. On the one hand are passages from ancient writers and inscriptions referring to the works of art in the island or to the men who made them. ART. historic times certain ancient statues . Athene granted them to master with cunning hands every art of mortals. The materials for the history of ancient art in Rhodes fall two groups. they chained likeness of men and creeping things. . The. earliest metal statues in Greece were made of wrought plates nailed to a framework of wood and these were presumably of that class. and the highways bore their handiwork in the Indeed. Rhodes was an abode of the legendary Telchines and in were called after them.

89. n. The Homeric legend over the palace of Alcinoos belongs to this order of thought. V. ' Diodoros. XIX.C. work of the Athene Lindia statue of Hera at Samos was that the caldron was the gift and perhaps the Phoenicians in that was a city. of on her notion recalls the electron masks moulded on the faces of the dead heroes at Mycenae. for list it There was draped. v. XXXIII. wherein each thread was spun from as many strands as there were days in the year°. Tradition ascribed its dedication to Danaos. just as the earliest a plank. 322. and possibly it was for this statue that Amasis of Egypt sent to Athene Lindia a cuirass of fine linen. that was the it breasts^ is. II. 105 . 182. The earliest statue of post. 182. 01. H. 58. Pliny. If this statue ^ B. * Callimachos. 1 Pindar. p. temple early in the Vlth century B. Like other primitive is extant a subscription the renovation of Athene's robes at Lindos^. 2. ^ Herodotos. There was another statue of Athene Lindia. 85.RHODES. p. C. I. " Diogenes Laertius. In the temple of Athene at Lindos was a cup electron-. ^ Pliny. Fr. and he certainly for seven centuries : : dedicated two statues in the temple at Lindos'. IX. Cedren. the legendary founder of the temple^ Greek statues. fashioned to the ancient form and letters. " made Tradition said silver." It was accounted This reference to the legendary founder of the Phoenician priesthood of Poseidon at lalysos suggests bearing an inscription in Phoenician the gift of Cadmos'. who apparently had seen it. Diodoros. 23. 50—52. says that it was six feet in height and made of 'Kldo<i afidpaySo's he adds that it was the work of the sculptors Dipoenos and Scyllis and a gift from Sesostris Cleobulos rebuilt the of Egypt to Cleobulos of Lindos'. " Herodotos. . 94 up by the legs to hinder them from walking of the golden handmaidens of Hephsestos and the gold and silver dogs that kept watch their statues abroad'. and doubtless set up a new statue to the goddess^ Sesostris had then been dead but Amasis was alive. vn. 58. of Helen and had been moulded gift The of mingled gold and There was also a notable bronze caldron. and scho- lia. ' Cedren.

the the right as if in prayer. but The statue of Diagoras was by Callicles of and thus could hardly have been set up before that of his grandson Eucles^ At Delphi the great group dedicated by the Spartans after their victory at yEgospotamoe (405 B. to Pausanias. . L. and then Acusilaos the last wearing the boxing-glove on the left hand and raising was his grandson. stiffness of the figure. 7: Scholia Pindar.) not the figure. in stone. VI. 01. his right boy Peisirrhodos and on his left his three sons. 86. 24. The material would included statues of two Rhodians their side in the battle. and another Dionysos from Bryaxis Cos had another Aphrodite from Praxiteles Patara had a Zeus and an Apollo from Bryaxis and Rhodes had from Bryaxis colossal statues of five of the gods^ This was perhaps an incomplete group of the twelve gods. for the statue survived but they always worked in white marble. There was also at Delphi a statue of Apollo dedicated by the Lindians'. xxxiv. a master of the family and of the school of Poly- The cleitos. X. Cnidos had an Aphrodite from Praxiteles. pedestal was found in the late excavations. an Athene and a Dionysos from Scopas. The statue of Eucles.C. It was the work of Naucydes. ^ Pausanias. arm in the days of uplifted. The building of the Mausoleion at Halicarnassos soon after 350 B.C. when reference to these pupils of Dajdalos was perhaps suggested by the Egyptian right notion hopeless. ^ 6.::: ART. 18. for no five were worshipped apart at Rhodes. attracted thither several of the great Greek sculptors and the neighbouring cities began to collect statues. 18. of Athene was of Egyptian 9S that the material a conflagration \ Cleobulos working . " Pliny. Megara . standing with his On towered over the others. Olympia was a strik- Diagoras. the other grandson of Diagoras. the material been one of the green marbles of that country. VII. 9. then Dorieus. Damagetos. B. : : ^ Zosiraos. 15. . Among must have origin. who had commanded on Timarchos and another Diagoras both the work of Tisandros. stood apart. was glass is The Dipoenos and Scyllis lived The the statues of the victors at ing group of Rhodian athletes. V. .

outraged two statues by Praxiteles. and in a statue. The bronze group of Artemisia branding the Rhodian State like a runaway slave. ever. and notice in among the little did not rank in size it was aftervvards surpassed. . rivalled It was. 6. Lysippos did not teach Chares as in all works of that school. IV. set up by certain Lindians. A masterpiece of Lysippds in the temple of Helios in the great city belonged to this period*. celebrity in Wonders and to this the Middle Ages.. xxxiv. which she dedicated at Rhodes soon after 351 B. The material must have been bronze. when such lists were But the may have been indeed. » Pliny. by study of the older masters he merely let his pupil watch him at every part of his work'. in the market place at Tarentum. sixty feet in height. when not using the in which Bryaxis commonly worked precious metals. the Aphrodite of Cnidos and the Eros of Pari on'. 4. the Colossos at and in fact four of the seven wonders. . A similar personification occurs in a group of the Commons of Syracuse crowning the Commons of Rhodes.:: RHODES. the Mausoleion at Halicarnassos.C." Quadrigae of many kinds are mentioned among He had for a pupil.C. 41. 19. It is strange that the Rhodians employed Bryaxis rather than Scopas or Praxiteles a young Rhodian. may have been by one of the great sculptors then working for her on the Mausoleion". which Hiero and Gelon set up in the Deigma at Rhodes about 220 B. placed in the it it list list of the Seven : of merely local origin Artemision at Ephesos.. but not another Helios. V. * Pliny. '' Auctor ad Herennium. most beauteous Rhodes'". The subject was " a quadriga with Helios of the Rhodians. A. 96 have been white marble. R. howhis works. attracted comparatively a work of art masterpieces of Greek sculpture by earlier and was statues owed its in repute. the XXXVI. But he set the example of a huge bronze statue in the open air by his Zeus. VII. 3 Polybios. Alcetas by name. . however. Chares of Lindos. 19. the master of the Colossos and it may be that the Helios was by Chares and the quadriga alone by Lysippos. of their "native land. 88 II. : : The Colossos As ancient times. 39. ^ Vitruvius.

VII. 105 feet°: but may it also is be gathered from account that the figure was in a was hollow and was steadied by a framework of iron rods resting on pillars of masonry inside that it was cast in many sections and built up gradually that the material employed was 500 talents (i2|^ tons) of bronze and 300 talents (7^ tons) of iron and that the base was of white marble and overtopped the other statues^ This restanding posture . ART. Zeus after the earthquake^: but a tenth of that sum seems more probable. It is. 89. such as the Deigma. V. given as 90 and as a somewhat 120 rhetorical It feet. 97 Rhodes and the Pharos at Alexandria belong to the same region and period. This fine finish There might be expected from a pupil of Lysippos. ' Lucian. tern miraculis. XIX. offered three thousand talents (. ° Polybios. however..000) were obtained for building the Colossos by the sale of the siege-train which Demetrios Poliorcetes had abandoned on raising the siege' said that Ptolemy for rebuilding it in the spring of 303 B. adv.£'720. ' Diodoros.C. Lucian makes the Colossos boast that he cost as much as sixteen golden gods. 652. ference to the other statues suggests that the Colossos stood in some public place within the city. 18. 11. R. 4. T. « Pseudo-Philo of Byzantion. There is now a piece of very low ground near the south-west XXXIV. The Deigma was in the lowest part of the city by the water'. Rhodians at first in- a very doubtful story that the is tended the figure to be but half its actual height. (^72. xxxiv. 107. The Athenians had employed their booty from Marathon in setting up the great bronze statue of Athene Promachos on the Acropolis at Athens: and this no doubt prompted the Rhodians to utilize their trophies of the great siege of the city of Rhodes for a huge bronze figure Three hundred talents of their own national god. ' Pliny. and that Chares only doubled his charge when they doubled the height. 45. Helios. * Sextus Empiricus. = Pliny. 7 . 18. to say nothing of the art and the finish of the workmanship in spite of the size'. and was driven by his miscalculation to bankruptcy and The height was probably suicide*. Strabo. that it . math. de sep- p. .

D. From Salamis probably the island near Athens there came Simos. XXXIV. It was still lying on the ground in the time of Strabo and of the elder Pliny. Many of — — ' Anthologia Palatina. vi. xxxiv. 431. 171. Polybios. son of Cleionseos". L. load more than 90 camels. they sold the remains of the Colossos to a Jew for old metal. All the sculptors of the Rhodian school appear from the style of more than them were men of foreign birth who migrated to Rhodes.C. during the war with Antiochos and then declined equally about 227 political suddenly after the defeat of Perseus in 168 B. . The ludicrous mediaeval notion that it stood across the har- bour would have been suggested by the two curious towers at the mouth of the southeirn harbour rather than by an ancient epigram'- The Colossos was twelve and then stood years in build- There was a which threw down the greater part of the city walls and of the dockyards. 279. 165. L. and the upper part of the figure broke away at the knees and fell. Pliny describes it as marvellous even after its fall: few men could clasp its thumb in their arms: its fingers were larger than most statues vast caverns yawned in the broken limbs. B. ' Cedren. From Miletos there came Archidamos'. p. The twenty tons of metal would not. 163. 15. C. 98 corner of the northern harbour and perhaps the figure stood here on the site of the church of Saint John of the Colossos. and within was seen the massive masonry that had ing. 18. B. : supported Rhodes ^ It is said that itl when the Saracens occupied Vllth century A. which culminated in 190 B. 88. 652. 200. Strabo. and its subsequent restoration is most improbable. and that he loaded 900 camels with it?. " Pliny.C. 64. . I. ° F. 2 Pliny. was followed by a sudden development of the power of Rhodes. p. V. 18. = R. From their signatures to belong to this period of little fifty years. B. great earthquake for only about 227 fifty-six years.C. L. however. The only other known work of Chares was a head of colossal size^ The in the rebuilding of the great city after the earthquake of B. ' F. B. and whose sons worked there after them. son of Themistocrates ^ and Onasiphron.RHODES.

of 5 . i. B. L. 190. L.2. i88. F. B. " F. H. B. e 170— 173' R. B. " R. F. 185. 19. and from Eleuthernae in Crete there came Timocharis". son of Epicharmos'. warriors and priests'. 187. 184. From Halicarnassos there came Phyles^ up by the Union of the Rhodian at Delos'". 13. ad. 198. the one by Phyles and the other by Mnasitimos and Teleson". 193. From Cydonia in Crete there came Protos*.ART. A. 2283. whose signature (ej^jaX/coypYT/o-e) marks him as a there : haps the Pythocritos worker He was in bronze'. 186. Laodicsea there came Charinos. 12 R. B. 175. 6. XXXIV. 4. L. B. 189. 63. L. B. son of Teleson'''. A. From Lucania there came Botrys. A. 193. Cilicia there whom charmos. L. L. 179. " ' R. A work by this Mnasitimos stood next to a work by Theon of Antioch. son of Timocharis" perwho was famous for his statues of athletes. 37. 7—2 . 174. 180. L. L. i. B. 194—196. F. 17 R. * R. son of Heliodoros". It is There was also a Demetrios of Rhodes. There was also Mnasitimos of Rhodes. 182. There were other works of Theon in the island": and a plinth was found at Alexandria. " R. L. B. " " B. 2. A. 1 F. B. Theon and of Demetrios of Rhodes. L. i8i. L. not likely that the horse was made at Rhodes and afterwards removed to Alexandria. C. A. " to whom the right of residence was granted. A. R. 3. Then was Pythocritos of Rhodes. 11. L. hunters. 178. L. F. 4. A. IX. . B. The absence R. B. A. From dence was granted'. '^ L." on a long base for the statues of athletes in the great city". for this signature of Theon omits the phrase about the right of resiwith the signatures of son of Demetrios '^ dence. B. 174a. 9. A single base at Lindos bore statues of a man and of his son. H. ' Pliny. 7. « B. p. 183. A. L. ' 2 R. 4684. F. who were both priests of Athene Lindia. B. c. apthe sculptor of a statue set Islanders to a parently belonging to the statue of a horse in white marble. son of Helio- doros". and probably the father of this Demetrios: and also Plutarchos of Rhodes. "to and also Epi- the right of residence was granted": and with him there worked Epicharmos of Rhodes. lo. 399. 8. B. B." 99 " to whom the right of resi- the Rhodian colony of Soloe in came Sosipatros and Zehon". 191. ad. 13.

446. b. have been found : and the order in which names occur suggests that Polydoros was also a son of Agesandros. 11. 5870. XXXIV. Peithandros^. The inscription' from Lindos recording a decree in honour of Athanodoros. 6134. And the somewhat later style of the signatures of Athanodoros is not conclusive for their date. are not easily ^ Pliny. 196. 21. ' " ^ Pliny. . Polydoros and Athanodoros the Aristonidas bronze in his the Rhodians". and the merely decorative size of the pedestals from Rome and Ostia shews that the works of Athanodoros were copied. too Doric in these signatures suggests that Heliodoros was not a native of Rhodes. 199. 6133. son of Aristeidas. son of Aristonidas*: probably who mixed iron with the Rhodes that a rust might shew through the lustre of the bronze and thus render the shame of the king when he had slain his son in his madness. B. B. son of Agesandros. B. The Laocoon was the work of Agesandros. 1 B. 4. R. 480. A. 204.C. R. B. ^. worked in the neighbouring island of Astypalsea': and in Rhodes itself there worked a whose certain Leochares^. son of Agesandros. does not appear from its style to be later than i68 B. 520. •' B. L. nature differs from that of the great Leochares sig- a certain . in and that Pliny says the but he may well single block this. is said' to have Athamas statue of at Several signatures of Athanadoros of Rhodes. 197. just as Silanion had mixed silver with the bronze in his statue of locaste to render her pallor. 546. A. 40. on two very small pedestals found at Rome and at Ostia respectively. L. 10. Laocoon was made from a have been deceived L. The only group about the authenticity of the Vatican difficulty that is it is in six blocks. B.RHODES. on another found at Antium with a fragment the of drapery in white marble from the statue that it carried. and Mnasitimos. B. L. A. 203. 479. 8 R. 2488 2 L. : for the joints xxxvi. Andragoras of Rhodes. These signatures are inscribed on a plinth found at Capri. for the Greek copyists reproduced the signatures as well as the works of famous sculptors. . L. and on a fragment of a small vase of white marble found at Olympia'.

S. The Toro Farnese was the work of two brothers Apollonios and Tauriscos. 26.— ART. J.C. L. b. was perhaps the Athanadoros who was famous for his noble statues of women. The inscriptions shew that the works of sculpture which existed in Rhodes itself or were executed elsewhere by Rhodians were almost invariably portrait statues. XXXIV. * Lucian. B. the sculptor of an Apollo and an Aphrodite.: but the group of men who signed their works was extinct. and only one of the later pedestals bears a sculptor's signature. if a contemporary portrait*. H. are also mentioned'. XXXVI. 36. 40. 2525. de Syria dea. 4. The style of this Rhodian school is not clearly known. xxxvi. made de consilii probably meaning. B.. Philiscos of Rhodes. Polybios. and a similar permission may well have been needed for a statue^ This Athanodoros. tions separately the five colossal statues were probably in marble. 4. the sculptor of a Heracles in iron that stood at Rhodes. Pliny. smaller pillar engraved with a decree of the Senate and in Commons — than the Colossos itself but still He then menby Bryaxis. and Alcon. 354. 16. son of Agesandros. was forty-five feet in height*. and thus suggests that the rest ' 2 ' Pliny. 19. The numerous inscribed pedestals found at Lindos and in the great city shew that much sculpture was made in Rhodes after 168 B. = R. xxxi. The bronze statue of the eunuch Combabos by Hermocles of Rhodes that stood at Hierapolis in Syria must have been set up about 300 B. any temple without the leave of the place. by this same Tauriscos. lOI Pliny adds that the Laocoon was detected. which very notable.Rhodian guilds could not set up a sententia . The statue of the Commons of Rome that the Rhodians set up in their temple of Athene to appease the Romans for the Pliny blunders of 168 B.C. that of Euprepes who migrated from the river Lycos there were rivers of that name in Syria. in Phrygia and in Pamphylia and became a Rhodian'. p. by leave of the Senate of Rhodes or of Lindos\ . There were also statues of Hermerotes. figures half Eros and half Hermes. II. 303. ' . who came from Tralles in Caria. H. speaks of a hundred colossal statues in the great city.C.

at Pompeii : : : 1 Pliny. There is a curious as a painter deserving a passing notice". ' L. This taste for colossal works and this use of bronze would mark the school of On Lysippos. The figures which form a confused crowd in the marble would group themselves distinctly in a painting. . the son and pupil of Aristonidas. XXXV. without regard to the personification needed in .C. a person celebrating the festival Quinquatria. and the animals and plants of the background have been carved as they might have been painted. a fuller's shop. in marble. when Rhodes was more closely connected with Pergamos than with any other foreign power. a Paniscos. and the pose of Laocoon himself from that of one of the more human giants and though the Rhodian group is in the round. probably the sculptor from Salamis. a Clytamnestra.remaining pedestals. The Laocoon group was probably suggested by the great relief of the Gigantomachia at Pergamos. were in bronze\ The statues granted in Rhodian decrees were always bronze. sculpture. The notion of the serpents in the Rhodian group seems borrowed from that of the serpent-giants in the Pergamene relief. The same subject is represented in several frescoes and perhaps Tauriscos the painter was the Tauriscos who worked on this marble group. and a Capaneus Simos. and traces of bronze can be found on most of the. i86. XXXIV. as the other hand the Laocoon and the Toro are are the fragments by Athanodoros from Olympia and from Antium and the fragment by Theon and Demetrios and a statue by Theon that stood near Lindos was also in marbled Thus the Laocoon and the Toro differed from the mass of products of the Rhodian school in : material as well as in subject: and consequently are not the typical works of that school. i8. ^ Pliny.102 RHODES. as the painter of a youth reposing. B. and a fine Nemesis and the sculptor Mnasitimos. which was set up early in the Ilnd century B. 40. it can be viewed only from the front just as if it were a relief The Toro also has the air of an adaptation. Pliny mentions Tauriscos as the painter of a Discobolos. a Polynices seeking his kingdom.

Heracles and Perseus. "Even as he was ofttimes revealed by haunting vision story that Dionysios the great Aristarchos. had put himself in an attitude for the picture. Parrhasios passed his days in wealthy and graceful ease wearing purple raiment and a chaplet of gold and singing child of in lightness of heart as he worked'. or is merely suggesting good subjects for painting^ There was. reference to " all his works at Lindos" suggests that he stayed there for some while. at Lindos a Heracles by Parrhasios. . Parrhasios painted this. But it is doubtful whether he is describing pictures that he had actually seen. 27. one of that master's most famous works." and one letter was changed and another added so that they read. 103 grammarian painted his master. In striking contrast to him was Protogenes. imag. ^ Philostratos. for that he knew by heart all tragedy but he may have done this at Philostratos deAlexandria before he settled at Rhodes\ scribes a picture of the descent of Plutos upon the Acropolis of Lindos or of the great city the god was of golden body. that no luxury ' Scholia to Dionysios. n. A panel by Parrhasios of Meleager. Atlienseos. such verses on the panel : : A Deeming himself paint brush. winged. for Parrhasios probably visited the island before the great city was built. "living daintily. from Lindos. 687. who dwelt in poverty in a suburb of the great city and lived wholly on boiled beans. and with watchful eyes.ART. the Tragedy in his heart. in remembrance of the legend that Zeus rained gold upon the Rhodians when they had been the first to sacrifice to the new-born Athene. " living by his to Parrhasios in sleep. 14. 36 . however. is he here to behold. 672. and painted : : . pp. when thus revealed." the Apollo and little lower than the gods he painted. 543. p. He also describes a picture in which Heracles was seen feasting at Lindos. It was there that he placed on his pictures the verses beginning." were the and the painter boasted that the hero. stood in the great city it was there thrice struck by It had perhaps been brought lightning but not destroyed. while the ploughman Theiodamas looked on with imprecations and the rugged country near Lindos was in the background. Parrhasios painted this. ' Pliny. xxxv.

On of diet might stay him in his painting. When Apelles landed he went at once to see Protogenes and failing to find him at home. however. with only these lines upon it\ The masterpiece of Protogenes. RHODES. The Rhodians did not. appreciate the great man who was among them till Apelles arrived and told everyone that he was buying Protogenes' unsold pictures for fifty talents (. Another story is that Protogenes was still working at the 1 Pliny. panting and foaming at the mouth. and hurried down to the port to call upon his The panel was preserved for centuries afterwards visitor. made his own works immortal.000) to sell as works of his own. drew a very fine coloured line across a large panel that was standing on an easel. and to attack there would have been to give up the lalysos to destruction: he spared the picture and thereby failed to capture the city. and then went out. It was reported that Protogenes worked long at the foam without success. returning. on which he worked for seven years. Protogenes then saw that he was beaten.^ 1 2. 104 He was a native of Caunos on the mainland opposite Rhodes. making it so fine that there was no space for a fourth. so amazed Apelles that his voice deserted him but after a while he managed to observe that though the work was : marvellous in its laborious finish. also reported he gave this picture four coats of paint. XXXV.. it missed the grace that Nothing is known of the composition but that beside the hero there was a dog. and at last threw his sponge at the picture in a rage: this chanced to hit the It was dog's mouth and thus rendered the foam admirably. The story of the contest between these masters is well known. Demetrios found the great city impregnable at every point but one. so that as one peeled off another would take its place. but had settled in the island. .C. Apelles called again and with a third colour drew a third line upon the second. the lalysos. There is a story that during the siege of 304 B. Protogenes at once perceived that such a could be the work of no one but Apelles: and line in reply he drew a still finer line upon the first with another colour. 36.

There were also at Rhodes portraits by Apelles of a certain Antsos and of Menander. 39. were answered that he would picture. xxxv. These scattered notices of the pictures in the island scarcely suggest the ascendancy of painting there that permitted reference to it as the Rhodian art*. on begging spare the work. 31. probably in that flutes : : of Dionysos in the great city. Pictures and statues seized at the capture of Syracuse in 212 B. the people overlooked the satyr and stood gaping the partridge at . Marcellus. VII. replied that he knew the king was at war with the Rhodians and not with the Arts. xxxv. Plutarch. * Pseudo-Anacveon. 36. 36 ^ Pliny. Cydippe was the mother of Lindos. . XV. After that courtly answer Demetrios set a guard for his protection and often found time to watch him The satyr stood by a pillar. and to make matters worse the partridge breeders brought tame birds to hear them chirp to the picture. XXXV. Aulus Gellius. 652. holding a pair of at his work. one of Alexander's generals and afterwards satrap of Caria'.ART. and Tlepolemos was the leader And the war ships in a of the Rhodians against Troy. ' Pliny. asked how he ventured to stay outside the walls. 3. . cf. ' Plutarch. 36. and resting whence it was named the Anapauomenos. then all into the 105 but finished. picture by him in the Propylaea at Athens were probably suggested by his life in the island. Strabo. At first there was a partridge perched on the pillar but when the picture was placed in a temple. p. in one of the suburbs that fell and the citizens. Demetrios. At last by leave of the priests Two others of the Protogenes painted out the partridge^ the eleven known works of Protogenes were at Rhodes : Cydippe and the Tlepolemos. besiegers' Demetrios to hands . xv.C formed the gift of Marcellus to the temple of Athene at Lindos': and a gift from the city of Rhodes to Alexander ' Pliny. rather burn his family portraits than such a masterpiece'. 30. But another story is that it was the Satyr on which Protogenes was working during the siege. lalysos and Camiros. He went on painting placidly in the midst of the fighting and when Demetrios . 22.

32. . 500. 60. where men of distinction were allowed to try it on till at last it came to pieces'. in Verrem. xxxiii. Cicero instanced the lalysos of Protogenes at Rhodes as a work that it would be scandalous to carry off^. Alexander. ^ Pliny.I06 RHODES. 36. the famous sculptor of children I And it was at Rhodes that Dionysios the grammarian modelled from the description in Homer the vase of Nestor with its reliefs^ The vases called " Rhodians were devised by a certain Damocrates as an improvement on a Boeotian rendering in metal or in clay of the Scyphos. In Pliny's time the Laocoon was in the Palace of Titus the Apollo by Philiscos was in a shrine of Apollo near the Portico of Octavia. A century later it was in the temple of Peace at Rome: and the panel with the rival lines of Protogenes and Apelles had arrived at Rome in time to be burnt at the fire at Caesar's House on the Palatine in 53A. which was invented at Rhodes to rival the celebrated Thericleians of Athens in form and surpass them in lightness*. and his Aphrodite in a temple of Juno within the same portico the Toro Farnese and the figures of Hermerotes by Tauriscos. 469. and also a type of metal vase called the Hedypotis. ' Cicero. and perhaps made these vases in the island when his prompter was there. xix. In the same temple were other vases with reliefs by Acragas of Centaurs and Bacchanals and in the temple of Athene at Lindos were similar works by Boethos. 489. : '' In denouncing Verres for carrying off works of art from Greek cities. one of the : : sculptors of the Toro.'' The linen cuirass presented by Amasis to Athene of Lindos was then in Rome. 55. an ancient type of wooden vase. That master of metal work always followed designs by Parrhasios. IV. ' Pliny. '^ Athenasos. Lynceus of Samos mentions them in his epistle. were in the collection of Asinius Pollio: ' Plutarch. the Great was a robe woven by Helicon. i. pp.D. xxxv. " Pliny. 496. 3 Athenaeos. one of the earliest weavers of the peplos at Athens \ Vases with reliefs by Mys of Sileni and Erotes stood in the temple of Dionysos in the great city. p.

and at various other places in the islands and on the coasts of Greece. Unlike these places on the western coast. which left its and the colossal head by Chares was tulus. century later there were still three thousand statues at Rhodes": and the island suffered less than the rest of Greece from the The Roman passion for Athene of Lindos was taken to Constantinople.. A group of tombs at lalysos has yielded works of that Greek art which has been made widely known early period of by the discoveries at Mycena.ART. 645. was consul in 57 B. ^^^. 19. t8. at Thera. Dio Chrysostom. Cassius carried off all the statues except this^: but it is way during not likely that he encumbered himself in this A a campaign. Dodona statue of at the entrance of the Senate was burnt in the riots of House. 2 Valerius Maximus. sius. Cedren. It is said that after the statue'. and their inhabitants seem to have cleared the tombs round them centuries ago.C. 107 Lenin the Capitol. capture of the great city in 43 B. xxxvi. 24. I. these statues marvellously escaped the melted lead from the roof and the falling masonry: and Cedren apparently saw this statue of Athene at Constantinople six hundred years afterwards ^ The antiquities found in the island of been obtained mainly from tombs on the late years have sites of lalysos and Camiros and of some town near the modern village of Siana and from trenches and shafts on the Acropolis of Camiros. pp. ' Pliny. XLVII. 17. When that 404 A. . p. 5. and by his order was covered with a plating of gold. were all made at some one place and exported thence: but XXXIV. 644. as It may be that these well as at Mycenae and at lalysos. v.C. 33. Lindos and the city of Rhodes have survived till now. traces who dedicated on the this head.D. Zosimos. and stood opposite the statue of Zeus of collecting*. 4. ' Dio Cas- ^ ^ xxxiv. Terra-cotta vases of this period have been found at Hissarlik. and the The collection of Asinius Pollio was formed a little later. Pliny. "quadriga with Helios of the Rhodians" was at Rome in Nero's time: it unluckily struck the Emperor's fancy.

groups of shells or water-plants. etc. RHODES. carnelian. are painted in brown upon the light yellow of the clay.C. found in most of the Greek islands. With these were found various bronze weapons (Plate III. and scarabs with more or less successful copies of the cartouches of various Pharaohs. for these and other shells were found .. swords and spearheads and curved knives. I08 the various types appear from their prevalence in various districts to be products of those districts . which shew the style of this period would be of Rhodian work.: and it is pretty have been clear that they were made at Naucratis. jasper. in 666 B. of types found at Mycenae a gold ring that resembles the rings from Mycenae and differs from other Greek rings in the hollowing out of the back of the bezel to fit the finger and also a gem on which is engraved the subject carved above the gateway at Mycenae. sard. and especially that are in Crete they are circular in form. for there found there not only a number of porcelain objects with early Greek figures in the style that prevails among the gems. small cylinder of Egyptian porcelain bearing figures of A commonly found on cartouche of Amenhotep the type the these III. This gem is one of those' at its best. the two rampant lions and the column between them. gems and a scarab with a Pharaoh of the xviiith Dynasty. light . were found at lalysos with these objects of the Mycenaean period. they cannot be of earlier date than the accession of Psametik I. and very often a cuttle-fish. The rock-cut chambers that form this group of tombs open into one another.). Their style seems unfettered by any system of art and inspired simply by nature. : : early intaglios in crystal. It would also appear that the engraved shell of a Tridacna Squamosa that was found at Camiros was made at Naucratis. These fine vases are and graceful in form and simple patterns of spirals or of network. and are pierced from edge to edge for fitting in a ring or a necklace. and in that case the vases from lalysos. with a thickness of about half their diameter in the centre and tapering toward the side. If the cylinder and scarab were made at Naucratis. and all the objects found in them must be of nearly the same date. but also the moulds for making them..

109 there in different stages of engraving. bear of those thoroughly Greek monsters. These were clearly the work of the Phoenicians. and one bears a deity in relief holding in Assyrian fashion in either hand a lion in the round and above this two Egyptian hawks in the round but the alien subjects have in each case been brought into figure of the : perfect agreement. and the species belongs Red Sea and not to the Mediterranean. It would thus seem that Nauof this type with figures of Assyrian deities . and many others. lay in harmonizing the subjects it borrowed from Assyria and from Egypt and its success in this may be seen in some little gold plates for stringing on a necklace that were found at Camiros. The subjects engraved on these shells are. from lalysos were an Assyrian invention. are made of the white calcareous stone of Cypres and are in the style of the numerous figures of the same material found in that island. An ivory cylinder was also found at Naucratis and. and in one case the border of the plate takes the form of an Egyptian gateway with sloping sides but the centaurs them: . was presumably made there. however. The strength of Phoenician art. Assyrian and not Egyptian in character and engraved cylinders like that to the . Some of these bear in relief an Assyrian sphinx above a row of heads wearing Egyptian wigs. and a standing figure of a deity grasping a lion in the As- syrian fashion. of which the statue of Shalmaneser from cratis Ashur is lalysos. as Egypt had almost a monopoly of ivory. Some of these plates. But many Rhodes objects of Assyrian or Egyptian character found in were clearly not made at Naucratis. however. which had no subjects of its own. produced the ivory statuette of a seated deity in the Assyrian style. that was found at Camiros. a seated Egyptian ram-headed god Knef. reliefs Their heads are like those in Egyptian wigs on other plates. found in this same group of tombs at and an ivory lion in the posture common on Baby- lonian weights.: ART. with an unsuccessful attempt at an inscription in cuneiform character. found on the Acropolis of Camiros. found at Lindos. an example. Several figures of a seated sphinx wearing the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. the Centaurs.

a later period. The decoration is brought to bear on a few times : . build. Apart from the legends. These plates are of an opaque white glass tinted with blue. These patterns are again moulded in relief on some of the little glass plates found in this same group of tombs at lalysos. and have no kinship with the beast-footed monsters of the East. The group of tombs at lalysos also contained some rude terra-cotta figures of the Mycenaean type among them a goddess with an almost featureless face and a body like a post with stumps on either : side that might be somewhat heavier either wings or arms. while a sphinx and Assyrian rosettes are moulded on others. are the same Phoenician renderings of heads in Egyptian wigs that occur on the little gold plates. which have been moulded apart. If the Greeks had made these. but almost as early : elsewhere in Phoenicia.C. to decorate their terra-cotta vases as well as and if the Phoenicians had made these plates at this period : them in their own country. the existence at lalysos in historic times of a priesthood of Phoenician origin implies a Phoenician settlement in that district in early and these settlers were probably the makers of these abnormal examples of Phoenician art. but still plainly enough the direct ancestors of the finest Athenian vases. Reliefs of centaurs with human forelegs also occur together with the flower and spiral patterns of the Mycensan period on large terra-cotta jars found at Camiros. they would probably have used the Assyrian rosettes. Similar figures of a and as rude as were found at Camiros but in these the heads. with which they decorated their terra-cotta vases at .no RHODES. With them were found terra-cotta figures of a closely draped female figure which belong to a class found at Sidon and this. Similar glass plates have been found elsewhere. but only with remains of the Mycenaan period. and sometimes bearing traces of gilding and are pierced with fine holes from edge to edge as if for sewing as ornaments to a garment. They are rude and clumsy. they would hardly have used the Greek flower and spiral patterns. Some terra-cotta vases found at Camiros must have been made at Athens about 600 B. selves are of the early Greek type with human forelegs.

geometrical decoration was also employed by the islanders themselves. how- . finished. : earth of the district. the names of the heroes being written beside In the later vases of this in early Greek characters. or with a stiff drawing of This an animal surrounded by little angular ornaments. and in fact closely resembles the lotos pattern on the pavement of the North Palace at Kou- painted brown or to the yellow of the clay left : : Two shapes prevail a large jug of fine form that seems to be copied from bronze. 1 1 rectangular spaces. This style is marked by the use of the lotos for decoration. marked by The drawings fine lines are. and indeed Camiros probably owed its epithet of " glistening. But this lotos pattern is not derived from nature or from any Egyptian rendering of it. and differs materially from the lotos pattern on the vases from Naucratis it was rather derived through the Phoenicians from Assyria. and the whole better finer and style the clay is figures are filled in with brown." dpyiv6ei<. On one dish the Assyrian subject of a deity holding a lion in either hand and on another the is adapted to a Gorgon with two swans two eyes often seen at the head of Egyptian tablets appear above a combat of Hector and Menelaos over the body of . over which maroon is used to them pick out some features. The clay is of a rich creamy colour. but the other animals and the angular ornaments seem borrowed from the early Athenian vases. and a large flat dish. marked with maroon and in the The long-horned Cretan goat is often drawn. The importation of vases from Athens seems to have been checked for a time by the rise of a local style at Camiros. figures are outlined in colour and partly left In the earlier vases of the style the brown and partly filled in with that to the white of the clay. the details in the brown portion being white portion with brown. while details are cut through the paint into the clay.. while the rest of the surface is merely and the favoured spaces are filled with geometrical patterns in which the lines are generally straight. to the white yunjik.1 ART. Euphorbos. for it occurs on the polygonal masonry of an ancient Greek fort by the church of Aghios Phocas not far from the modern village of Siana.

like those of Ramenkheper and Ramaneb. Some of these porcelain vases are in the form of the aryballos. It is not made of the white clay of modern the face. Some pieces of may have been part passed on to the lines of Phoenician trade. is an ancient imitation. curious vase found near the which shews the later work of this style on the upper part and the earlier work on the lower. The porcelain objects from . with Assyrian weaker creatures. : . A rosettes in the background. the common oil jar for Greek athletes. bearing the Naucratite lotos pattern in white and maroon on a The black ground were also found at Camiros. 112 ever. dull objects in Egyptian porcelain found at Camiros would also have come for on the neck of a vase in the form of a from Naucratis dolphin there is inscribed below the glaze " I belong to Pytheas " in Greek characters. district.RHODES. A . Etruscan black-ware found at Camiros of a Phoenician return cargo. A but of a reddish clay painted white at the surand maroon upon black on peculiar use of white a band running round birth-place. Most of these porcelain objects are figures of Egyptian deities and sacred animals and scarabs but the hieroglyphic inscriptions on these. are generally blundered and only a few simple cartouches. and represent mainly foreign or monstrous leopards and sphinxes and sirens. or libation bowls. And probably the little bronze vase in the form of a helmeted head inscribed " Cceos made me " in very early Greek characters which was found at Olympia was the offering of some man from Rhodes or Naucratis. porcelain vase of Egyptian shape engraved with Athor and the Cow resembles those found in the Polledrara tomb at Vulci and it was perhaps through Rhodes that such products of Naucratis . Many of the later terra-cotta vases of the Camiros style are likewise in the forms of birds and animals and of human heads. . read truly. as on the scarabs found at Naucratis. middle betrays Naucratis as its its Several phiala?. and it is not likely that Egyptian porcelain was elsewhere made for Greeks. while others are in the form of a helmeted head and in various fanciful shapes. village of Siana. and especially of the head of a youthful warrior wearing a helmet.

and their decoration is a rough and bold rendering of that of those amphorae.C. The relief of Eos (or Hemera) carrying off Cephalos which Bathycles carved upon the Throne of Apollo at Amycla about 550 B. is in date. however.) of a winged maiden rushing away with a youth in her arms. The Camiros form a fairly They 400 B. Greeks in their choice of form. : limbs.C. These were presumably the work of Phoenicians who would. The group. . green. perhaps inspired this relief. yielded a . very low and seems from its thinness and the flatness of its back to have decorated some even surface. for the Greek amphoriscce and oenochose outnumber the Oriental alabastra.ART. 1 1 3 Camiros were found chiefly upon the Acropolis in various rock-cut trenches and in a deep vertical shaft sunk like a well in the rock and perhaps intended to receive superfluous The tombs of this period near Camiros have also number of vases of translucent glass. have been guided by offerings. R. The body of these is commonly a deep blue and the decoration. The local style of terra-cotta vases at Camiros seems to have struggled on against a great importation of vases from Athens that began about 500 B. and terra-cotta statuettes found at continuous series extending down to about . which has been which can be of little later brightly coloured. while their form is that of the Athenian amphorse with black figures on an orange-coloured body. It was probably made at Melos. With these was found a terra-cotta relief (Plate v. which is always of linear patterns and never of figures. Vases have been : found there on which the simple painting in brown on the cream-coloured surface has been retained. must ha -e been of the same character. It may be that some Phcenician settlers made them in Rhodes and certainly they have not been found in such numbers elsewhere. or maroon. where most of the reliefs of this class have been found. Some children's graves contained their terragrotesque figures.C. yellow. 8 . and dolls with moveable cotta toys relief. is in white. T. and are for the most part of female figures heavily draped do not differ from those found on the sites of other Greek cities.

. But this same group. : upper in frieze is Cebriones. the remaining figures of that frieze like the animals in the lower frieze The merely serve to decorate a vacant space.figured style. used on others which are almost in is this metallic form of this hydria seems to be derived from the metal vases of the Phcenicians and the huge lotos flowers growing up in the upper frieze (Plate VI.: and as the subjects of the other surviving metopes of temple belong that to the heroic legends. the charioteer of Hector.) in the Chalcidian style. this group must have been already associated with certain heroes. the alphabet used in But the marked individuality in the writing of this period makes such a test of little value and in fact this alphabet is used for the names on some Athenian vases. Their names are written beside them. subjects on another Athenian vase from Camiros of some interest. b) seen the combat of Hei'acles with Cycnos which forms the main subject of Hesiod's poem.1 RHODES. A. and curiously the initial letter of Glaucos seems hidden behind that hero's hand and the final letter of Cebriones behind a horse's head. dates from about 600 B. 14 Among the earliest of the long series of Athenian vases found in Rhodes is a hydria (Plate VI. left. though without the names. The central figures of the upper frieze having thus been borrowed from some earlier work of painting or sculpture. . standing a chariot with Hector on his right hand and Glaucos. It is of somewhat ordinary black.C. on his This group may be merely a scene of everyday life to which the painter has sought to give greater interest by naming the figures after these Homeric heroes. The vases in this style have been termed Chalcidian mainly because the names written on some of them are in the early inscriptions from Chalcis. filled a metope in Temple C at Selinos which written after the figures were painted. a) and the lotos pattern above and below it must have been borrowed from that people while the Cretan goats in the lower frieze In the centre of the recall the vases of the Camiros style. while the : Attic alphabet The style. B. A. the Shield of Heracles. is On later date and one side (Plate are in the VI. although the names were certainly the Lycian chief.

ART. according to Hesiod. in date it : can well is be. is dead between them. while the figure supporting Geryon may be the deity of his island. sire. One of these is a cylix of the end of the and in their careless 5th century B. delicate colours on the interior of which there on a flying swan. and Ares with Zeus between Heracles and Cycnos. a) Heracles is Geryon. and as shapely as a vase of that form On it is painted the surprise of Thetis by figures are seen in the deep red colour of the clay against the black varnish that covers the body Peleus : most of the Eros are painted in opaque white. Zeus took no part in the combat.C. is painted in upon a white background Aphrodite riding The other is perhaps half a century later a pelice. B. and in his combat with Cycnos wears the lion skin and fights with sword and shield. upon the Chest of Cypselos. and merely sat in Olympos thundering mightily and raining drops of blood as a sign And to his son. Athene supported by his . But. but Thetis herself and 8—2 . The drawing of the vase. work recall those found near Athens itself. and Heracles by his while Zeus. lies : Peisander. the epic poet of Camiros in that had equipped Heracles with the club and lion skin place of the shield and spear or bow and sword of the It is said that century. The Athenian vases found in Rhodes are generally much less elaborate than those found in Etruria. in heroic age but Heracles here carries a quiver as well as : the club and lion skin in his combat with Geryon.C. But two of them are among the finest extant examples of Greek art. the other side (Plate VI. 1 1 5 Ares. Elrytheia. the sire of Heracles. this must be an instance of the early Greek of representing the deity practice action as bodily in its who presided over an Nicosthenes places Athene midst.. who On seen attacking The herdsman Eurytion Athene supports Heracles. defending his herds. and gilding is used for details in several figures. her cloak is a sea-green and his wings are blue. Cycnos is patron. In the earliest art Geryon was sometimes a winged monster with three bodies upon one pair of legs bit the type of three men cleaving together was used as early as the 7th century B. appears between the combatants.

All the above coins are silver. a) a winged Eros leaning against a pillar and with his extended hands forming a noose with two cords for the game called Protogenes had painted his i/j.6v by the Greeks. a winged boar on obverse and an eagle's head in a sunk square on reverse and for Camiros. There are coins of Astyra of this period with a vase on each side. B) on which they are appropriate enough. head of Lindos and the silphion tree of Cyrene on obverse and the eagle's head of lalysos on reverse must have been struck at Cyrene soon after 530 B.RHODES.C. b) Thetis riding on a dolphin across the waves and holding out in her right hand a helmet. . The earliest Rhodian coins belong to the end of the 7th bearing in relief at one end (Plate I. while the earliest coins beginning of that century. a lion's : : : : . . and each kept faithfully to head on obverse and a sunk square on reverse for lalysos. Il6 breaks the law of vase painting first — — that the whole subject should be in one plane though the defect is cleverly masked by the stronger colouring of the chief figures and this : suggests that With this it was a direct copy from some great picture. A) A. a fig leaf on obverse and a double sunk square on reverse. These sunk squares are a relic of the Lydian custom of merely punching pieces of metal. Satyr standing by a pillar. The known belong to the three ancient cities coined was founded. The founding of the great city in 408 B.C. Figures riding on dolphins were not uncommon. century B. and his picture may have suggested the attitude of this Eros. a diota on obverse and an oenochoe on reverse. A. called for a new coinage and the until the great city its first types : for Lindos. as pay for Rhodian mercenaries. which was the beginning of coinage but the double sunk square is peculiar The coin with the lion's to Rhodes and the neighbourhood. The somewhat obtrusive rings surrounding these figures seem borrowed together with the form of the box from gold reels for thread (Plate I. and were to be seen from the 6th century onward on the coins of Tarentum.C. part of the armour the Nereids were carrying to Achilles before Troy and at the other end (Plate I.avTekiyfi. vase was found a small gold box (Plate I.

Dionysos and some uncertain female deities. Thus may have been adopted by the city of Rhodes Camiros and at Camiros it may have been developed the rose flower from : from a fig leaf. but apparently at a later date. : Apollo. A silver coin of Camiros.ART. In rare cases the rose flower is on both sides. this also is nearly in full face. were also used for these handles. and are without the sunk square on the reverse. tridents. a radiated head of Helios. eagles. Artemis with a torch. strygils. On nearly in full down On all Rhodian coins Empire. are : Athene holding These same emblems with the name of some eponymos magistrate and of one of the months are found stamped on the handles of the Rhodian wine jars in oblong cartouches. This radiation is not found on the earlier coins of the 2nd century: but about the middle . some cases a head of Medusa with serpents in her hair The heads Hermes. The Rhodian coins of the 3rd century B.C. Circular stamps like coins. which sometimes occur on the obverse. 117 types then adopted were those of nearly to time in Roman detail. and so forth. and of Poseidon and Sarapis. although varying from time the obverse is the head of Helios seen face with long hair thrown carelessly back. tripods. bear on the obverse. for rose flower coins. city is the outline of this side view of the wild not unlike that of the fig leaf on the earlier The emblems on the reverse of the coins of the great very various helmets. rats. are always in profile. which sometimes occur on the reverse. butterflies : Nike. as are those of Helios and Medusa on late coins. month running round. with the head of Helios or the rose flower in the centre and the name of the magistrate and sometimes of the ships : dolphins. perhaps borrowed from the Colossos. to the the reverse the flower of a wild rose with the word is and very often the name of some eponymos magistrate and an emblem belonging to another or merely po poStov magistrate is in : a very slight sunk square serving to frame the Instead of the head of Helios on the obverse there whole. which can hardly be and often winged of Zeus. bears the rose flower on obverse and a gryphon's head on reverse. than the founding of the great later city.

There is sometimes the head of Helios or the head of Dionysos on reverse. During the 2nd century B. Antoninus Pius on the obverse. and also something to mark the place of coinage in the Rhodian examples.C. Nike. Cnidos. generally of an imperial head on both sides for example. as an abbreviation for pSSiov. but more often a some full length figure. The group of the infant Heracles strangling the serpents which appears on the obverse of some silver Rhodian coins bearing the rose flower on the reverse appears also on the obverse of silver coins of Ephesos. but sometimes only laureate. and Zeus enthroned with eagle and spear on reverse. The silver coins of Megiste with the head of Helios or the head of Artemis on obverse and the rose flower on reverse are distinguished from the Rhodian by the letters /ue in place of po. and sometimes the name of some eponymos magistrate. and lasos bearing on the reverse the respective types of those cities. the rose flower.RHODES. The imperial heads on the obverse are generally radiate. their common type is borrowed from the coinage of Thebes. but there are copper Rhodian coins of various emperors down to Commodus. Samos. Il8 of that century the radiation on the obverse and the sunk square on the reverse were both ostentatiously revived. and on the reverse Marcus Aurelius. The name 'AXe^dvBpou appears on the reverse. Rhodes and several other states of the yEgean struck coins bearing the types of Alexander the Great the head of the youthful Heracles on obverse.C. and the full face was exchanged for profile on all the coins but a Astyra struck copper coins after the few gold pieces. Gold and silver were not coined in the island after the accession of Augustus. founding of the great city. the letters fio or Si. some of them bearing the head of Helios on the obverse while the diota is retained on the have a head of Artemis on obverse and the rose flower on reverse. while others : : : the reverse . These coins belong to the beginning of the 4th century. In cases there is : . and the letters a v v on them may refer to a political alliance between these states after the battle of Cnidos in 394 B.




The central


position of

Rhodes and its policy of neutrality
Thus it was at Athens and

a great seat of learning.

Rhodes that Ptolemy Philadelphos collected books for the
But the island lay too open to all
Greece for any local style to flourish there, and the Rhodians
left little mark of their own on any branch of Greek culture


library at Alexandria'.

but rhetoric.

Homer was

born in Rhodes as in most of the JEgean
him came Peisander of Camiros, an epic
poet of the 7th century. It was said that he stole his great
work, the Heracleia, from Pisinos of Lindos but nothing is






of this Pisinosl

The Heracleia was

of some interest


famous labours from the many
feats ascribed to the hero by local traditions*
it first equipped
Heracles himself with the familiar club and lion skin in place
of the shield and spear or bow and sword of the heroic age^
and it first gave the Hydra more heads than one*. Years
after Peisander was dead the Commons of Camiros set up
his statue in bronze and Theocritos wrote his epitaph.
little after him came Cleobulos of Lindos, one of the Seven
Wise Men'. He was not a legislator like Solon or a natural

it first

selected the twelve





Athenffios, p. 3-


Suidas, s.v.


Clement of Alexandria, Strom.





Strabo, p. 688.




Plato, Protagoras, p. 343


Theocritos, Ep. 20.


X. 24;




Diogenes Laertius,





philosopher like Thales, and merely uttered


men went
dedicated a maxim

the wise



his offering

The maxim




like the

a body to Delphi and


apiece as the





best", jxerpov dpta-Tov.

of Bias of Priene " the masses are rascals



an echo in verses of Cleobulos declaring
that mankind is mainly clumsiness and chatter.
And no
doubt the sea- faring populace of Lindos was far below the
despot of surpassing beauty and strength who claimed descent
from Heracles, the master of the wisdom of Egypt and the
second founder of the temple of their patron goddess.
was said that Cleobulos originated the Rhodian custom that
children should go round in the autumn singing the Chelidonisma, the song of the swallow, and begging gifts for the
bird on its return to the island for the winter.
The singing
of the Coronisma, the song of the crow, was a similar custom

'rfX.elcnoi Ka/coi,

in Rhodes
but the story of its origin has perished, for it
was long and Athenseos was too lazy to repeat it.
extant songs are much alike and demand gifts of a basket
of figs, a beaker of wine, and other things which are not the


food either of swallows or of crows'. The nucleus
of the Chelidonisma was perhaps due to Cleobulos, for he

wrote songs and epigrams to the extent of some three thousand
His epitaph on Midas, sometimes called Homer's,
declared that while the forces of nature endured, the bronze
maiden upon the tomb would proclaim to the wayfarer that

Midas whereon Simonides of Ceos took him
comparing with such things the endurance of a
monument that any man might smash, and ended abruptly

therein rested


to task for

" this is the


saying of a








Cleobulos perhaps acted

make companions

of their

daughter Cleobulina wrote enigmas in
hexameters. One other gifted lady is heard of at Rhodes,
Myro by name she was a philosopher, and wrote a book on




the sayings of royal ladies,





kinsmen of Cleobulos was Antheas of Lindos, one of the

Alhen^os, pp. 359, 360.



s.v. Mu/:ci.




founders of the Bacchic revelry from which sprang

He was




of high station and wealthy, and

maintained a troop of Bacchanals whose revels he led by
day and night and the comedies and songs that they chanted

were his handiwork.
of forming the huge

He seems

to have discovered the art

compound words found

in later

comedies were probably

poets, but his primitive

Timocreon of

than personal abuse in dialogue'.





the scurrilous lyric poet, flourished during the Persian wars.

He was



of position


a guest of Themistocles and after-

wards of Dareios. He was exiled as a partizan of Persia
but when Themistocles came sailing round the islands in
480 B.C. after Salamis and restored most exiles, he failed to
restore the poet to his native lalysos, being dissuaded there;


(so run

Timocreon's verses) by

filthy lucre, to wit, three

In the dozen lines that remain of this ode Timocreon


charges his former host with treachery, falsehood, murder,
oppression, and giving his guests cold meat.




nothing to the bitterness of his attack when Themistocles was


himself exiled nine years later as a partizan of Persia".

Simonides of Ceos and parodied his verses";
but Simonides had the last word in this pretty quarrel, and
" much I drank, much I ate,
wrote Timocreon's epitaph
much evil I spake of men now rest I here, Timocreon of
Rhodes. " The poet figures in a list of unspeakable eaters,
and the Great King marvelled at his appetite. Dareios once
asked what he would do after the huge dinner he had eaten,
and was answered that he would break the heads of countless


foul of





and when he had done

out rhythmically in the
the blows

left over.

As an


he remained hitting

telling Dareios that those


athlete he

had conquered

His works were well known at Athens.
song of his,

refers to a


Athenseos, p. 445.




Themistocles, 21, 22.

rav fxarep'







in the



Timocreon, Fr.







The Parian Marble. pp. 645. master of the Middle Comedy. 7. next beauty. The same deference to ' : : — public opinion appears in his lines "pleasure lies in finding some new thought to shew the world men who keep their wisdom to themselves have no judge of what it's worth. p. has oddly been called a Rhodian of Lindos or of Camiros and one of the two great masters of the Middle Comedy. acharn. 1063. wrote a play about a Rhodian woman as also did Philemon. . vesp.C. The great master of that group. and in the 'Acharnians chooses to find a likeness between Pericles' solemn decree against the men of Megara and Timocreon's drinking song that curses Plutos^ Timocreon has been placed. epoch. Aristophanes himself. Servius. who was probably of Cios. The fragments are meagre: but this is partly explained by the story that in his later years he carried any play of his that failed to win the first prize straight off to the incense market to be torn up. Athenaeos. 533. to separate : The poet disputed the order of the blessings laid Simonides. has also Alexis.': RHODES." : To introduce on the stage was his distinctive quite a horrid man work — but ' and undoings of maidens Empress Eudocia calls him loves — the there is nothing in the fragments him from the other poets of the Middle Comedy. Aristo- phanes. Antiphanes. VII.— and of these ten won the first prize. Most of the fragments have been preserved by Athen^eos. 6. 70. 122 written in the metre called from him the Timocreonticon' and Aristophanes parodies him in a chores in the 'Wasps'. Plato. among the poets of the Old Comedy. Frs. 493. 395. on the s.vv. 8 . the other great been called a Rhodian'. one of the two great masters of the New Comedy^ But Rhodes certainly gave birth to one considerable master of the Middle Comedy in AnaxanHe brought out sixty-five plays the drides of Camiros. Gorgias.!. Fr. I. however. 2 Timocreon. 1 first health. and consequently deal mainly with food and feeding perhaps the brightest notion in them being the introduction of the venerable sea god Nereus as the great author of fish dinners. •• * down by then wealth. li/xoKp^wv. 3 Suidas. (/lociis. apparently in error. 'Apurro- 'AvTi0an. Timocreon. first at Athens" in 377 B.

38. vu. XV. ' . Suidas and Eudocia. 60. p. v. 27. 295. the Axe. 655. Nicom. ' Strabo. m. 11 * Gorgon. ' Hephssstion. Ethics. devised those epigrams that take the form of some object from the varying lengths of the lines. beginning " take this fresh egg of an undefiled nightingale.: ground that a handsome Some creature. the Alexandrine age^ . of Apollo with the Python. for example. praises the disreputable Philemon's acting in drides himself described as goodly in aspect and is who Anaxan- them\ tall. s." He also invented two metres called from him A little after him the Simmieion and the Simmiacon'. 3. Athenseos. — 14. 12. with flowing hair. the admiral of Ptolemy Philadelphos. is reported on slight authority to have been a Rhodian °: and the like '. 327. 123 man without a dinner was a wretched of his plays are noticed by Aristotle. 10. invented the Pythian melody for the contest for lyres and flutes that was then added to the contest for lyres and voices Its theme was the struggle at the Pythian festival at Delphi. ' Anthologia Palatina. Spidijs. and clad in purple raiment fringed with gold. 01. he dashed in on horse- back and declaimed some of the verses himselfl Pindar had perhaps set the Rhodian poets an example of splendour in their daily life when he came to the island after the Olympic victory of Diagoras in 464 B. Rlietoric. pp. 374. 24. 22. the attack Aristotle. VII. p. LEARNING.C. and the Wings' and he made the words respond to the forms the Egg. 'Ava^ap- third. 694. Of these he wrote the Egg. ^ Eustathios. chanting with lyre and many-voiced choir of flutes the praise of Rhodos That grand ode setting forth the great Rhodian legends was engraved in letters of gold upon the temple of Athene at Lindos*. 10. report made is of Philetas of Cos. and it was in five parts first. Fr. the elegiac poet of the In that age Simmias of Rhodes. . The poetess Erinna. pp. . 40. And there is an odd story of him that once when bringing out a dithyrambic choros at Athens. VII. the struggle at its height Homerum. 222. the youthful friend of Sappho. : prelude 1 second. ad ® Scholia to Theocritos. 11. ^ Pindar. who was more grammarian than poet'. . Timosthenes of Rhodes.

who had satirized him as an Ibis'. One of his epigrams celebrates a bridge erected by Xenocles of Lindos on the road to a temple of Demeter°. the dying commonly called the of victory and of defeat Apollonios. Confessor. but they failed to detect its beauties stopped abruptly. . The remaining fragment of the Founding of Rhodes may refer to the legend of Phorbas. shrieks of the Python'. 283. Alexandria. His youth was spent at Alexandria among the Naucratis^ : itself. to Antigonos Gonatas seeing the poet absorbed in cooking a conger eel in camp. s. tliologia Palatina. XI. declaring they were rightly named Boeotians The {j3oiWTol) for they had the ears of oxen (^owv wTay. 147. KaXX£//. 'ATroXXcirios. com. Vita. 2 Athenceos. was produced before he was twenty. pupils of Callimachos.axos. He on the founding of several cities. 15. pletely as it had failed before and now faultlessly polished and purged of all vigour it became a standard of Alexandrine the citizenship : and in his : and had some influence with the Roman poets*. the cries fifth. a metre sacred to sarcasm. An- ^ Maximus ' Anthologia Palatina. 421. 275. 124 fourth. .v. poem is lost. ^ Suidas. ^ Suidas. Antagoras passed most of his life in Macedon as court poet and there is a story that Antigonos. Naucratis. where he divided his days between a war of coarse words with Callimachos. v. p. A little before him Antagoras This he recited of Rhodes had written an epic. Cnidos. loc.RHODES. p. s. and he to the Thebans. The Argonautica. The storm of ridicule that it raised drove him from Alexandria to his retirement at Rhodes. Caunos and Rhodes but of Canopos he apparently wrote in choliambics. IX. hopeless task of reviving Greek epic. the Thebais. taste also wrote epics : : : 1 Strabo. and a In its new form it succeeded as comrevision of his poem. an affair of some six thousand verses still extant. and in his later years he filled there the But the best forty great office of President of the Library. years of his life were passed at Rhodes. where he received works he preferred to describe genius was wasted in the His himself as the Rhodian. cf. Apollonii. Rhodian. was born in Egypt and probably at Alexandria though Athenseos claims him for his own birthplace.

Telchinis. and a school flourished there for at least a century. Corymbia. who wrote his poems in a mongrel dialect of Greek and Latin': happily their works have perished. Peripatetics and Stoics none of any great weight as original thinkers. i. s. : good. 340. XIII.vv. "A Rhodian and then tasting the Lesbian. Pliny. 5. but wine. the philosophy of the Levant. place in a select catalogue of epicures \ . " both thoroughly sweeter is the " Theophrastos the Lesbian was the Rhodian as chief of the school*. naturally took deeper root at Rhodes. but some of them of importance in formulating or in propagating the doctrines of their school. 10. Trinacria. . Antagoras would not of his delicacies to a slave or even to his for this whether Aga- troubled himself about the cooking of eels he is duly commended by trust the when cooking own mother and who gives him a : Athenasos. 'ISatos. and Agamemnon's 12$ was asked in return he did those deeds. JEihriea. their request. 7. Some ten or twelve Rhodian philosophers are known. * Aulus Gellius. Homer asked whether memnon used to cook eels when he wrote deeds. Pelagia." preferred to ' Athenaeos. 36. 10. mianus Marcellinus. Oloessa. but (apparently quoting " And on Lesbian. seem merely poetic ^ There is no trace of the common use of any of them. That some Rhodians were Peripatetics was a mere matter of chance Poeessa. p. xvii. Vite Suidas. ^ his death Eudemos p. Macaria. said he tasting the disciples asked him to name one to succeed him. : but Stoicism. Pausanias.: LEARNING. Stadia. There also lived at Rhodes a certain IdJEOs. Ophiusa. Atabyria. 2. race. an line of his own between each two of Homer's epic poet of Nero's time. Asteria. Am- . 653 . The many names given to the island. who wrote some three thousand verses on his own account about his native island and then augmented and improved the Homeric poems by setting a Euodos. i. Arati. V. Ho- ^ Strabo. satires. The story goes that a before Aristotle's death his little He evaded soon after asked for Rhodian and for Lesbian sound wine and pleasant". Alexis) Euoffos. a perfect marvel at Latin verse and Pitholeon.

^ Asclepios of Tralles. pp. ' Diogenes Laertius. The work as it now stands is mainly a patchwork from Aristotle's writings to Aristotle's views. Among the Peripatetics there was no other Rhodian of note till Andronicos. 29. 13. prior. 655. X. of Rhodes. a distinlike guished Peripatetic. After keeping them for a century and a half in a damp cellar. 520. disp. the Eudemian Ethics. 18. a brother of eXarrov is Eudemos and him a disciple of Aristotle^ It may be noted that Mentor the Rhodian was the satrap of western Asia Minor who in 343 B. 201. v. physica. p. The original draught of the Metaphysics was lent to Eudemos but he died while editing it. Hermeias of Atarneus''.C. . * Strabo. 6. pp. 5. 5783. in Timse- p. Theophrastos had bequeathed his own manuscripts and those of Aristotle that he had to Neleus of Scepsis. acad. and the manuscript disappeared. de fin. the family of Neleus sold what the worms had left to Apel^ Simplicius. ^ B. ^ Cicero. The Senate of Brundusium voted a piece of ground for his tomb. the disciple falls to a more commonplace sphere than in the previous books in which he was inspired by the Nicomachsean Ethics of the master himself. but the excrescence said to be the work of known as a Pasicles. treacherously seized and deposed Aristotle's It is said that Praxiphanes friend. um. p. iv. 279. Eucratidas by name. the great editor and chief of the school in the 1st century B. taught Epicuros*: and a little later. n. 6. 3. he was content to make himself a mere echo of his master'. Diodoros.RHODES. 5. 519. Proclos.C. xvi. u. which are presumably the work of Eudemos. 42. 11. 610. 52. Tusc. Hieronymos of Rhodes. in Brandis. 126 But Eudemos did good work expound for the school in his copious Able as he was. scholia to Aristotle. and consequently was sometimes reckoned a follower of Epicuros^ But only one Rhodian. is found among professed Epicureans. accepted without qualification the doctrine that absence of pain formed the chief good. but nothing more is known of him'. . a Peripatetic and disciple of Theophrastos*. But the voice of the echo was sometimes weaker and less And in the last book of distinct than the original voice. ^ Strabo. other writings.

^ Strabo. obtained copies from him and then brought out a complete edition.. 1 Strabo. Perhaps the ablest of them and certainly the most successful was Panastios. for he was a true collector and careless of the contents of books. Plotinos. who had lost everything. The Rhodian was perhaps a Neo-Platonist*. 64. p. There a very doubtful story that Aristippos of Cyrene. who accompanied Porphyry from Greece to Rome in 263 A. on his taught at Rhodes. he was content with casual speculations on its nature. is the disciple of Socrates and founder of the Cyrenaic school. . he lectured his fellow-passengers. Cicero. Sulla carried off Apellicon's library to Rome. 6. Instead of going about denying that pain was an evil. he saw how to adapt the primitive Stoicism to its new Stoics He abandoned the traditional pedantry in speech and narrowness in study. first visit to Plotinos. all belong to the period of transition between the formulation of the Stoic doctrine by philosophers at Athens and its acceptance by generals and statesmen at Rome. rejecting the spurious works and classifying and arranging the rest. LEARNING. . He had been shipwrecked off the island and when he had made some money by his teaching. there to-day'. proem.D. This edition is probably the Aristotle of In 84 B. Melanthios of Rhodes. The 1 school gained these works that had hitherto been out but Apellicon was sending out copies full new life 27 from of their reach : of blunders. 26. and Tyrannion went to work on the manuscripts. Plotinos. which seem previously to have been arranged by chance or at best chronologically. i. who had probably met Tyrannion when that grammarian was studying at Rhodes.C. acad. Coming of a stock famed at Rhodes for generals and athletes and himself a thorough man of the world'. vi. p. licon. prior. Andronicos. 608 . and Plato and Aristotle were always in his mouth. a finished writer. Plutarch. ^ Diogenes Laertius. sphere. ^ Vitruvius. n. appears among the Academics': and Antonios of Rhodes. 11. 4. Porphyry. * Porphyry. 655. all a collector at Athens. Sulla. 24. on the advantage of carrying goods that could swim ashore with them".

I. 15- . Among the Rhodian disciples of Panaetios were Hecato. disp. evang. XVII. IX. which was applied by Stilo. de ^ II'. 21 . prspar. must have been derived from him. 1 . Index Herculanensis. 9. 8. a copious writer on philosophy and a man of some weight with the Roman Stoics^ a certain Plato' and Stratocles': but he was suc- to 1 Cicero. ad Att. as in . 1. de fin. and others to Roman philology and jurisprudence. 33. Tusc. There he would dispute with them while Polybios looked on. and through them he made Stoicism the fashionable philosophy of Rome''The systematic treatment of the Stoics. and afterwards lived for years as an honoured guest at his house.III- ' Diogenes Laertius. = Cicero. ^ Tusc. 3. " off.C. which mainly made Roman law a great system: and the development of that law from his time down to its great age under the Stoic Antonines was mainly at the hands of Stoics. de re pub. 8. he apparently introduced the vastly important notion of the Jus Gentimn. Tubero. 12. In philosophy Cicero based his de Officiis on a treatise by Panaetios on the same subject.RHODES. which was then the meeting place of the ablest men at Rome. 10. II. 128 He softened down the rigid Stoic standard of virtue to meet the well-known opinion that a merchant coming to Rhodes with a cargo of corn in time of scarcity was not morally bound to disclose the fact that other corn ships were coming up from Egypt before selling at famine prices'. He represented popular religion as a purely political institution and went somewhat further than most Stoics cared to follow in wholly denying the immortality of the soul and casting grave doubts on augury^ It may be noted that Pythagoras of Rhodes. IV. I.. acad. 11. was presumably a Stoic^ The friendship of the younger Scipio Africanus gave Panaetios the opportunity of influencing Roman society. III. Scaevola. I. He was that general's sole companion on the embassy to the East in 143 B. v. 28 . disp. prior. 12. I. 32. And the needs of trade. Cicero. and seems indebted him for the material for some other works*. in. * Cicero. III. 109. ' Eusebios. de off. who draws a touching picture of how terribly the less energetic gods must be bored by constant attendance at the sacrifices in their honour. de div.

Galen.C. Poseidonios was thoroughly idenhe filled the high office of prytanis^ and tified with Rhodes was ambassador to Rome in 86 B. '" Strabo. pp. 45. 1 29 Rhodes by Poseidonios of Apamea'. 55. ij. But it was less as a philo- paroxysms of evil'. * Iloa-eiSciij'toj.C.. 18. 67. p. 'lairw. Tijsc. ° * Suidas. Strabo. ^ Plutarch. p. and apparently again in his old age in 51 B. Rhodes and Constantinople and the other through the Straits of Gibraltar and of Messina. his attack to Cicero studied under sopher that Poseidonios was celebrated than as a traveller and historian and the best informed man of his day". who in 62 B. I. and probably Leonides'".v. Rhodes and Alexandretta Bay'^: both of them somewhat wavy lines when traced on a modern map. Pliny. pausing at the declare that pain was not an him and remained his intimate Among his Rhodian disciples friend and correspondent". s. were his daughter's son Jason. Dicsearchos. 753. who succeeded him in the school". Suidas.C.. Alexandria.C. 70. lb.LEARNING. 9 . Though a Syrian by birth. 655. Cape Matapan. p.) with his primary parallel of latitude. ' Cicero. Marius. * Cicero. 460. n. 31. Hortensius. '" " 44 i. Eratosthenes had already made observations with the gnomon at both ends of this . p. The one passed through Merowd. The measurement of the circumpolar circumference of the earth by Poseidonios was made upon this meridian on the arc between Alexandria and Rhodes.v. de nat. 492. s. " " Strabo. R. 3. s. often told him from his sick visited how him Rhodes^ at the philosopher had bed on the theme that no- thing was good save what was honourable. disp. 316. deor. 114. T. ceeded in the school at : just before the Civil War^ He suffered much from gout^ name of but the physical strength that gained for him the "the athlete" enabled him to bear spirit of his sect in 6"] and again discoursed to : his sufferings in the true and Pompey. when he came in contact with Marius". Au. p. Fr.v. This primary parallel had already been used by Dicaearchos some fifty years earlier". Fr. Rhodes was of some importance in ancient geography as the point of intersection of the primary meridian of Eratosthenes (about 250 B. Assouan. 2 Strabo. Iloo-eiSci^'io!. II. vn. ^ Suidas. Cicero. ad .

just student of this problem.000 geographical miles for the circumference. Timosthenes was able to explore the western Mediterranean when it was as yet little known and he wrote technical works on Islands. 14. Curiously both of them considered sailing round westward to India . ^ Strabo. it. theor. this parallel who knew of the upheaval of an island group in his own lifetime. Fr. 95.RHODES. 125. i. p. ^ Avienus. which would be obtained by putting the arc at 375 instead of 500 without correcting One result is as much above the the error of observation. which rather over 17. 42. A Bacorus of Rhodes is named as a geographer'. 130 arc to determine its had apparently deduced length*.000 and by Poseidonios at 14. 64. it might have subsided in some volcanic change^ Mount Atabyros in Rhodes was among the mountains whose vertical height was calculated by Dicaarchos. conjecturing that as Poseidonios. to Ptolemy Philadelphos. true value as the other The is below but his method was sound.000. an error of observation of the star Canopos cancelling to some extent the error of measurement^ His result is also given' as 18. 4. is really was estimated by Era- tosthenes at 20. and perhaps resided there". ^ Geminos. apparently the earliest His result was fourteen stades. but from his own calculation of the circumpolar circumference which was based on a false estimate of the arc between Alexandria and Assouan and he put the arc at his result : 375 geographical miles instead of 330. 58. double the true height^ Geminos uses several observations certain made at Rhodes. cycl. pp. — — ^ ' Strabo. in the Lipari the great island of Atlantis was not then to be found. 1.000 geographical miles. to the Greeks on Distances afterwards edited by Eratosthenes and on : . 277. and Eudoxos. . And a catalogue of notable geographers includes two Rhodians who Timosthenes. 2 Cleomedes. Diccearchos. p. 2. 5. . the historian. The sailors put it at 500 and this estimate was used by Poseidonios in obtaining his result of 24.000 geographical miles. the inventor of the were otherwise famous As admiral Pythian melody. ora maritima. ^ Strabo. ro. length of the parallel through Rhodes. 102. 65.

7. 515. ^ Strabo. Thus. to impress the barbarians in Britain". 19. Josephus. pp. i. Mar. in Apionem. Little is left many of the histories written by Rhodians. 30. pp. and the Carmani would pledge their friendships in cups of each other's most ponderous of these made during the notes histories and . Marius and Brutus'. ' II. 188. 309. the Greeks. p. 273-51 527. " Strabo. p. some remarks on a remedy for the liver alone remain from Cleitophon's history of India \ Poseidonios wrote the in this he embodied wide travels. and the sacking of Tolosa". i. at which the Celts would alternately listen to their bards and fight. 549. ' Cicero. 173. Max. finds describing the interior of the the tin mines of Britain and the naphtha wells of Babylon to the turnips and carrots of Dalmatia. II. ' Cleitophon. however. Fr. 174. 1. fault with him for errors in From temple at Jerusalem'. pp. Athenaios can quote him on the frugality of the Romans and the luxury of the Syrians and of the Parthian kings on the sacrificial feasts of Etruria and the surfeiting of Alexandria and on barbarian feasts. Gauls' habit of adorning their front doors with the heads of * Marcianus Heracleotes. ^ Athenjeos. Brut. de nat. Marcell. his .. Harbours'. 8. LEARNING. 63. 66z. 45. 34. the invasions of the Chersonese. 411. blood^ Strabo can quote him on the Parthian constitution. Strabo. then stated accurately the dependence of the daily tides on the moon's position and of the spring and neap He also tides moon and sun I shew the movements of sun and and Cicero considered how it would on the relative position of made a sphere moon and planets . Fab. nothing comes amiss to him : and here and there man himself. Plutarch can quote him for details Marcellus. how he laughed at the monkeys and how he accustomed himself after a time to the a touch of the is in Libya. 152-4. 246. 20. c. . « i. g. ranean. till 131 The tides were never thoroughly understood by who saw nothing but the ahnost tideless MediterPoseidonios made his observations on the Atlantic He coast at Cadiz. deor. Each writer who quotes it finds it a quarry for facts on his own subject. 19. Josephus. Plutarch.^o. about Fabius Maximus.

Fr. Frs. They were not professional writers. makes these criticisms purely in : • Athenseos. Eucrates'^ Jason the Stoic". Polyzelos" and Zeno'^ wrote on the history of Rhodes itself. i. i. i. Frs. ' Sosicrates. i — 4. i.RHODES. pp. Strabo. when the admiral's despatch was still extant in the Prytaneion at Rhodes It is notable that Polybios. p. . r. ^^ Ergeias. Alov^itlos Movadiviov. s. history of ^tolia Cleitophon''. Frs.C. Frs. i. and he points out the folly of both Zeno and Antisthenes in calling the Rhodian defeat off Lade in 201 B. and the history of Crete by Sosicrates'. '' Cleitophon. ^^ Suidas. 369. 132 their The enemies\ histories of India and of Galatia by by Diodes'. the the local by Dionysios the priest of HeliosS the history of the kingdom of Egypt by Evagoras of Lindos^. " Athenseos. 147.C. ^ Suidas. i. Frs. Zeno was less known for his chronicle of Rhodes than for his history of his own times. '^ Polyzelos.v. 115. and Philodemos or Philomnestos on the Sminthia". Frs. Agnocles on the Coronistae ". s. ^^ Eucrates. while reckoning them the leading authorities on the events of that time. ' Antipater. " Theognis. Fr. 743.v.v. and had taken up philosophical history as becoming work for statesmen but Polybios. ^^ Philemnestos. s. Epimenides'". He shows how Zeno contradicts himself in his account of the battle of Panion in 198 B. Fr. 2. £. i. the histories by Eudoxos'. 360. Fr. 3. on friendly terms with Zeno. 2. "Eivayopas. ^^ Zeno. '' Gorgon. " Eudoxos. " Diogenes Laertius. p. who had been to confute them. 197. i. ^ Dionysios Thrax. i — 9. Dionysios the grammarian®. 6. Fr. 'Idtrwv. ^ Diodes. t. Ergeias". and blunders over the topography of the Peloponnesos in relating the campaign against Nabis three years later. 827. * Suidas. some of them setting rather wide bounds to their subject while others wrote on : its customs. a victory. Fr. "i. charges them with caring more for rounding their periods than for looking up their facts. Antipater'. as Theognis'" and Gorgon" on the sacrifices. Fr. His contemporary Antisthenes wrote a like work. appear histories from their scanty fragments to have been equally compre- hensive.

w Scholia to Theocritos. and but he clearly thinks no more of the 100 marble statues by the first masters than of the gilded thunderbolt 60 feet long. 128. thereon a wine press 36 feet by 22-| : drawn by 300 men. — 206. ° Plutarch.27. ' Polybios. He is very precise car 30 feet long . thankless cured that he did not know . noting. Chron. his chrono- about various branches of facts Aristeas of Rhodes invented one of the remedies was so quickly what danger he had been. 41. Frs. s. 48.C. pp. must have been a mere party pamphlet ^ of the value of the plate. I. 196 10. * Callixenos. and of Ptolemy Philadelphos' pavilion and procession come from Callixenos self-defence to secure a hearing for his Zeno seems to be the '. There are a few stray learning. 30. and ends with an estimate With same tendency to inAntony and of Cleopatra in his book on the Civil War *..v. xvn. 23. XVI. The well-known description of Ptolemy Philopator's state vessels. and Parmenon of Rhodes wrote the School of Cookery ". pp. confined himself to fixing the dates of events. for the patient in '. I. Brutus. " Athenseos. in the procession a and 24 feet broad. 9. 133 own work '. " Nicolaus Myrepsus. Athenreos. * Socrates. This Rhodian historian cited as an authority in the reference by Samos and Priene of a disputed claim to territory to the arbitration of Rhodes^ Callixenos. ^ Hierocles. ' Eusebios. Empylos' book on the Slaying of Cssar. ^•. ventory Socrates relates Castor'. Kairru/). and was not duly grateful to his physician And Cleomenes of Lindos discovered strange and drastic remedies for horses ^ On the other hand Chrysippos of Rhodes was the physician who aided Queen Arsinoe in her attempt to poison Ptolemy Philadelphos ". hippiatrica. de antidot. His general chronography came down to 56 graphy of Rome ending five years earlier '. 2. 308. for example. B. 14 ' B. . 2905. Timachidas of Rhodes was the author of a huge epic poem entitled Dinners. the author of the the festivals of one of the lists of powers holding the Thalassocratia. i. Socrates and Empylos also wrote on events of their own day. " Suidas. Fr. written by a dependent of Brutus and entitled Brutus. I. Pythion and Epigenes the called Acharistos. 6.— LEARNING. the great sea-going ship and the Nile boat.

p. Tvpayvluv. 34 Rhodians were notable writers on agriculture Theodotas Rhodian general who won for Antiochos Soter his victory over the Gauls by an ambuscade of elephants ^ treated of the tactics of his own day in his Commentaries" while Stratocles the Stoic. the . ^^ . a grammarian named Diogenes was disputing there every seventh day. p.Suetonius. • Strabo. i. formed a third school of oratory beside the Athenian and the 1 Varro.C. but was received with a message that he might come on the seventh day. ^^ Dionysios. 4. 32. p. in Tima^iim. '" Strabo. wrote on Military Tactics in Homer'*. 1. lo. &c. ^ liipparchos. the ancestor of all grammars. X. and thenceforth called himself a Rhodian. ad Phcenom. p. : nately it is only the most elementary part that survives". And when the grammarian afterwards presented himself at Rome to salute the emperor. Aristoteles '. Tiberius. i. Abron. 1. The Rhodian orators. and among his own disciples was Tyrannion. .1 RHODES. called on Diogenes.vv. lat. 'Apyds. ' Atlienceos. 655. gram. 27. or Theodores. another Rhodian grammarian. The future emperor. ' Strabo. who was perhaps a Lindian on the mother's side". ** Theodores. When Tiberius was at Rhodes. rust.501. was established at Rome in the days of Augustus ". pp. de ling. Varro. i. and Timarchos or Timachidas " are named as commentators and Aristocles the orator and Aristeas as grammarians^ The famous grammarian Dionysios surnamed Thrax was a native of Alexandria. but migrated to Rhodes about loo B. ^ ^lian. Suidas. 678. s. The Rhodians Attalos".'A^pi^v. leading up through "the offhand rendering of phrases and narratives " to " the criticisrri of poems " but unfortu'. i. 655. i^vaios tact. . s. in the opinion of some Romans. 677.v. Aio- 'AXe^avdpeu^. Of his many works there remains only part of his grammar. Sui- " Suidas. a Rhodian statesman and man of letters*. He had himself been a disciple of the great Aristarchos. 655. he was told that he might come in the seventh year'^. Zeuxis. I. His definition of the subject is wide. Fr. de re ' Lucian. who regularly attended learned disputes and sometimes took part in them. 11. ^ Proclos. das.v. s.

chines. was attributed to him^ On the other hand Dionysios calls the Rhodian orators Artamenes. 5. had nothing apart from those two great schools. had lost the terse and chaste style of Athens more than the Rhodian '. . Philagrios and Apollonios followers of Hypereides saying. if there 135 was such. 13. And Quintilian considers the Rhodian style a mere compound of the style of Asia with the style of Athens. epist. 13. to yEschines. ' Cicero. and it is said that Apollonios Rhodios taught rhetoric ^ but the Asiatic . that they missed his grace and power in their imitation. and then that of Demosthenes on the Crown. named The speech which the Rhodian envoy Asty- poet has probably been confused with the later orators Apollonios. XI. de Dei- . ° lb.LEARNING. or as others report "had ye but heard the beast itself bellowing out its own words ". Dionysios of Halicarnassos. But this school. just after the war with Perseus seems to have been a piece of exaggerated declamation.C. and proved deficient in finish*. Pliny. 3 III. and had apparently given systematic It was there that he recited to instruction in rhetoric there. XII. which was apparently for the teaching of rhetoric. there is little trace of its eminence before the ist century B. Schoha 8. unsuited to the time and the place and when he published it. '' Quintilian.C. jEschines. Isocrates. Thus Cicero derives both the Asiatic and the Rhodian styles from the Athenian and distinguishes them only in this. 10. Plutarch. leg. Philostratos. 1. ^s- ' Vita Apollonii. adding when they applauded both "had ye but heard the man himself". however. that the . it was universally condemned by the Greeks then at Rome. the citizens his speech against Ctesiphon. Asiatic. fals. Quintilian. medes addressed to the Roman Senate in 167 B.C. But though Rhodian oratory is thus derived from the Athenian of the 4th century. And the founding of the poSiaKov BiSaaKakelov. 9 — n. Brutus. In the 3rd century Hieronymos the Peripatetic wrote on rhetoric °. de orat. 3. and was at most eclectic. i. II. His successful speech to the : ^ Cicero. Aristocles. narchos. or rather with the style of ^schines ^ That orator had settled for a while at Rhodes after his retirement from Athens in 330 B. ^ 56 .

tale rhetoric in the island °. II.C.C. 89 —91 17. . was sent to plead with him for the city and made i lengthy speech with tears and all fitting gestures but without When the city was taken. 136 Senate three years later was apparently confined to figures '. ^ Appian. Plutarch. ^ Cicero. ' Cicero. Csesar. Brutus. when Scaevola heard him. de bel. ' Plutarch. xxxi. And a preceding statement that during rhetorician Pompey heard this visit to the island the sophists and all presented them each with a talent (^^240) does not make the Brutus and Cassius both studied more credible'. want of tact greeted Cassius as lord and king. I. Pompey. xn. and were threatened Rhodes.C. Strabo. 95. Csesar. came on to Rhodes foreigner Cicero . It is stated that ". de oratore. the citizens with strange result". •* Cicero. Brutus. Archelaos. ' Polybios. 661. 655. But Hermagoras of Temnos was then dead. 67 — 70. 7. . Brutus. XXX. Apollonios surnamed Malacos had migrated from Alabanda to Rhodes before 120 B. in pp. 4. Suetonius. ' 6. 4. He to study under him.. He was at Rome as Rhodian envoy in 88 and in 81 B. And when Cassius afterwards whose BiSaa-KoXdov he had studied.. 2.. iv. of Dolabella in 79 B. ' Aurelius Victor.C. and found that he smiled at philosophy and spoke with less gravity than wit '. after hearing the orators of Athens and of Asia. and was the first who addressed the Senate without an interpreter''. and the younger Hermagoras was not yet born. 28. civ. who were then at the head of the Asiatic schooP. 42. * Valerius Maximus. made his acquaintance in Rome and in 78 B.RHODES. Quintilian. 3. Pompey heard the Hermagoras at Rhodes in 62 B. The Rhodian style of the facts and century seems to ist have been formed by two disciples of the graceful and epigrammatic orators Hierocles and Menecles of Alabanda. The more famous Apollonios surnamed Molon came from Alabanda to Rhodes a generation later. calls him a consummate advocate and excellent writer as well as a skilful teacher and admits that his own style was then shorn of some of its youthful redundancy ^ Casar also came to Rhodes to study under Apollonios either just before or just after the impeachment .C.

Polybios. . 7. x. Poseidonios was once carried away by the prevalent rhetoric and revelled in hyperbole °. iii.d. Castor the chronographer was a rhetorician rhetorician *. the Senate after the war with Perseus tained by the arguments of Tiberius Gracchus Claudius restored the independence of Rhodes. 30. 17. and a few years later the treaty of alliance between Rome and Rhodes was obhis Rhodian Orations.v. ^ Quintilian. Tiberius declared Empylos the writer was also a himself a Theodorean °. that Hypereides de- A ^''. berius. XXXI. Tacitus records an opinion that by the advocacy of some of the Rhodian orators anyone could gain anything ^ But the cause of Rhodes was often served by foreign speakers. p.v. Brutus. Tacitus. Dio Chrysostom delivered a wearisome oration to the Rhodians about 100 a. Demosthenes delivered his speech in favour of the Independence of the Rhodians ". Suetonius. " ' Quintilian. " &c. 3. ^ Suidas. 40. xxxi. the teacher of Augustus. who called himself a Rhodian. ^ ^ Seneca. 18.vv. — Aulus Gellius. Suetonius. viously at '. s. 11 Demosthenes. ". instructed Tiberius in rhetoric at Rhodes. 6. ^"^ aTreiTre?!/. and perhaps pre- kings And when Rome when the emperor was a boy he founded the sect of orators opposed to that of Apollodoros of Pergamos. 57.LEARNING. VI. leg. Dio Chrysostom. it When was response to a speech delivered in Greek on their behalf Nero. ' Plutarch. s. statement however. 1 37 — answered that he was no lord and king he killed lords and '. ^^ « lb. 3. II. i . s. 147. When Artemisia occupied Rhodes. de fals. Evagoras the historian " and a And even certain Athenodoros ' also wrote on rhetoric. 190 201. livered 170 speeches {yov<i po) hardly justifies allusions to Cato saved Rhodes by his speech in ". Scholia to iEschines. suas. who was then a boy of fifteen ^ Among in by the rheto- Roman Empire. ^^ ' Strabo. " Quintilian. de orat. Nero. 7. In the first Athenian Empire Antiphon spoke for the Lindians in the matter of their tribute". on their stinginess in renaming statues and in other matters '" and ricians of the . pp. Theodoros of Gadara. Kaffrup. Ti- ' Harpocration. and a writer on rhetoric '. EOayopas.

^ R. 277 . 49. the emperor asked what vile dialect he might be speaking. 351. And peculiar to the island have been preserved by Hesychios. R. Land.. 666.. 7ai. for a certain Moschos thought it worth his while to write a book on the Explanation of Rhodian Phrases ^ 1 Aristeides.o<. Suetonius. ' Athenseos. pp. land whereon they called the new city ydyai ^ And when a certain Zeno was discoursing somewhat affectedly before Tiberius. Aristeides inflicted orations'. The oration on the earthquake was perhaps intended more for Antoninus Pius than for the Rhodians themselves. XLIII. 43. 3 . 485. p. The converse '^ epvalfii. and the" other on their political factions. . Xardr/r) for KOTra^o'i as in Sicily many expressions and in Thessaly. * Aristeides. 7a. and may have weighed with the emperor in his decision to rebuild their city. Ta- ^ Strabo. 56. the Lycians asked them what they wanted and were answered in broad Doric. '. thinking the man was sneering at him for his retreat A century after Tiberius there was hardly a at Rhodes name to be found in the island that was not Doric * and the . 44. XLIV. Thus it was said that when the Rhodians who founded Gagae landed in Lycia. change of and rrepi^'. : inscriptions with few exceptions maintained there Doric to the last. p. v. 138 on them two still more wearisome on the earthquake of 157 A. These must once have been numerous. Zeno replied that it was Doric and Tiberius at once banished him to Cinaria. 2 Etymologicum Magnum. . that in and Rhodes fjb for occurs on a Rhodian inscription' in Athenaos* remarked TrepifioXv/SSoScrai. j3pd/3v\a was used for KOKKVfirfka as in Sicily. s. ' N. I. 7a. 613. H. Strabo* noted that the Rhodians said ipv0l^w<s for but the inscriptions read epedi/j. 276.D. Tiberius. p. the first The Doric dialect of Rhodes was very marked. 401.RHODES. * lb.

Most in of the Rhodian legends that survive are imbedded a narrative in which the latest events occur about a thousand years before our era and the date of the earliest can be measured only by generations of the gods\ The Rhodian historians whom lected the isolated legends that clung round worships and Diodoros follows. bore him to Heracles. the warrior Licymnios. lalysos and Camiros. apparently col- customs and ancient names. their sons . And when he was come to man's estate he slew the brother of his sire's mother. and then employed the scheme of the chronographers to piece however. This scheme. for the other sons of Heracles and ^ Diodoros. : over the sea. always worthless and often inverts the true order of the legends. a maiden of Ephyra. LEGENDS. be neglected. Then he built ships and gathered together much people and he fled away threefold division. 55 — 59. the Catalogue of the Ships : in — Tlepolemos brought from Rhodes nine ships of lordly Rhodians who dwelt beneath his sway in Lindos and lalysos and glistening Camiros. v.VIII. Astyocheia. earliest historical inhabitants of state : Thus Several of the legends accord with these facts. for those of the earlier gods belong to a later order of thought than those of the Olympians: and conse- may quently this narrative The Rhodes were Dorians was Argos and they occupied the three Lindos. is them together. whose parent cities.

p. Fr. a daughter of the king of Thessaly: and Hesiod agrees with him". Fr. Ol. : — : : : afterwards settled at Ephyra. for it was before the return of the Heracleidae*. But Strabo is merely trying the legend by the standard of the chronographers. Strabo notes the omission. Apollo and the tomb of his victim. * Pindar. element among the emigrants.(Eolians and Boeotians rather than Dorians. Pindar calls the mother of Tlepolemos Astydameia. and she Astydameia. 140 In grievous wanderings he threatened him. 653. smiting him in headstrong wrath. Licymnios. vii. ' Pausanias. 23—34. and his argument may be left. Alcmene's bastard brother. Then he went to the god and asked his bidding and Apollo enjoined on him a voyage across the open sea from Lerna's headland to a sea-girt realm where the gods' great king had once bedewed a city with golden clouds^ In this version Tlepolemos comes from Argolis at the bidding of the Dorian god. 653 — 670. These leaders from Rhodes and Cos were the only Heraclids 1 Homer. are called sons of Thessalos. 90. and there his followers made came to Rhodes. was pointed out at Argosl But in the Catalogue it is not said whence he comes. " Hesiod. * Strabo. Licymnios. his followers would not on that account be Dorians.RHODES. In the Catalogue she is called Astyocheia and comes from Ephyra in Thesprotis. Iliad. u. whence the and the Heraclids PheiThessalians migrated to Thessaly dippos and Antiphos. he slew at Tiryns. . It His father's sire was Zeus. The same train of thought no doubt produced the statement that Rhodes was peopled by Lacedaemonians who departed out of Peloponnesos on the return There was perhaps a Thessalian of the Heracleidze''. and argues that the emigrants were . that he must often have heard at the courts of the Rhodian in Sicily. a threefold habitation in their — Pindar no doubt gives the local version of the legend despots — was Tlepolemos the son of Heracles tribes'. his mother's Amyntor. 22. ii. who brought the ships from Cos and that peopled Rhodes. as Heracles and Licymnios dwelt at Thebes and that even if Tlepolemos did start from Argos or Tiryns. 3. " Dexippos. nor are his followers there called Dorians.

were not held by the Greeks at the date of the Catalogue and the slaying of Tlepolemos before Ilion by Sarpedon. ' Aristotle. 657 Silius Italicus. p. v. Cnidos and Halicarnassos. ' Homer. 364. was at : — : : — : — — 659. and they seized Helen while bathing and hanged her to a tree. It is not clear whether the threefold division mentioned in the Catalogue merely refers to the three Doric tribes. She took vengeance on her guest for the death of Tlepolemos her handmaidens garbed themselves as the Furies. 840. but in giving the Rhodian legends he says they were already founded. legends^ in which Tlepolemos led the Rhodian colonies to the district of Sybaris and But his to the Balearic Islands after the return from Ilion. death in the war is assumed in the Rhodian legend of Helen. birth of Argos. There were. Some survival of the ancient tree worship was probably the nucleus of this legend. Diodoros when giving the legends of the Heracleidae says that Tlepolemos divided the island into three parts and founded the three cities. Iliad. menes. king of Lycia. 58. which were united in the earliest historic times with Cos and the Rhodian cities in the Doric Hexapolis. but also mentions a report that Tlepolemos founded them and named them from three of the daughters of Danaos. There is this legend of another Heraclid migration to Rhodes it seems formed from Althasthat of Tlepolemos and that of Althaemenes of Crete. however. 19. Strabo agrees in this. already founded. and that the division was an equal allotment of the land among the peopled All the legends agree that Tlepolemos was king of the whole island. or implies the founding Pindar regards them as of the three cities by Tlepolemos. 59. * Diodoros. ' Pausanias.LEGENDS. Wherefore the Rhodians have a temple of Helen of the Tree'. 654. IV. Strabo. and came This Polyxo was by to Polyxo who had been her friend. . a grandson of Temenos the king of Argos. 141 who fought before Ilion. III. p. V. and had wedded with Tlepolemos there and had shared his flight and now she ruled the island as his son's guardian. III. suggests some repulse of the Dorian islanders from the mainland of Asia Minor'. When Menelaos was dead Helen fled to Rhodes.

653. Mention is also made of Dorians who departed out of Peloponnesos because of a grievous famine. Therefore with curses the Lindians sacrifice to Heracles'. The legends of the Rhodian Asclepiadee with the greater part of the Dorians \ that have perished: but they probably pointed to a migration from Epidauros. p. The version in which Heracles slays both the oxen of Theiodamas apparently confuses these Lindian sacrifices with those of the harvest festival Buzygial Another group of legends deals with immigrations of ' Conon. and Rhodes to Crete first to make and is the left that their isle Now in. " Lactantius. . Probably some Egyptian antipathy to the sacrifice of oxen formed the nucleus of this legend and then the name Ther: — . 24. II. and then he who isle of sailed desired on to Rhodes sailed — It was also reported some of the Dorians who founded Megara. ' ApoUodoros. 11. It appears from other versions that the husbandman was named Theiodamas^ and that Heracles had landed at Thermydron'. ' Aristeides. mydron suggested Heracles. But the man gave him no food. 5. 396. narrat. 11. 47. and made their abode in Rhodes*. There is this — legend of the national hero of the Dorians. Ai^oSwpte??. and treated him despitefuUy. i. 11. 2 Strabo. Crete is there those of his followers home : the Wherefore he of Helios. for Cos was very closely allied with Epidauros in the worship of Asclepios. p. narrat. oracle bade him betake himself to Zeus and Helios and An ask from them a land to dwell Zeus. ' Conon. Whereat Heracles was wroth and slew one of the oxen of the plough wherewith the man was ploughing he feasted thereon with his son in contentment while the man cursed him from afar. and there he asked from a husbandman food for his son Hyllos who journeyed with him. Aristeides tells the Rhodians they had Heracleidse and Asclepiada. left the new city and went with him to Crete and Rhodes^. s.RHODES. " Philostratos. for founders and kings'. 142 variance with his brethren and departed out of Pcloponnesos taking with him a body of Dorians and certain of the Pelasgi.v. * Hesychios. who was patron of hot springs. Heracles came to Lindos. imag.

but many went with Phorbas — to lalysos or with his brother Periergos to the district of Then Camiros. —The Rhodian land brought forth huge snakes. and among them was a dragon of huge size who slew very many : : ". his sister safe to shore at one. ^ lb. the son of Triopas by a daughter of Myrmidon. v. the founder of Lesbos. But when they came there. Periergos cursed Phorbas. Wherefore free men minister at the sacrifice of Phorbas. Haemon departed from Thebes because he had slain a kinsman while hunting. nothing was made ready and he prepared all things himself . I. sent out his son Leucippos with much people and they were welcomed by The followers the Rhodians and shared the land with them. Argos'. The mediaeval dragon seems to have been a crocodile. 143 — Greeks who were not Dorians. Fr. When Triopas was dead some of his followers returned to Thessaly. and Phorbas and Parthenia were shipwrecked. — and he slew the dragon and all the serpents'. 81. This Phorbas was son of Lapithos and was wandering in Thessaly in search of a land to dwell in.-T-Rhodes was invaded by a multitude of serpents. ^ Diodoros. This killing of the dragon is very curious. Another Rhodian legend refers to Phorbas. : of Macareus were of manifold races. and many of the people perished by them. And when he was come to Rhodes he slew the snakes and freed the country from the terror and thenceforth he dwelt in the island There is another version of this. . Wherefore the Rhodians sent to Delos to enquire of the god concerning the staying of the plague and Apollo bade them send for Phorbas and his followers and give them a share in the island. and came to Athens but he departed again thence with his followers and made his habitation in Rhodes with the men of : — Macareus. '' Polyzelos. but chiefly Ionian". V. Schedia near lalysos. Thamneus. Fr. — Then Phorbas. for the legend recurs in the island in the time of the Knights concerning the slaying of the dragon by Deodato de Gozon. 58. who took them Howbeit they came there met them And home. and ' Menecrates of Nysa. i.: LEGENDS. was driven to the island in a storm of the people. sending to his his slave beforehand to prepare food.

As he sailed there arose a great storm. Strabo. He founded there the temple of Athene and dedicated the statue of the goddess: and after a season he departed thence to Argos. In another group of legends the heroes are Egyptian or Danaos fled out of Egypt with his fifty daughters Phoenician. the legendary" ancestor of the kings of Argos. 9. and had been absorbed before historic times by the : Dorians. - Diodoros.8. 7. Fr. Epoch. * The Parian Marble. — : — : ^ Dieuchidas. The Thessalians in one legend of Phorbas settle only at lalysos and Camiros: and the Rhodian legends of the Phoenicians deal with settlements on the western coast. It was perhaps by Egyptian sympathies and by commercial wealth that Lindos was at one period isolated among the Rhodian cities. the vessel of fifty oars and this was the first ship that came from Egypt to Greece''. and he vowed a temple He reached Rhodes and he to Poseidon if he were saved. Phorbas is here called the son of Lapithos or the grandson of Myrmidon. . and comes from Thessaly but he is also called the son : of Triopas. p. . In historic times the trade between Egypt and Greece passed through Lindos. both of them Thessalians. Cadmos. was sent forth by his sire in quest of his sister Europa. But three of his daughters died while they tarried at Lindos. ^ Herodotos. and these legends suggest that this was so in the earliest times. son of Agenor the king of Phcenicia.just as the Argive Tlepolemos is called the son of the Thessalian Astydameia. 182. V. 144 — no slave may draw nigh'. 654. and afterward Tlepolemos called the three cities of Rhodes by their namesl In another version the temple is founded by the daughters of Danaos'. founded in the island a temple of that god and left there cerThese joined the men tain of the Phoenicians to care for it. II. but hardly mention Lindos.RHODES. The number of these daughters is explained by the legend that the ship in which they came to Lindos was named the Pentecontoros. — and came to Lindos where he was welcorned by the people of the country. Settlements in the island of Thessalian and other Greeks who were not Dorian no doubt formed the groundwork of these legends but such settlers left no other trace.

His son Catreus was the father of Althffimenes. 59.v. The pedigree suggests that the curses : — — : : — of the Lindians at the sacrifice of oxen and the veneration of the bronze kine on But ism. although Althsemenes comes from Crete. T. just as Phorbas is accompanied by Parthenia. lo was priestess of Hera at Argos. But it was night when he landed with some of his men. Apart from the legend of Cadmos. It was declared by an oracle that Althaemenes. and many of the people he came to Camiros and dwelt there king of Crete. 10 . and he slays her also by mishap'. Cretenia may here be merely Camiros under another name: it lay below Mount Atabyros^ Patriotic genealogists managed to shew that Althaemenes. To escape this abominafrom Crete. And honoured by the people of the country: and upon Mount Atabyros he founded the temple of Zeus Atabyrios on a lofty crag whence Crete may be seen. She was changed to a cow and wandered through many lands till she came to Egypt there Zeus made her once more a woman. Danaos was of the lineage of Epaphos in Egypt. Kpip-Tji/fa. and she bore him a son Epaphos. the caste of priests at lalysos in historic times implied such a settlement in that district in earlier times. 58. in. And Cadmos also made offerings to Athene' of Lindos'.LEGENDS. Cadmos and Danaos were all Argive by descent. ' Diodoros. Then Catreus sailed to Rhodes to bring his son back to reign in Crete. V. Then. His son Agenor departed to Phoenicia and ruled that land and there he begot Cadmos and Europa. 145 of lalysos and dwelt with them as fellow citizens: and from them the priests receive the priesthood by descent. son of Catreus the — sire. R. s. where' she bore him a son Minos. * Stephanos. should slay his Althsemenes tion fled went with him. V. ' Apollodoros. his ancestors ^ Diodoros. in spite Mount Atabyros were survivals of Totem- of the genealogists there probably were true Phcenician settlements in Rhodes. 2. Zeus in the likeness of a bull carried Europa to Crete. and the islanders attacked them as pirates and in the fray Althaemenes hurled his spear and unwittingly slew his sirel In another version Althaemenes names his settlement Cretenia: and he is accompanied by his sister Apemosyne.

But Iphiclos heard of this response. ^ Polyzelos. And the three privirecall the customary Phoenician unions of three cities. There is also a confused story of the occupation of lalysos and Camiros by a force of Phoenicians under a certain Phalas in the days of the Trojan war": and the follow- ments leged in Crete to cities in Rhodes ing curious legend of the final expulsion of the Phoenicians. . IV.— RHODES. She loved Iphiclos and was treating with him through her nurse concerning marriage. this. And when Phalanthos saw the white crows. It was she who persuaded the water carrier to take the fish. . Then Phalanthos slew victims and taking the entrails from out the bellies would carry off gold and Whereon Iphiclos took out the rudders and silver therein. According to another version the response was known only to a certain Phacas and to his daughter Dorcia. and they were confident this would never be. and swore an oath that he would give them ships. Larcas by name. and she chalked And Phalanthos seeing the land was the crows herself^ no more his. : — — ^ Dictys Cretensis. and bade the man pour water therefrom into the jar whence wine was drawn for Phalanthos and this the man did. and the temple that he founds in Rhodes is of a Phoenician god: and that legend would be based on some migration of Phoenicians from settleCamiros or Cretenia. de bel. 4. sent heralds to Iphiclos asking that he and Iphiclos granted his people might be suffered to depart. and there he found the fish. who went to draw water. Forthwith he waylaid a Phoenician. oars and sails from the ships and left only the hulks for the Greek laid siege to them. Phalanthos the Phcenician and his people had an exceeding strong city called Achaea in the district of lalysos and wanted not for food : wherefore they cared little when Iphiclos the Moreover they knew from an oracle that they should possess the land till there were white crows and fish swam in the wine jars. 2. 146 have migrated thither from Phcenicia. Troj. he swore also that they might take away whatsoever they should carry in the belly. and made covenants with him and then he caught fish and threw them into the water jar. he went to the wine jar. and let them go. Fr. Then he caught crows and chalked them.

and Scholia. XIV. and the island had its name from her. The remaining legends are of another order. ' i. and the people worshipped her as an immortal under the name Leucothea. And when Poseidon came to man's estate he loved Halia the sister of the Telchines. departed out of the island and were scattered abroad''. for Rhea delivered the child into their charge. — Ho- . Fr. 56. the lord of the waters. Phcenicians to depart in buried much : 147 and they were at a loss. the goddess born of the sea foam. ter of Oceanos they reared Poseidon. the salt wave: : Telchines gathering themselves out of the void abyss of the sea*. but much of it they left to In this wise the Phoenicians departed out of Rhodes. This is the legend of a sea-faring race: the sons of the sea and the daughter of the — ocean rear Poseidon. But the legend has been pressed too far on this side and while an epic poet has pictured the Halia. V. and she bore him children. The TelAided by Capheira the daughchines were sons of Thalassa. and the Greeks ruled the island'. six sons and a daughter: and the daughter was Then called Rhodos. Wherefore in her wrath she sent madness upon them so that they wronged their — mother and did many evil things to the people. Pindar. Aphrodite drew nigh the island as she passed from Cythera to Cypres. foreseeing the deluge that was to come. vii. would visit them. Afterward the Telchines. And Poseidon buried his sons beneath the earth because of the deed they had wrought. The Telchines were the first to and bronze: they made the trident for Poseidon iron ' Ergeias. and they were accounted dsmons of the eastern lands. ^ Diodoros. 10 37. 772. 55. Dionysiaca. In other versions Rhodos is daughter of Oceanos and of Aphrodite or Amphitrite'. But Halia cast herself into the sea. p. ad merum. 01. but she was driven from its shores by the sons of Poseidon in their overweening pride. a prosaic archbishop has handed down the report that they were amphibious and had webs between their fingers after the work — manner of geese'. * Nonnos. ^ Eustathios of Thessalonica.2 LEGENDS. Iphiclos. 14. And they of their treasure. marking the places that they might some day come to dig it up. their sister is and Aphrodite.

There is but one specific charge they sprinkled sulphur in the water of the Styx with intent to destroy animals and plants and did in fact by watering the fields therewith : : : . in Delum. Of the two Telchines whose names are clearly Rhodian. Tenages was the goodliest of them all. Mv- 'Kavria. soil Still. 321. and certain of his brethren made away with him out of envy. 9. 47 machos. came to be called Telfirst home. brings the Telchines from chines^ Crete was their related to the Curetes Peloponnesos'. The charges against them are for the most part general: rain and cloud. Cronios bore to Zeus". xiv. s. make barren the of fruitful Rhodes'. and they were the first to fashion images of the gods. 65+. p. Fr. and also a daughter. T^^s. who died young: these were the Heliadae. Triopas and Candalos. 'lYJiip-e!. Actis. s. and objectionable things. than those — Rhodos was beloved and she bore him seven sons. "^ Stephanos. Dionysiaca. and they were closely and the Dactyls of Mount Ida: they migrated thence to Cypres and afterwards to Rhodes'. 148 and the sickle for Cronos. p. p. 55.RHODES. 55. whom legends of these are far larger nymph Himalia The discovery of living men may the lost. But they were wizards and sorcerers. .v. ^ Syncellos. liesychios. s. Nonnos. 'Aripvpoy. v. Calli- Anthologia * Stephanos.v. Strabo. Diodoros. such as violent deaths and eclipses and bookworms. Atabyrios is connected with Mount Atabyros and Mylas with Cape Mylantia*. their evil re- pute clung to them. however. hail and snow obeyed their will they changed their own shapes and so forth. the home of the settlers from Crete in the legend of Althaemenes. 45. — The chronographers placed Telchines certain giants who dwelt in the age of the eastward parts of in the the island: also a people called the Gnetes or the Ignetes: and Spartseos. have given by ' rise to that Helios. XI. Tenages.w. 2 Stesichoros. Falatina. Strabo. ^ Diodoros. 149. . Fr. Ochimos. They discovered certain of the arts and gave to mankind other things advantageous to life. Phlegon.. Macar. Cercaphos. The in the island of bones and Cytos. V. 654. Both these places were near Camiros or Cretenia. ^ of the giants'.^. Electryone or Alectrona. Another report. 32. Hymn.

the shrine of Ocridion^. 01. he reigned in his stead. and returned not again till Ochi- Wherefore at Rhodes no herald may enter There is another legend of the Heliadae that served to explain an anomaly in Rhodian sacrifices. quaest. waste the city of Cyrbe In their days a great flood laid wherefore they divided the land between them. — — ' VII. custom to summon the brides by heralds) to lead her to him. wife. ruled the island. Hegetoria by name. Ochimos and Cercaphos remained in Rhodes. lalysos and : Camiros. When by the wielding of Hephsstos' axe Athene was loosed from her sire's brain. and when his brother died. And when he died also. and he took to wife one of the nymphs of the country. Pindar. here the sister of the Heliadae. Ochimos the elder of these was king. who bore him a daughter at first Cercaphos took her to called Cydippe but afterward Cyrbia. Then Actis flees to Egypt. And he fled away with her. while in the legend of Tlepo- is lemos Electryon is the father of Licymnios. And Electryone . 57. But Their plot was afterward found out . whence comes this legend Macar flees to while in others Macareus is father of Leucippos Danaos in another legend just as in others Danaos and Cadmos go from Rhodes to Argos and Thebes. graec. . Actis to Egypt and Triopas to Caria. whence in others again Tlepolemos and Hasmon come to Rhodes. Helios bade his sons be first to build an altar in very substance to the new-born goddess and gladden with sacrifice the hearts of Zeus and of his daughter. t49 and Macar fled to LesCandalos to Cos. and Triopas of Phorbas. Diodoros. 56. Albeit they had germ of glowing flame. and each built a city called after his own name'- — In : Lesbos and Triopas to Caria. Lindos. ' Plutarch. where he dwelt on the cape named from him Tn'opion. both of whom lead migrations from those places to the island. they kindled not the fire: and with flameless sacrifices they made ready a grove in mos was aged. bos. his three sons. v. 71—76. 27. for they were innocent of the plot and they dwelt in the district of lalysos. and there founded the city of Achjea.LEGENDS. betrothed Cydippe to a certain in his desire for — Ochimos had But Cercaphos the maid persuaded the herald (for it was a Ocridion.

. Achaea. 36 — 51. * Strabo. II.RHODES. which Those of the Telchines occurs in several parts of Greece. And the Heliadee surpassed all men in learning and most of all in astronomy: altar. Ol. 365. jy. Helios proclaimed to the Heliadffi that the goddess would abide with those who first made sacrifice to her. ^ Diodoros. 56. while and they discovered many things concerning seamanship and the ordering of the hoursl — The legend of the Heliadae may be a purely Rhodian version of that of the Telchines. are sons of Helios ^ Pindar. 349. vil. in that of Cadmos they settle at lalysos. in a legend that was current at Hierapytna in Crete which Corybas founded was also called Cyrbe and Camiros^ This suggests that Cyrbe where the Heliadae dwelt in Rhodes was Camiros under another name. and the temple of Alectrona was there*: and the Telchines are also But both Telchines and Heliadae very called lalysian'. imag. who settle in Crete after their dispersion from Rhodes become the Curetes: the Curetes are very closely related to the Cory- bantes : and the Corybantes. This rain of gold was afterwards personified as the descent of Plutos upon the acropolis ^ Another version is more explicit. 472. When Athene was born. and this custom endures in the sacrifices to Athene in Rhodes. And this same proclamation was their acropolis. 'Ic/jaTnirra. Ovid. The Heliadae in their haste and straightway set the victims on the Cecrops the king of Attica tarried for fire and was behind them in slaying the victims. the city of the Heliada. and in that of Althaemenes they come from Crete to Camiros or Cretenia at the foot of Mount Atabyros and found the temple of Zeus Atabyrios on its summit. 27. and Athene granted them with cunning hands to master every art of mortals'. ' s. In the legend of Phalanthos the Phoenicians are established at Achsa. ^ Philostratos.v. Praesos in Crete. p. metamorph. ^ Stephanos. — — made to the dwellers in Attica. VII. curiously resemble the Phoenicians. v. forgot to bring fire. was in the district of lalysos. ISO Zeus rained gold on them from tawny clouds. and Camiros is connected with the Telchines through Atabyrios and Mylas. in that of Phalas they occupy both lalysos and Camiros. * N.

Before these Phoenicians were firmly established at Lindos they were expelled from that city by the Greeks and some generations later the Greeks expelled them first from Camiros and then from lalysos. 151 cities founded by the Heliadse is of a Phoeand the charges of sorcery against the Telchines are such as simple rustics might make against the civilized The group of three nician type. 01. And Helios was away from Olympos. When he spake thereof. — Three cities peopling of were founded in the a population presumably Carian by Phoenicians and from settlements in Crete. PhcEnicians in the cities. Rhodes was not yet manifest amid the sea waves the isle lay hidden in briny depths. To evade . Pindar. — There was this legend of the island itself. to —According to the chronographers the Telchines dwelt in the island long before 1 it rose from the sea. isle. Straightway he bade Lachesis proclaim the gods' great oath and join with Zeus in granting him that be his realm'. when it was born into the upper air. The Greeks migrated to the island from various districts and at various times the main body coming from Peloponnesos and the chief of the minor bodies from Thessaly.LEGENDS. When Zeus and the immortals meted out the earth. And the Telchines are a race in union with the sea gods and the Heliadae are skilled in seamanship: while the Phoenicians were traders supplied the early Greeks with objects of daily use the great navigators of antiquity. Zeus : lots again but this he suffered not. The historical basis for all these legends of the Rhodes was perhaps island among this. and the Carians were expelled and a homogeneous Greek population was thus coming from Phoenicia itself : : : formed. VII. 55—68. and they left him without portion of land. But these minor bodies were in time absorbed by the ascendant body of Dorians. The Heliadas are endowed with wealth and excellence in handicraft and the Telchines are mighty workers of metal who : while the Phoenicians were the rich all the more costly and especially with metal work. for he beheld within the surging sea that land arising from below to would cast the : be a dwelling place for men and flocks.

. v. must once have formed a group of islands and as these were gradually elevated. the lower hills were being formed round them by volcanic action. Elias. jS. but the fact rain which made the lower parts of the island very swampy and muddy till the Sun dried up the damp'. These facts were no doubt beyond the Rhodians of the mythopoeic age but the elevated beds of sea shells at the base of the hills would readily have suggested the legend.RHODES. Akramytis. 152 this difficulty some writers supposed a deluge after the days of the Telchines. The great limestone mass of Mount Atabyros and the lesser limestone hills. Archangelo and Lindos. But Rhodes certainly rose from the sea. : : ' Diodoros. while others rationalized the legend thus myth is that Helios loved : the Rhodos and drove away the water that is that there was continuous pouring was above.

62. 64 Caesar. 12. 38. 36 Chios. 138 Cakes. 75. 94. Alcibiades. 79. 7 — 14. 34. 142 2. 94. 148 3. 12. Administrators. 60. 19. 150 74. jElius. 33. Amasis. Cassius. 9 Brutus. 3. i. 106 Caria. 62. 95 Building. 136 Aristeides. 6g Camarina. 64. 60. 77. 61. 116. Mount. 26. 135 Agrigentum. 27. 33. 149. 75. 43. 23. 91 62. 75 Black Sea. 66 Chares. 75. 67. 2. 50. 33 Camiros. 131. 125. 11. Rhodian. 105. 107. 27. 55. 29. 81 Aristophanes. Athens and Rhodes. 33. 127 Atabyros. 39. 76. 75. 48 78. 52. 43. Cicero. 104. 90. 28.66 78 139—145 6. 18. 4. 105. ij. 136 4. 35. 48. 55. 137 jEschines. 92 109 ff. 65. 28. 136 94. 63 Adoption. 68. battle of. 84.INDEX. Acheloos. 63. Byzantion. 37. Cato. 15. 50. 35 Apollo. 88. Aristotle. 4. 106 Ambassadors. 118. 47. 106. 77 Artemisia. 118 Bulls. 79. 79. 36. Rliodian. 129. art. 128. 95. Antirrhodos. 105. 48. 3. 50 Bryaxis. 138 Asclepios. 19. 42. 119. ruins Apelles. 4. 67 iioff. 2 145 Athene. 122 Chalce. 20. 89. 96. 33. Academics. 136 Alectrona. 79 Acragas. 123. Assyrian Astyra. 141. art. 118 Circumnavigation. 68 Alexander the Great. 51 29.. 63. 120 126 Artemis. 146. 12. 49. 77. 5. 16. Acanias (harbour). 78. 6r. 11. 45. 61 Athenian Admirals. 88 Christianity. 84 96 Chersonese. 70. 26. 97 Chelidonisma. Caunos. 76 Alexandria. 130 36. 107. 29. 51. 144 Antoninus Pius. Asclepiadas. 149 i. 137 Aristomenes of Messene. 36. Argos. 145 Cadmos. 17. 28. 26. 18. 29. 124 Althffimenes. Achsa. . 75 Athene Lindia. at. 8. 43. 83. 123 etc.

34. 119. Geographers. 14. 90. 54. Cnidos. 44. 79. 35. 84 77. Generals. 44. 6^. 66 Despots. 45. riS Earthquakes. 95. 9. 82. Fighting cocks. 2. 2. 148 45. 96. foreign. 12. 142. 138 Dorieus. 10 r. 58. 81. 6. league with. 129 — 131 Giants. 95. 145 Cronios. 17. 56 Fire ships. 65. 35. no. 39. 76. Epicureans. 13. Gracchus. 41. 67. 25. 80. 95. 137 Government. 134 Diagorid^. 16. 123 Gifts. 9. 59. Coins. 55. 51. 42. 94. 70 151. 61. 50 18. 96 league . 144 Gela. 49. 84 33. 55. 97. 62. 66 108. 116 Cytos. 40. 138 Egypt and Rhodes. Ethnics. 35. 143 106 Guilds. Cyrbe. 66. 85—88 Gymnasion. Exports. 94) 119* 120 7i of. 69 Ctcense. 82 — Gold ornaments. 18. 35. 'Dareios. 15. see Hierapytna. 108 — 98 Epaminondas. Figs. 9. 46 Dorians of Rhodes. 95 Diogenes. 95. 76. 27. 116 Demosthenes. 45. 73. 62 (bazaar). 49. 82. 121. Rhodians 37— 4i» 47 Floods. 17. 81 Danaos. 143 Halicarnassos. 80—82. 82. 31 Colossos. 75 Fish. 81. 106 Festivals. Rhodian. 105 Gods. 144. 104. 79. see Apollo. 6. 14I 6. Gnetes. 122 7. 9. 9. 14. 138. 69 Cretenia. 42.. 141 Hannibal. 135. of. 53. 70 Damagetos. art ff. 120. 141 Crete and Rhodes. 51. 10. 139 Doric dialect. 52 etc. Confede- racies. 13. 11 Ephesos. 148 GagEE. 67. 58.1 INDEX. 151 Haemon. 138 Gambling. 65. 36. 137 7. 70 Dionysos. 49 Coronisma. 149. 80. 16. 4. 45. 7. 54 Cleobulos. 5 Consuls. 150. 120 Diagoras. 4. 74. 120 II. 113 5 Demetrios Poliorcetes. 126 11. 7. 148. 34. 8r. 129 Cos. 22 . 48 Cronos. 88. 69 Dockyard. 53. 74. Demes. 81. 7. 106 Grapes. 52. 107. 51. 33. — ri8 — 37 116 Colonies. Confederacies of Delos. 95 Dragons. 51. 64. 7 12. 44. 125 Constantinople.38 Erethimios. 14. 32. 148 Delphi. 109. 51. gods in. 89. 32. 102. 145. 17. state. 150 Cyrene. 97 27. 64 Corn. 121 Deigma Delos. of. 25. 11. 148 Fire balls. 4. 8. 67. 105. Colossal statues at Rhodes. Farnese Bull. 95 Grammarians. 15. 93. loi Comedy. 42. 95. Gems. 108 see 99. 6r. 54. 149. 68 — 142. Democracy. 8. 21. 152 Fleet. 34. 124. 86 35 General average. Glass ornaments. 5. 51 Epics. 6. 27.

77. 57. 73. 119. 14. 92 Jews. Phalaris. 23. 94. 125 75. 91 46. 80 Lade. 64. 58 24. j territory 9. Mylas. 79. 9. 63. 128 7. 103. 135. 27. 96. 34. battles at. 72 Lycia. Inscribed ff. 102 36 — 105 Parallel of Rhodes. 27. 52 Human Nero. 79. 88 48. 44. Monotheism. 68 15. 61. 126 Hera. 93 Miletos. 77 Parrhasios. 121 Phalas. 149 Ignetes. 57 HeUadas. 148 Inessa {fountain}. 78 — 142 Heracles. 35 Philosophers. 79 league with. 60. 142 Mercenaries. 148 Myndos. 79. 64. 7. 129. 94. 50. 19. Phoenicians in Rhodes. 80 Hierapytna. 40. 148 HeUos. 58. 107 59. 5. 95. Hestia. 36. 91 65. ruins 19. 65 Lindos. 14. 87 Oligarchy. Laocoon. 32. 18. 76 Mithridates. battle of. 3. 137 70. 33. 62. 78. 81. 12 — — 20. 94. 107 if. 100. 106 Per^a. 35. 65. 28. 28. 137 Netteia. 141 Mastroe. 76. 109 ff. 9. 59 Peloponnesian War. 21. Harbours of the city of Rhodes. Painting at Rhodes. 90 Hippodamos of Naples. 118 24. at. 139. 60 Mentor. Memnon. Historians. 130 Ixia or Ixise. Law. 93. 107. 115. 103 Jettison. 27. 88 Helepolis. 29. Pergamos and Rhodes. 96 1 43 — 127 Persia and Rhodes. 20. 34. Peripatetics.INDEX. 34. 125 Phoenician Macareus. 76. 4. 10. 16 23 —27 45 Helen. 146 66 Pharos. 46. 34. 144 42 — 102. 75 —70. 69. 100 Pentecontoros. 58. 43 Hierothyteion at Lindos. 36. 22. 12. 4. 38 Pentapolis. Rhodian naval. 26.51 . 5. 35. colonies of. 53 — 133 Honours. 27. Lysander. 38 Lysippos. 17 102 Lindopolitse. 'It 78. — Phalanthos. 52 Paul the Apostle. 130 Luxury. r3i sacrifices. 6. 21. Mausolos. II — 151 Megiste. i. — 129 art. 8. 112 80 Islands subject to Rhodes. 44. 143 of. 5. Rhodian. Jus Gentium. 93. 85. 70 Music. 6. ISS Macedonian Wars. 139 Herod of Judsea. 41. 24.144 — 151 . Isis. 62 Ocridion. 56. 46. 75 Hypereides. t. 81. 89 Heracleidse. 146 37 Lipara. 37. 90 Naucratis. 59 Meridian of Rhodes. 130 Hermes. 74. 83. 92 Pausistratos. stelse. 88 Nymphs. 123 Mycenae. 114. 48. Rhodian treaty with. 52 Leucippos. 97 Phaselis. 70. 7 34 —89 — 12 Olympia. 74. 37. 76. lasos. 63. 64. 78 Hexapolis. 108 Naval law. 74.

83. 55. 151 Tiberius. 25. 129 131. 59 Spart^os. 113 — 102 Porcelain.. at 22. INDEX. 147. 70. Rhodes 67 40. 85 Physicians. & AT THE UNIVERSITY SON. 31. 77 Thermydron (harbour). 80 Poets. 29. 47. 29. 27. Ramming Romans 33. 59 44. 109. 28. 74. 50.A. 89 Theophiliscos. 137. 116 Ptolemy Soter. 4. of. 41. 11. 85. 117 at. 6s. 41 57. 36. Priests. 138 Tlepolemos.J. 141 Sacrilege. 66 —85 103 — Protogenes. 112 Statues. Thalassocratia. 21. 56 Siana.. 69. 22. 6r. 106. 55. 91 Toro Farnese. 143. 136 — 10. 108. 75 PRESS. 4. 57. 45. 70 Wine-jars. CLAY. 20 — * Prytanes. 47. 41 Ransoms. M. 2. 50. 70. 77. S4-58 Rhodes (island). Themistocles. 78. 126 Thera. 19. 75. 72. 50. 133 Slingers. — Shot. 49. 134. 140. 147 ff. 79. 79. 63. 123. terracotta. 36. 143 Piracy. 71. 95. 35. 16 30. 137 Stoics. 47 Vases. 105. 144. 76. 89. 61. 51 Trierarchs. 106. Polieus. 63. 7. 88 Totemism. 143. 83 Syria and Rhodes. of. 27. 14. position and names for. 42. 44. — -i. 106. 39. 156 Phorbas. 15. 140 Snakes. 125. 152 Rhodes. Simonides of Ceos. i 151. 49 Social Pistis. 90. — 55. 106 — Sailors. 118 I2i Geots on statues. 57. metal. naval. 28. 109 Vines. 46 Ships of war. 33. 48. 89 Sarapis. 16. Revenue. 66. 145 . 48. 69 Ship-building. 133 80 13. 7 — 125 Polyxenidas. 129 at sea. 96 Syracuse. ruins 53 of. 8. 139 — 141 93. 31. 50 —44 Thebes and Rhodes. 134 of. 37 41 Wine. Statuettes. 145 Trade. 54. 48. 102. 98 6. 36. 61. i. excavations — 116 50. 58 Pindar. 66 Rome and — Telchines. island upheaved near. 73. i. 144 Poseidonios. 20. 3. 51. 79. 47 143 Sculpture. 120 Zeus. ac- population of. Theatre in the city of Rhodes. 112 Sicilian Expedition. Atabyrios. 148 Pompey. 124.. 45 Samos. Tactics. 125. 107. 50 — 123 CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED EY C. 49 51. 82. 58 32—34. 93. legend of. 45. 62. 43. count — 129 Stratoniceia. 128 Tree worship. 14. 105 7. 34. 44. 17 Theophrastos. 16. 63. 108. Tombs. 17. 76. 58 —44 Rhetoric. 23. engraved. 89 Rhodes. 3. 144 Slaves. 119 49 Sparta and Rhodes. 129. 14. 71. Rhodian school Triopian Cape. 75. 33. 91. 15. Tribes. 142 Thessalians in Rhodes. 11. 36. 41 Solo:. 107 Shells. 148 size. 127 Praxiteles. 141 10. 7. 107 Sicily. . etc. 37. 80. 80 — 102 Seamanship. 70. — 138 (city). 79 Schedia (harbour). no. 93 Poseidon. loi. 79. league with. 28. Egyptian. i. War. Rhodos (nymph). sieges Sambuca.