Microbial Physiology

Microbial Cell Structure

RAHMAD LINGGA, S.Si, M.Si

Prokariot ( karakter khas)
• tanpa organella bermembran
• kompartemenisasi (pengelompokan senyawa
dlm unit fungsional) untuk maksimalisasi kinerja
dan efisiensi (non overlapping)
• cth: kompleks multienzim sitoplasma, respirasi

Structure and function
STRUCTURE

FUNCTION

Cell Wall

protects the cell and gives shape (5-20 atm resistant)

Outer Membrane

protects the cell against some antibiotics (only present
in Gram negative cells)

Cell Membrane

regulates movement of materials into and out of the cell;
enzymes of respiration

Cytoplasm

contains DNA, ribosomes, and organic compounds

Chromosome

carries genetic information inherited from past
generations

Plasmid

contains some genes obtain through genetic
recombination

Capsule, and slime
layer

protects the cell (immune attack) and assist in attaching
the cell to other surfaces

Endospore

protects the cell against harsh environmental conditions,
(heat or drought)

Pilus (Pili)

attaching to other surfaces (for genetic recombination)

Flagellum

moves the cell

For lecture only

BC Yang

Appendages
 Untuk mobilisasi dan kolonisasi
 flagella, fimbriae, pili,

Glikokaliks
 Material ekstra dinding sel
 Untuk attachment dan proteksi fagositosis
 kapsul, S-Layer, slime layer

Dinding sel
 Menjaga turgor sel

Prokaryotic Structure
Cell Wall
•Gram Negative
•Gram Positive
•Peptidoglycan (Murein)
•Polymer of two altering sugar
derivatives
•Have short amino acid chains
running off the polymer
•Polymers are connected with
cross links that connect the
amino acid chains

The main component of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan, a hydrated,
semi-rigid polymer of two sugar derivatives: N-Acteylglucosamine (G) and NAcetylmuramic acid (M). Bound to the sugar M are amino acids: Alanine -Glutamic acid -- Meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) (Gm-) or Lysine (Gm+) -Alanine.

Glucosamine?

For lecture only

BC Yang

Teichoic acid
Are found exclusively in gram positive organisms. Are formed as
polymers of glycerol or ribitol through phosphodiester linkages.

http://www.cvm.uiuc.edu/courses/vp331/Structures_in_pathogenesi1.html

BC Yang

A very complex net

http://www.arches.uga.edu/~kristenc/cellwall.html

Synthesis of cell wall:
The assembly of the wall components begins with the synthesis of precursors in the
cytoplasm, their transport across the cell membrane, and their final polymerization.
Eventually, penicillin-binding proteins catalyze covalent reactions that result in the
extension, cross-linking between glycan strand, morphogenessis and eventual separation
of the murein sacculus.

For lecture only

BC Yang

Prokaryotic Structure
•Cell Wall
•Osmotic protection

•Outer Membrane
•Porin proteins

Prokaryotic Structure

•Outer Membrane
•Composed of
lipopolysaccharides
(LPS)

Gram negatif
• LPS tdd lipid A, core dan Oligosakarida (O antigen)
• Murein (lemak dengan protein n PG)utk mengikat
membran dengan PG
• PORIN (kanal senyawa khusus spt sintesis ATP)

PERIPLASMA
• Ruang antara PG n MS
• utk redoks, osmosis, transport solut n protein,
hidrolisis
• tdd oligosakarida, protein transpor, TonB, sitokrom,
enzim hidrolisis n detoksifikasi

Prokaryotic Structure
•Components of the Envelope
• Glycocalyx/Capsule and Slime layers

Capsules and slime layers
• Secreted by many species of both Gram + and Grambacteria
• Slime layer less rigid than capsule
• Usually made of high Mol. Wt. polysaccharide
Streptococcus pneumoniae), but some made of aminoacids (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia Pestis)
• Aid in attachment, protection from immune system of host,
formation of bio-films
• May contain K antigens, special carbohydrate structures
that help bacteria evade immune system
• Microbes with capsules sometimes very pathogenic (cause
disease) e.g., S. pneumoniae, B. anthracis, Y. Pestis

Prokaryotic Structure
S-Layer

Protein/glycoprotein
identical subunits

• S-layers are outermost layers in envelopes of some
Bacteria and Archaea (in both Gram+ and Gram-)
• In some Archaea, they take place of cell walls
• Are crystalline self-assembling structures of a single
protein or glycoprotein with spaces (holes) for transport
• Campylobacter use them to shield cells from immune
system

Prokaryotic Structure
Pili and fimbriae

• Short, filamentous surface
structures (usually in Gram-neg)
• Used for attachment (bio-films),
conjugation (sex-pilus)
• Some play role in pathogenesis
• Some maybe involved in crawling
motion called twitching motility,
but typically these structures are
not involved in locomotion
• Antigenic variation (Neisseria
gonococcus) allows microbes to
evade immune response

Structure of pili

• Many pilin genes all make some functional structure,
but vary in AA composition; need long NH2-terminal
a-helices that interact plus B-sheets that make up
outside of pilus

Prokaryotic Structure
•Motility
•Flagella

Prokaryotic Structure
•Flagella arrangement
•Monotrichous
•Amphitrichous
•Lophotrichous
•Peritrichous

Prokaryotic Structure

•Basal body
•Gram +

Prokaryotic Structure
• Basal body
•Gram -

How flagella are made

Prokaryotic Structure
•Filament
•Made of flagellin

Prokaryotic Structure
•Flagella and Bacteria movement
•Filament rotates to move bacteria

Prokaryotic Structure

•Flagella and Bacteria movement

Prokaryotic Structure

•The motor consists of moving and
non moving parts in the basal body
•Energy is derived from a proton
gradient

How flagella work
• Each flagella is semi-rigid
and movement occurs by
turning whole structure
(Propeller mechanism)
• Torque is generated by
moving H+ into cell
(Protonmotive force)
• Rotation of flagella can be
either clockwise (CW) or
counterclockwise (CCW) and
can be reversed by cell

SPIROSET
• Filamen aksial (endoflagella)
• Filamen membujur dalam periplasma
dan sebagian diluar membran
• 2 sampai 40 buah

Prokaryotic Structure
•Chemotaxis
•No attractant or repellant

Prokaryotic Structure
•Chemotaxis
•In presence of a chemical gradient (attractant)

Prokaryotic Structure
•Endospores
•Visible under the light microscope

Prokaryotic Structure
•Endospores
•Subcellular location
•Terminal
•Subterminal
•Central

Prokaryotic Structure
•Endospores
•Ultrastucure

Prokaryotic Structure
•Endospores
•Dipicolinic acid
•Calcium

•Endospore Formation
sporogenesis or sporulation

•Endospores
•germination

LIAS ATE
MAULIATE
MATUR SUWON
HATUR NUHUN
BUJUR
SYUKRON
TERIMAKASIH
THANKS
MERCY
BEDANKT
XIEXIE
DHANYAVAAD
VIELEN DANK