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Macionis, Sociology, 15/e

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Macionis, Sociology, 15/e

CHAPTER 2: SOCIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1.

Two simple requirements that underlie the process of sociological investigation are (1)
looking at the world using the sociological perspective, and (2) becoming curious and
asking questions.
(REMEMBER; answer: T; L.O. 2.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common
sense; Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation; Difficulty: 1)
2.
The sociologist recognizes that there are various kinds of “truth.”
(REMEMBER; answer: T; L.O. 2.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common
sense; Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation; Difficulty: 1)
3.
Science is a logical system that is based on intuition and insight.
(REMEMBER; answer: F; L.O. 2.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common
sense; Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation; Difficulty: 1)
4.
Empirical evidence is what people in a society agree is true.
(REMEMBER; answer: F; L.O. 2.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common
sense; Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation; Difficulty: 1)
5.
Empirical evidence refers to what we can verify with our senses.
(REMEMBER; answer: T; L.O. 2.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common
sense; Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation; Difficulty: 1)
6.
A positivist approach assumes that an objective reality exists “out there.”
(REMEMBER; answer: T; L.O. 2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations; Topic:
Three Ways to Do Sociology; Difficulty: 1)
7.
The mean is always a better statistical measure than the mode or the median.
(UNDERSTAND; answer: F; L.O. 2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations; Topic:
Three Ways to Do Sociology; Difficulty: 2)
8.
Reliability refers to the quality of consistency in measurement.
(REMEMBER; answer: T; L.O. 2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations; Topic:
Three Ways to Do Sociology; Difficulty: 1)
9.
Validity refers to actually measuring what you want to measure.
(REMEMBER; answer: T; L.O. 2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations; Topic:
Three Ways to Do Sociology; Difficulty: 1)
10.
A variable that is changed by another variable is called the “independent variable.”
(REMEMBER; answer: F; L.O. 2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations; Topic:
Three Ways to Do Sociology; Difficulty: 1)
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  All rights reserved.

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O. Difficulty: 1) 18. Difficulty: 1) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. (UNDERSTAND. L. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Difficulty: 2) 16. L. (UNDERSTAND. The logic and methodology of science guarantee that sociological research will result in objective. (REMEMBER. Sociology. answer: F. Difficulty: 1) 14. L.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. (UNDERSTAND. Scientific sociologists make use of what Max Weber called “verstehen” in order to make sense of their surroundings. 2. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Difficulty: 1) 17.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations.O.O.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. (UNDERSTAND. (REMEMBER.O.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. L. 3 . answer: F. Interpretive sociology focuses less on action itself and more on the meaning people attach to their actions.O. Difficulty: 1) 12. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Difficulty: 1) 15. 2. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. (UNDERSTAND.  All rights reserved. L.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Difficulty: 1) 20. Natural scientists often have an easier time than social scientists when identifying causeand-effect relationships. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. (REMEMBER. a cause-and-effect relationship always exists. 2. L.O. answer: F. absolute truth. Sociologists always achieve complete personal objectivity in their work. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. A variable that causes change in another variable is called the “dependent variable. L. When two variables are statistically related. Difficulty: 2) 13. 2. (REMEMBER. 2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. answer: T. Inc.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. 2.O. 2.O. answer: F. answer: T. Max Weber urged sociologists to strive toward the goal of being value-free. 2. 15/e 11.O. Replication is one way to assess the accuracy of existing research. answer: T. answer: T.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. 2. L. L.O. answer: F. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.Macionis. 2. L.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Difficulty: 2) 19. answer: T. A false correlation between two variables caused by a third variable is described as a “spurious” correlation.” (REMEMBER.

O. answer: T. answer: T. Topic: Gender and Research. Difficulty: 1) 23. (REMEMBER. Topic: Research Methods. Interpretive sociology considers subjective feelings to be a source of bias.O.O. answer: T. Difficulty: 1) 29. 2. Difficulty: 1) 26. L. L. answer: F. L. (REMEMBER. 2.O. Difficulty: 1) 25.O. Sociology. (REMEMBER. (UNDERSTAND. answer: T. answer: T.3: Identify the importance of gender in sociological research.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. L. 2. 4 .O. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Critical sociology studies society and tries to bring about social change. 2. 2. Difficulty: 1) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education.O.Macionis. Difficulty: 1) 24. or people of any distinctive ethnicity or category demands that researchers be sensitive to how subjects will interpret a researcher’s words and actions.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. (REMEMBER.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. (UNDERSTAND.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. it is usually necessary to exercise experimental control of variables.O. L. 2. Topic: Research Methods. Inc.4: Discuss the importance of ethics to sociological research. Asian people. L. Difficulty: 2) 27. (APPLY. L. (UNDERSTAND. answer: T. 2. Difficulty: 2) 28. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. 2. Carrying out research on Hispanic people. Topic: Research Methods. 2. 2. answer: T.O. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. (UNDERSTAND. A random sample is likely to represent the population from which it is drawn. The very act of observing people may affect their behavior.  All rights reserved. Topic: Research Methods. L. Sociological research can never be harmful to subjects. Gender blindness is the problem of failing to consider the importance of gender in sociological research. Topic: Research Ethics.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. 15/e 21. Topic: Research Ethics. L. Difficulty: 1) 22.O. answer: F. A survey is a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions. Difficulty: 1) 30. answer: T.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. (UNDERSTAND. Karl Marx founded the critical orientation in sociology.4: Discuss the importance of ethics to sociological research. L. To identify cause-and-effect relationships.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations.

A closed-ended questionnaire format generally makes it easier to analyze research data compared to an open-ended questionnaire format. (UNDERSTAND.O. (REMEMBER. L.O. answer: T. Participant observation research is usually explanatory. Difficulty: 1) 36. (REMEMBER. answer: F. Difficulty: 1) 37. 2. Difficulty: 2) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. Baltzell found that a surprisingly large number of high-achieving people in our country’s history came from the Boston area. Just walking up to people on the street is a convenient and correct way to generate a random sample. answer: F. answer: F. Difficulty: 2) 33. L. (UNDERSTAND. Sociology. L. (UNDERSTAND.O. Topic: Research Methods.O. “Statistical evidence” may or may not be the same as truth. Topic: Research Methods. Inductive logical thought turns theory into testable hypotheses. L. (APPLY. 2. 5 .5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. Difficulty: 2) 32.6: Illustrate the use of inductive and deductive logical thought. Difficulty: 2) 35. L. Difficulty: 1) 38.O. Topic: The Interplay of Theory and Method. Topic: The Interplay of Theory and Method. 15/e 31. (UNDERSTAND. 2. Topic: Research Methods.O. 2.O. Difficulty: 1) 39. answer: F. L. Topic: Research Methods. 2. L. answer: T.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. Topic: Research Methods. Topic: Research Methods. Participant observation is a research method by which researchers stand back from a setting. Inc. answer: F.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. watch from a distance.Macionis. 2. Conducting interviews with 100 college students in a course would take no more time than having them all complete a questionnaire when they come to class.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods.O. answer: T. L. answer: T.  All rights reserved.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. 2. which means that it identifies cause and effect relationships. L. and then carefully record the behavior of others.6: Illustrate the use of inductive and deductive logical thought. Topic: Research Methods.O. (APPLY. 2. (REMEMBER.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. 2. The use of existing data and documents makes most historical research possible. Difficulty: 2) 34.

(REMEMBER. Difficulty: 1) 43. information that is based on a society’s traditions. d. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.S. b. race is now more of a barrier to African Americans than ever before in U. variable. 2.O. 2. (REMEMBER. Sociology.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common sense. 2. Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation. “A mental construct that represents some aspect of the world in a somewhat simplified form” is the definition of a a. answer: c. c. information we can verify with our senses. L. Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation. answer: a. history. most people in the United States readily see how society shapes our lives. 2. Lois Benjamin’s research on the life experiences of high-achieving African Americans suggests that a. Sociologists use the term “empirical evidence” to refer to a. measurement.Macionis. Inc. b. answer: b. concept. Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation. d. L. “common sense” is not very popular in the United States. 15/e MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 40. much of what passes for “common sense” in the United States turns out to be at least partly wrong. 6 .1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common sense. L. racism remains a burden even among privileged African Americans. L. racism mainly affects lower-class African Americans. (REMEMBER. (REMEMBER. (UNDERSTAND.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common sense. information that squares with common sense. d. belief based on a society’s traditions. logical system that bases knowledge on direct. race has little to do with the life experiences of successful people. systematic observation. “common sense” is usually pretty close to the truth. information that most people agree is true. c.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common sense.O. c. logical system that bases truth on political goals. The sociological perspective reveals that a. b. Difficulty: 1) 42. answer: b. 2.O.  All rights reserved. Difficulty: 1) 41. Difficulty: 2) 44.O. L. b.O.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. belief based on faith in ultimate truth. Difficulty: 1) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. answer: d. d. d. c. theory. Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation. c. Science can be defined as a a. b.

  All rights reserved. it is necessary to specify exactly what you are measuring. What term refers to the arithmetic average of a series of numbers? a. the mean Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. As you record the data.O. 2. L. Difficulty: 3) 46.O.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. If you were trying to measure the “social class” of various people.” d. everyone agrees on what “social class” means. (APPLY. c. answer: b. the mode c. answer: c. answer: a. the mode c.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. 2. L. 2. a hypothesis. operationalizing b. b.O. the mean b. you must measure “social class” in every way possible. 7 . a variable. L. the correlation (REMEMBER. b. answer: a. the median d.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. (APPLY.O. the mean b. Difficulty: 1) 49. you are using the concept “age” as a. answer: a. Inc. Difficulty: 1) 48. What term refers to the value that occurs midway in a series of numbers (that is. the standard deviation (REMEMBER. d. conceptualizing d. 15/e 45. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.Macionis. L. Sociology. there is no way to measure “social class. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. you would have to keep in mind that a. What process involves deciding exactly what is to be measured when assigning value to a variable? a.O.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. the median d. c. 2. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. the middle case)? a. Imagine that you were going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. L. What is the term for the value that occurs most often in a series of numbers? a. Difficulty: 1) 50. Difficulty: 3) 47. an axiom. validity (REMEMBER. 2. reliability c. a theory.

L. congruence b. 3 d. b. answer: b. With regard to the process of measurement. validity c. it must be valid. c.Macionis. 2 c. the mode c. In this theory. ______ refers to measuring exactly what one intends to measure. Difficulty: 1) 51. 2. 8 . 2. answer: b. reliability (REMEMBER.O. Difficulty: 1) 54.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. d. A theory states that increasing a person’s formal higher education results in increased earnings over the individual’s lifetime. What is the median value? a. 10. “higher education” is the a. answer: c. 1 b. Difficulty: 3) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. whether you are really measuring what you want to measure. measurement cannot be both reliable and valid. independent variable. L. the median d. for measurement to be valid. L. answer: a.O.O. 4. Difficulty: 1) 53. L. (ANALYZE. (REMEMBER. answer: d. Difficulty: 3) 55. dependent variable. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. repeatability d.  All rights reserved. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. a. Sociology. 2. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. c. Inc. c. b. 3. L. 4 (ANALYZE. it must be reliable. d. 2. (ANALYZE. correlation.O.O. b. 2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. whether or not everyone agrees with the study’s results.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. d. whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results. Examine the following series of numbers: 1. Difficulty: 3) 52. for measurement to be reliable. a. answer: c. reliability refers to a. 2. 2. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.O. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. 15/e b. effect. L. the correlation (REMEMBER. how dependable the researcher is. all measurement is both reliable and valid. In the process of measurement.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations.

answer: c. L.O. making the correlation reliable. 2. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. d. c.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. c. both measure the same thing. answer: c. It is difficult to establish all the cause-and-effect relationships in a social situation because a. 9 .O. b. making the correlation spurious. answer: b. c.O. An apparent.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. (ANALYZE. b. most patterns of behavior have a single cause. Difficulty: 2) 60. (REMEMBER. c.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Difficulty: 2) 61. In a cause-and-effect relationship a. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. 2. Inc. d. L. answer: a. 2. Difficulty: 1) 57. 2. L.Macionis. (UNDERSTAND. Difficulty: 1) 58. Difficulty: 1) 59. most patterns of behavior are caused by many factors. most patterns of behavior are random and have no cause at all. a spurious correlation. both variables must be shown to be independent. d. association between two variables that is caused by a third variable is called a. Sociology.O. causing the correlation. L. although false. answer: d.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Two variables are said to display correlation if a.  All rights reserved. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. there must be evidence that the correlation is spurious. sociologists are not able to reach conclusions about cause and effect. the two variables must never display correlation. control. 2. b. The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher must Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. L. they are caused by the same factor. (REMEMBER. d. an unproven correlation. b. (UNDERSTAND. c. they vary together. one occurs before the other. b.O. an unreliable correlation. The ability to neutralize the effect of one variable in order to assess the relationship between two other variables is called a. an invalid correlation. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. 15/e 56. d. the independent variable must come before the dependent variable in time.

  All rights reserved. Emile Durkheim. 2. b. answer: a. c. sociology is not scientific. d. L. replication b. Imagine that you are repeating research done by someone else in order to assess the accuracy.O. answer: d. favors qualitative data. b. objectification c. focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations.” c. d. d. You are doing which of the following? a. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. (UNDERSTAND. Difficulty: 2) 64. focuses on action. sees an objective reality “out there. the discipline of sociology is too new. The sociologist who called on his colleagues to be “value-free” in the conduct of their research was a.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. L. 2. answer: a. c. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. c.O. not personally care about the topic being studied. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. 2. 15/e a. favors quantitative data. Difficulty: 2) 65. 2.O. (REMEMBER. 2. Inc. Sociologists cannot precisely predict any person’s behavior because a. L. b. focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior. L. (REMEMBER. answer: b. Difficulty: 1) 63. seeks to bring about desirable social change. reliability d.O. b. scientific control (APPLY. Difficulty: 1) 62. try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research. b. c. human behavior is highly complex and has many causes. Difficulty: 1) 66. (UNDERSTAND. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. seeks to bring about change. d.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Herbert Spencer. L. there are too many competing sociological approaches.Macionis.O. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Interpretive sociology refers to sociology that a. d. Karl Marx.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. 10 . study issues that have no value to society as a whole. Scientific sociology a. carry out research that will encourage desirable social change. Max Weber. answer: d. Sociology.

2. 2. (REMEMBER.O. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Verstehen d. value-free (ANALYZE. Difficulty: 2) 71. Which German word meaning “understanding” was used by Max Weber to describe his approach to sociological research? a. Qualitative research has special appeal to investigators who favor Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. Difficulty: 2) 70. Inc. gender-conflict theory.O. 15/e (REMEMBER. endorses the principle of being value-free. scientific c. Critical sociology can best be described as a(n) ________ approach. d. Scientific methodology is most closely linked to a. a. Difficulty: 1) 68. Difficulty: 1) 69. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. c. L. answer: a. (ANALYZE. Sociology. L. b. seeks to bring about desirable social change.Macionis.  All rights reserved. Difficulty: 3) 72. scientific d. symbolic-interaction theory. positivist (ANALYZE. activist b. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. 2. 11 . qualitative d. answer: c. focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior.O. is based on Weber’s principle of verstehen. 2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. answer: b.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. b. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Gesellschaft c. L. answer: b. critical c. Critical sociology a. answer: c.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology.O. Verboten (REMEMBER. d. interpretive b. L. L. structural-functional theory. the ________ approach in sociology rejects Max Weber’s goal that researchers should be value-free. L. 2. answer: a.O. In making judgments about how society should be improved. social-conflict theory. a.O.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. 2. Gemeinschaft b. Difficulty: 1) 67. c.

overgeneralization. b. Your work could be criticized for the problem called a. Inc.3: Identify the importance of gender in sociological research. 2.Macionis. Difficulty: 2) 77. the American Sociological Association states that researchers a. gender blindness. b.4: Discuss the importance of ethics to sociological research. L. answer: c. overgeneralization. 2.O. which research method would you most likely use? a. must always perform their research several times in order to ensure its accuracy. d. (APPLY. Difficulty: 2) 76. Topic: Research Ethics. you would correctly point to the problem called a. L.O. the symbolic-interaction approach. 15/e a. If you read a study that draws conclusions about all of humanity based on research using only males as subjects. You are doing research and you never stop to think about the possible importance of gender.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. the structural-functional approach. Difficulty: 1) 75. 12 . L. b. answer: b.  All rights reserved. ignoring gender entirely. If you were to conduct sociological research that closely follows the logic of science. (APPLY.3: Identify the importance of gender in sociological research. Sociology. using double standards in your research. doing the research from a male perspective. (APPLY. b. b. the social-conflict approach. you are being criticized for a. must protect the privacy of subjects taking part in a research project.O. overgeneralizing your results. If you have been criticized for “androcentricity” in your research. 2. interviews Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. c. answer: b. 2. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. 2. Topic: Gender and Research. Difficulty: 3) 73.O. d. c. the social-exchange approach. d.O. c. employing double standards. Topic: Gender and Research. using double standards. Difficulty: 2) 74. answer: c. answer: c. Topic: Gender and Research.3: Identify the importance of gender in sociological research. need not disclose their sources of funding for the research. (UNDERSTAND. d. (ANALYZE. c. c. androcentricity. are not responsible for the safety of subjects taking part in a research project. gender blindness. d. L. androcentricity. L. Regarding ethical research guidelines.

participant observation (APPLY. 2. Inc. (APPLY. answer: d. Topic: Research Methods. Topic: Research Methods. c. a survey c. Three researchers wish to test the effects of playing soft music during an exam on the test performance of their sociology students. hypothesis (REMEMBER. answer: b. answer: d. “A statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables” is the definition of which concept? a. the dependent variable. the experimental group. Difficulty: 1) 82. 2.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods.O. Topic: Research Methods.O. Difficulty: 2) 78. b. the Hawthorne effect (REMEMBER.  All rights reserved. an experiment b. In experimental terms. correlation c. the “Stanford County Prison”? a. Difficulty: 1) 81. Topic: Research Methods. What research method was used in Philip Zimbardo’s study. the Stanford effect d.O.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. d. theory b. the placebo. 2. the class hearing the music is called a. spurious correlation d.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. 2. L. 2. secondary analysis (REMEMBER. answer: a.O. invalid response b.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. answer: c. L. the control group. the experiment c. What term refers to any change in a subject’s behavior that is caused by the awareness of being studied? a. Difficulty: 1) 79.Macionis.O. 15/e b. 13 . participant observation d. L.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. Difficulty: 3) 80. unreliable response c. Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. questionnaires d. L. Topic: Research Methods. Sociology. They conduct an experiment in which one testtaking class hears music and another does not. L.

d. a qualitative question format.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. the question. Topic: Research Methods. “Do you think that the government should spend less on defense and spend more on health care?” a. 15/e a. Topic: Research Methods. a dependent variable. 2. (UNDERSTAND.” is an example of a. b. L. 2. 2. secondary research b. experimental design. From a research point of view. a closed-ended format. One disadvantage of conducting interviews is that this research method a. an interview question format. d. 2. Difficulty: 1) 83. In a questionnaire. a survey (REMEMBER. “Please state your opinions about the likelihood of another major terrorist attack at home. answer: a.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. answer: d. L. results in a very low response rate.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. closed-format group. does not allow subjects’ answers to be detailed. c. Topic: Research Methods. A small number of people that are used to represent a much larger population is called a a. Difficulty: 2) 86. Inc. d. c. an open-ended format. what is the problem with the question. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. answer: d. Difficulty: 2) 85. c. participant observation c. (EVALUATE. Sociology. Difficulty: 2) 87. In a questionnaire.O. L. asking respondents to identify their income level from a number of possible categories represents a.O. (APPLY. 2. answer: b. may easily allow the researcher to influence subjects’ responses. L.O. Topic: Research Methods.Macionis. The question may spark an emotional response. an experiment d.O.  All rights reserved. b. b. Most people will have no opinion on these issues. sampling frame. does not permit follow-up questions. c. a closed-ended question format. sample. L.O. answer: b. target group. 14 . Difficulty: 1) 84. (REMEMBER. an open-ended question format. Topic: Research Methods. d. b. b.

secondary analysis. b. must always be conducted in a laboratory. L. Sociology. could easily find jobs and housing if they just wanted to.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. secondary analysis Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. her sample may not be representative of all African Americans. d.O. (UNDERSTAND. Difficulty: 1) 91. (REMEMBER. were unwilling to speak with any researcher about their lives. Joseph Ewoodzie’s research to learn about homeless people in Jackson. take a lot of time to complete. (UNDERSTAND. Ewoodzie discovered that homeless people in Jackson. b.O. Mississippi is an example of a. Lois Benjamin’s research shows that interviews a.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. d.O. do not require face-to-face contact with subjects. Topic: Research Methods. participant observation. answer c. answer: c.O. an experiment b.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. 15/e c. answers: a. 2. a survey. c. Topic: Research Methods. d. Difficulty: 3) 88. Topic: Research Methods. You have plenty of time. (ANALYZE.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. answer: c. (EVALUATE. which involves a value judgment. answer: c. L. L. d. Inc. You wish to conduct an exploratory and descriptive study of people in a particular neighborhood. Difficulty: 1) 90. d. Topic: Research Methods. What research method should you use? a. c. Lois Benjamin’s investigation of racism may be criticized because a. an experiment. Difficulty: 1) 92. could use available social services so that they rarely went for a day without food. so that a simple “yes” or “no” may distort the subject’s actual opinion. her sample included as many white people as African Americans. L.  All rights reserved. do not allow the researcher to ask follow-up questions. 2.Macionis. c.O. Mississippi a. The question asks for a personal opinion. 2. but you have little money or other resources. Topic: Research Methods. L. she conducted her interviews over the telephone. 2. b. participant observation d. 15 . people cannot respond to questions they find painful. 2. Difficulty: 3) 89. ate more nutritious food than better-off people.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. Two different questions are being asked. b. c. a survey c.

Which sociological research method is best used to study what cannot be directly observed. Digby Baltzell’s study. A researcher doing participant observation may often “break in” to a setting more easily with the help of a a. 15/e (APPLY. showed that a very high number of “top achievers” listed in the Dictionary of American Biography came from a. answer: a. key informant.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia. secondary analysis Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. answer: a. 2. Sociology. 2.Macionis. c. 2. Topic: Research Methods. participant observation d.O. the survey c.O. Topic: Research Methods. research assistant. longer questionnaire. answer: c. Difficulty: 3) 93. L. Topic: Research Methods. E. Inc.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. d. such as attitudes and values. answer: d. 2. Digby Baltzell’s historical study. b. the experiment b. participant observation d. secondary analysis (REMEMBER.O. E. L. b. the survey c.O. Difficulty: 2) 97. d. L. Topic: Research Methods. Philadelphia. L.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. 2. answer: c.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. L.O. c. participant observation d. bigger budget. the South.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. illustrates which research method? a. Difficulty: 1) 94.  All rights reserved. Topic: Research Methods. the experiment b. Which sociological research method is most likely to produce quantitative data that will identify cause-and-effect relationships? a. Difficulty: 1) 95. the survey c. Pennsylvania. Difficulty: 1) 96. (REMEMBER. Massachusetts. Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia. 16 . the experiment b. secondary analysis (APPLY. (REMEMBER. among large numbers of people? a.

transforming specific observations into general theory. d. Topic: Research Methods. c. L. answer: c.O. the experiment b. Inc. Difficulty: 1) 103. c. the survey c. Sociology. L.  All rights reserved. Topic: Research Methods. turning theories into hypotheses suitable for testing. participant observation d. 2. Which sociological research method provides the best chance to understand social behavior in a natural setting? a. Which sociological research method saves the time and expense of data gathering. but the researcher has no control over possible data bias? a. selecting a research method based on available resources. (REMEMBER.O. doing research about the past. participant observation d. Topic: The Interplay of Theory and Method. L.6: Illustrate the use of inductive and deductive logical thought. L. the survey c.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. 15/e (EVALUATE. 2.6: Illustrate the use of inductive and deductive logical thought. Which sociological research method is likely to be the most difficult to replicate (repeat)? a.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. secondary analysis (EVALUATE. answer: a. Difficulty: 1) 102. answer: d. secondary analysis of existing sources (EVALUATE.O. L. Difficulty: 2) 98. the experiment b. doing research about the past. b. 2.O. Topic: Research Methods. Deductive logical thought involves a. 2. Topic: Research Methods. Difficulty: 2) 99. b.O. L.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. Inductive logical thought involves a.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. the experiment b. 17 .Macionis. 2. People can mislead others with statistics by Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. (REMEMBER. 2. turning theories into hypotheses suitable for testing. selecting a research method based on available resources. Difficulty: 2) 100.O. answer: d. the survey c. participant observation d. secondary analysis (EVALUATE. d. answer: b. answer: c. transforming specific observations into general theory. Difficulty: 2) 101. Topic: The Interplay of Theory and Method.

c. L. answer: b. 2.O. 2. 2. and critical sociology deal with the issue of subjectivity in a different way? (EVALUATE. 2. Sociology. Difficulty: 2) SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS 104.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. 18 .6: Illustrate the use of inductive and deductive logical thought. 2. Topic: The Interplay of Theory and Method.O. When it comes to measuring a variable. What are the essential differences between scientific sociology. L.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. L. how is reliability different from validity? Which concept implies the other? (UNDERSTAND.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. L.O. 2. How does a researcher transform a concept into a variable? (APPLY. Provide one strength and one limitation of each of the major research methods described in this chapter: experiment.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. b. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. d. Difficulty: 2) 110. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. (EVALUATE. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. identifying a testable hypothesis. Difficulty: 2) 106.O. interpreting the data to lead their readers to a desired conclusion.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. (UNDERSTAND. and critical sociology? (ANALYZE. Inc. What did Max Weber mean by “value-free” research? Do you think researchers can be value-free? Should they try? Explain. participant observation.O. interpretive sociology.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. L. using deductive reasoning. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. Difficulty: 2) 105. Difficulty: 3) 109.O. 2. interpretive sociology. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Difficulty: 2) 108. List the three conditions that are required to establish cause and effect in social scientific research. (UNDERSTAND.Macionis. and secondary analysis. L. 15/e a. What is a spurious correlation? (UNDERSTAND.O. Difficulty: 2) 111. Difficulty: 2) 107. L. 2. How do positivist sociology. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. using inductive reasoning. L.O.  All rights reserved. survey.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations.

Difficulty: 3) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. Topic: Basics of Sociological Investigation and Three Ways to Do Sociology.O. Difficulty: 2) 112. If you were doing a research project for your sociology class in which you were trying to discover how students assess the benefits of taking a sociology class. L. How and why is gender important in research? What are some of the problems in research that involve gender? How about race and ethnicity? Why might a researcher need to take race and ethnicity into account when planning research with a specific category of people? (EVALUATE. Inc. 19 . 2.O. which research method might you use? Why? (EVALUATE.3: Identify the importance of gender in sociological research and L. (ANALYZE.O. why? (EVALUATE. 2.O.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. Topic: Research Methods. Difficulty: 3) 115.O 2.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. 2. L. L.O. 2.6: Illustrate the use of inductive and deductive logical thought.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. 2. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. L. Sociology.4: Discuss the importance of ethics to sociological research. Should sociologists try to be objective? Develop a positivist sociological response to this question and also a critical sociological response.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods.1: Explain how scientific evidence often challenges common sense and L. What makes science a special “way of knowing”? What are important traits of scientific sociology? How does interpretive sociology differ from scientific sociology? (ANALYZE. Topic: Three Ways to Do Sociology. Difficulty: 3) ESSAY QUESTIONS/TOPICS FOR SHORT PAPERS 114. 2. Difficulty: 3) 113. Difficulty: 3) 116. How does critical sociology differ from scientific sociology? What are the differences in terms of the basic image of society as well as the goals of research? Does one approach evaluate society more than the other? If so. Which of the two responses comes closer to your own personal views? Why? (CREATE. Define both inductive logical thought and deductive logical thought.  All rights reserved. L. Topic: Gender and Research and Research Ethics.2: Describe sociology’s three research orientations. L.Macionis. 2. L. Difficulty: 3) 117.O. 15/e (EVALUATE. how? Do you favor one approach over the other? If so. Topic: The Interplay of Theory and Method. How does sociological research make use of both types of thought? Provide an example of each.O. Topic: Research Methods. 2.O.

Topic: Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Investigation.O. Topic: Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Investigation. Inc. but each is suitable for addressing a certain type of question or situation. Topic: Research Ethics. 2.7: Recall the ten important steps in carrying out sociological research. Topic: The Interplay of Theory and Method.O. Topic: Research Methods. L. (CREATE.4: Discuss the importance of ethics to sociological research.5: Explain why a researcher might choose each of sociology’s research methods. Difficulty: 3) 121. Difficulty: 3) 122. Sociology. What are three specific problems with research that ethical guidelines address? (EVALUATE.O. participant observation. or some other distinctive category of people and had no understanding of their way of life? (APPLY.6: Illustrate the use of inductive and deductive logical thought. and point to any challenges or issues that you would have to resolve in order to complete such a project.  All rights reserved. State the question. Topic: Research Ethics.O.O. L.4: Discuss the importance of ethics to sociological research. Difficulty: 3) 120. L. You may use the format presented in the text. 20 . Difficulty: 3) 119.Macionis. 2.7: Recall the ten important steps in carrying out sociological research. that is. (CREATE. Difficulty: 3) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. Based on your own interests. L. 2. What are some of the dangers of sociological research to subjects? Explain why the discipline has developed ethical guidelines to guide research. identify a research question that you would like to investigate. what specific questions must be answered as a researcher moves along? (UNDERSTAND.O. L. How does inductive logical thought differ from deductive logical thought? How can a researcher benefit from using both kinds of thinking? (ANALYZE. Outline the ten steps in the process of carrying out sociological investigation. Why is it necessary for researchers to understand the social characteristics of the people they are studying? What problems could arise if a researcher started to study the Amish. 2. None of the major methods of sociological research—experiment. survey. 15/e 118. and secondary research—is better than any other in an absolute sense. 2. L. Difficulty: 3) 123. Explain why this is true and develop brief illustrations of the type of questions that would lead a researcher to select one method over the others. Korean Americans. identify an appropriate research method. 2.

experiment c. 3. b. the ________ approach in sociology rejects Max Weber’s goal that researchers be value-free. Which German word meaning “understanding” was used by Max Weber to describe his approach to sociological research? a. Sociology. longer questionnaire 4. survey d. a. bigger budget. 15/e Name ________________________________ Quick Quiz: Chapter 2 Sociological Investigation Multiple Choice: 1. secondary analysis 7. Gesellschaft. participant observation b. Verstehen.  All rights reserved. key informant. b. Emile Durkheim. Karl Marx. Herbert Spencer. In making judgments about how society should be improved. 5. interpretive c. Max Weber. positivist 6. d. c. The sociologist who called on his colleagues to be value free was a. a. b. A positivist approach assumes that reality exists “out there. d.                                  c. Verboten. the social exchange approach. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. c. True/False __________ 8.Macionis. A researcher doing participant observation may “break in” to a setting more easily with the help of a a. William Foote Whyte’s study of Cornerville (Street Corner Society) used which sociological research method? a. d. Inc.” __________ 9. critical d. b. scientific b. Natural scientists often have an easier time than social scientists in identifying cause­and­ effect relationships. research assistant. the social­conflict approach. activist c. Short Answer 10. Gemeinschaft. qualitative b. scientific d. the symbolic-interaction approach. the structural­functional approach. d. List the three conditions that are required to establish cause and effect in social scientific research. value-free 2. Qualitative research appeals to investigators who favor a. 21 . c. Critical sociology can best be described as a(n) ________ approach.

True/False ___True___ 8. critical d. scientific d. Gemeinschaft. activist c. a. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. experiment c. . the structural­functional approach. The sociologist who called on his colleagues to be value free was a. the social-exchange approach. key informant. William Foote Whyte’s study of Cornerville (Street Corner Society) used which sociological research method? a. positivist 6. A researcher doing participant observation may “break in” to a setting more easily with the help of a a. Herbert Spencer. c. a. value-free 2. the ________ approach in sociology rejects Max Weber’s goal that researchers be value-free.  All rights reserved. Qualitative research appeals to investigators who favor a.” ___True___ 9. research assistant. 4. A positivist approach assumes that reality exists “out there. Verstehen. Max Weber. Which German word meaning “understanding” was used by Max Weber to describe his approach to sociological research? a. secondary analysis 7. 3. longer questionnaire. survey d. Inc. d. Verboten. participant observation b. scientific b. b.Macionis. Critical sociology can best be described as a(n) ________ approach. In making judgments about how society should be improved. the symbolic-interaction approach. b. b.                                  c. d. Gesellschaft. d. Short Answer 10. Natural scientists often have an easier time than social scientists in identifying  cause­and­effect relationships. bigger budget. c. 5. 15/e Name ________________________________ Quick Quiz: Chapter 2 Sociological Investigation Multiple Choice: 1. interpretive c. the social­conflict approach. List the three conditions that are required to establish cause and effect in social scientific  research. qualitative b. c. d. b. Emile Durkheim. Sociology. Karl Marx.

 Inc. .  All rights reserved. 15/e Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education. Sociology.Macionis.