La Consolacion College Manila

Mendiola, Manila

“The Schism between East and West”

Researched/Prepared by: (TTH-11:00-12:30)
Albano, Erwin S.
Batino, Lawreine C.
De Jesus, Joricar
Mallari, Jamaecah Katrin M.
Mendoza, Angelica Mae R.
Dr. Teodolfo Santiago
August 4, 2016

What is Western Orthodox? II.OUTLINE: TOPIC: The Schism between East and West I. Crusades after Schism F.LEARNING DERIVED FROM THE GREAT SCHISM O References . What is Schism? B. Countries Involved During this Period B.1 Key Personalities Involved during Schism C. Main Issues and Tensions during Schism D. What is Eastern Orthodox? D. Aftermath/Effects of the Schism III. How Schism Started B. What is an Orthodox Church? C. SCHISM BETWEEN THE EASTERN AND THE WESTERN CHURCH A. Differences and Rituals between Eastern and Western Church E. DESCRIPTION A.

It may also be called the Orthodox Catholic Church. established and approved. usually belonging to an organization. B. more broadly. On the other hand.)  It is a Christian church and one of the oldest religious institutions in the world. catholic. of a separation between two or more people. much less the creation of such a group. C. It is also used of a split within a non-religious organization or movement or. or religious denomination.  However. in order to possess this character it must include besides the transgression of the commands of superiors. begun at the day of Pentecost with the descent of the Holy Spirit in the year 33 A. Catholic and Apostolic Church’ established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. Holy. and apostolic Church. movement. and division) is a division between people. conforming to what is generally or traditionally accepted as right or true.D. though desiring to remain a Christian. the Orthodox Christian Church. the one.I. established and approved. The Eastern Orthodox Church teaches that it is the ‘One. It is also known (especially in the contemporary West) as the Eastern Orthodox Church or the Greek Orthodox Church. The Orthodox Church is the one Church founded by Jesus Christ and his apostles. holy. DESCRIPTION A. What is an Orthodox Church?  “right belief” or “right praise”  Conforming to what is generally or traditionally accepted as right or true. the Bride of Christ. Anyone becomes a schismatic who. either public or private. to a dissenting group or a distinct sect. without going as far as the rejection of Christianity as a whole. rent. the Body of Christ.”. friends. schism does not necessarily imply adhesion. It practices . etc. What is Schism?  Schism (from the Greek ‘schisma’. rebels against legitimate authority. What is the Eastern Orthodox?  Eastern Orthodox: (The word “Orthodox” means “right belief” or “right praise. or simply the Church. lovers. denial of their Divine right to command. The word is most frequently applied to a split in what had previously been a single religious body. be it brothers. not every disobedience is a schism. such as the East–West Schism or the Great Western Schism.

However.  The official name of the Eastern Orthodox Church is the Orthodox Catholic Church.” The patriarch of Constantinople (Istanbul. the eastern churches were sometimes identified as "Greek" (in contrast to "Roman" or "Latin"). and is led by him and bishops who are held to be. the bishop of Constantinople is known as PRIMUS INTER PARES (the first amongst equals). the pope. Orthodox believers affirm the Trinity.what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles. but he has no power to interfere with the 12 other Orthodox communions. even before the great schism. Roman Catholics believe their church to be the one. It stands under the authority of the bishop of Rome. and many other biblical doctrines. It is the name by which the church refers to itself in its liturgical or canonical texts. and deacons.  The head of each Orthodox Church is called a “patriarch” or “metropolitan. through ordination. For this reason. bishops. Doctrine and sacraments are administered by the hierarchy of archbishops. and a few still consider them heretics. holy.  What is Western Church? Western Church or also called as Roman Catholicism comprises the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. possessing all the properties of the one. and apostolic church. in doctrine. D. The Eastern mindset is more inclined toward philosophy. the pope is considered the Vicar of Christ. the Bible as the Word of God. He is the closest thing to a counterpart to the Pope in the Roman Catholic Church. . Turkey) is considered the ecumenical—or universal —patriarch. Jesus as God the Son. and ideology. priests. Unlike the Pope. however. Like Catholics and Protestants. they have much more in common with Roman Catholics than they do with Protestant Christians. true church of Christ. mysticism. & official publications. and seeks to trace its origin back to the original apostles through an unbroken chain of apostolic succession. catholic. who is known as VICARIUS FILIUS DEI (the vicar of the Son of God). Greek was the most prevalent shared language in the demographic regions where the Byzantine Empire flourished. Orthodox thinkers debate the spiritual status of Roman Catholics and Protestants. successors of Peter and the apostles. He enjoys special honor. whereas the Western outlook is guided more by a practical and legal mentality. The Orthodox Church claims to be the one true church of Christ. As successor to Peter.

B. SCHISM BETWEEN THE EASTERN AND THE WESTERN CHURCH A. received the condemnation of Pope Felix III. In 484. In the early church three bishops stood forth prominently. the theological calmness of the West. The Pope soon broke off communion with all the eastern patriarchates. principally from the political eminence of the cities in which they ruled—the bishops of Rome. when the eastern patriarchs retroactively recognized Chrysostom as legitimate. who made increasing claims to preeminence. in 482.when the Byzantine Emperor Justin I recognised Acacius's excommunication.II. The schism was ended in 519 -. or rather the Roman idea of what was involved in it. the Church was split over Arianism. the Patriarchs of Alexandria. Concurrently. to insist upon it in times of irritation was to cause a schism. . It was first began from 343 to 398. the Church was in actuality diverging. Thus. Antioch. the Byzantine Emperor Zeno issued an edict known as the Henotikon. however. in contrast to the often violent theological disputes that troubled the Eastern patriarchates. The transfer of the seat of empire from Rome to Constantinople and the later eclipse of Alexandria and Antioch as battlegrounds of Islam and Christianity promoted the importance of Constantinople. when the Byzantine Emperor Arcadius deposed the Roman-backed Patriarch of Constantinople.over thirty years later -. and Antioch. Alexandria. John Chrysostom. the Pope excommunicated Acacius. Another conflict broke out when. a doctrine supported by many in the East. for they had countenanced Chrysostom's banishment. which sought to reconcile the differences between most of the Church (which believed that Jesus Christ had two natures: human and divine) and the monophysites (who believed that Jesus Christ had only a divine nature). Countries Involved During this Period   Byzantine Empire Roman Empire Why they are involved: The relation of the Byzantine Church to the Roman may be described as one of growing estrangement from the 5th to the 11th century. though rejected by the Pope in the West. A new controversy arose in 404. To press it upon the Eastern patriarchs was to prepare the way for separation. although technically reunited.  How Schism Started Before the Great Schism. the Patriarch of Constantinople who urged Zeno to issue the Henotikon. But this preeminence. The division was healed only in 415. and Jerusalem now embraced Miaphysitism and rejected the Council of Chalcedon. The edict. there were already tension between the east and west. was never acknowledged in the East. strengthened the position of the Roman popes. However.

From the Byzantine viewpoint. especially the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist.  Pope Leo IX . His citing of the Donation of Constantine in a letter to the Patriarch of Constantinople brought about the Great Schism between the Catholic and Orthodox churches.  Charlemagne – also known as the Charles the Great. Charlemagne’s crowning made the Byzantine Emperor redundant. The Eastern Church became the Greek Orthodox Church by severing all ties with Rome and the Roman Catholic Church — from the pope to the Holy Roman Emperor on down. and relations between the East and the West deteriorated until a formal split occurred in 1054. Main Issues and Tensions during Schism . The First Holy Roman Emperor. as Holy Roman Emperor in 800.1 Key Personalities Involved during Schism  Pope Saint Leo III . C.  Michael Cerularius – Became patriarch of Constantinople in 1043.He is best known for initiating the First Crusade (1096–99) and setting up the modern-day Roman Curia in the manner of a royal ecclesiastical court to help run the Church. this was a slap to the Eastern Emperor and the Byzantine Empire itself — an empire that had withstood barbarian invasions and upheld the faith for centuries. After Rome fell in 476. the first recognized emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier.  Pope Urban II . B.he crowned Charlemagne as Roman emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.Leo IX is widely considered the most historically significant German Pope of the Middle Ages. Byzantium was the only vestige of the Holy Roman Empire. He is noted for disputing with Pope Leo IX over church practices in respect of which the Roman Church differed from Constantinople. King of the Franks.Then Great Schism start when The Byzantine split with Roman Catholicism came about when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne.

the apology was formally accepted by Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople. Pope John Paul II extended a formal apology for the sacking of Constantinople in 1204. therefore he could not legitimately excommunicate Patriarch Cerularius. All five Patriarchs of the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church agreed that the Patriarch of Rome should receive higher honors than the other four.  The concept of Caesaropapism. Eastern innovations. The primary causes of the Schism were disputes over papal authority -.  Disputes over whether the Patriarch of Rome.  Certain liturgical practices in the west that the East believed represented innovation: use of unleavened bread for the Eucharist. centuries later. the Pope's legate. There is controversy over just how much this so-called "Caesaropapism" actually existed and how much was a fanciful invention. Michael Cerularius. and the Orthodox Patriarchate. should be considered a higher authority than the other Patriarchs. an action called non-canonical by the Eastern Church. which were physically separated much earlier when the capital of the empire was moved from Rome to Constantinople. This Fourth Crusade had the Latin Church directly involved in a military assault against the Byzantine Empire. how extensive that authority might be. they disagreed about whether he had authority over the other four and. The sacking of the Church of Holy Wisdom and establishment of the Latin Empire in 1204 is viewed with some rancor to the present day. the authority of Cardinal Humbertus. if he did." It should be noted that at the time of the mutual excommunications. This conflict led to the exchange of excommunications by the representative of Pope Leo IX and the Patriarch of Constantinople. in 1054 (finally rescinded in 1965) and the separation of the Roman Catholic and the Orthodox churches. The final breach is often considered to have arisen after the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204. a tying together in some way of the ultimate political and religious authorities.  Disputes in the Balkans over whether the Western or Eastern Church had jurisdiction. Pope Leo IX was dead.  The designation of the Patriarch of Constantinople as ecumenical patriarch (which was understood by Rome as universal patriarch and therefore disputed). In 2004. such as intinction (dipping) of the bread in the wine for Communion. were condemned several times by Rome but were never the occasion of schism. The catalysts of the Great Schism included: The insertion of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creed by the Roman church in direct violation of the command of the Council of Ephesus. by western European historians. each of which now claims to be "the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. Constantinople. and thus he had authority . Therefore. for example.the Roman Pope claimed he held authority over the four Eastern patriarchs. while the four eastern patriarchs claimed that the primacy of the Patriarch of Rome was only honorary. the Pope. had ceased.

Pope Leo IX sent three legates.only over Western Christians -. which resulted in the Photian schism (867). In retaliation the name of the pope of Rome was dropped from the diptychs. including variance over liturgical practices and conflicting claims of jurisdiction. and insisted on enforcing Latin customs. The development of church order in the West made the pope of Rome the strong monarchical bond of unity throughout the Western world. Cerularius summoned his 20 metropolitans and anathematized “the impious document and its authors. economic. and Pope Nicholas I. However. led by Cardinal Humbert. On July 16. Photius had condemned the primacy of the pope of Rome and the use of the Filioque as unacceptable to the Christian East. The court theologians of Charlemagne considered the Eastern Christians to be heretics because the latter refused to admit the word Filioque into the Creed. East-West issues crystallized in a quarrel between Photius. Under strong reforming popes such as Gregory VII. In 800 Charlemagne was crowned by the Pope as the new emperor of the Roman Empire. cultural. or lists of those patriarchs with whom a patriarchal church was in communion. Differences and Rituals between Eastern and Western Church Causes of the schism included political. Photius was eventually recognized by the pope as the legitimate successor of Patriarch Ignatius after the latter’s death in 877. less significant catalysts for the Schism. This claim was ignored in the East. Comparing & Contrasting Eastern Orthodox & Roman Catholics: . the papacy claimed jurisdiction over all Christian churches. while the Greeks viewed the introduction of that doctrine into the Nicene-Constantinople Creed as unforgivable. and friendly relations still continued between the churches.and over the insertion of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creed. There were other. Communication between the Greek-speaking East and the Latin West broke down as church and other leaders in each no longer spoke or read the language of the other half of the Christian world.” This seemed to be more a personal quarrel than an excommunication. which was under Byzantine control. to Cerularius. In 1009 the Filioque clause was made an essential part of the Latin profession of faith. The East had no comparable structure. D. Patriarch Michael Cerularius retaliated in 1052 by closing the Latin churches in Constantinople. and social as well as theological differences that originated before 1000. patriarch of Constantinople. The political unity of the Mediterranean world was shaken and finally destroyed through the barbarian invasions in the West and the rise of Islam in the East. the church was administered by a hierarchy whose members were considered equals. The Normans conquered the southern part of Italy. 1054. Humbert laid upon the altar of Hagia Sophia a bull of excommunication of Cerularius and his partisans. In the 11th century other factors aggravated these differences. In 1054. but he was not recognized by the Byzantine Greeks.

Rituals: There are seven sacraments in both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. In the Roman Catholic Church. One observable difference in ritual between the two groups is seen in communion. during which the major Christian church separated into what became known as the Catholic Church in the west and the Orthodox Church in the east. including priests. 1054. While the Eastern Orthodox Church uses leavened bread. While there are many similarities between the two denominations. with none having authority over another. in A. and each patriarch is the administrative head over the Orthodox Church in a given geographic region. Then. This division culminated in the filioque controversy. the Roman Catholic Church emphasized the Trinity’s unity of essence.there are several levels of priesthood. nuns and various levels of bishops. but invisibly. and he sits atop of the Catholic Church’s organizational hierarchy. which was one of the primary theological triggers of the Great Schism. his virginal birth. the Bishop of Rome is called the Pope. The churches also differed on the perpetual virginity of Mary as well as the nature of original sin.Both the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church share many core beliefs. Each holds distinct beliefs about communion as well -. creating what is called the Great Schism. marriage. Within the Catholic Church. Beliefs: The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches share many core beliefs regarding Jesus Christ. he is considered Christ’s representative as the head of the Catholic Church on earth. The Eastern Orthodox Church is led by patriarchs. Both denominations also recognize the teachings expressed in the first seven ecumenical councils. confirmation. each has its distinguishing factors. Today. in both belief and practice. the Pope and the Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated. Structure: Both Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox churches use an hierarchical form of church government -. into the body and blood of Jesus Christ.For more than 1. While the Eastern Orthodox Church emphasized the distinct personhood of each member of the Trinity. communion. The refusal of the Eastern Orthodox Church to defer to the will of the Bishop of Rome was a primary political factor in the Great Schism. his death and subsequent resurrection. the practice of these sacraments in both churches is nearly identical in form and content. penance. These patriarchs are considered equals. At the root of the Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches was the ways in which the idea of the Trinity was expressed. including his divine and human natures. there was a single monolithic Christian church. . and his anticipated return to earth. monks. while the Roman Catholic Church believes that the bread and wine are transformed literally. holy orders and the anointing of the sick. the Roman Catholic Church uses unleavened bread.000 years.the Eastern Orthodox Church believes that Jesus Christ is mystically present in communion. These include baptism.D.

Like Gregory. Pope Urban II makes perhaps the most influential speech of the Middle Ages. Urban showed himself to be an adept and powerful cleric. but it came at an important time for Urban. When the Turks then threatened to invade the Byzantine Empire and take Constantinople. he made internal reform his main focus. Urban’s war cry caught fire. Not all who responded did so out of piety: European nobles were tempted by the prospect of increased land holdings and riches to be gained from the conquest. At the Council of Clermont. in France. (3) to marshal the energy of the constantly warring feudal lords and knights into the one cause of penitential warfare. when the Seljuk Turks took control of Jerusalem. with a cry of “Deus vult!” or “God wills it!” Those who undertook the venture were to wear an emblem in the shape of a red cross on their body (so derived the word Crusader – to mark with a cross). Urban denigrated the Muslims. Wanting to reinforce the power of the papacy. One cannot help but observe that the effort restored Papal Primacy and Christendom. (2) to heal the rift between Roman and Orthodox Christianity following the Schism of 1054. between 60. Urban seized the opportunity to unite Christian Europe under him as he fought to take back the Holy Land from the Turks. Urban delivered a rousing speech summoning rich and poor alike to stop their infighting and embark on a righteous war to help their fellow Christians in the East and take back Jerusalem. exaggerating stories of their anti-Christian acts. Christians were barred from the Holy City. at which several hundred clerics and noblemen gathered. railing against simony (the selling of church offices) and other clerical abuses prevalent during the Middle Ages. the Holy Land—had become a point of conflict for European Christians. All told. History: On November 27.000 and 100. This was not the first appeal of its kind. Byzantine Emperor Alexius I made a special appeal to Urban for help. giving rise to the Crusades by calling all Christians in Europe to war against Muslims in order to reclaim the Holy Land.E. These nobles were responsible for the death of a great many innocents both on the way . and promised absolution and remission of sins for all who died in the service of Christ.000 people responded to Urban’s call to march on Jerusalem. 1095. Crusades After Schism Three reasons are primarily given for the beginning of the Crusades: (1) to reclaim the Land of Christ and stop the Moslem invasion. mobilizing clerics to drum up support throughout Europe for the crusade against the Muslims. By the end of the 11th century.

the County of Tripoli. Antioch. massacring many of the city's Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. Adding to the death toll was the inexperience and lack of discipline of the Christian peasants against the trained. first to Constantinople and then on towards Jerusalem. . The Crusaders arrived at Jerusalem. Journey and First Crusades During the crusade. and the County of Edessa. absorbing the riches and estates of those they conveniently deemed opponents to their cause. and Edessa were established. knights. As a result. They also established the crusader states of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The First Crusade was followed by the Second to the Ninth Crusades. The only successful Crusade (of eight major efforts) was the First. and only through sheer force of numbers were they eventually able to triumph. two weeks after the fall of Jerusalem but before news of the Christian victory made it back to Europe. the Principality of Antioch. Urban died in 1099. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was once again in Christian hands. formal Christian presence in the Holy Land ended. The four Crusader states of Jerusalem. 1193) recaptured Jerusalem in 1187. when the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in and in the Holy Land. and with the surrender of Acre in 1291. Tripoli. and captured it in July 1099. The four Crusader states eventually collapsed. launched an assault on the city. the Christians were initially beaten back. His was the first of seven major military campaigns fought over the next two centuries known as the Crusades. Richard the Lionheart (d. It was also the first major step towards reopening international trade in the West since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Urban was beatified by the Roman Catholic Church in 1881. 1199) of England negotiated a settlement with Saladin during the Third Crusade whereby Christian pilgrims were given free access to Jerusalem. the bloody repercussions of which are still felt today. when Saladin (d. The effort lasted only 88 years. peasants and serfs from many regions of Western Europe travelled over land and by sea. professional armies of the Muslims.

(Pope and Patriarch) •The Church had two different rituals. •Today. III. LEARNING DERIVED  Importance of respecting opinions or beliefs of each individual or group. (Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic) •The Church had two different leaders. •Different churches had different traditions and practices. REFERENCES: . Aftermath/Effects of Schism Impacts and Effects of Schism: •Early Christianity had two different churches. Continuation of the Effects of Schism: •Great Schism brought the separation of two churches. •Our faith in One God remains. we have different forms of churches.  Differences with each other’s tradition are inevitable which we should be open for as long as nobody’s harming each other. Pope meets with Patriarch.F. •Now. • There is only one God.  Significance of historical background of our religions and on why they are sacred for everybody up to this date.

org URL: http://www. Teodolfo Santiago.GotQuestions. PhD) Supplementary Notes (By: Mr.I.antiochian.gotquestions. Worship and Values of the Church URL:  Article Title: What is Roman Catholicism? .html doctrine- . Article Title: What Does Orthodox Mean?: The Doctrine.