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39

ArchiveInhibition
of SID
Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching

London: Longman.
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communication. In J. C. Alderson and A. H.
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London: Longman.

Journal of
Language and Translation
Volume 1, Number 1, Spring 2010

INHIBITION Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching

Seyed Esmaeil Arib is currently studying as a
PhD student at the Islamic Azad University, Science
and Research Branch, Tehran. The University of
International Relations, School of Media Sciences
are among other academic institutes at which he has
been teaching English for more than 18 years. His
teaching experiences are now being used as a
ground for conducting research projects in SLA and
applied linguistics. The issues such as the problem of
language learning and teaching in Iran are his main
concerns for further research. He is presently
working on his PhD thesis that is an exploration of
the metaphor comprehension in second language
acquisition.

Ahmad Mohseni
Assistant Professor,
Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch
ahmadmohseny@yahoo.com
Received 88/11/13

Alireza Ameri
PH.D Student TEFL,
Islamic Azad University, Science and Reserch Tehran IRAN
a8_ameri@yahoo.com
Accepted 89/02/15

ABSTRACT
In the affective sphere of EFL learning especially with regard to teaching/learning
situations in Iran, one deterrent element seizes particular attention and that is inhibition selfimposed restraint on or abstinence from learning due to academic and non-academic
variables such as culture, gender, psyche, extreme emotions, etc. It is related to language ego
permeability hypothesis (LEPH) which suggests that inhibition plays a powerful role in
constraining achievement resulting both in an inhibition about using L2, which prevents
them from gaining sufficient practice, and in the fear of making mistakes, etc. The main
pursuit of this article is to locate such inhibitions, to give an observation-driven taxonomy of
them, to shed some light on the inherent mechanisms of suppressed learning, and humbly
offer ways to a more refined pedagogy especially in Iranian academic settings. Inhibition, if
diagnosed and eroded, is superseded by arousal and will give way to more dynamic
transactions among class participants which will consequently breed sounder setting for
education. The study aims at uncovering the dynamism of inhibition and its ramification
through a qualitative investigation of the variables proposed by 200 BA senior students
(sampled out of 300) of varied backgrounds in their elicited questionnaires and 5 observed
classes.
Key words: Inhibition, taxonomy, Affective sphere, self-imposed restraint, suppressed learning.
"The fear of being wrong is the prime inhibitor
of the creative process." (Jean Bryant)

Introduction
"An FL classroom can conveniently be
compared to a populous swimming pool. Swimmers
who are competent dive in. Slow learners
concentrate on improving their style and
performance, while others are there for fun and never
mind making waves that disturb others. Less skilful

ones, try as they might, are quickly discouraged and
remain on the edges. Shy ones have little support
from the others and stand timidly on the sides
waiting for the right time to enter. Sometimes they
might dip their toes in but most often they walk away
without getting wet. Rather than pushing people in or
leaving them to fend for themselves, the situation
needs to be organised so that everyone gets the

www.SID.ir

to be attended to. 1964) (Brown. J. capricious. The interest in affective variables in language learning is reflected in some modern teaching stances aimed at reducing anxiety and inhibitions and enhancing the learner's motivation and selfesteem. Lightbown and Spada (2003. and Schmidt. or subdued emotion when they reach the age at which discrepancies elicit uncertainty. that is. by and large. Personality has an important influence on success in language learning. empathy. p. objects. reflective. secretive. etc. new toys. anxious. feeling. and acceptance by others. uncooperative. to be affirmed. self-acceptance. but where the students were reluctant to learn because the teacher was not interested in them as people." He also emphasizes that the best lesson may fail due to the fact that the personal diversity and needs are underestimated. Gertrude Moskovitz (cited in Stevick. 2000. pp. …every learner requires first and foremost: to be noticed. "Krashen (1985. but it is not the only variable involved. p. Closely related to and in some cases subsumed under the notion of selfesteem is the concept of inhibition. 121) suggests that the onset of Formal Operations (around age 12) has a profound effect on the affective state of the learner. It induces egocentrism. 1987. So. A mélange of factors contribute to it. The source of the unfamiliarity can be people. 1976). The same inhibition might also occur in natural settings (non-classrooms). In the early sixties. then the learners in their turn can dare to learn. 2000. fearing to expose too much self-doubt. The affective filter is a mental block. the courage to learn: if the teacher dares to teach. Your whole person is affected as you struggle to reach beyond the confines of your first language and into a new language. cited in Hedge. neurotic. a new language at this stage does not pose a substantial threat or inhibition to it. Alertness: an overall readiness to deal with incoming stimuli. they become more aware of themselves and this self-identity. p. (Brown. 21) discusses Affective Filter noting that when the student is tired. 2. 1996. 1995) A child's ego is dynamic and growing and flexible. among other parameters such as: empathy. Crozier (1997. Besides. Many psychologists now believe that genetic factors combine with the environment to produce personality. or events. 4. although in such instances there is the likelihood that the necessity to communicate overrides the inhibitions. and abstain from unfamiliar social encounters and usually choose intellectual careers (music. (Brown. So teachers should help learners muster their ego strength to overcome inhibitions. against which they develop inhibitions about this self-identity. to attend to and care for the learners. 1 No. learning style. caused by affective factors: high anxiety. which in turn is bound to language ego as its part and parcel. 12). the stronger the inhibition to . a new way of thinking. as indications to the mysterious entity of human language. distress. Inhibited learners demonstrate diverse moral overtones and undertones. Inhibition: deliberate ignoring of some stimuli. selfesteem. Adults. They may be under-stimulated. linguists and researchers. p. 64) Inhibition comes into play when a learner wants to protect his or her self-esteem. gives rise to the emergence of inhibitions as a defensive mechanism. Review of Literature Becoming bilingual is a way of life. and the need for security and www. poetry. low self-esteem. and some variables were found as having a high impact on success in EFL/ESL learning. Inhibited children. 2000. Another finding says that personality variables may be a major factor only in the acquisition of Conversational Skills (communicative ability). are minimally aggressive. But. 1988. (Whitaker. on the other hand. 1994. through the operation of inner psychological impediments or of social controls. 65-66) (As people grow. suspicious. According to Richards. anxiety. too. etc.121) holds that it is hypothesized that the defensiveness associated with inhibition discourages the risk-taking which is necessary for rapid progress in an L2. cited in Ellis. dominance. cognitive and emotional changes. not in acquisition of Literacy Skills (entailing grammatical accuracy and metalinguistic knowledge). p. Merriam Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary (2000) defines "inhibition" as: Discouraging from free or spontaneous activity. 6) that "teaching English successfully is not just a question of method. etc. 1972). dispirited. Maybe they don't have a good command over themselves. In order to diminish the rate of inhibition. 37). At puberty. 200-1) and his colleagues studied inhibition as a type of temperament (the internal tone each person lives with) which displays itself in infant behavior as timidity and fearfulness in novel situations (strangers. according to him.). A successful adult learner is one who can bridge this affective gap.SID.ir Inhibition Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching protection. so. stubborn. etc. Haycraft notes (1988. which in turn leads to increased selfconsciousness and greater inhibition. These approaches could be identified within the so-called humanistic education. and selfconsciousness.40 Archive of SID 41 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. motivation. tense. Krashen (1981a. 2425) states that: Humanistic education is related to a concern for personal development.). Detection: cognitive registration of a particular stimulus. in other words making students be more human. One human ingredient to consider in human development is egocentricity (and ethnocentricity on a larger scale). 1 opportunity to develop their skills and enjoy themselves without hindering the progress of others. psychological. Benjamin Bloom (and his colleagues Krathwohl. situations. these inhibitions are heightened while experiencing critical physical." Many EFL learners find themselves unable to put English to communicative use despite a good command of the language. low motivation. preoccupied.) Inhibited children react against many different types of unfamiliarity with avoidance. and as shyness at age 4 and beyond. what follows is an attempt to find out what it is that inhibits them.C. In recent years the importance of affective issues has become a matter of debate and extensive research among language teachers. and acting. personalities are not always fixed or stable. Lozanov 's (De)Suggestopedia (1979) and Terrell 's Natural Approach (Terrell. pp. (Brown. pp. vulnerable. Ellis (1985. 1985. yes. 1) Douglas Brown also holds that the acquisition of a new language is a grand enterprise. extroversion. measuring personality impacts on learning is hard to demonstrate in empirical terms. and responsiveness are in play. encompassing neurological. p. Bloom and Masia. I have observed many classes where teacher's techniques were superb. or angry. There seems little doubt that most people show marked consistency. psychology. In the affective domain of second language acquisition we come to the notion of inhibition. Inhibition is closely related to self-esteem: the weaker the self-esteem. etc. 54-55) believe that other personality characteristics such as self-esteem. loquacity. 1977). "attention is the ability a person has to concentrate on some things while ignoring others. p. to be valued. 100) offered a comprehensive definition of two domains of learning: the cognitive (the intellectual) and the affective (the emotional) as two sides of human behavior. Orientation: the direction of attentional resources to ceratin types of stimuli. p. Out of that attention and affirmation grow the confidence and. Thus adolescents tend to obtain less input than younger learners. Krashen posed that a low affective filter is necessary for acquisition to take place. manifest a number of inhibitions which more often surface in language classes where the learner's attempts to speak in the foreign language are often fraught with embarrassment. Richard (2002. the teacher must adopt more leaner-centered approaches and "Negotiated Curriculum" (Nunan. Gattegno 's Silent Way (Gattegno. Subsystems of attention are: 1. expression or functioning. 3. p. Examples of these innovative humanistic approaches to language teaching are: Curran's Community Language Learning (Curran. avoid dangerous activities. fearful. the input is prevented from being processed (High affective filter brings negative attitude toward learning). cognitive and affective variables. defensive. a new culture.

121) suggests that the onset of Formal Operations (around age 12) has a profound effect on the affective state of the learner. A successful adult learner is one who can bridge this affective gap. Krashen posed that a low affective filter is necessary for acquisition to take place. (Brown. and some variables were found as having a high impact on success in EFL/ESL learning. The source of the unfamiliarity can be people. self-acceptance. In the early sixties. In recent years the importance of affective issues has become a matter of debate and extensive research among language teachers. (Brown. Ellis (1985. the stronger the inhibition to www. and selfconsciousness. Inhibited learners demonstrate diverse moral overtones and undertones. Crozier (1997. "attention is the ability a person has to concentrate on some things while ignoring others. which in turn is bound to language ego as its part and parcel. cited in Ellis. 6) that "teaching English successfully is not just a question of method. Thus adolescents tend to obtain less input than younger learners. a new language at this stage does not pose a substantial threat or inhibition to it. empathy. so. They may be under-stimulated. personalities are not always fixed or stable. So. 2. encompassing neurological. what follows is an attempt to find out what it is that inhibits them. Gattegno 's Silent Way (Gattegno. uncooperative. among other parameters such as: empathy.). 12). p.121) holds that it is hypothesized that the defensiveness associated with inhibition discourages the risk-taking which is necessary for rapid progress in an L2. Detection: cognitive registration of a particular stimulus. J. 1996. 1 opportunity to develop their skills and enjoy themselves without hindering the progress of others. neurotic. p. cited in Hedge. which in turn leads to increased selfconsciousness and greater inhibition. It induces egocentrism. The same inhibition might also occur in natural settings (non-classrooms). manifest a number of inhibitions which more often surface in language classes where the learner's attempts to speak in the foreign language are often fraught with embarrassment. etc. 1976). 200-1) and his colleagues studied inhibition as a type of temperament (the internal tone each person lives with) which displays itself in infant behavior as timidity and fearfulness in novel situations (strangers. …every learner requires first and foremost: to be noticed. and acting. 3. although in such instances there is the likelihood that the necessity to communicate overrides the inhibitions. Personality has an important influence on success in language learning. and as shyness at age 4 and beyond. are minimally aggressive. 2425) states that: Humanistic education is related to a concern for personal development. tense. The affective filter is a mental block. (Whitaker. Inhibited children. psychology. selfesteem. measuring personality impacts on learning is hard to demonstrate in empirical terms. 1995) A child's ego is dynamic and growing and flexible.) Inhibited children react against many different types of unfamiliarity with avoidance. and responsiveness are in play. objects. pp. and acceptance by others. One human ingredient to consider in human development is egocentricity (and ethnocentricity on a larger scale). new toys. a new culture. Inhibition: deliberate ignoring of some stimuli. 37). through the operation of inner psychological impediments or of social controls.SID. motivation. Your whole person is affected as you struggle to reach beyond the confines of your first language and into a new language. dispirited. p. fearing to expose too much self-doubt. 64) Inhibition comes into play when a learner wants to protect his or her self-esteem. and abstain from unfamiliar social encounters and usually choose intellectual careers (music. and Schmidt.). Orientation: the direction of attentional resources to ceratin types of stimuli. 4. Haycraft notes (1988. defensive. etc. cognitive and affective variables. reflective. The interest in affective variables in language learning is reflected in some modern teaching stances aimed at reducing anxiety and inhibitions and enhancing the learner's motivation and selfesteem. secretive. stubborn.C. (Brown. capricious. 2000. according to him. Besides. extroversion. etc.ir . Another finding says that personality variables may be a major factor only in the acquisition of Conversational Skills (communicative ability). gives rise to the emergence of inhibitions as a defensive mechanism." Many EFL learners find themselves unable to put English to communicative use despite a good command of the language. Lightbown and Spada (2003. preoccupied. I have observed many classes where teacher's techniques were superb. loquacity. the input is prevented from being processed (High affective filter brings negative attitude toward learning). and the need for security and 41 ArchiveInhibition of SID Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching protection. 1) Douglas Brown also holds that the acquisition of a new language is a grand enterprise. p. 1977). etc. p. Lozanov 's (De)Suggestopedia (1979) and Terrell 's Natural Approach (Terrell. too.40 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. situations. that is. dominance. anxiety. There seems little doubt that most people show marked consistency. linguists and researchers. Maybe they don't have a good command over themselves. but it is not the only variable involved. Adults. etc. 1988. expression or functioning. low motivation. to attend to and care for the learners. 1964) (Brown. or events. the courage to learn: if the teacher dares to teach. or subdued emotion when they reach the age at which discrepancies elicit uncertainty. p. Out of that attention and affirmation grow the confidence and. Many psychologists now believe that genetic factors combine with the environment to produce personality. Closely related to and in some cases subsumed under the notion of selfesteem is the concept of inhibition. Bloom and Masia. feeling. 1985. Benjamin Bloom (and his colleagues Krathwohl. then the learners in their turn can dare to learn. as indications to the mysterious entity of human language. in other words making students be more human. Merriam Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary (2000) defines "inhibition" as: Discouraging from free or spontaneous activity. Alertness: an overall readiness to deal with incoming stimuli. p. Examples of these innovative humanistic approaches to language teaching are: Curran's Community Language Learning (Curran. psychological. caused by affective factors: high anxiety. In the affective domain of second language acquisition we come to the notion of inhibition. learning style. a new way of thinking. these inhibitions are heightened while experiencing critical physical. "Krashen (1985. 1972). 1987. but where the students were reluctant to learn because the teacher was not interested in them as people. Subsystems of attention are: 1. p. they become more aware of themselves and this self-identity. 54-55) believe that other personality characteristics such as self-esteem. In order to diminish the rate of inhibition. suspicious. vulnerable. 21) discusses Affective Filter noting that when the student is tired. the teacher must adopt more leaner-centered approaches and "Negotiated Curriculum" (Nunan. cognitive and emotional changes. 65-66) (As people grow. not in acquisition of Literacy Skills (entailing grammatical accuracy and metalinguistic knowledge). avoid dangerous activities. low self-esteem. So teachers should help learners muster their ego strength to overcome inhibitions. 1994. 2000. 1 No. Krashen (1981a. At puberty. 100) offered a comprehensive definition of two domains of learning: the cognitive (the intellectual) and the affective (the emotional) as two sides of human behavior. 2000. These approaches could be identified within the so-called humanistic education. Richard (2002. pp. pp. to be valued. distress. But. p. to be affirmed. against which they develop inhibitions about this self-identity. by and large. According to Richards. poetry. Inhibition is closely related to self-esteem: the weaker the self-esteem. on the other hand. A mélange of factors contribute to it. anxious. fearful. to be attended to. Gertrude Moskovitz (cited in Stevick. yes." He also emphasizes that the best lesson may fail due to the fact that the personal diversity and needs are underestimated. or angry. Review of Literature Becoming bilingual is a way of life.

1 protect the weak ego. we would likely never communicate productively at all. professional requirements and personal aspirations. Internally.ir Inhibition Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching Internally. Methodology The present research is of qualitative substance carried out through cataloguing the observations and analyzing the open-ended questionnaire responses not for statistical numerical outcomes but for content and narrative analysis. but it also affected muscular tension. Besides. This produces in the learner a deep-seated fear of inadequacy and deficiency. it could be a sign of promoted performance. pp. All human beings. p. 1994. Fortunately. 2003. so. gives rise to the emergence of inhibitions as a defensive mechanism. 64). children are totally egocentric. (Lightbrown. pp. these mistakes can be experienced as threats to the self. 200-1) Students may develop different personality traits according to their particular temperaments. pronunciation may be a rather poor indicator of overall language competence. 147-8). 1) What is Inhibition and what are its forms with an eye on Iranian academic ecology? 2) What are the ways to overcome inhibition in Iranian students? Instrumentation Much suited to the objective the researchers had in mind which demanded an in-depth investigation worded through language and not via statistical figures. The result was surely lower inhibition. between one's native culture and target culture. 149) spoke of language learning as "involving a number of alienations between the critical self and the performing self. As Brown (1994. in their understanding of themselves. (Crozier. we are witnessing that a growing number of language teachers are becoming increasingly aware that focusing on students' strengths rather than weaknesses is a powerful way to overcome inhibition. Inhibition discourages risk-taking which is necessary for progress in language learning. Earl Stevick (1976b cited in Brown 2000. Language teaching approaches in the last three decades have been characterized by the creation of contexts in which students are made to feel free to take risks. starting from adolescence and continuing into adulthood. though rather unethical. 55) To adopt a more humanistic approach to the question on the table. 1994. p. Beit-Hallami. between a student and a teacher. with shyness as only one feature of the former. and Scovel (cited in Brown. or subdued emotion usually a few months before the first birthday. the extent of inhibition is not significant. etc. between one's native culture and his target culture. pp. (As they grow. Inhibited children react against many different types of unfamiliarity with avoidance. and feelings that threaten the foundations of self-esteem. Human beings are emotional creatures. p. An individual who possesses the genes for a particular characteristic may not display that feature. 147-9) The human ego encompasses what Guiora (1972a) and Ehrman (1996) refer to as Language Ego. objects. the qualitative research was agreed to be . called uninhibited. If we never ventured to speak a sentence until we were absolutely certain of its total correctness. and if I can add between one's past/present and his or her future.) Before studying inhibition. www. or events. 1 No. Art. But many students view mistakes as threats to their ego. many psychologists now believe that genetic factors combine with the environment to produce personality. Earl Stevick (1976b) spoke of language learning as involving a number of "alienations" between the critical self and the performing self. Individuals with weaker self-esteem and ego strength maintain walls of inhibition to protect a fragile ego or self-diffidence (lack of self-confidence) in a situation or while doing a task. 1997. and if I can add between one's past/present and his future. Journalism): Islamic Azad University. Also. between a student and a teacher. In their infancy. South Tehran Branch. it seems logically imperative to primarily know about human temperaments and personality traits. Ehrman (cited in Brown. learners perceive others to be critical. The source of the unfamiliarity can be people. build a set of defenses and a system of affective traits to protect the ego and to ward off ideas. Participants The participants are 200 students (sampled out of PBT TOEFL-tested population of 300 volunteers) from 3 Tehran-based universities of different natures and disciplines (Language. p. The world revolves about them and they see all events as focusing on themselves. Externally. Meaningful language acquisition involves some degree of identity conflict as language learners take on a new identity with their newly acquired competence. Research Questions The following queries are what will be qualitatively responded to by the ascribed methodology. 148) suggests that students with thick. learners perceive others to be critical. An adaptive language ego enables learners to lower the inhibitions that may impede success. and School of Media Studies. Guiora. one's critical self and performing self can be in conflict (which is an Aristotelian prelude to "tragedy"!). vulnerability and the tolerance of ambiguity. between a student and his fellow classmates. (Brown. perfectionist boundaries find language learning more difficult than those learners with thin boundaries who favor attitudes of openness. experiences. 2000. in their research over pronunciation performance. Art University. But many students view mistakes as threats to their ego. used small quantities of alcohol and Valium (as relaxants) to be given to their experimental group of subjects in order to induce temporary states of less-than-normal inhibition. p. Due to learners' defense mechanisms. 5 random classrooms in these settings were also observed (as non-participant observation) and annotated in the meantime. etc. The complementary category. which in turn is bound to language ego as its part and parcel.42 Archive of SID 43 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. In classic studies of inhibition. is defined by a sociable. research in this area has been mounting steadily to examine the inner being of the person to discover if in the affective side of human behavior there lies an explanation to the mysteries of language. Dull. both internally and externally. These defenses inhibit learning. 1994. situations. distress. Learners should know that learning a second language virtually necessitates making mistakes (and learning from those mistakes) as healthy symptoms of progress. language learning implies a great deal of self-exposure as it necessarily involves making mistakes. one's critical self and performing self can be in conflict. Brannon. and thus to break down some of the barriers that often make learners reluctant to try out their new language. Now we may be able to come to a combined definition of temperament as: a set of primarily biological stylistic components of behavior constituting personality traits. to try out hypotheses. Learners should know that learning a second language virtually necessitates making mistakes (and learning from those mistakes) as healthy symptoms of progress. and also between his professional requirements and his personal aspirations. Fortunately. we are to explore the learners' space in order to aid them to build up their unique learning strategies effectively and consciously to enhance learners' self-concept by providing positive feedback. both internally and externally. they become more aware of themselves and this self-identity (Brown. affectively spontaneous reaction to unfamiliarity. A successful adult learner is someone who can bridge this affective gap." Jerome Kagan and his colleagues have been studying two temperamental categories of children that they call "inhibited" and "uninhibited" to the unfamiliar. even judging their very person when they blunder in L2. even judging their very person when they blunder in L2. so it is only logical to look at the affective domain of language learning.SID. 63-6) noted. between a student and his or her fellow classmates. So teachers should help learners muster their ego strength to overcome inhibitions. Externally.

Earl Stevick (1976b cited in Brown 2000. But many students view mistakes as threats to their ego. in their research over pronunciation performance. pp. between a student and a teacher. the qualitative research was agreed to be www. with shyness as only one feature of the former. 1 No. both internally and externally. and School of Media Studies. But many students view mistakes as threats to their ego. Inhibited children react against many different types of unfamiliarity with avoidance. 200-1) Students may develop different personality traits according to their particular temperaments. Brannon. Human beings are emotional creatures. both internally and externally. Art. South Tehran Branch. The result was surely lower inhibition. between a student and a teacher. An individual who possesses the genes for a particular characteristic may not display that feature. The source of the unfamiliarity can be people. these mistakes can be experienced as threats to the self. Besides. (Crozier.42 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. 1994. learners perceive others to be critical. experiences. Methodology The present research is of qualitative substance carried out through cataloguing the observations and analyzing the open-ended questionnaire responses not for statistical numerical outcomes but for content and narrative analysis. Due to learners' defense mechanisms. Externally.ir . Individuals with weaker self-esteem and ego strength maintain walls of inhibition to protect a fragile ego or self-diffidence (lack of self-confidence) in a situation or while doing a task. Participants The participants are 200 students (sampled out of PBT TOEFL-tested population of 300 volunteers) from 3 Tehran-based universities of different natures and disciplines (Language. it could be a sign of promoted performance. many psychologists now believe that genetic factors combine with the environment to produce personality. Language teaching approaches in the last three decades have been characterized by the creation of contexts in which students are made to feel free to take risks. even judging their very person when they blunder in L2. If we never ventured to speak a sentence until we were absolutely certain of its total correctness. used small quantities of alcohol and Valium (as relaxants) to be given to their experimental group of subjects in order to induce temporary states of less-than-normal inhibition. 1 protect the weak ego. An adaptive language ego enables learners to lower the inhibitions that may impede success. The world revolves about them and they see all events as focusing on themselves.SID. or events. etc. Research Questions The following queries are what will be qualitatively responded to by the ascribed methodology. called uninhibited. even judging their very person when they blunder in L2. is defined by a sociable. p. A successful adult learner is someone who can bridge this affective gap. pp. and if I can add between one's past/present and his future. 64). Meaningful language acquisition involves some degree of identity conflict as language learners take on a new identity with their newly acquired competence. between one's native culture and his target culture. in their understanding of themselves. so. objects. So teachers should help learners muster their ego strength to overcome inhibitions. 1) What is Inhibition and what are its forms with an eye on Iranian academic ecology? 2) What are the ways to overcome inhibition in Iranian students? Instrumentation Much suited to the objective the researchers had in mind which demanded an in-depth investigation worded through language and not via statistical figures. and if I can add between one's past/present and his or her future. Ehrman (cited in Brown. 148) suggests that students with thick. Learners should know that learning a second language virtually necessitates making mistakes (and learning from those mistakes) as healthy symptoms of progress. one's critical self and performing self can be in conflict (which is an Aristotelian prelude to "tragedy"!). Fortunately. language learning implies a great deal of self-exposure as it necessarily involves making mistakes. These defenses inhibit learning. and thus to break down some of the barriers that often make learners reluctant to try out their new language. so it is only logical to look at the affective domain of language learning. 147-9) The human ego encompasses what Guiora (1972a) and Ehrman (1996) refer to as Language Ego. starting from adolescence and continuing into adulthood. or subdued emotion usually a few months before the first birthday. they become more aware of themselves and this self-identity (Brown. pp. it seems logically imperative to primarily know about human temperaments and personality traits. In classic studies of inhibition. Now we may be able to come to a combined definition of temperament as: a set of primarily biological stylistic components of behavior constituting personality traits. and Scovel (cited in Brown. Earl Stevick (1976b) spoke of language learning as involving a number of "alienations" between the critical self and the performing self. Internally. Journalism): Islamic Azad University. p. As Brown (1994. and feelings that threaten the foundations of self-esteem. build a set of defenses and a system of affective traits to protect the ego and to ward off ideas. 149) spoke of language learning as "involving a number of alienations between the critical self and the performing self. p. affectively spontaneous reaction to unfamiliarity. 1994. p. and also between his professional requirements and his personal aspirations. perfectionist boundaries find language learning more difficult than those learners with thin boundaries who favor attitudes of openness. though rather unethical. we would likely never communicate productively at all. situations. Guiora. Also. 55) To adopt a more humanistic approach to the question on the table. In their infancy. Beit-Hallami. The complementary category. between a student and his fellow classmates. we are witnessing that a growing number of language teachers are becoming increasingly aware that focusing on students' strengths rather than weaknesses is a powerful way to overcome inhibition. etc. 2003. Art University. 2000. 147-8). (Lightbrown. This produces in the learner a deep-seated fear of inadequacy and deficiency. 5 random classrooms in these settings were also observed (as non-participant observation) and annotated in the meantime. between a student and his or her fellow classmates. 1997. 63-6) noted. professional requirements and personal aspirations. to try out hypotheses. but it also affected muscular tension. 1994. Inhibition discourages risk-taking which is necessary for progress in language learning. distress. which in turn is bound to language ego as its part and parcel. Dull. Fortunately. Learners should know that learning a second language virtually necessitates making mistakes (and learning from those mistakes) as healthy symptoms of progress. (Brown. 43 ArchiveInhibition of SID Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching Internally. research in this area has been mounting steadily to examine the inner being of the person to discover if in the affective side of human behavior there lies an explanation to the mysteries of language. pronunciation may be a rather poor indicator of overall language competence. All human beings. learners perceive others to be critical. between one's native culture and target culture. (As they grow." Jerome Kagan and his colleagues have been studying two temperamental categories of children that they call "inhibited" and "uninhibited" to the unfamiliar. p. one's critical self and performing self can be in conflict. children are totally egocentric. Externally.) Before studying inhibition. vulnerability and the tolerance of ambiguity. we are to explore the learners' space in order to aid them to build up their unique learning strategies effectively and consciously to enhance learners' self-concept by providing positive feedback. the extent of inhibition is not significant. gives rise to the emergence of inhibitions as a defensive mechanism.

Physiological: such as fatigue. The brand-new taxonomy proposed here by us is by no means flawless. economic. Vocational (degree-oriented. staleness (having lost freshness and interest). there would be no need for teachers or classrooms. a student who has to look after an ill mother at home. That alone can act as an inhibitor.44 Archive of SID 45 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. and Art) revealed a grand typology of inhibitions to the researchers. Extra personal: Ethnic (Racial). so they develop hatred towards the latter. 20 and suggested by the researchers such as offence (being insulted by teacher or classmates). a disposition which is a by-product of a face-saving strategy to secure their ego. peer pressure: (bringing about pressures of different kinds). sluggishness. weak visual and auditory memory. A homesick. beckoning gestures and signaling tones can be sources of inhibition or disinhibition. he or she may resort to seclusion and tête-à-tâte. self-defeatism. flight of ideas (disentanglement of mind from the class subject matter). There can still be another typology in hand. disillusionment (disenchantment). certainly develops some irregularities.g.SID. insomnia. and not feeling properly part of either]. 6 Human being is selective and his selection is respectable. some students are more comfortable if they write than listen.e. some of which are specific to Iranian learners. Inhibition of that kind is therefore tolerable.) and Permanent Inhibition (such as cancer.). 3. Therefore they may practice "avoidance" at times or resort to "hyper correction". they prefer the fluidity of speaking to rigidity of grammar.g.ir Inhibition Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching Intramural: (inside-school sources) Inhibitions induced by malefactors in university or school. burnout (exhaustion from long-term stress). Journalism. 19. etc. Temporary Inhibition (such as news of a kin's death. A language learner can be a consumer as well as a producer of L2. 3 Knowing a second language may have mute or vehement impacts. or is continually discouraged by an uneducated father. despair. my learning styles and strategies and my dispositional ways of absorbing. Therefore. punishment (which only tells you what NOT to do. for example. its euphony and richness in vocabulary and they never succumb to a foreign language slavishly. and if they don't find it in an activity. group size.). etc. and a sense that education does not just take place in the classroom. such as: psychological: including sadness. etc. too. etc. gives them a feeling of accomplishment. etc. and stages of learning are not sequential only. Etiology of Inhibition Through observations and questionnaire perusal.g. Extramural: (outside-school sources) Intra personal: inhibitions arising from within a student which in turn fall into several categories. culture shock. 8 Teachers should be alert to the fact that EQ is more tenable in teaching/learning than IQ 9 Teachers' recasts. Everyone has experienced this JekyllHyde mechanism. reluctance. they simply quit it). for instance. negative transfer (the carryover of previous performance or knowledge to subsequent learning). 17. fearing to sound silly or act clumsily or make mistakes. Skehan (1986. When one can reckon the consequences a word may entail when used in a given circumstance. 7 Some students are better at some skills and poor at others. www. narcissism. family-dependent person cannot stay in school for too long. irritability. phobia (of different kinds. teachers. hedonistic trait (some people are only after mundane pleasure. Biological: such as age (studies suggest that adults exhibit more inhibitions than children). Writing homework. we might have flashbacks and flash forwards. low marketability (poor public relations or low social skills which hinder learners from selling themselves to others. Conclusions and Implications (for Teaching/Learning especially in Iran) Based on the data collected via the afore-noted . not what TO do. as elicited from responses to the questions 1. Familial: e. differences which aggravate dissociations). The responses to the questionnaire administered to a group of 200 university students learning English (majoring in Translation. For instance. who is nicotinehabituated needs breaks in his or her educational hours. genius (feeling like a genius among others is isolating). 10 Inhibition can also emanate from selfdiffidence in asking questions from the teacher for the mere fear that perhaps the rest of the class knows the answer. If there were no mistakes. in Iranian settings. Second language learning is not simply a process of putting second-language words into first language sentences. girls do not comfortably pronounce "th" sounds because they have been inhibited to bring out their tongue as a token of courtesy). for instance. there is no doctor. aggression. Sociological. irregular attendance. negative chemistry between people in class may lead to unlearning. culture stress and anomie [a feeling of being torn between two cultures.. for clear or clandestine reasons. asking the teacher to be exempted from class work). Ideological: Some religions or ideologies may incite a number of inhibitions in learners. a student suffering from Halitosis (Bad Breath) is assumed to find less number of friends and naturally grows more isolated. Generation gap is another deterrent falling under this category. intellectual. 2. 4 There is a perennial anxiety resulting in inhibition in people who have a deep-rooted built-in perfectionism to carry out tasks accurately. etc. feeling of worthlessness. 139) believes that children who are more advanced in their first language are better at their SL. distractibility. distance and ceremony (philosophical. 4. Some of the learners are not good at their first language. processing. self-handicapping (making excuses for one's performance. etc. L1 and L2 may sometimes perform synergic duets and sometimes end up in lethal duels. 1 No. gender (e. Language Learning is not just linear in its development. look (appearance is an elemental force in some students' progress). academic environment. but it may spotlight some problems long neglected in EFL learning and teaching. suicidal ideation. Some learners love their mother tongue. observation. so they develop hatred towards the latter). interpersonal (from teacher-student to student-student relationships. the researchers have arrived at the following findings regarding the sources and whereabouts of inhibition: 1 Sensitivity can be an inhibitory parameter to turn a learner into a taciturn person. and retaining information and skills can best be eloquent of my character. etc. Medical: e. We should look at errors as a natural part of language learning. Some students are afraid of their Interlanguage. such as agoraphobia). chronic xenophobes or Anglophobes. students and the academic setting in general (learned helplessness) may take different names. TEFL. 18. 2 The quasi-ethnographic observation fortified the idea that Iranians are traditionally poor at using kinesics to add to their intended meaning. such as difficult course books. and questionnaire. We had better see errors or mistakes as blessings in disguise. they prefer the fluidity of speaking to rigidity of grammar. political. A student. like when there is no disease. p. i. much like "doubt" which is a prequel to "faith". So might be the case with students wearing dental braces. shyness (although learners are not expected be like stand-up comedians or ventriloquists). 5 Some students are. frustration (which occurs when people are prevented from reaching goals they feel entitled to). geographic. that's why their performance in L2 is poor. money-driven students may develop inhibitions). linguistic. disability. delinquency (anti-social demeanor). 1 done through library reading. cited in Cook. 2001. Every learner's tastes and traits are unique to him and his agendum in learning may be different from others. learning style (some students are better at some skills and poor at others. Cultural (language shock. dietary effects. They are healthy symptoms of progress.

Vocational (degree-oriented.). a disposition which is a by-product of a face-saving strategy to secure their ego. linguistic. feeling of worthlessness. burnout (exhaustion from long-term stress). 2 The quasi-ethnographic observation fortified the idea that Iranians are traditionally poor at using kinesics to add to their intended meaning. etc. in Iranian settings. Familial: e. irritability. there would be no need for teachers or classrooms. punishment (which only tells you what NOT to do. etc. low marketability (poor public relations or low social skills which hinder learners from selling themselves to others. suicidal ideation. gender (e. as elicited from responses to the questions 1. TEFL. flight of ideas (disentanglement of mind from the class subject matter). 10 Inhibition can also emanate from selfdiffidence in asking questions from the teacher for the mere fear that perhaps the rest of the class knows the answer. or is continually discouraged by an uneducated father. narcissism. 2001. despair. a student suffering from Halitosis (Bad Breath) is assumed to find less number of friends and naturally grows more isolated. Extramural: (outside-school sources) Intra personal: inhibitions arising from within a student which in turn fall into several categories. Journalism. A language learner can be a consumer as well as a producer of L2. We had better see errors or mistakes as blessings in disguise. Therefore.ir . cited in Cook. family-dependent person cannot stay in school for too long. distractibility. aggression. such as agoraphobia). asking the teacher to be exempted from class work). 2. certainly develops some irregularities.g. there is no doctor. for clear or clandestine reasons. Some of the learners are not good at their first language. 45 ArchiveInhibition of SID Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching Intramural: (inside-school sources) Inhibitions induced by malefactors in university or school. Some learners love their mother tongue. distance and ceremony (philosophical. 1 done through library reading. 1 No. phobia (of different kinds. So might be the case with students wearing dental braces. shyness (although learners are not expected be like stand-up comedians or ventriloquists). differences which aggravate dissociations). my learning styles and strategies and my dispositional ways of absorbing. its euphony and richness in vocabulary and they never succumb to a foreign language slavishly.) and Permanent Inhibition (such as cancer. he or she may resort to seclusion and tête-à-tâte. culture stress and anomie [a feeling of being torn between two cultures. Everyone has experienced this JekyllHyde mechanism. There can still be another typology in hand. etc. insomnia. group size. frustration (which occurs when people are prevented from reaching goals they feel entitled to). who is nicotinehabituated needs breaks in his or her educational hours. 17. disability.SID. Physiological: such as fatigue. That alone can act as an inhibitor. like when there is no disease. 3. etc. processing. and if they don't find it in an activity. etc. When one can reckon the consequences a word may entail when used in a given circumstance. not what TO do. culture shock. genius (feeling like a genius among others is isolating). disillusionment (disenchantment). 139) believes that children who are more advanced in their first language are better at their SL. reluctance. they simply quit it). geographic. and a sense that education does not just take place in the classroom. Etiology of Inhibition Through observations and questionnaire perusal. some of which are specific to Iranian learners. students and the academic setting in general (learned helplessness) may take different names. negative transfer (the carryover of previous performance or knowledge to subsequent learning). Biological: such as age (studies suggest that adults exhibit more inhibitions than children). they prefer the fluidity of speaking to rigidity of grammar. negative chemistry between people in class may lead to unlearning. such as: psychological: including sadness. If there were no mistakes. etc. 7 Some students are better at some skills and poor at others. much like "doubt" which is a prequel to "faith". Language Learning is not just linear in its development. A homesick. 20 and suggested by the researchers such as offence (being insulted by teacher or classmates). Skehan (1986. the researchers have arrived at the following findings regarding the sources and whereabouts of inhibition: 1 Sensitivity can be an inhibitory parameter to turn a learner into a taciturn person. irregular attendance. and questionnaire. for instance. hedonistic trait (some people are only after mundane pleasure. and Art) revealed a grand typology of inhibitions to the researchers. The brand-new taxonomy proposed here by us is by no means flawless. L1 and L2 may sometimes perform synergic duets and sometimes end up in lethal duels. we might have flashbacks and flash forwards. Some students are afraid of their Interlanguage. A student. Temporary Inhibition (such as news of a kin's death. such as difficult course books. gives them a feeling of accomplishment. money-driven students may develop inhibitions). and stages of learning are not sequential only. We should look at errors as a natural part of language learning. delinquency (anti-social demeanor). so they develop hatred towards the latter.g. and retaining information and skills can best be eloquent of my character. 19. beckoning gestures and signaling tones can be sources of inhibition or disinhibition. some students are more comfortable if they write than listen. i. 18. 4 There is a perennial anxiety resulting in inhibition in people who have a deep-rooted built-in perfectionism to carry out tasks accurately. They are healthy symptoms of progress. staleness (having lost freshness and interest). dietary effects. economic. p.). Every learner's tastes and traits are unique to him and his agendum in learning may be different from others. that's why their performance in L2 is poor. 5 Some students are. chronic xenophobes or Anglophobes. Extra personal: Ethnic (Racial). 3 Knowing a second language may have mute or vehement impacts. Ideological: Some religions or ideologies may incite a number of inhibitions in learners. and not feeling properly part of either]. Sociological. they prefer the fluidity of speaking to rigidity of grammar. Writing homework. girls do not comfortably pronounce "th" sounds because they have been inhibited to bring out their tongue as a token of courtesy). teachers. observation. 4. peer pressure: (bringing about pressures of different kinds). political.. Therefore they may practice "avoidance" at times or resort to "hyper correction". sluggishness. Conclusions and Implications (for Teaching/Learning especially in Iran) Based on the data collected via the afore-noted www. a student who has to look after an ill mother at home. for example. for instance. For instance. 8 Teachers should be alert to the fact that EQ is more tenable in teaching/learning than IQ 9 Teachers' recasts. look (appearance is an elemental force in some students' progress). Cultural (language shock. interpersonal (from teacher-student to student-student relationships.44 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. self-defeatism.g. Second language learning is not simply a process of putting second-language words into first language sentences. 6 Human being is selective and his selection is respectable. etc. Generation gap is another deterrent falling under this category. learning style (some students are better at some skills and poor at others. intellectual. academic environment. Medical: e. weak visual and auditory memory. so they develop hatred towards the latter). Inhibition of that kind is therefore tolerable. too. but it may spotlight some problems long neglected in EFL learning and teaching. self-handicapping (making excuses for one's performance. etc.e. fearing to sound silly or act clumsily or make mistakes. The responses to the questionnaire administered to a group of 200 university students learning English (majoring in Translation.

often focusing on what a successful performance feels like (Mental Imagery/Practice. race. and store the linguistic data. • Specific goals usually result in greater performance than vague goals. Stewardship. Assess and measure events. Recognize that learning is a www. they will come up against a classroom environment fraught with lack of cohesiveness. A teacher can reduce classroom anxiety by making the learning context less stressful.. Negotiation of meaning is far more accessible in such classes. Treat all fellow learners and teachers with respect and fairness regardless of age. didactic methods. A teacher can increase learner satisfaction. fairness. in which sole-speaker teaching and sole-hearer learning are relegated. • Students care more about the form rather than the content. Be prepared for a long journey and don't embark alone. • Pure grammar has proved boring. gender. Learn to see diversity as an asset. 1 No. • In a society where few tourists commute and the English language has long been branded a taboo vernacular. and clinical encounters. and not leadership. collegiality. pp. Students must be handed the awareness to develop a strong reason for learning. • Groups tend to polarize. Teachers must pay attention to individual motivation even when dealing with a group or team effort. etc. and trust. religion. classmate. 2000." Therefore. examples. religion. • The architecture (good acreage of campus and greeneries) of the school and the appearance of teacher are significant to learners. pp. 1 questionnaire. Promote Self-efficacy. syllabus. and be strategic in crossing them. Use multimedia to add spice and entertainment. Sometimes it is not bad for a teacher to deliberately make mistakes to forge some room for tolerance. Treat all learners equally regardless of age. Teacher's calling Apparently. 4 Future is vague. national origin. investigational. Pay attention to their own boundaries. • Generation gap and uneducated parenthood is another visible deterrent in class. they self. and create realistic learner beliefs. Insightful teachers provide opportunities for scaffolding student's morale.. Do mentoring. Bailey (1995. Be innovative and improvisational (the teacher is not to be a slave to the material). unless teachers increase their learners' goal-orientedness. 3 A typical Iranian starts with cynicism against a new environment. Do calisthenics/physical exercises to elevate livelihood. Self-regulate (students take responsibility for their own learning). professional and life pursuits are in accord. make curriculum relevant for them. we cannot be sure that the teaching content will contribute directly to language learning. A teacher is to reduce Sheep effect – Reaction of a child to falling down depends on parent's reaction – through a compassionate class setting. Commit the time and energy to their studies necessary to achieve the goals and objectives of each course. race. Teachers are to encourage critical thinking and social negotiation. The free exchange of ideas results in less polarization. • Students start the day in a down mood and gloomy faces. not coercion. and to draw the students out rather than quiet them down. 4) strikingly puts it. and fellow-feeling and teamwork are promoted. disability. national origin. (Fontana. Real teaching promotes student ownership of learning. disability. professional manner. etc. A teacher should promote attributions to effort rather than to ability. p. Learn that fear and anxiety are natural responses to precarious learning situations. is strong. Learners should acquire sufficient analytic skills to perceive. teacher. etc. • Classroom climate should support learner's autonomy. still there's no guarantee for their materialization. Learner's calling Students may take the following steps as measures to alleviate the hardships of learning and elevate the joy of it.. 1992. Even if students' academic.observe. • Students don't want their school sufferings be re-experienced in university. • Iconoclasticism is not much welcomed in the society. • Hesitancy is what dominates learners' characters. Solve problems/Draw conclusions. (what I wish to call "Moonlighting Syndrome") • Shortage of time to study and rehearse is noisome. Good teachers give multiple representations of content—analogies. • Students when confused are inhibited from asking questions or posing a critique. • Lack of concentration has reasons outside the classroom. Develop stewardship as an organizational ethic and practice. They must balance intellectual and emotional components of leaning. Be appreciative. They can: Value their goals against the class syllabus. • Shyness has been a virtue in Persian culture which won't work in English classes. teachers are invited to heed the following: The teacher first has to mend the psychology of students. Lay a foundation of transcendent values. Mentally visualize a performance or its outcome. the teachers' utopian expectations are to subside a bit. etc. Students must be allowed to contribute in the class tasks. And as Ellis (1985. atmosphere relaxes spasms of all kinds. Raise questions.ir Inhibition Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching matter of choice. Share feelings and thoughts with learners but not dominate them.SID. but to rebel the quiet.. so Needs Analysis is paramount. • Volunteerism is low in Iran. or the learning environment in a respectful. ethnicity. ". in an (Iranian) academic setting: 1 Workshops are better class settings. sweet home!"). 20-21) links anxiety to competitiveness. • A group really must be a group and not a fabricated set of individuals. self-assess and self-reinforce themselves. teachers. Start small and build momentum.46 Archive of SID 47 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. Establish an atmosphere of mutual respect. Teachers are preferred to schedule the time artfully. Help them feel at home (as if they come to class and say "Home. Use the language of thinking. • Distance Education / e-learning in some students lessens inhibitions. categorize. They typically follow suit. Welcome biculturality. 42-43) The instructor can help reciprocal teaching. • Sense of inferiority (as the ill result of comparing oneself with others) is lethal. Overcome various learning/teaching distances to increase learning. • EFL Students like to turn into good speakers of English soon. Self-monitoring and automaticity should be promulgated. 2 Some students envisage a discrepancy between an idealized self-image and a realistic selfassessment. Communicate concerns/suggestions about the curriculum. ethnicity.unless we know for certain that the teacher's scheme of things really does match the learner's way of going about things. Teachers should endeavor not to quiet the rebel. Find partners. and withdrawal from the language learning experience when the competition was overpowering. Hence. Use L1 as a benefactor in fostering a positive affective . with respect and fairness (to make a myth of teacher's pet phenomenon). Be on time for didactic. Be judicial. Teachers should foster the belief that competence is a changeable aspect of development. Deploy language consciously. • Students like the concept of exam to be eliminated. Ice-breaking students are rare. gender. not just teaching. • The tuition and monetary issues are excruciating. Respect people's inhibitions. • Numerous responsibilities interfere in an individual's mind. No doubt an amiable. somebody has to energize them first and that's the poor teacher. cited in Hedge. Teachers must provide motivational feedback to arouse refractory students. not rival. if not relinquished. • Hyper correction on the part of learners and spot-checking on the part of teachers would aggravate inhibitions.

• Students when confused are inhibited from asking questions or posing a critique. A teacher can reduce classroom anxiety by making the learning context less stressful. we cannot be sure that the teaching content will contribute directly to language learning. Use the language of thinking. Teachers should foster the belief that competence is a changeable aspect of development. etc. Students must be handed the awareness to develop a strong reason for learning. Be appreciative. Sometimes it is not bad for a teacher to deliberately make mistakes to forge some room for tolerance. and trust. or the learning environment in a respectful. Be innovative and improvisational (the teacher is not to be a slave to the material). race. Ice-breaking students are rare. Recognize that learning is a 47 ArchiveInhibition of SID Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching matter of choice. 2 Some students envisage a discrepancy between an idealized self-image and a realistic selfassessment. and withdrawal from the language learning experience when the competition was overpowering. Teacher's calling Apparently. gender. • Students start the day in a down mood and gloomy faces. Pay attention to their own boundaries.. Learn to see diversity as an asset. Overcome various learning/teaching distances to increase learning. investigational.observe. Start small and build momentum. etc. national origin. if not relinquished. ethnicity. Raise questions. race. Do mentoring. not rival. Deploy language consciously. Learn that fear and anxiety are natural responses to precarious learning situations. Hence. 4) strikingly puts it. Welcome biculturality. they self. • EFL Students like to turn into good speakers of English soon. and to draw the students out rather than quiet them down. • Groups tend to polarize. • Pure grammar has proved boring. • Classroom climate should support learner's autonomy. Teachers should endeavor not to quiet the rebel. • Students don't want their school sufferings be re-experienced in university. • Specific goals usually result in greater performance than vague goals. • Hyper correction on the part of learners and spot-checking on the part of teachers would aggravate inhibitions.. cited in Hedge. Students must be allowed to contribute in the class tasks. Assess and measure events. 1992. didactic methods. They must balance intellectual and emotional components of leaning. (Fontana. and create realistic learner beliefs. is strong. the teachers' utopian expectations are to subside a bit. (what I wish to call "Moonlighting Syndrome") • Shortage of time to study and rehearse is noisome. • The tuition and monetary issues are excruciating. Establish an atmosphere of mutual respect. Commit the time and energy to their studies necessary to achieve the goals and objectives of each course. examples. • Iconoclasticism is not much welcomed in the society. and be strategic in crossing them. Teachers are preferred to schedule the time artfully. Solve problems/Draw conclusions. Stewardship. • A group really must be a group and not a fabricated set of individuals. Treat all learners equally regardless of age." Therefore. ethnicity. 1 questionnaire. teachers are invited to heed the following: The teacher first has to mend the psychology of students. • Shyness has been a virtue in Persian culture which won't work in English classes. Find partners.. • Sense of inferiority (as the ill result of comparing oneself with others) is lethal. • Lack of concentration has reasons outside the classroom. etc. Mentally visualize a performance or its outcome. Use multimedia to add spice and entertainment. Promote Self-efficacy. not just teaching. 1 No. Learners should acquire sufficient analytic skills to perceive. Lay a foundation of transcendent values. Negotiation of meaning is far more accessible in such classes. 20-21) links anxiety to competitiveness. sweet home!"). And as Ellis (1985.46 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. teacher. Be on time for didactic. Treat all fellow learners and teachers with respect and fairness regardless of age. unless teachers increase their learners' goal-orientedness. classmate. professional and life pursuits are in accord. Self-regulate (students take responsibility for their own learning). gender. • Generation gap and uneducated parenthood is another visible deterrent in class. Real teaching promotes student ownership of learning. in which sole-speaker teaching and sole-hearer learning are relegated. religion. Respect people's inhibitions. A teacher can increase learner satisfaction. • Distance Education / e-learning in some students lessens inhibitions. and not leadership. Help them feel at home (as if they come to class and say "Home. categorize. They can: Value their goals against the class syllabus. they will come up against a classroom environment fraught with lack of cohesiveness. disability.unless we know for certain that the teacher's scheme of things really does match the learner's way of going about things. Be judicial. Good teachers give multiple representations of content—analogies.ir . make curriculum relevant for them. with respect and fairness (to make a myth of teacher's pet phenomenon). 4 Future is vague. A teacher should promote attributions to effort rather than to ability. • Numerous responsibilities interfere in an individual's mind. pp. Communicate concerns/suggestions about the curriculum. • Hesitancy is what dominates learners' characters. so Needs Analysis is paramount. somebody has to energize them first and that's the poor teacher. Be prepared for a long journey and don't embark alone. Share feelings and thoughts with learners but not dominate them. Teachers must provide motivational feedback to arouse refractory students. disability. • The architecture (good acreage of campus and greeneries) of the school and the appearance of teacher are significant to learners. A teacher is to reduce Sheep effect – Reaction of a child to falling down depends on parent's reaction – through a compassionate class setting. still there's no guarantee for their materialization. and store the linguistic data. p.SID. religion. Use L1 as a benefactor in fostering a positive affective www. etc. Even if students' academic. Teachers must pay attention to individual motivation even when dealing with a group or team effort. 2000. and fellow-feeling and teamwork are promoted. collegiality. atmosphere relaxes spasms of all kinds. No doubt an amiable. teachers. Teachers are to encourage critical thinking and social negotiation.. pp. Develop stewardship as an organizational ethic and practice. Learner's calling Students may take the following steps as measures to alleviate the hardships of learning and elevate the joy of it. ". Do calisthenics/physical exercises to elevate livelihood. Insightful teachers provide opportunities for scaffolding student's morale. but to rebel the quiet. Self-monitoring and automaticity should be promulgated. syllabus. Bailey (1995. not coercion. national origin. professional manner. in an (Iranian) academic setting: 1 Workshops are better class settings. 3 A typical Iranian starts with cynicism against a new environment. fairness. • In a society where few tourists commute and the English language has long been branded a taboo vernacular. self-assess and self-reinforce themselves. and clinical encounters. • Students care more about the form rather than the content. They typically follow suit. • Students like the concept of exam to be eliminated. 42-43) The instructor can help reciprocal teaching. The free exchange of ideas results in less polarization. • Volunteerism is low in Iran. often focusing on what a successful performance feels like (Mental Imagery/Practice.

…………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 11. 1 No.48 Archive of SID 49 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. Nunan. he or she must be cognizant of affective variables--and inhibitions. (1993). W.).134. 3 rd ed. Duff (Ed. Longman. S. Oxford: OUP.SID. what goes on in the mind and soul of learners. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 325-337. Cook. Oxford: OUP. but look pedagogic. (1988). Alatis (Ed. a poor teacher hurts 130". (1988).C. What facet of English most absorbs you? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 6. Allow learners to generate their own tasks. Whitaker. Hedge. N. D. (1992). above all. After word This article has pecked on the less visible aspect of pedagogy." Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) 15(2). Humanism in language teaching. E. "Competitiveness and anxiety in adult second language learning: Looking at and through the diary studies " in Brown. (2002). & Bruckman.M. T. Stevick. …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 7. . Teachers should not sound pedantic. Describe an ideal teacher. In more explicit words. Second language learning and language teaching. Shafiee Nahrkhalaji. 61. (1996). How Languages Are Learned. T. (Third Edition). (1983). R. therefore it wishes to fuel the intent of coming researchers to perform a more thorough investigation in hopes of promoting EFL education. (2002). Describe your ideal academic setting? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 10. J. What is the best and the worst thing about your language class? ……………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 5.& Schmidt. 325-337. Brown. Oxford: OUP. or other hindrances are there in your learning procedure? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 9. London: BPS & Methuen. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. References Bailey. 1 environment to restore student's security and class camaraderie. I feel hesitant / comfortable / confident / talkative / cooperative / shy / afraid Why? ……………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 2. D. (Third Edition). A. P. H. (2000).…………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 4.e. Managing to learn.Inc. 109. especially in countries where English is seen as hegemonic. (2003). Explorations in teacher raining—problems and issues (1-10). Richards. When meeting speakers of English I avoid conversation / switch to my vernacular / just listen / find faults / employ body language instead / use affected language / use jargon /volunteer to speak 3. Incorporate elements of surprise and suspense in your teaching. Khorasgan Branch. Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. (1977). How well do you know yourself? What kind of personality are you? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 8. Motivation and personality. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. K. Isfahan: Islamic Azad University. Modern Language Journal. The first International House Preparatory Course—An historical overview. Describe the steps you take when applying English in whatever form.). particularly in Iran. cultural. Maslow. Curran. R. IL: Apple River. Individual learners. (2nd Ed. Heinle & Heinle. P. A good teacher is like a healer who first has to come to a right pathological diagnosis and then administer his or her prescription to the class. In using the foreign language in conversation. (2000). Ehrman. Second language teaching and learning. Haycraft. C. The teacher should balance personality differences by ensuring an equal share of attention and opportunity to contribute. Encourage learner choice and discover students' latent talents. Comment on your feelings about studying English. In T. (1976). Principles of language learning and teaching (Third Edition) New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. (1995). Fontana. (19700. Why should we study a foreign language at all? . London: Arnold Crozier. "IRC Francais: The creation of an internet-based SLA community. Employ ethics in the EFL Classroom as a tool to blur the divide between student and teacher.ir Inhibition Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching Questionnaire (Designed by the researchers) Dear Researchee! Please expend your utmost honesty and responsiveness in answering the following questions to add an anonymous footprint on the route of education! Data about attitude toward EFL learning with the orientation of INHIBITIONs: 1.--in his or her teaching. (1997). 61. R. J. Oxford: OUP. (Third Edition). Help learners identify their own preferred styles and strategies. Inc. Apple River. & Spada. USA . M. Ellis. New York: Harper & Row. Understanding second language acquisition. London: Longman. This piece of work is by no means immaculate. so that students get curious over the subject matter. J. (1994). D. Classroom control. V. Hudson. (1985). Inhibition. www. Cassell. "A natural approach to second language acquisition and learning " in Modern Language Journal. Lightbown. M. D. Counselling-learning in second languages. i. Perhaps Ernest Boyer can best wrap this article in his handsome metaphoric notion: "A poor surgeon hurts one person. How close or remote are you from a vintage student? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 12. (2003). What social. A. 'Ego boundaries revisited: Toward a model of personality and learning' in J. Encourage learners to use their second language outside the classroom. London: Routledge. Terrell. (2001). ) Georgetown University Round Table on Language and Linguistics. Principles of Language Teaching and Learning .

(2003). (1996). After word This article has pecked on the less visible aspect of pedagogy. Individual learners. N. New York: Harper & Row. London: Routledge. London: Longman. Duff (Ed. Oxford: OUP. Inhibition.--in his or her teaching. Managing to learn. Describe your ideal academic setting? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 10. H. Maslow. IL: Apple River. 61. (1976). Stevick. R. In T.48 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. Principles of Language Teaching and Learning . D. Nunan. Allow learners to generate their own tasks. 'Ego boundaries revisited: Toward a model of personality and learning' in J. Understanding second language acquisition. 325-337. Ehrman. (1977). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. (2001). R. i. (1988). so that students get curious over the subject matter. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. a poor teacher hurts 130". Hudson. Terrell. E. 61. USA . Principles of language learning and teaching (Third Edition) New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. particularly in Iran. 109. Why should we study a foreign language at all? www.e. "Competitiveness and anxiety in adult second language learning: Looking at and through the diary studies " in Brown. "IRC Francais: The creation of an internet-based SLA community. …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 11. Richards. he or she must be cognizant of affective variables--and inhibitions. Shafiee Nahrkhalaji. 3 rd ed. In more explicit words. & Bruckman. (Third Edition). 49 ArchiveInhibition of SID Revisited in EFL Learning/Teaching Questionnaire (Designed by the researchers) Dear Researchee! Please expend your utmost honesty and responsiveness in answering the following questions to add an anonymous footprint on the route of education! Data about attitude toward EFL learning with the orientation of INHIBITIONs: 1. Employ ethics in the EFL Classroom as a tool to blur the divide between student and teacher. M. but look pedagogic. Modern Language Journal. Cook. Khorasgan Branch. Perhaps Ernest Boyer can best wrap this article in his handsome metaphoric notion: "A poor surgeon hurts one person. What is the best and the worst thing about your language class? ……………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 5. Alatis (Ed. V.C. D.134. above all. When meeting speakers of English I avoid conversation / switch to my vernacular / just listen / find faults / employ body language instead / use affected language / use jargon /volunteer to speak 3. (2000). Comment on your feelings about studying English. (2000). London: Arnold Crozier. . Hedge.Inc. & Spada. M. I feel hesitant / comfortable / confident / talkative / cooperative / shy / afraid Why? ……………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 2. How close or remote are you from a vintage student? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 12. Haycraft. especially in countries where English is seen as hegemonic. cultural. (Third Edition). This piece of work is by no means immaculate. Curran. J. Cassell. Inc. Oxford: OUP.…………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 4. (1995).).).& Schmidt. (Third Edition). therefore it wishes to fuel the intent of coming researchers to perform a more thorough investigation in hopes of promoting EFL education. (1988). Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 7. 1 environment to restore student's security and class camaraderie. (1985). (2002). Counselling-learning in second languages. (1994). A. 1 No. Describe an ideal teacher. The teacher should balance personality differences by ensuring an equal share of attention and opportunity to contribute. How Languages Are Learned. Teachers should not sound pedantic. what goes on in the mind and soul of learners. Motivation and personality. Brown. How well do you know yourself? What kind of personality are you? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 8. K. Fontana. W. Second language teaching and learning. T. 325-337. D.SID. T.ir . S." Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) 15(2). J. In using the foreign language in conversation. Apple River. (1993). Describe the steps you take when applying English in whatever form. London: BPS & Methuen. P. Humanism in language teaching. A good teacher is like a healer who first has to come to a right pathological diagnosis and then administer his or her prescription to the class. What facet of English most absorbs you? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 6. Oxford: OUP. The first International House Preparatory Course—An historical overview. P. Encourage learners to use their second language outside the classroom. J. (2002). References Bailey. Longman. Help learners identify their own preferred styles and strategies. (1983). Whitaker. Classroom control. (1997). Ellis. (1992). Incorporate elements of surprise and suspense in your teaching. "A natural approach to second language acquisition and learning " in Modern Language Journal. Oxford: OUP. ) Georgetown University Round Table on Language and Linguistics. (19700. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Lightbown. or other hindrances are there in your learning procedure? …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 9. Isfahan: Islamic Azad University. C. Explorations in teacher raining—problems and issues (1-10). Heinle & Heinle. R. A. D. What social.M. Encourage learner choice and discover students' latent talents. (2003). (2nd Ed. Second language learning and language teaching.

M. Head of ELT Department. Shahid Sattari Air Force University (Conscrpt Teacher). Content oriented education. It affects not only humans but also all organisms on the planet (animals and vegetables). Central Tehran Branch). Teachers and principals found it time-consuming. translated and edited a couple of books and articles. hard to implement. Introduction In our ever-changing world. Roudehen. Tehran south Branch Mahdavinia@mahdavischool. Number 1. and hard to explain it to government officials. UNICEF. composed. he carried out a number of research projects. South Tehran Branch 18 years of Teaching and Translating and Interpreting: Islamic Azad Universities of Lar.org Received 88/10/07 Thank you. known as “Global Education. Key Words: Global education. In addition. The results of this study suggested that the Iranian future curriculum should emphasize present and future needs. Translation (Islamic Azad University. South Tehran Branch. teachers and principals also found global education ambiguous. Animation). They also established relationships with their peers. During the 18 years.A.SID. Islamic Azad University. what is indeed inseparable from life. Holistic education. a participatory and collaborative approach to learning. My performance in presence of others: is facilitated / flutters / is impeded / is not affected at all / is exaggerated 15. No matter how we look at the issue. School of Media Studies (Journalistic Interview. Tehran. Art University (ESP Cinema. participatory and collaborative approach to learning. Faculty of Teacher Education. TEFL (Islamic Azad University. Spring 2010 Ahmad Mohseni is an assistant professor at the Islamic Azad University. Cultural Heritage University www. Iran) Faculty Member.” with UNICEF’s participation. but enjoyed the process as well.ir Accepted 89/02/01 ABSTRACT In 2000. AN EVALUATIVE CASE STUDY OF THE UNICEF GLOBAL EDUCATION PROJECT IN IRAN Mehdi Mahdavinia Assistant Professor The University of Azad. Theater. South Tehran. 1 To meet a new horizon / To satisfy the ego / To look down on others / For work / For prestige / for humanitarian reasons / Language for language's sake / Explain ………………………………………… …………………………………………………… …………………………………………………… 13. is change. Shiraz). this author evaluated the implementation of global education on Iranian learners in two provinces: Sistan-Baluchistan and Tehran. In the class I am passive / feel responsible / want to show off / don't feel bonded An Evaluative Case Study Of The Unicef Global Education Project In Iran Journal of Language and Translation Volume 1. Lecturer. In 2001. Folks! Alireza Ameri. both locally and globally. Teacher-centered education. USA. (From 2002 up to now).A. B. However. What is your feeling when a classmate performs fairly well? Admiration / Jealousy / Envy / Nonchalance / Anger / Humility / Awakening 14. an evaluation of Iranian elementary education revealed that it did not successfully prepare students for the future. PhD Student TEFL (Science and Research Branch. global education's philosophy and content hardly complied with Islamic teachings. Emphasis on learners as self affricate Iranians and their ability to establish global relationships is more important than any other immediate or long-term program for education in Iran. Islamic Azad University.50 Archive of SID 51 Journal of Language and Translation Vol. 1 No. whether through the eyes of biblical and Koranic believers—who emphasize creation and the Adam . The failure was attributed to the teacher centered. the Iranian Ministry of Education began a pilot project that introduced an alternative curriculum. and took part in a number of conferences and seminars inside and outside the country. South Tehran Branch. News register). Global education. proposes a holistic curriculum that encompasses all dimensions of learning. as well as other aspects of the ecology. The data showed that the pupils not only learned life skills and the importance of sustain ability. In a qualitative case study. content-oriented education system. He is appointed as an invitee professor of American Global University (College of Education) in the State of Wyoming. pupils. the main focus of government policy-makers. Islamic Azad University. parents and teachers.