You are on page 1of 13

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
Throughout history man has constantly looked for ways of making
calculations easier. In the ancient world the abacus, or counting frame, was
commonly used. Beads or stones were threaded onto a number of rods held in a
framme. The first rod represented units, the second tens, the third hundreds and so
on. Calculation were done by moving the beads along with the wires. An
important developement in computers was the invention of the slide rule in the
early part of the 17th century. Numbers were represented on a special scale,
known as a logarithmic scale, on two rulers, and result of multiplications and
division could be read by sliding the rules next to each other. The computer was
born not for entertainment or email but out of a need to solve a serious number
crunching crisis. By 1880, the U.S. population had grown so large that it took
more than seven years to tabulate the U.S. cencus results. The government sought
a faster way to get the job done, giving rise to punch-card based computers that
took up entire rooms.
Today, we carry more computing power on our smartphones than was
available in these early models. The following brief history of computing is a
timeline of how computers evolved from their humble beginnings to the machines
of today that surf the internet, play games and stream multimedia in addition to
crunching numbers.

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
A. Definition of Computer
Computer word comes from the Latin that means calculate. In english called
to compute. By definition the computer translates as a set of electronic tools that
working together, can receive data (infut), processing data (process), and giving
information (output) in which coordinated under the control of programs stored in
its memory. So, the ways of computer working can be described as follows:
CPU
Infut
Device

Processing
Control Unit

Output

ALU

Device

RAM
ROM

Memory

Figure: The ways of computer working


Infut device is computer hardware devices that used to enter data into
computers memory such as keyboard, mouse, joystick, camera, light pen,
and so on.
Processor is computer main device that manages the all of activity
computer itself. Processor consist of two main parts, namely:
a. Control Unit (CU), is the main component processor that controls all
the devices installed on the computer, starting from infut device until
output device.
b. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), is part of processors that specially
manage data arithmetic (addition, substruction, multiplication, and
others) and also data logic (comparison).

Memory is data storage media on computer. This memory divided into


two, namely:
1. ROM (Read Only Memory), is memory which can read only, can not be
changed and deleted that has been filled by the computer manufacturer.
ROM contents required during start up and if the computer is turn off the
contents of ROM will not be lost. The command that exist in the ROM
portion will be transferred to RAM. The command that exist in the ROM
include:
- To read the operating system from disk
- To check all the equipment in the system unit
- To perform massage on the screen
2. RAM (Random Access Memory), is memory which can be accessed at
random and used to store programs that we though for a while (power on).
If we turn off the computer, all data stored in RAM is lost. For the data
that we make are not lost when the computer is turned off, it would require
external storage media such as floppy disks, hard disks, PCMCIA cards,
and others. The purpose of this RAM is accelerating the processing of the
data on the computer.
output device is a computer device that is useful for generating output,
whether it was to the paper (hard copy), to the screen (soft copy) or sound
output. For example, printers, speakers, plotter, monitor, and others.
So it can be concluded that the working principle of the computer begins to
enter data from an input device, then the data is processed in such a way by the
CPU as we want and the data have been processed are stored in computer memory
or disk and in the end we can see the result through the output device (output).
Computers set of standardized parts, includingadditional components and
expansion cards to perform a specific functionon the computer. The main
objective of the computer system is processing the data for produce information.
So that the principal purpose is done, have to there components that support it.
B. Components of Computer
1. Hardware
Hardware is the physical equipment of the computer that we can see and
feel. This hardware consists of as follows:
a. Input / output divice, which consists of input and output devices, such as
keyboards and printers.
3

b. The storage device (storage divice), which is a medium for storing data
such as floppy disks, hard drives, CD-I, and others.
c. Monitor (screen) which means to display what we type on the keyboard
after being processed by the processor.
d. Casing unit, ie the place of all computer equipment, both the motherboard,
cards, other peripherals and a central processing unit or CPU. Casing unit
is also called the system unit.
e. Central Processing Unit (CPU), which is one of the most important parts
of the computer because the type of processor also determine the type of
computer. Whether or not a computer, computer type, kommputer price is
determined by the type of processor. Increasingly sophisticated computer
processor, the ability will be better and usually the price will be more
expensive.
2. Software
The software is a computer program that allows you to perform a job
according to at will. The program is written in a special language that is
understood by the computer. The software consists of several types, namely:
a. The operating system (DOS, Unix, Novell, OS / 2, Windows), which is
software that serves unntuk activate all devices installed on kommputer so
that each can communicate with each other. Without any operating system
then kommputer can not be functioned at all.
b. Utility programs (Norton Utility, Scandisk, PC, Tolls), a program that
serves to assist or fill the shortage of operating systems, such as PC Tools
can perform the command format as DOS, but PC Tools is able to provide
information and good animation in the process of formatting.
c. Program applications (GL, MYOB, payrol program that serves to perform
a specific job, such as payroll program at a company. So this program is
only used by the finance department alone can not be used other
departments.
d. Program packages (MS-Word, MS-Excel, Lotus 125), a program that was
structured so that it can be used by many people with different interests,
such as MS-Word that can be used by the finance department to make a
bill, or the administration to make mailings and so forth.

e. Programming languages (Pascal, Fortran, Clipper, dBase), the device that


is used to create computer programs, whether it's operating systems,
programming packages, and others.
3. Brainware
A human operator or involved in operating and regulate the computer
system that can also be referred to as a user. Brainware can be categorized into 2
(two), namely:
1. Laterat computer
Category Laterat computer is a user / user who has the knowledge and
understanding of the computer and how to use the tool. Laterat a computer does
not have the ability and skills to analyze damage, utilizing computer-based
applications for interfacing, identifying and selecting the components that
transform both the best performance at once assemble them into a complete
computer and can operate.
2. Competent computer
A competent master computer used computer terminology, master the
functions of the parts of computer system, and have the computer skills to produce
the information or perform the desired tasks. This category also has the ability to
identify and choose the components of a good computer for best performance. A
Diploma in Telecommunication Engineering and Air Navigation is expected to
have a competent computer category for telecommunications equipment and Air
Navigation is currently operated using a computer system so that a technician is
required to always be ready for the arrival of the latest computer technology.
The third element of the computer system must be interconnected and form
a unity. Hardware without software, it will not function as expected, only objects
to die. The software will operate its hardware. The hardware that is supported by
the software also will not work if there is no human being who operate it.
To improve the performance of the computer, the computer must incorporate
enhancements that are installed on the motherboard, especially the part in charge
of receiving additional equipment (expansion slot). Such as peripherals including
Ethernet cards (network cards, modems, midi caard, TV card) that allows you to
connect your PC to other PC computers.
C. Types of Computer
5

1. Based on the data processed, the computer can be divided into three,

2.

3.

4.
5.

namely:
a. analog computer
b. Digital computer
c. Computer hybrid
Based on the program, the computer is divided into seven, namely:
a. Microcontroller
b. Microcomputer
c. Engineering workstation
d. Super computer
e. Mainframe
f. Minicomputer
g. Personal computer (PC)
Based on the physical, the computer can be divided into six, namely:
a. Tower
b. Desktop
c. Portable
d. Notebook
e. Subnotebook
f. Palmtop
Based on the user, the computer can be divided into two, namely:
a. Special purpose computer
b. General purpose computer
Based on the scale of its capabilities, the computer can be divided into

three, namely:
a. Small scale computer
b. Medium scale computer
c. Large scale computer
D. Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer
Advantages of computer
1. The speed in processing (speed).
2. The high accuracy (accuraty).
3. Memory that is not easily forgotten (Versaticity).
4. Able to process large amounts of data (capasity).
5. Not easily tired.
6. Trustworthy.
7. If you could use it, then the work will be more efficient and effective.
8. Saving human resources, because it does not have to pay many employees.
9. The cost savings, because it does not have to pay many employees.
10. The computer-generated usually more accurate and trustworthy.
Disadvantages of computer
1. Can not think, because just a machine.
2. Follow orders, the only form of program.
3. Just works with machine language.
4. Operation prices is relatively expensive.
5. Needed a special computer which enabled to be assigned as server.

6. The continuity of the network depends on the server. When a server


impaired then the whole network will be disrupted.
7. A waste of time, and unproductive, if it has been used for things that have
nothing to do with work, such as playing games and chatting.

CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION
Computer begins to enter data from an input device, then the data is
processed in such a way by the CPU as we want and the data have been processed
are stored in computer memory or disk and in the end we can see the result
through the output device (output).
Computers set of standardized parts, includingadditional components and
expansion cards to perform a specific functionon the computer. The main
objective of the computer system is processing the data forproduce information.
So that the principal purpose is done, have to there components that support it.
The components are consist of:
1. Hardware
2. Software
3. Brainware
The third element of the computer system must be interconnected and form a
unity. Hardware without software, it will not function as expected, only objects to
die. The software will operate its hardware. The hardware that is supported by the
software also will not work if there is no human being who operate it.
Then, there are some of types of computer based on the data processed
(analog computer, digital computer, hybrid computer), based on the program
(Microcontroller, microcomputer, super computer, mainframe, personal
computer/PC, and so on), based on physical (tower, desktop, portable, and so on),
based on the user (special purpose computer, general purpose computer), after that

based on the scale of its capabilities (small scale computer, medium scale
computer, large scale computer).
Computer has some of advantages such as the speed in processing, the high
accuracy, an so on. Beside that computer also has some of disadvantages of
computer such as can not think because just a machine, follow orders, the only
form of program, just works with machine language.

TERMINOLOGY OF COMPUTER
A. Hardware

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

The brain of the computer that


controls the other elements of the

computer.
Disk Drive:

A peripheral device

that reads and writes information on a

disk.
Hard drive :

A device (usually

within the computer case) that reads and


writes information, including the
operating system, program files, and data

files.
Keyboard :

input data by pressing keys.


Modem :
A peripheral device

A peripheral used to

used to connect one computer to another

over a phone line.


Monitor : A device used to display

information visually.
Mouse
:
A peripheral device

used to point to items on a monitor.


NIC (Network Interface Card) : A
board inserted in a computer that

provides a physical connection to a

network.
Printer
:

A peripheral device

that converts output from a computer


into a printed image.
B. Software

Browser

A program used to

view world Wide Web pages, such as

Netscape Navigator or Internet Explorer.


Database :
A large structured set
of data; a file that containts numerous

records that contain numerous fields.


Diskette :
A small flexible disk

used for storing computer data.


Click
:
Occures when a user
presses a button o a mouse which in turn,

generates a command to the computer.


Double click
:
Occures when
a user presses a button on the mouse
twice in quick succession; this generates

a command to the computer.


Download :
Transferring data
from another computer to your

computer.
Drag
:

Occures when a user

points the mouse at an icon or folder,


presses the button and without releasing

the button.
Driver
:

Software program that

controls a piece of hardware or a

peripheral.
Memory :
computer data.

Any device that holds

REFERENCES

Grai fhan Ramadhani, Revisi: 28 Ju li 2003, Modul Pengenalan Internet, http:/


/dhani .s ingca t.com
Hally, Mike (2005: 79) . Electronic br ai ns/S to ri es from th e dawn of th e
computer age. Brit ish Broadcasting Corporation and Granta
http://dictionar y.r ef erence.com/b rowse/softw are
http://id.shvoong.com/internet-and-technologies/2255343-keunggulan-dan
kelemahan-komputer/ixzz2DaSIMff9.
Software .. (n .d .) . Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1. 1) . Retr ieved 2007- 04-13,
from Dict ionary. Com.website:
www.electronic s.howst uffworks.com
Yatini Indra B., Pemrograman Terstrukur, J & J Learning Yogyakarta, hal 13,
Yogyakarta, 2001. e-le ar ning, Mr. @rema Net, Menge nal Int ernet dan Intranet,
http://a rema. cj b.net , E-mail: arema.

10

ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


Computer

Arranged
By
GROUP XI
Anita Safitri
Meliana Novitasari Simamora
Putri Rahayu Sihombing
Prodi

: English Department

Semester

: VII-A

11

SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN


STKIP TAPANULI SELATAN
2016
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents...............................................................................................

Chapter I Background.......................................................................................

Chapter II..........................................................................................................

A. Definition of Computer.........................................................................
B. Components of Computer.....................................................................
1. Hardware...................................................................................
2. Software....................................................................................
3. Brainware..................................................................................
C. Types of Computer................................................................................
D. Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer.......................................

2
3
3
3
4
5
6

Chapter III Conclusion.....................................................................................

Terminology of Computer................................................................................

12

13