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LABORATORY REPORT

CVE 4307
OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS
Experiment 5: Investigating the
Hydraulic Jump
Bachelor of Civil Engineering
(BCEGI)

Submission Date: 4 April 2016

OBJECTIVE

This experiment was carried out to investigate on the hydraulic


jump created by the downstream of a sluice gate.
Hence the following will be investigated:
1)
Whether a hydraulic jump can occur or not.
2)
Depths and velocity at the upstream and downstream.
3)
Energy loss through the hydraulic jump.

INTRODUCTION
Hydraulic jump is a phenomenon when a rapidly flowing stream
rapidly becomes a slower flowing stream in a larger cross-sectional area.
In other words, the flow is changed from super critical flow to subcritical
flow and there is a depth increase for a hydraulic jump to exist. Hence the
depth of flow in supercritical is less than the depth at sub critical flow
(after hydraulic jump occurs)
THEORY
Hydraulic Jumps can be observed in rivers, spillways, outfalls of
dams and irrigation works for example Undular jump, weak jump,
oscillating jump, steady jump and strong or choppy jump are among the
many
classifications
of
jumps
observed in open channels.

Hydraulic jump on a River


Hydraulic jump on a spillway

Possible applications of a jump include;


Dissipation of energy of water flowing over dams to prevent any
erosion that might happen due to the high velocity of flow.
Requirement of raising the levels in canals to enhance irrigation
practices and hence reduce pumping heads.
Reduce the uplift pressure under the foundations of hydraulic
structures.
(Abstract from : http://udel.edu)

The two equations that are used to describe the hydraulic jump are
conservation of mass and conservation of linear momentum.
Conservation of mass
Continuity equation is obtained by considering the basic equation Q=VA.
Since the flow rate is constant in section 1 and 2. Therefore,

Sluice gate and


possible jump situation

The sluice gate act as a barrier that somewhat blocks the inflow of
water in a rectangular channel, thus this blockage produces a subcritical
flow upstream of the gate, the gap (height of sluice gate) enables water to
travel downstream with a higher velocity thus the downstream flow is
supercritical. When supercritical flow is attained, regulating the stop logs
at exit will increase the water depth at the downstream end. This flow is
subcritical. Hence the transition from supercritical to subcritical flow takes
place through a hydraulic jump.
Q1 Q2
V1 A1 V2 A2

( width b same)

V1h1 V2 h2

Conservation of linear momentum


The equation is obtained by using Newtons second law, which states that
the net force acting on a body in any fixed direction is equal to the rate of
increase of momentum of the body in that direction.

D12
D2
g 2 Q (v2 v1 )
2
2

D2 1
8v 2
1 1 1
D1 2
gD1

D2 1

1 8F12 1
D1 2

Fx F1 F2 g

Note : Q is flow rate per unit width.


Fr
Here, we define

v1
gD1

and Fr is called the Froude Number.

When
Fr = 1 it is critical flow
Fr < 1 it is subcritical flow
Fr > 1 it is supercritical flow
Energy dissipation
The energy will be loss in the hydraulic jump and the energy loss is

( D2 D1 )3
H
4 D1D2

Hydraulic jump diagram with corresponding specific energy diagram for given
flow.

Location of the jump is one aspect that is needed to be determined


since it is a requirement that the channel be designed in such a way that
the jump is located at a particular place. The height of jump is expressed
as the difference in height of D2 and D1 as shown in the above diagram.
These depths are known as conjugate depths since they can be
interchanged and determined with use of one formula as follows.

D2

D1
1 8 F12 1
2

Where Fr12 is at depth D1

Where Fr12 is at depth D1

D1 is depth before jump

y1 is depth before jump

D2 is depth after jump.


Depth D1 can be alternatively used in place of D2 in the above formula
and determined. The length of jump is taken generally as six (6) times the
height of jump.

Fig.2
Fig 2. Shows the following region-specific characteristics (Kim, Choi, Park
and Byeon. April 2015):
Region 1: A supercritical flow region formed when water is discharged by
the sluice gate.
Region 2: Hydraulic jumps appear in this region in the discharged water
flow of the sluice gate.
Region 3: The discharged flow stabilizes after the hydraulic jumps.
Region 4: The upstream domain.
To rate the performance of a hydraulic we have to consider the Froude
number before the jump occurs. Froude number is calculated using the formula in the
theory part. Here is the classification of Froude number with respect to type of jump.
FR NUMBER

JUMP DESCRIPTION

< 1.0

No jump since flow is already subcritical

1.0 to
1.7

An undular jump, with about 5% energy


dissipation

1.7 to
2.5

A weak jump with 5% to 15% energy


dissipation

2.5 to

Unstable, oscillating jump, with 15% to

FR NUMBER

JUMP DESCRIPTION

4.5

45% energy dissipation

4.5 to
9.0

Stable, steady jump with 45% to 70%


energy dissipation

> 9.0

Rough, strong jump with 70% to 85%


energy dissipation

Apparatus
Gunt HM 160 Experimental flume

Schematic Diagram

PROCEDURE
-

The instrument was set up accordingly and the experiment was


carried out by keeping the height upstream water depth as the
control and discharge as variables.
Sluice gate was set at the height of 30mm initially and pump was
started initially the discharge amount was increased slowly.

Wait until water level rises to 200mm (as a control) to allow a short
interval of time between each adjustment of the pump to allow the
water level to stabilize.
Tail gate was adjusted to create a hydraulic jump in the centre of
section.
Then a supercritical flow can be seen throughout the entire length of
the channel. Let it run for a few more minutes to ensure stability.
Measure the heights yg, D1 and D2 by means of flow meter.
Increase the height of sluice gate by 5mm for and discharge was
varied to obtain initial water depth upstream of 200mm.
Hence the discharge that gives upstream water depth of 200mm
was noted as well as the height of yg, D1 and D2 was measured by
means of flow meter.
By increasing the height of sluice gate by 5mm the discharge was
varied for 6 times to calculate the depths accordingly and readings
were noted down.

DATA & RESULTS


Table: 1

#
1
2
3
4
5
6

Yg (m)
0.030
0.035
0.040
0.045
0.050
0.055

Yo
(m)
0.200
0.200
0.200
0.200
0.200
0.200

D1
(m)
0.0255
0.0300
0.0380
0.0450
0.0470
0.0550

D2
(m)
0.0810
0.0860
0.1000
0.1050
0.1070
0.1150

Note:
Breadth of weir:
0.364 m
Lj: is approximately 6 times height of
the jump
Y
g
Yo
D
1
D
2
Q
Hj
Lj

Height of gate opening


Upstream flow depth
Conjugate Depth
D1
Conjugate Depth
D2
Discharge
Height of Jump
Length of Jump
Energy Loss at
Jump

Q
(m3/s)
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.019
0.021

Hj
(m)
0.056
0.056
0.062
0.060
0.060
0.060

Lj
(m)
0.333
0.336
0.372
0.360
0.360
0.360

H (m)
0.021
0.017
0.016
0.011
0.011
0.009

CALCULATIONS
Table: 1
Taking the first reading from table 1;
The energy will be loss in the hydraulic jump is calculated using this
formula;

( D2 D1 ) 3 (0.0810 0.0255) 3
H

0.021m
4 D1 D2
4 0.0810 0.0255

Height of Jump = D2-D1 = 0.0255 - 0.0810 = 0.056m


Length of jump = 6 x 0.056 = 0.333m
All calculations for the remaining parts follow the same procedure as
above.

Table: 2
# D1 (m)

D2
(m)

V1
(m/s)

V2
(m/s)

Fr1

Fr2

D2
(Theoreti
cal)

Error
% D2

Hj

Error
% Hj

0.0255

0.081
0

1.29

0.41

2.58

0.46

0.0813

0.03

0.056

0.03

0.0300

0.086
0

1.28

0.45

2.36

0.49

0.0864

-0.04

0.056

0.04

0.0380

0.100
0

0.047

1.54

0.0450

0.105
0

1.07

0.46

1.62

0.45

0.0828

2.22

0.038

2.22

0.0470

0.107
0

1.11

0.49

1.64

0.48

0.0877

1.93

0.041

1.93

0.0550

0.115
0

1.05

0.50

1.43

0.47

0.0869

2.81

0.032

2.81

Average:

1.41

Avera
ge:

-1.40

9.81 m/s2

1.16

0.44

1.89

0.44

0.0846

1.54

CALCULATION
Table: 2
Taking the first reading from table 2;
Velocity before the jump (v1) and velocity after the jump (v2) are
calculated using this formula;

V1

Q
0.012

1.29m / s
A1 (0.0255 0.364)

Q
0.012

0.41m / s
A2 (0.0810 0.364)

V2

Froude number before and after the jump is calculated using the formula;
Fr1

1.29
2.58
0.0255 0.364
9.81
0.364

Fr 2

0.41
0.46
0.081 0.364
9.81
0.364

Sequent depth D2 after the jump is calculated using the formula;

D2

D1
2

1 8F 1 0.0255
1 82.58 1 0.0813m
2
2
1

Height of jump is calculated using the formula

D1 1 8F
Hj

2
1

0.0255 1 82.58

3D1

2
1

0.056m

30.0255

All calculations for the remaining parts follow the same procedure as
above.
Graphical Demonstration of Energy Loss against Depths

H vs D1
0.025
0.020
0.015

H /m 0.010
0.005
0.0200

0.0300

0.0400

D1 / m

0.0500

0.0600

H vs D2
0.025
0.020
0.015

H /m

0.010
0.005
0.0700

0.0800

0.0900

0.1000

0.1100

0.1200

D2 /m

DISCUSSION
The upstream depth was kept constant throughout the experiment, height
of the sluice gate was raised by 5mm for each readings. The discharge
was varied to enable the upstream depth of 200mm.
The basic requirement for hydraulic jump is there shall be a
change in flow condition. Since the upstream flow in in subcritical flow,
when the water passes under the sluice gate velocity increases and flow
changes from subcritical to supercritical flow. Towards the downstream the
water accumulates and flow changes to subcritical. Hence the hydraulic
jump occurs when the flow changes from supercritical to subcritical in the
downstream section. To check whether the flow is super or sub critical
Froude number is calculated. As we can see in table 2 the calculated
Froude number in the region of depth D1 is all above 1.0, thus confirming
the flow is supercritical. The calculated Froude number after the jump
where the depth is D2, is below 1.0, confirming the flow is subcritical. This
is verification that Fr number is the parameter controlling the hydraulic
jump.
The Froude number before the jump ranges from 1.7 to 2.5, hence we can
classify the jump as a weak jump with 5% to 15% energy dissipation
Calculated value for D2 is compared with theoretical value of D2
calculated using the experimental value of D1 as shown in the
calculations. As we can see the average error is about 1.41% which is less
than 5%, hence acceptable.
As well the height of jump is compared between experimental
and theoretical values obtained by using the Froude number and formula
mentioned above. The difference is about 1.4% < 5% hence acceptable.

As seen from the graphs, as D1 and D2 increase, the head loss decreases.
This is due to the fact that the energy loss values are lesser for
corresponding D1 and D2 values.
Precautions were taken in keeping the upstream depth as
constant throughout the experiment. When the discharge was varied it
was allowed to settle the flow prior to taking measurements and readings.
Depth reading were taken by ensuring the instruments was calibrated
properly.
Discrepancies were observed to be less for this experiment due
to the fact that the all collected data shows predictable results. That is to
say that Fr numbers were observed to be more than 1 for supercritical and
less than 1 for subcritical conditions. The check for D1 with conjugate
depth D2 yields results within acceptable range as the difference in
experimental and theoretical values are very small. However it should be
noted that minute changes in readings show significant changes being
made to the graph. Hence it is crucial to ensure that accurate reading be
taken for accurate analysis of results. Accuracy of the readings could have
been improved if multiple readings for each flow rate were taken and an
average determined.
CONCLUSION
The hydraulic jump has been investigated under controlled
conditions in the laboratory for varying values of flow. Jumps occur when
flow with higher velocities or subcritical conditions crosses the critical
depth and end in a zone with subcritical conditions. This is confirmed with
the Fr number determined as seen from the calculations.
Fr number is the parameter controlling the hydraulic jump. The
main aim of this experiment has been achieved where the analytical
method of determining a hydraulic jump has been observed. The results of
this experiment show a basic understanding of applications in theoretical
and practical solutions.
Hydraulic jumps, its locations and relevant data need to be
determined for a given set of parameters in design stages for a hydraulic
engineering application. Some designs require the application of a jump
while others require a jump to be eliminated.

References:
-

http://udel.edu/~inamdar/EGTE215/Jump_weirs.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_jumps_in_rectangular_channels
Properties of Hydraulic Jump Down Stream Sluice Gate

Hana A. Hayawi and Ahmed Y. Mohammed, 2010


Department of Water Resources, Engineering University of Mosul, Iraq
Sluice gate flow and hydraulic jump analysis by Gilberto E. Urroz,
September 2010
Hydraulic Jump and Energy Dissipation with Sluice Gate. Youngkyu Kim 1,
Gyewoon Choi 2, Hyoseon Park 2 and Seongjoon Byeon, 2015