Journal of Clinical Research Update

Print ISSN 2304-3768

Rev. Act. Clin. Med v.43 La Paz May 2014
ARTICLE

I INFLAMMATION
Ericka Herrera Villalba Wendie

1

SUMMARY
Inflammation is a natural physiological process of the body 's defense against
environmental assaults, showing signs such as pain, heat, redness and
edema, in addition to loss of functionality.
This process can occur in acute form with immediate reaction to theoffending agent,
which phagocytes, upon encountering an offending agent they try to destroy secrete
mediator substances that act on endothelial cells causing changes in vascular
permeability, allowing the migration of leukocytes the inflammatory focus for
phagocytosis of pathogens, returning to normal when the lesion is restored.
Similarly inflammation occurs with evolution result of persistent infections,
autoimmunity, or as a continuation of acute inflammation at the persistent offending
agent, leading to chronic inflammation. At this level of mononuclear cell infiltration,
tissue destruction and attempts at healing of damaged tissue by angiogenesis or
fibrosis it occurs.
The purpose of inflammation is to rid the body of the initial cause of cellular
aggression, however whatever the inflammatory, acute or chronic condition, you
should take appropriate measures to control the consequences of inflammation in the
body, without interfering pharmacological measures its beneficial effects.
KEYWORDS
Inflammation. Edema. Exudate. Transudate. Stasis. Suffusion. Hydrostatic
pressure. Osmotic pressure.Chemotaxis. Phagocytosis.

ABSTRACT
Inflammation is a physiological process naturally of the body's defense Assaults
Against environmental, presenting signs : such as pain, heat, redness and edema, in
Addition to loss of functionality.

with increased local heat. you Should Take Appropriate Measures to Control the sequelae of inflammation in the body without interfering With ITS beneficial pharmacological effects Measures. Exudate. Edema. 3. which compared with an internal combustion process. leading to chronic inflammation.Phagocytosis.5 Etymologically the word inflammation comes from the Latin inflammatio. so that this word was used in the medical literature to describe a bulky body. and tumor pain. upon encountering an offending agent secreting Mediators try to destroy substances That act on endothelial cells Causing Changes in vascular permeability. The purpose of inflammation is to rid the body of the initial cause of cell aggression. however whatever the acute or chronic inflammatory condition. Osmotic pressure. 1 DEFINITION Inflammation is a natural defense reaction or process the body 's immune system in response to damage to your cells and tissues vascularized by harmful agents such as . 1. which means fire or a fire. 1 . Chemotaxis.7 Meanwhile John Hunter. If not for the inflammatory process infections could not be controlled. Stasis. resulting in what Celso first described the typical cardinal signs of inflammation such as the redness. Suffusion. healing and wound repair would be impossible and injured organs would not recover their functionality. has defense mechanisms against any aggression affecting their tissues. Hydrostatic pressure. Trasudate. Thus endogenous or exogenous assaults provoke a defensive cascade where innate immunity through the inflammatory process succeeds in isolating the lesion destroys the pathogen and repairs tissue in order to restore functionality and the affected organ. tissue destruction and Attempts at healing of damaged tissue by angiogenesis or OCCURS fibrosis. Likewise. INTRODUCTION The human organism like all multicellular organisms. in 1793 clarified that inflammation is not a disease per se. as a result of evolution of autoimmunity. the inflammation progresses to persistent infections. KEY WORDS Inflamation. Anyway . heat. At this level of mononuclear cell infiltration. or a continuation of acute inflammation as the injurious agent Persists. but a specific response that has a salutary effect on the host. Allowing the migration of leukocytes the inflammatory focus for phagocytosis of pathogens .This process can Occur acutely With immediate reaction to the stressor. so that it is dangerous to cause serious organ damage as hypersensitivity reactions . returning to Normal When the injury was restored. in Which phagocytes. the most representative problem caused by inflammation triggered is that this process of defense is directed towards harmful agents as to those who are not. the Scottish surgeon.

5 CLINICAL SIGNS The characteristic signs of inflammation are: 1) Heat: local or secondary temperature increase vasodilation. Chronicles: It is a long process. it is a protective response that emerges in order to isolate. a Roman medical encyclopedist. b. contain the damage.8. By the nature of exudate can be: to. 4) Edema resulting from increased capillary permeability and therefore suffusion of fluid in the interstitial tissue. These signs Rudolf Virchow. trauma. 2. 2) Flush: produced by increasing irrigation in the affected area. theproduct of a slight change in vascular permeability. For the duration may be: . necrosis. which denotes enough permeability in blood vessels. nature of exudate. German physician. a process that consists of mid vascular and cellular changes by chemical factors clinically apparent tissue data Aulus Cornelius Celsus. b. active inflammation and repetitive repair attempt. to Agudas: This type of inflammation is an immediate response to the offending agent whose purpose is to release the body's defense mediators in the area of the lesion whose onset is rapid and short duration courses.microorganisms. existing at that time tissue destruction. etiology.2. resulting from the limitation to conducting the conjugation of the four signs already mentioned. Essentially.3. Exudates: presence of inflammatory extravascular fluid with high protein content. functiolaesa. or immune reactions among others. . morphologic characteristics and location: 1. chemical or physical agents. destroying the offending agent and subsequently prepare the damaged for repair. described as cardinal signs that occur in all inflammatory process: 1.9 CLASSIFICATION The classification of inflammation is done by taking into account the duration. and increased local consumption of oxygen. by increasing blood flow 3) Pain: caused by tissue distension and release of prostaglandins as chemical mediators. Trasudado: characterized by the presence of extravascular fluid with low protein content.1. which is the loss of functionality. joined them a fifth clinical sign.

parasites or microbial toxins b. Abscesses: has purulent inflammatory tissue necrosis accompanied by liquefactive. Location: They are divided into: to. can be: to. An early vascular changes is vasodilation induced by . laryngitis. Presence of foreign bodies such as chips. 4. b. Immune or hypersensitivity reactions to common allergens or colagenopáticos processes. Result of the spread of persistent inflammatory processes either via canalicular. Resulting from thermal. Ulcers: produced by sloughing of necrotic inflamed tissue. otitis.3. Suppurative or purulent: characterized by purulent exudate production consisting of leukocytes and necrotic cells. b. g. in which case the -itis suffix is used. can be: to. conjunctivitis. etiology. Infectious: either by bacteria. c. Fibrinous: with presence of large amounts of exudate with fibrinogen. Diseminados. F. peritonitis. as with sprains or hygroma. h. Tissue necrosis. Exposure to environmental chemicals. c. fistula or metastasis 1. Irradiations.8 PHYSIOPATHOLOGY Inflammation is a picture where the most outstanding pathophysiological changes are: a) Vascular Change: Inflammatory process in the blood vessels undergo important changes in flow and size that enable and maximize the output of protein and plasma cells from the circulation into the inflammatory focus.2. Traumatic and intense blows with immediate or delayed response. viruses. thermal burns or frostbite. Focal: produced in areas and specific organs. 5. Serous: accumulation of tissue fluid by low protein content. and. d. d. and. By its morphological characteristics. for example pharyngitis.

• Healing replacement connective tissue (fibrosis). which in turn cause leucocyte activation. . which together with the loss of intravascular fluid.histamine.6. which act on vascular smooth muscle. expanding it . • diapedesis. leading to fluid exit intravascular extravascular space with edema formation. internalisation with formation of phagocytic vacuole. produced by mast cells and nitric acid. This process depends on the degree of response of each organism to chemical mediators. Already activated leukocytes fulfill their primary function. For leukocytes to migrate through the interendothelial junctions to the site of injury follow the course of a chemical gradient oriented. • Migration to the interstitial tissues. In chronic inflammation the most important features are: • cellular infiltrate composed of macrophages. that is chemotaxis locomotion. remove the offending agent of the inflammatory focus by phagocytosis which will occur in three stages. This process is called extravasation and consists of three stages: • Marginalization. resulting from the combination of increased hydrostatic pressure and lower osmotic pressure. which is responsible for the exclusion of leukocytes. rolling and adhesion to endothelium. red cell concentration and increased blood viscosity.8. lymphocytes and plasma cells. ie engulf the pathogen. • progression to chronic inflammation.9 The inflammatory process described corresponds mostly to an acute inflammation. with the consequent increase in microvascular permeability. and may show three possible outcomes of the same: • Complete resolution. These changes have resulted in a decrease in blood velocity. the recognition and binding of particles.4. results in stasis. As this type of inflammation is indicated rapid reaction. leukocytes "know where to go" thanks to chemotactic agents. They occur simultaneously: b) Changes Phones: Leukocytes light must travel from the blood vessels to the site of the lesion and its functions run defense there. and death or degradation of pathogenic material ingested. Inflammation can be restored to full normal status only if the causative agent is removed completely absorbed exudate and destroyed tissues regenerate. 1. so his resignation is also fast when the offending agent is removed and anti .inflammatory mechanisms finalize the process. which normally circulate in the center of the vessels.

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