11 views

Uploaded by atalayy

- v70-201
- Combined Stress in Gusset Plates
- Structure Calculation Sheet for Silo
- Comparison of Ansiaisc 360-05 to 1989 Asd Specification
- Design of Compression Members
- A Review on Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joint
- Finite Element Modeling
- Ultimate strength of a square plate
- Buckling on Stiffened Panel
- atv-dvwk_m_127_e_pt2_appx1_4
- Design of Steel Free Stack
- Seismic Design Practice for Eccentrically Braced Frames Based on the 1994 UBC
- Sachpazis Steel Member Analysis & Design (EN1993-1!1!2005)
- Handling Bridge Beams
- Performance of buried flexible conduits
- ECCS - 125 - Buckling of Steel Shells, European Design Recommendations, Eurocode 3, Part 1-6, 5th Edition - OCR.pdf
- 77_Study.pdf
- E9.4422
- Homework3 Confined Column Analysis
- Ies 1994 - II Scan

You are on page 1of 9

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/37455647

Torsional Buckling

Article January 2006

DOI: 10.2749/222137806796168903 Source: OAI

CITATIONS

READS

168

2 authors:

Andreas Luible

Michel Crisinel

SEE PROFILE

SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

nachhaltiger Fassaden mehrgeschossiger Gebude View project

letting you access and read them immediately.

Retrieved on: 11 November 2016

Andreas LUIBLE

Dr. sc. techn.

Schmidlin Ltd.

Facade Technology

Aesch, Switzerland

Michel CRISINEL

Civil Engineer, Lecturer

Ecole polytechnique fdrale

de Lausanne (EPFL),

Lausanne, Switzerland

Received his engineering degree

from the TU Munich in 1999 and

received his Ph.D. from the Swiss

Federal Institute of Technology

Lausanne EPFL in 2004. He is

currently working as Senior Faade

Engineer for Schmidlin.

received his civil engineering degree

from EPFL in 1968. He has worked

for a consulting firm prior to his

joining the Steel Structures Lab

ICOM. His main research interest

includes steel-concrete composite

construction and glass structures.

andreas@luible.name

michel.crisinel@epfl.ch

Summary

This paper describes investigations conducted at the Steel Structures Laboratory ICOM of EPFL on

the lateral torsional buckling of single layer and laminated safety glass. The structural behaviour is

studied by means of buckling tests, analytical and numerical models. It is shown that the initial

fracture occurs always on the glass surface under tensile stress. The load carrying behaviour of

laminated glass can be simplified to a monolithic beam with an equivalent cross section. A design

method with buckling curves using a slenderness ratio based on effective tensile strength seems

applicable for the design of glass beams. As a result of numerical simulations, recommendations for

the future development of lateral torsional buckling curves for glass beams are given.

Keywords: Stability, glass, lateral torsional buckling, glass beam, structural use of glass.

1. Introduction

In the last years the material glass is applied more and more for structural elements in modern steel

glass facades e.g. beams, columns, and stiffeners. Glass is a material that is able to resist very high

compression stresses and due to their high slenderness, these elements tend to fail because of

instability. Until now no design methods are developed as for steel, e.g. buckling curves. Therefore

experimental and theoretical investigations of the fundamental stability problems (column buckling,

lateral torsional buckling, plate buckling) of single layer and laminated glass elements have been

conducted at the Steel Structures Laboratory ICOM, EPFL in [1]. The objectives were to investigate

the load carrying behaviour and to study possible design methods for stability-critical glass

elements. Summarized results concerning column buckling and plate buckling are published in

[2][3][4][5]. In this paper the main results related to the lateral torsional buckling of glass beams are

presented.

Lateral torsional buckling is a limit state of structural stability, where a beam is loaded with pure

bending. The deformation is a combination of lateral deflection and twisting. In glass structures this

type of stability failure can occur, for example in beams or fins used as stiffeners in facades.

2.1 Single layer glass

The critical torsional buckling moment of a beam with a rectangular cross section is:

M cr , D = C1

2 EI z

LD 2

GK L 2

C 2 z a + 2 D + C2 z a

EI z

(1)

where E = young modulus, Iz = moment of inertia about z-axis, G = shear modulus, K = torsion

constant, and LD = beam length. The factors Ci and za take into account different boundary

conditions, different bending moments and the distance between the centre of gravity and the point

where the load is applied [6]. Due to their rectangular cross-section, warping torsion may be

neglected in single layer and laminated safety glass beams.

LD

My

My

VIEW

end supports

My

My

TOP VIEW

initial position

SECTION

final position

torsional buckling resistance is not limited by

the critical torsional buckling moment Mcr,D.

Due to imperfections of the beam the lateral

deformation and twisting start already to

increase under very small loads and the lateral

torsional buckling resistance is reached when

the maximum stresses in the beam exceeds the

material resistance. Bifurcation buckling (e.g.

Eq.(1)) over-estimates the real lateral torsional

buckling resistance.

In order to describe the real load carrying

behaviour, analytical and numerical models

(finite element method - FEM) were

developed. It was found in [1] that due to the

slender geometries of glass beams the nonlinear numerical model is more suitable to

describe the load carrying behaviour, than

analytical models based on the linear elastic

beam theory.

The critical lateral torsional buckling moment of laminated safety glass may be calculated using

Eq.(1), where the lateral bending stiffness EIz and the torsional stiffness GK are replaced by a

equivalent stiffness, EIz,eff and GKeff. Both stiffness are determined using sandwich theory [7] in

order to take into account the composite action of the PVB interlayer in laminated safety glass [1].

2.2.1 Equivalent stiffness for laminated safety glass with two glass layers

2 + + 1

EI z ,eff = EI s

1 + 2

(2)

with

I S = h(t1 z12 + t2 z22 ) ; =

t PVB

EI S

I1 + I 2

; =

IS

G PVB h ( z1 + z 2 ) 2 LD 2

(3)

where t1, t2, tPVB, z1, z2 see Fig. 2 and h = beam height, E = young modulus of glass, Ii = moment of

inertia of the related glass layer, GPVB = shear modulus of PVB and LD = buckling length.

(4)

with

GK comp

h

tanh

2

= GI S 1

h

(5)

t +t

tt

I S = 4 1 2 + t PVB 1 2 h;

2

t1 + t2

GPVB t1 + t2

G t PVB t1 t2

(6)

where G = shear modulus of glass, Kglassi = torsion constant of the related glass layer, and Kcomp =

torsion constant due to composite action of the PVB.

glass

PVB

glass

t1

tPVB

t2

glass

t1

tPVB

z1

PVB

glass

z2

t2

tPVB

glass

z1

z2

t1

Fig. 2: Laminated safety glass with two glass layers (left) and three glass layers (right).

2.2.2 Equivalent stiffness for laminated safety glass with three glass layers

The following formulas apply to laminated safety glass with three glass layers whereas the external

layers have the same thickness.

2 + + 1

EI z ,eff = EI s

1 + 2

(7)

with

I S = 2h t1 z12 ; =

tPVB

EI S

2 I1 + I 2

; =

;

2

2GPVB h z1 LD 2

IS

(8)

where t1, t2, tPVB, z1, (Fig. 2), and h = beam height, E = young modulus of glass, Ii = moment of

inertia of the related glass layer, GPVB = shear modulus of PVB and LD = buckling length.

GK eff = GK glass1 + GK glass 2 + GK glass 3 + GK comp

(9)

I S = 2 ( t2 + 2t PVB + t1 ) t1 h ;

2

GPVB t1 + t2

;

G tPVB t1 t2

(10)

In order to study the lateral torsional buckling behaviour of a glass beam composed of laminated

safety glass with imperfections a finite element model with [1] was developed (Fig. 3).

symmetric axis

v0

x

u

end

support

v

z

glass

x

z

restraints:

u=0, y=z=0

because of the symmetrical system. The

glass layers were modelled with shell

elements and the PVB interlayer with

volume elements. For the elastic model

elastic volume elements were used in case of

the visco-elastic model [8] visco-elastic

volume elements were used. Each simulation

was started with a modal analysis of the

system.

The

resulting

eigenvalue

corresponds to the critical buckling load of

the beam. In the next step the initial

deformation was applied as a scaled shape of

the first eigenform of the considered system.

With this imperfect system the non linear

structural calculation was carried out.

3. Experimental Investigations

3.1 Test setup

For the test setup a simply supported beam was subjected to a concentrated load at mid-span. The

main difficulty during the test was the load application that had to follow the lateral displacement of

the top edge of the glass beam. The hydraulic jack and the load introduction device were therefore

fixed on a carriage (Fig. 4). The load introduction device allowed a free rotation of the top glass

edge. A PTFE interlayer was used to reduce friction between the sliding parts.

Fig. 4: Left: Test setup lateral torsional buckling test, Right: Buckled glass beam.

In Fig. 4 a deformed single layered glass beam is shown. The lateral displacement was measured

with displacement transducers which were connected to the measure point on the glass with steel

wires. Two load cells were fixed on the load introduction device.

Seventy-nine lateral torsional buckling tests on single monolithic and laminated safety glass were

carried out. All tested beams were either of heat strengthened or of toughened glass.

3.2.1 Single layer glass

The results of the tests showed a good agreement with the numerical simulation. Similar to column

buckling, the maximum force in the test approaches the critical buckling load Fcr,D calculated with

the numerical model [1]. During the test the stress distribution on the glass surface was controlled

with strain gauges and compared with

F [kN]

the numerical simulation. It could be

50

seen that the stress distribution is non

L D = 1300 mm

linear over the beam height h. The more

h = 200mm

the lateral displacement increased this 40

t = 10/1.52/10 mm

non linear effect became stronger. The

breakage pattern showed that the initial

fracture occurs always on the glass 30

test

breakage of

surface under tensile stress.

both glasses

numerical simulation

The buckling tests Fig. 5 confirmed that

the load carrying behaviour of laminated

safety glass is characterised by the viscoelastic behaviour of the PVB interlayer.

The temperature and the load duration

therefore have an important influence on

the lateral torsional buckling resistance

of a laminated glass beam. The

developed visco-elastic numerical model

showed a good agreement with the test

data.

20

vsup

10

x

y

LD

0

0

10

20

30

v sup [mm]

40

50

The study of the load carrying behaviour showed that the dispersion of the glass thickness t, the

initial deformation of a glass beam, the composite action due to the PVB interlayer and the tensile

strength of the glass close to the edge have the most significant influence on the lateral torsional

buckling resistance of a glass beam.

4.1 Glass thickness

The dispersion of the glass thickness was measured on more than 200 test specimen from two

different glass manufacturers.

The thickness t of annealed flat glass panels differs from the nominal value because glass

manufacturers try to save material in making the most use of the thickness tolerances specified by

the codes. The real glass thickness is often less than the nominal value, therefore reducing the

moment of inertia of the cross section and, thus the buckling strength. The aforementioned

measurements confirmed that the values follow a normal distribution. The 5% percentile value is

97.61% of the nominal glass thickness.

4.2 Initial deformation

The initial geometric deformation v0 of flat glass is mainly caused by the tempering process. The

geometric initial deformation was measured with a taut steel wire on more than 200 specimens. The

results confirmed that non-tempered annealed flat glass has a very low initial deformation (< 1/2500)

while heat-strengthened and fully toughened glass can have a sinusoidal initial deformation up to

1/300 of the length L. The nominal thickness of the glasses has an influence on the statistical

distribution but for design in practice the simplified assumption of one single distribution might be

sufficient. Laminated safety glass showed the same results. The measured values followed a normal

distribution with a 95% percentile value of 1/386. However maximum initial deformations depend

strongly on the quality of the furnace and can therefore vary between different glass manufacturers.

4.3 Tensile strength of the glass edge

Due to the high compressive strength of glass the tensile strength of the glass surface is always

determinant for the buckling resistance of glass beams with dimensions used for building

application. For the determination of the buckling resistance the tensile strength near the glass edge

under tension has to be known. Most of existing design codes for glass give only a tensile strength

for the centre of the glass pane which is not valid for the glass edge. The tensile strength of the glass

edge depends on the tensile strength of the material, which is influenced by critical damages and

initial flaws, and the distribution of residual stress due to tempering. The latter is not a constant

value around the edge [9][10]. In a certain distance from the glass edge and in the middle of the

glass edge the residual stress becomes minimal and although there are no critical flaws it may be

critical for the breakage.

4.4 PVB interlayer

In practice, the visco-elastic behaviour of the PVB interlayer can be simplified by an elastic

interlayer with equivalent shear modulus, GPVB. It was found, that a shear modulus of the interlayer

higher than 300 N/mm2 is necessary in order to assume a monolithic behaviour of the beam.

Realistic values of GPVB for PVB are < 5 N/mm2. Even new materials [1] which are stiffer than PVB

are not able to create a load carrying behaviour similar to a monolithic cross section. A significant

composite action due to the shear interlayer may taken into account for soft interlayer materials

such as PVB only for short term loads (e.g. wind loads).

The lateral torsional buckling resistance of a glass beam may either be determined with an

appropriate FEM model or with buckling curves.

In [1] it is shown that FEM models are suitable to describe the load carrying behaviour of glass

beams. Nonlinear effects, different initial imperfection as well as different boundary conditions may

easily be taken into account. Nevertheless FEM models are quite fastidious and too complicated for

a simple and fast design.

In order to simplify the design process the development of buckling curves was investigated in [1]

by means of the developed FEM models. For the buckling curves a slenderness ratio D and a

reduction factor D similar to the lateral torsional buckling design of steel beams were defined. In

contrast to steel, both are based on the tensile strength, since the compressive strength does not limit

the buckling strength of glass:

D =

p ,t

2 p ,t I y

=

M cr , D h

cr , D

(11)

where p,t = tensile strength of the glass and cr,D = critical lateral torsional buckling stress.

The critical lateral torsional buckling moment Mcr,D may be calculated with Eq. (1). For the design

of a laminated safety glass the equivalent lateral bending stiffness EIz,eff (Eq. (2) and (7)) and the

equivalent torsional stiffness GKeff (Eq. (4) and (9)) may be used. The reduction factor D in the

buckling diagram is a function of the slenderness ratio D :

( )

D = f D

(12)

M =

2I y

z

= D p ,t

2I y

(13)

For different types of loading, glass geometries, shear modulus of the PVB interlayer, and initial

deformation, v0, reduction factors were generated and plotted in several buckling diagrams (Fig. 6).

These diagrams may serve as a orientation for a future definition of lateral torsional buckling curves

for glass. The main results are:

1.2

bifurcation buckling

torsional buckling curves for glass

numerical simulation

1.0

based on the tensile strength.

buckling test

Buckling curves for example for steel

EC3 (a)

structures can not be transferred to

0.8

EC3 (c)

glass.

It might be useful to determine

0.6

several buckling curves, depending

F

on the composition of the glass

0.4

(single layer, laminated safety glass),

the type of loading and the initial

v 0 = L D /270

0.2

deformation.

Buckling curve (c) in Eurocode 3

(EN 1993-1-1:1993) [11] may be

0.0

used as a conservative approach for

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

slenderness D

design of glass elements since all

simulations results lay above this

Fig. 6: Simulated reduction factors for a

curve.

concentrated load at mid span compared to buckling

Further studies with additional

test results.

structural systems are necessary (i.e.

systems with intermediate lateral support or systems that are able to take into account of the

partial restraint of the beam by structural silicon joints).

6. Conclusions

The lateral torsional buckling of glass beams was studied with lateral torsional buckling tests and

numerical simulations. Due to the geometry of glass beams it was shown that analytical models

based on the linear elastic beam theory are not able to describe the real load carrying behaviour,

especially for high h/LD ratios. In order to determine the lateral torsional buckling resistance the

tensile strength of the glass close to the edge has to be known. A suitable design method for lateral

torsional buckling of glass beams might be a numerical calculation (FEM) of the buckling

behaviour and the maximum tensile stress distribution on the glass surface. In order to simplify the

design process buckling curves are more suitable. In the research work it was demonstrated how

these curves might be established. For elementary load cases and structural systems reduction

factors were simulated with the developed model. These simulation results may be used for a future

determination of lateral torsional buckling curves for glass.

7. Acknowledgment

The research work presented in this paper was primarily conducted with the support of the Swiss

National Science Foundation (SNF) and the industry partners Glas Trsch (Btzberg, Switzerland)

and Verre Industriels SA (Moutier, Switzerland).

8. References

[1]

LUIBLE, A., Stabilitt von Tragelementen aus Glas, Thse EPFL 3014, Ecole polytechnique

fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL) (free download: http://icom.epfl.ch/publications

/pubinfo.php?pubid=499), Lausanne 2004.

[2]

Structural Engineering International, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2004.

[3]

LUIBLE, A. & CRISINEL, M., Plate buckling of glass panels, Glass processing days 2005,

Proceedings of the conference, June 2005, Tampere.

[4]

LUIBLE, A. & CRISINEL, M., Stability of Load Carrying Elements of Glass, Final report of

the COST action C13, Bruxelles.

[5]

LUIBLE, A. & CRISINEL, M., Stability of Load Carrying Elements of Glass, 4th European

Conference on Steel Structures, 8-10 June 2005, Maastricht, Netherlands.

[6]

HIRT, M. A. & BEZ, R., Stahlbau: Grundbegriffe und Bemessungsverfahren, Ernst & Sohn,

Berlin, 1998.

[7]

Springer Verlag, Wien 1974.

[8]

VAN DUSER, A. & JAGOTA, A. & BENNISON, S., J., Analysis of Glass/Polyvinyl Butyral

Laminates Subjected to Uniform Pressure, Journal of engineering mechanics, Vol. 125, 1999,

pp. 435-442.

[9]

Schriftenreihe Stahlbau RWTH Aachen, Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 2000.

[10] DAUDEVILLE, L. & BERNARD, F. & GY, R. Residual Stresses Near Holes In Tempered

Glass Plates, Materials Science Forum, Trans. Tech. Publications, Switzerland, Vol. 404-407,

2002, pp. 43-48.

[11] EC3: ENV 1993-1-1: Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures Part 1.1: General rules and rules

for buildings, January 1993.

- v70-201Uploaded byPrashant Sunagar
- Combined Stress in Gusset PlatesUploaded byjarneberg
- Structure Calculation Sheet for SiloUploaded byjohn12345
- Comparison of Ansiaisc 360-05 to 1989 Asd SpecificationUploaded byH.Hamdan Neo
- Design of Compression MembersUploaded byChristian Bernard P. Lagarde
- A Review on Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column JointUploaded bymark_torreon
- Finite Element ModelingUploaded byvictor_333
- Ultimate strength of a square plateUploaded byMohammed Attia
- Buckling on Stiffened PanelUploaded byandriaerospace
- atv-dvwk_m_127_e_pt2_appx1_4Uploaded byMehmet Emre Bastopcu
- Design of Steel Free StackUploaded bySantiago PE
- Seismic Design Practice for Eccentrically Braced Frames Based on the 1994 UBCUploaded bykalikid20
- Sachpazis Steel Member Analysis & Design (EN1993-1!1!2005)Uploaded byCostas Sachpazis
- Handling Bridge BeamsUploaded byNtseuoa
- Performance of buried flexible conduitsUploaded byAlla Eddine G C
- ECCS - 125 - Buckling of Steel Shells, European Design Recommendations, Eurocode 3, Part 1-6, 5th Edition - OCR.pdfUploaded bymihaidelian
- 77_Study.pdfUploaded byshivani
- E9.4422Uploaded bypibebart
- Homework3 Confined Column AnalysisUploaded byQingzhi Liu
- Ies 1994 - II ScanUploaded byMonojit Pal
- Shear Buckling AnalysisUploaded bystarsplesh
- Kupdf.net Pravilnik 316Uploaded byfilmulog
- 70.IJMPERDDEC201870Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- IJRTI1708034Uploaded bySandeep Bhatia
- Column DesignUploaded byPhạm Quang Vũ
- Lect18-Steel Constructions-materials and BeamsUploaded byChris
- Design _of_Steel_Structure-I.pdfUploaded byNimesh Chettri
- 2013 - Chile.pdfUploaded bypaulkohan
- 1-s2.0-S2214399816300182-mainUploaded byWil Santander L
- Blast load AnalysisUploaded byvishal tomar

- CIDECT Design Guide 9Uploaded byparis062
- E85_technical-catalogue_web_931.pdfUploaded byatalayy
- b2nb6024150170bp261017 Aerofoil System Using 60x24mm Rhs Posts With 170 x 150 Base PlatesUploaded byayman ammar
- b1wb55150150bp171016----orbit-(circular-handrail)-system-(with-strengthening-bar)-posts-with--150-x-150-base-plates.pdfUploaded byatalayy
- Prying ForceUploaded bytigersronnie
- b1nb55150150bp061016---orbit-(circular-handrail)-system----posts-with---150-x-150-base-plates.pdfUploaded byatalayy
- Baidjoe2018_Article_CalculationMethodsOfGlassParap.pdfUploaded byatalayy
- b2wb6024150170bp261017-aerofoil-system-(with-strengthening-bar)---using-60x24mm-rhs-posts-with-170-x-150-base-plates.pdfUploaded byatalayy
- p100_detayli_katalog (1)Uploaded byatalayy
- spesifikasyonUploaded byatalayy
- art%3A10.1007%2Fs40940-016-0008-3Uploaded byatalayy
- kablocu cephelerUploaded byatalayy
- Keunwoo_Lee_Dissertation.pdfUploaded byatalayy
- E85 Catalogue TC 1616Uploaded byatalayy
- Drawing1 (2) Model (1)Uploaded byatalayy
- alu_phb_enUploaded byatalayy
- {BF94CEC7-3B5D-489D-8C18-17513481E64A}Uploaded byatalayy
- {1FDBEB4F-7C76-4C9A-9651-1F7CE6466DE0}Uploaded byatalayy
- SSMA DetailsUploaded byTony Mendoza
- {EBB792CC-8BA3-4B15-A971-331F8CB0B924}Uploaded byatalayy
- Fatigue Primer for EngineersUploaded bystaplesjf
- {321F13DA-8A28-4B71-9D75-5B917E495846}Uploaded byatalayy
- {EE4A255D-F2AD-4552-9FEC-8B37602424F2}Uploaded byatalayy
- {EA2EE05F-64BD-4EEE-87A3-9078D8E0EC05}Uploaded byatalayy
- {EB8EBFCF-024B-4183-A33B-B8762E7C5D9B}Uploaded byatalayy
- 1Uploaded by83357796
- {2AD162F2-9D38-423E-A927-34FED172DA3C}Uploaded byatalayy
- lebensretter_h4009.3061en__31_01_2013Uploaded byatalayy
- {102E1FB5-4158-4C51-B24B-3E34613244A1}Uploaded byatalayy

- pipe line calculationUploaded bysamirbendre1
- Call GuideUploaded byCesarGustavoRodezno
- Dummy Bit Rate Matching for UMTS LTE.pdfUploaded byCésarAntonioPérezCoronel
- Full Text 01Uploaded byIka Yume
- The Impact of Organizational Culture on Company Performance 07.05.2016.docxUploaded byshadynader
- Peace Corps OST Using the Automated VY Chart Feb 2012Uploaded byAccessible Journal Media: Peace Corps Documents
- Paper Based TechnologiesUploaded byNatalia Făureanu
- bs en 729-4-1995-quality requirements for welding.pdfUploaded byscofiel1
- Rivera v. ChuaUploaded byAnonymous 5MiN6I78I0
- Timer Off DelayUploaded byNatanael Marquez
- Cell Discovery With Directive Antennas in Mm-wave 5G NetworksUploaded byabdel
- Civil Breadth Mor Question 1 SampleUploaded bySacha Heidema
- GER-4691.pdfUploaded byRudy A. Hartliep
- lead akkUploaded byayu handayani
- Etudes for Jazz Improvisation PDFUploaded byAaron
- mqc planUploaded byphb1986
- Glow Plug Cross ReferenceUploaded byArturo Montes F.
- Summer Internship Report-GRASIMUploaded byjatin_ahuja03
- En Diematic m Delta for DTG 320Uploaded byLiviu Florea
- Chevening BangsChevening-Bangsamoro Scholarshipamoro ScholarshipUploaded byIsfahan ⎝⏠⏝⏠⎠
- City of Lincoln Park Financial & Operating PlanUploaded byAnneHooperRunkle
- SCM_TOYOTAA-PPTUploaded byGianina Roman
- B- Industrial Dispute-Uploaded by93076
- Divakar Mukherjee CV UpdatedUploaded byayushgoyalayush
- Sage PublicationsUploaded bywinofvin9
- White Paper on Otl Archive and PurgeUploaded byMiguel Monzon
- NetApp Basic Concepts Quickstart GuideUploaded bykarthick
- 396-398Uploaded byNitaSintiaSari
- Barralastic AseanUploaded byDonny Ari Kusuma
- Thailand Property Funds with DividendsUploaded byMartin