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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter discusses and presents review of conceptual and research


literature, synthesis and conceptual framework that serve as the reference for the
development of the proposed study. It also includes the related studies that help
the proponents conceptualize and formulate the study.

Conceptual Literature
In this chapter, the proponents used different concepts to provide more
information about the study. It also includes the related studies that helped them
conceptualized and formulate the study.

(Suliman

Bin

Sarkawi

(2014)

http://portal.fke.utm.my/fkelibrary/files/fazidabintisuliman/2013/568_FAZIDA
BINTISULIMAN2013.pdf ) The Advent of Vending Machines. The world of
technology is always striving to reveal the latest inventions that affects the
human lives. One of these inventions is that of vending machines dispense
products to customers without the involvement of staff or human assistance on a
24-hour basis. Vending machines are one of the few things keeping people away
from the dream of a cashless society. The devices, which offer up an array of
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items for a little bit of pocket change. Are silent but prevalent. They represent
some of our most technologically advanced furniture, and theyll probably always
be there for us in our time of need.
According to Roberts (2001), vending machines are constructed primarily
from four major raw materials: galvanized steel, Lexan or other plastic, acrylic
powder coatings, and polyurethane insulation.
The bulk of the machine is constructed from galvanized steel ranging from
10 gauge to 22 gauge in thickness. The thicker gauges are used for the outside
cabinet, external doors, and internal tank. Thinner gauges are used for internal
doors and plates, can stacks, and mechanisms such as coin validators and
product trays.
(http://www.madehow.com/Volume-7/Vending-Machine.html)

Lexan,

tough polycarbonate plastic, is used in the front panels of the vending machine.
Lexan is very difficult to break, flame retardant, relatively easy to shape, and can
be treated to restrict UV rays, light, and heat transmission. Product logos, names,
and illustrations are silk-screened on Lexan sheets, which are installed in
channels in the doors of the vending machines.
Acrylic powder coatings are colored powders used to "paint" the surfaces
of vending machines. The powder is applied in a uniform layer and baked on
during the manufacturing process. Acrylic coatings withstand the rigors of
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weather and abuse better than paints that are applied wet. In addition, acrylic
powders more readily meet governmental environmental standards.
Polyurethane foam provides the insulation for the inside of the vending
machine. The foam is blown between the outer cabinet and internal tank of the
machine, where it cures into a very tough, rigid material. In addition to thermal
insulation, the stiff foam adds structural stability to both the cabinet and tank of
the machine.
Some manufacturers, such as Dixie-Narco, also make the complicated
electronic devices used in vending machines, while others purchase them premade and install them as part of the manufacturing process. These components
include bill and coin validators, computer control boards, refrigeration units, and
lighting.
Read

more: http://www.madehow.com/Volume-7/Vending-

Machine.html#ixzz4PnltEBvQ
(Introduction

to

Robotics,

H.

Harry

Asada

(https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mechanical-engineering/2-12-introduction-torobotics-fall-2005/lecture-notes/chapter3.pdf))
Robotics Mechanism as Used in Automated Vending Machine.

robot is a machine capable of physical motion for interacting with the


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environment. Physical interactions include manipulation, locomotion, and any


other tasks changing the state of the environment or the state of the robot
relative to the environment. A robot has some form of mechanisms for performing
a class of tasks. A rich variety of robot mechanisms has been developed in the
last few decades. In this chapter, we will first overview various types of
mechanisms used for generating robotic motion, and introduce some taxonomy
of mechanical structures before going into a more detailed analysis in the
subsequent chapters.
According to Asada (2013) A robot mechanism is a multi-body system with
the multiple bodies connected together. We begin by treating each body as rigid,
ignoring elasticity and any deformations caused by large load conditions. Each
rigid body involved in a robot mechanism is called a link, and a combination of
links is referred to as a linkage. In describing a linkage it is fundamental to
represent how a pair of links is connected to each other. There are two types of
primitive connections between a pair of links, as shown in Figure 3.1.1. The first
is a prismatic joint where the pair of links makes a translational displacement
along a fixed axis. In other words, one link slides on the other along a straight
line. Therefore, it is also called a sliding joint. The second type of primitive joint is
a revolute joint where a pair of links rotates about a fixed axis. This type of joint is
often referred to as a hinge, articulated, or rotational joint. Combining these two
types of primitive joints, we can create many useful mechanisms for robot
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manipulation and locomotion. These two types of primitive joints are simple to
build and are well grounded in engineering design. Most of the robots that have
been built are combinations of only these two types.

According to Staples (2015) A robotic arm can be any of a number of


mechanical, programmable devices that are designed to manipulate objects in a
way that is similar to the human arm. The robotic arm is one of the most useful
pieces of technology introduced in the 20th century, and quickly became a
foundation in many areas of manufacturing. It can be used for many different jobs
and functions that may be too tedious, difficult or dangerous for a human to do.
You might first think of the automobile industry when thinking about robotic arms,
but they can be used for many other useful tasks besides welding and painting
auto parts.

According to Smith (2013), Robot manipulators are created from a


sequence of link and joint combinations. The links are the rigid members
connecting the joints, or axes. The axes are the movable components of the
robotic manipulator that cause relative motion between adjoining links. The
mechanical joints used to construct the robotic arm manipulator consist of five
principal types. Two of the joints are linear, in which the relative motion between
adjacent links is non-rotational, and three are rotary types, in which the relative
motion involves rotation between links.
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(MargaretRouse(2012)http://internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com
/definition/microcontroller)

The Importance of Microcontrollers in an

Automated Vending Machine. A microcontroller is a compact microcomputer


design to govern the operation of embedded systems in motor vehicles, robots,
office machines, complex medical devices, mobile radio transceivers, vending
machines, home appliances and various other devices. A typical microcontroller
includes a processor, memory and peripherals.
The

proponents

use

raspberry

pi

as

the

as a main controller of the machine. It serves as a small computer where it is


connected to the touch screen monitor. It is also connected In the speaker for
voice commands. Raspberry Pi are more capable to use for sounds than arduino.
An arduino is a single-board microcontroller and a software suite for programming. It is
designed for an Atmel AVR processor and features on board I/O support. The software consists of
a standard programming language and the boot loader that runs on the board.
The Arduino microcontroller board has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 14 can be
used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal
oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains
everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB
cable or power it with an AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

The proponents used arduino for it to handle all the hardware used for
machine. Arduino are more capable for handling hardware because it is
purposely designed for manipulating hardware

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2014/10/21

aalmeida

(http://home.roboticlab.eu/en/microcontrollers) According to Aalmeda (2014)


Because of the broadness of robotics, we define it as hobby robotics; these
systems are not too complex, and it is possible to build them by oneself.
Common microcontrollers in hobby robotics are: Atmel AVR microcontrollers,
Microchip Technology PIC microcontrollers, and Microcontrollers based on ARM
technology. Quite often third parties have created development boards and
environments based on microcontrollers mentioned herein before. For example:
Arduino (AVR), BASIC Stamp (PIC) and Lego NXT (ARM). The necessities for
developing HomeLab that are described here are based on the AVR ATmega128
microcontroller. Generally we can classify the following four properties: - price,
physical characteristics, development environment and customer support.
Here the development environment is PC software, which allows creating
and compiling programs, uploading programs to the microcontrollers and bridging
in the programs during running in order to detect possible faults. How easy and
comfortable it is to do all that becomes decisive because during the development
phase of the program it will be the primary working area. All this leads to the
fourth characteristic, which is customer support. It is important that receiving help
and support for solving possible issues is made as easy as possible. By
considering all four mentioned properties , it should be possible to find the
development board needed.

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According to Dsnoell (2014) the Raspberry Pi was created with the goal of
enlightenment in mind. This ultra-tiny computer was designed to be small and
cheap so that schools could easily afford them in order to teach students about
computers in the classroom. This is great for two reasons, the first is that it
provides extremely cheap access to a computer, and second it is a great tool for
learning more about computers
According to Anderson (2010). With the Arduino Robot, you can acquire
skills in electronics, mechanics, and software. It is a tiny computer on wheels. It
comes with a number of of project examples you can easily replicate, and it is a
powerful robotics platform that you can hack to perform all sorts of tasks.
Servo Motor as a mechanism for Automated Vending Machine. A
Servo motor is a rotary actuator that allows for precise control of angular position,
velocity and acceleration. If you have a radio-controlled model car, airplane, or
helicopter, you are using at least a few servos. Servos also appear behind the
scenes in devices we use every day. Electronic devices use servos to extend or
retract the disc trays.
The simplicity of a servo is among the features that make them so reliable.
The heart of a servo is a small direct current (DC) motor, similar to what you
might find in an inexpensive toy. These motors run on electricity from a battery
and spin at high RPM (rotations per minute) but put out very low torque (a
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twisting force used to do work you apply torque when you open a jar). An
arrangement of gears takes the high speed of the motor and slows it down while
at the same time increasing the torque. (Basic law of physics: work = force x
distance.) A tiny electric motor does not have much torque, but it can spin really
fast (small force, big distance). The gear design inside the servo case converts
the output to a much slower rotation speed but with more torque (big force, little
distance). The amount of actual work is the same, just more useful. Gears in an
inexpensive servo motor are generally made of plastic to keep it lighter and less
costly. On a servo designed to provide more torque for heavier work, the gears
are made of metal (such as with EZ-Robot Servos) and are harder to damage.
With a small DC motor, you apply power from a battery, and the motor
spins. Unlike a simple DC motor, however, a servo's spinning motor shaft is
slowed way down with gears. A positional sensor on the final gear is connected
to a small circuit board. The sensor tells this circuit board how far the servo
output shaft has rotated. The electronic input signal from the computer or the
radio in a remote-controlled vehicle also feeds into that circuit board. The
electronics on the circuit board decode the signals to determine how far the user
wants the servo to rotate. It then compares the desired position to the actual
position and decides which direction to rotate the shaft so it gets to the desired
position.

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Impact of Robotic Beverage Dispensing Machines. Vending machines


are considered as dispenser facilities that has low engagement in uses. It is a
market that is not only growing but also evolving. Vending machines are located
everywhere and became part of the business industry. Since most of the
consumers depend their meals on vending machines. Their needs are more
articulated.
Vending machines are being used to serve the wide clientele with variety
of products in it. Since it is automated, it can be used if the transaction was done
according to the program of the machine. One of advantages of this thing is that,
it can be moved to new places and it reduces man power. Another one is that the
Diversity of products that can be handle, wide range of products can be sold.
This kind of machines are convenient and offer time saving for the customers
(Soffar, 2016).
It is also essential to understand the nature problem; while having this
business machines. One of the disadvantages of the vending machines is the
location of it. A faulty location may backfire the owner. Another one is
competition, lots of vending machines are now available, customers are now
divided. Aside from that , operating cost like maintenance, insurance and license
fee must be correctly plan, if not, huge losses or the business may occur
(Gatha,2011).
The study made by Alyusi (2008) which explains the various types of
vending machine today. Some examples of the vending machines are soft drink
vending machine, snack vending machines, ticket vending machines, and

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beverages vending machines. There are many available vending machines in the
market nowadays. Its design has somehow similarity on the proponents study
entitled VENDOBOT: Automated Soda Vending Machine. The same technique
applies on our study.
According to Adrian Covert (2009), Coca-Cola's Freestyle fountain comes
equipped with a touchscreen that is able to mix flavors on the spot, using precise
machinery originally developed for dialysis and cancer treatments. There are
over 100 flavors available, across an array of drink brands, including Coke,
Fanta, energy drinks, flavored waters, and more. Instead of large, five-gallon
bags of pre-mixed syrup, the Freestyle PurePour system uses ultra-concentrated
46-ounce cartridges to mix drinks and allow for a greater array of flavors, all
coming from one spout. There are also RFID tags to keep track of all the different
flavors held inside the cabinet and their current status.
Another article by Afzal (2013), Vending systems are going high tech, with
built-in digital signage, interactive touch-screen kiosks, remote management
capabilities, real-time inventory monitoring and ordering, and even cashless
payment mechanisms. These customizable and engaging machines proactively
market their contents to passer-by, while delivering actionable business
intelligence to their operators in real time.

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Unlike, the traditional, low-tech drink and snack machines that reside in break rooms,
corridors and warehouses, these smart systems actively promote and sell wide variety
products to would-be customers.

Research Literature
This section presents previous studies that are likely similar to the present
study. This will help the readers conceptualized about the technology that the
proponents will use.
According to Pinili (2010), Their project study entitled The Coin-Operated
Coffee Vending Machine will cater the needs of the customers with no further
human intervention required. The machine is user-friendly and is very simple to
operate. The customers will only have to deal with the number of five-peso coins
to be dropped to the machine which will correspond to the mixture of hot coffee
to be dispensed. With this, labor cost will be minimized and it will also give
entrepreneurs the opportunity to attract more customers with this innovation.
This study will surely ease coffee addicts who want to take a sip of their
favorite drink right at where they are. This machine can be made available in
hospitals, parks, offices, train stations, ports and to a lot of places where people
tend to stay for a longer period of time. They will be provided with their hot coffee
without dealing with messy sachets and thermos brought by manual mixing of its
ingredients.
This will also benefit entrepreneurs engaging in coffee businesses. They
would not have to hire labor personnel to look out of the product they are selling
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thus minimizing the labor costs. Furthermore, this machine might increase their
sales for they will also be given the opportunity to attract more customers with
this innovation.
(http://www.dlsu.edu.ph/research/journals/dlsuengj/mar07/nagayo.pdf
) The study made by Asuncion (2007) entitled An Automated Microcontrollerbased

Cocktail

Mixer

and

Dispenser,

focuses

on

the

design

and

implementation of an automated microcontroller-based cocktail mixer and


dispenser that can provide mixed drinks with the push of a single button. The
machine uses three microcontrollers tha functions as the brain of the system
to which all the operating functions of each module are chronolog cally
programmed in it. It has predefined programs and instructions tha are
responsible for the cocktail production processes that the machine will
perform as directed by the use through an input device. The machine has two
sets of dispensers responsible for dispensing the ingredients to the mixing
container and for pouring the final cocktail in a glass. Submersible pumps,
which are controlled by relays, are used to transfer the ingredients to the
mixing container through hose pipes. The quantity o each ingredient to be
dispensed is controlled and moni ored by the microcontroller prog am . After
dispensing the right proportions and transferring them into the m xing
container, a simple moto is used to mix them. After which, the cocktail is
dispensed in a glass through a valve controlled by a servo motor. The
ingredient level for eve y container is monitored by a water level sensor
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located inside the container. The system is able to serve a drink in just 5
seconds, offering a choice of 9 pre-programmed cocktails and customized
drinks out of the six basic ingredients at the touch of a button.

Synthesis
Research literature added some past studies which are also related to the
project study using books, journals, published and unpublished thesis. With this,
the proponents related some points of ideas that came from different project
study and compared it to the proponents own project proposal.
In the project study entitled VENDOBOT: Automated Soda Vending
Machine the proponents have the same principal objective as the study made by
Ellen Gold B. Pinili on 2010 entitled COIN-OPERATED COFFEE VENDING
MACHINE in which general aim is to come up with an automatic coffee
dispenser intended to allow those buying a drink to select beverages through the
use of user-interface. Technically our proposed study and his are of the same line
of study.
The study made by Asuncion (2007) is very similar to the proponents
project study entitled VENDOBOT: AUTOMATED SODA VENDING MACHINE
the automated microcontroller based cocktail mixer and dispenser minimizes
the need for bartenders to cater to the needs of the customers. The machine
is user-friendly and is very simple to operate. The customers will only have to
deal with marked buttons that indicate the kind of cocktail drink to be

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produced. With this, labor cost will be minimized and it will also give bar
owners the opportunity to attract more customers with this innovation.
Furthermore, with the use of the automated mixer and dispenser,
accuracy is obtained. The machine controls beverage pour sizes and ensures
portioned drinks and cocktails. This machine prevents product loss by
eliminating over-pouring and spillage of liquor inventory as well as breakages
due to bottle mishandling. This will, in effect, lead to maximizing of the
establishments liquor inventory and increased profit.
The machine makes the cocktail mixing and dispensing process more
hygienic. By means of automated machines, manual handling of the
ingredients will be eliminated. The use of removable containers, stirrer,
mixing container, and plastic hosepipes remove the concern for rust,
corrosion and piled-up dirt.

All the discussed studies were very vital in the realization of our project
study. Each has something in common and also some differences. It has been
such great help for us having this studies which we have withdrawn some of our
ideas for the realization of our VENDOBOT: Automated Soda Vending Machine.
ould serve and function better than the existing one.
In line with this, the unit/function test was fist done. This aimed to check if
each module and each command button in the proposed prototype were working.
It also examined the functionality of the machine and the relationship of modules
to one another. Through these activities which concerned the making of the

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proposed prototype, the proponents were given chances to study and work on
the proposed robot with utmost dedication and concentration.
Through the assistance of the thesis adviser, the proponents were able to
see the progress of their work. Once a week, the proposed robot was evaluated.
Through this, the proponents were able to identify the weaknesses of the
prototype and the strength they could make or add to it.

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