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Literature Review

Now a days Television commercials (TVC) are most effective promotional tool of marketing.
Hence the affectivity of TVC depends of adequate attention given by the audience while they are
exposed to any TVC.
Earlier literature suggests that slotting advertisements at moments when a viewer is fully
involved with the content of the program is tactical. People watch TV for the purposes like
relaxation, information, recreation, education and so on and the satisfaction they get from
watching TV makes them want to watch more. Advertisements are worthless to advertisers
unless attention is paid to them by relevant audiences. Result found that heavy uses of
advertisements during TV programs are disliked by the audiences. As a result of disliking people
try to avoid TV (Pechu, 2014).
Advertisers need information not only on the size of their audiences ,but also on how their
viewers are reacting to their ads and the extent to which viewers are involved with, and attentive
to, what they are watching. This task is complicated by the growth of multi-channel television
markets, the introduction of new cable and satellite broadcasting services and the advances of
computer technology, all of which have contributed to an increase in ad avoidance behavior
(Gunter, 1994).
More recent ethnographic studies contribute to the understanding of which elements affect
viewing attention. (Byfield, 2000) used a virtual ethnographic study of seventeen families over a
two month period which revealed four elements influencing attention levels, Program
involvement, program length, time of day and solos viewing. A similar study by (Ritson et al.,
2003) filmed eight households over a two week period, analyzing viewing behavior in the second
week only. Six types of commercial break behavior were identified; social interaction, tasking,
reading, flicking, ad watching and advertising interaction. These findings suggest a range of
attention to commercial television breaks, from complete avoidance to full attention.
A common phenomenon during TV viewing is Ad avoidance. Advertising avoidance is defined
as all actions by media users that differentially reduce their exposure to ad content (Speck and

Elliot, 1997 p61). Avoidance may be physical (e.g. leaving the room), mechanical (e.g. switching
channels) and cognitive (e.g. ignoring the ad).
Television advertising has been a well-liked medium for advertisers ever since the TV first began
to come into view in living rooms. Numerous channels are available to audience and the
audiences are bombarded with ads. This increases the level of ad clutters on television
advertisements. The willingness to watch commercials in television is decreasing (Van Meurs,
1999) because of this clutter. All the ads are not noticed by the audience as well as not all the ads
are skipped by them, ads which have some entertainment value are liked, watched and
remembered by audience which is a welcome response for the ad makers. Bombardment of ads
creates an uncomfortable situation to the audience when they switch on the television and they
started avoiding ads. It is a big challenge for the ad men to retain the interest of the audience and
taking right decisions with regard to the selection of appropriate creative strategies and tactics in

Park, C. W., & Young, S. M. (1986). Consumer response to television commercials: The impact
of involvement and background music on brand attitude formation. Journal of marketing

Pechu, A. (2014). Attitudes of TV Audience Towards Commercial Interruption in TV

Programmes. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).Journalism and Mass Communication,
University of Buea, Cameroon.
Ritson, M., Brodin, K. and Barwise, P. (2003). An Ethnographic Study of the TV Advertising
Audience. EMAC Conference Proceedings, Glasgow
Van Meurs, L. (1999), Switching During Commercial Breaks. Hilversum: Intomart