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MUSIC OF MINDORO

MINA DE ORO is the oldest name given to Mindoro because it is the center for goldmining. Most of
the Hanunuo Mangyans are wanderers. They travel from different places where there is food to eat.
Mangyan is the general term for people who live in the mountainous region of Mindoro.
The music of the Mangyans is characterized by its chanting song style called Ambahan. It has no
specific tone style but it is monophonic in texture. Basically, it made up of seven syllables in one line.
The Ambahan ranges from three to 134 lines. It is expressed in an allegorical manner. The Ambahan
is a means to encourage the parents in guiding their children, in expressing their love to them and in
sharing valuable experiences that can be applied to their day to day living.
The Mangyans write the lyrics of the Ambahan in a bamboo tube called Luka as a means to preserve
their music.
The term Hanunuo means true or genuine . This word is used to describe the Mangyans who
have remained faithful to their traditions. This tribal group possess a system of writing which is a
descendant of the ancient Sanskrit alphabet. They use this form of writing to compose the chanted
poetry called Ambahan.
Mangyans write their newly discovered ambahan in a portion of a bamboo pole. They take care of it,
teach it and pass it on to the next generation. They are taught how to write the ambahan at a very
young age even though they could hardly read its script.
Mangyan music is a way of life. It is used for courting, merrymaking, relaxing and worshipping. The
vocal style used is leader-chorus type and is often accompanied by musical instruments. Their songs
include:
*Lullabies like the iyaya
*Recollection of war exploits
*Documentation
*love lyrics
*ritual chants like the ayung or ngayung
The musical joust done during merrymaking is participated in by both men and women of the
tribe.Musical instrument like the kudyapi, gitgit and wind instruments are played to accompany the
Ambahan. Sometimes the Ambahan is used as a tool for courting women.
To accompany the festive Hanunuo music are the gongs of Mindoro. These are smaller and lighter
suspended gongs with bosses facing each other. The rhythm of the gongs together with the other
instruments is used to accompany the Ambahan and the post harvest of merry making.
The Mangyan musical instruments are classified into three sections: string instruments or the
chordophones, wind instrument or aerophones and percussion instruments or idiophones. These
instruments are played in various festivities, rituals and daily activities. The xylophones,
drums,bamboos or sticks are used for improvisation of accompaniments.

STRING INSTRUMENT OR CHORDOPHONES


Gitgit an indigenous three-stringed violin with human hair string
Batiwtiw a bamboo instrument
Kudyapi - a lute
Kudlung a bamboo zither with parallel strings
Gitara a home-made guitar
WIND INSTRUMENTS OR AEROPHONES
Bangsi an external pipeflute
Badyung a bamboo trumpet
Cantuy a nose flute
Plawta a mouth blown transverse flute
Tangkop- a bamboo whistle
PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS OR IDIOPHONES
Buray dipay a bend pod rattle
Kalutang percussion stick
Agung - brass gongs
Kinaban a bamboo Jews harp
Subing a Jews harp
Barimbaw a bamboo slit gong

MUSIC OF PALAWAN
Palawan is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the Philippines. It is known for its beautiful
beaches and caves. The tribes living in this island are the Cuyunon, the Tagbanua and the Palawan.
They created music through the sound that they hear around their environment like the sound of
different animals, insects, the wind, the rain and even the river. An example of this kind of music is the
Laplap Bagit, a bird song.
The culture of the Tagbanuas is characterized by their rituals. One of this is the Pagdiwata,a
cleansing ritual performed by the Babaylan, a folk healer who initiates worship, healing, and
thanksgiving. This ritual is accompanied by instruments made of bamboo and strings.
Palawans music is largely influenced by three important inhabitants of the island. The Cuyunon who
originated from Cuyo Island Group are known to be original inhabitants of Palawan. They are highly
developed ethnic group rich in folklore, traditions, music and dances.
The Cuyunon instrumental music is based from the traditional Tipanu Band that is made up of
various kinds of bamboo flutes with different tonal ranges. Accompanying these flutes are snare
drums called Redoblante, bass drums or Tambor and the Batingting or triangle. The music played
using these instruments usually accompanies the Ati, Sinulog Inocentes and the Comedia.
There songs for various events. Sandaw , the most simple, is a lullaby. Erekay is an event like a
balagtasan where a male and a female try to out do one another in an on-the spot composition of
melodic verses, usually in a teasing manner. There are also singing games like the Kotaw-Kotaw.
The Tagbanuasin Palawan have always practiced in certain ancient rituals since the early times up to
now. They are the most cultured people in Palawan. They hold elaborate funeral celebrations where
the participants chant the Bactal, a lengthy song that tells about the significant adventures of a
mythical being called Dumaracol.
This tribe has always believed that music has the power to cure the sick by driving off evil spirits
using drum beats. This is observed in the ceremonial dance called Pagdiwata.
The Palawan cultural minority is composed of people with fair skin and slender built. They use songs
to tell about their closeness to nature especially to animals. This tribe also uses instruments like the
gongs,the Babandil and the Gimbal.
Most instruments from Palawan are made of bamboo,wood,strings and metals. Here are some
instruments found in Palawan.
TAGBANUA MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
Aruding Jews harp
Beberek nose flute
Tipanu mouth flute
Pagang and Tubuldu bamboo zithers
Kudling boat flute
Gimbal drum
CUYUNON MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
Batungtung bamboo slit drum
Palakupakan stickwith bamboo clappers
Subing Jews harp
Lantoy nose flute
TIPANU INSTRUMENTAL ENSEMBLE
Two drums
Different size of mouth flute
Redoblante snare drum
Bombo big drums
Platilyo c

MUSIC OF VISAYAS

The Visayan region is considered as one of the most beautiful region in the Philippines. The
Chocolate Hills in Bohol, the Ati-Atihan of Aklan and the Sinulog of Cebu are only a few of the many
attractions that give a strong impact to the people in all walks of life. The music itself speaks of its
culture and tradition from the different types of festivities and occasions.
The Visayan folk music is different from other cultures because of the massive changes in musical
styles through the influences of the Spaniards. The Spaniards introduced new styles of music which
is evident in their display of Western musical traditions. They educated the Visayans in reading and
writing notes, in playing musical instruments skillfully, and in reformatting the new content of the folk
music. They created various types of seasonal songs, serenade songs (harana) and Zarzuelas.
Religious songs and Catholic Liturgical music were also developed as part of the Visayan musical
traditions.
The Visayan region is home to some of our countrys best singers. It is also home to our favorite folk
music like Si Pilemon, Pakitong-Kitong, matud Nila and Rosas Pandan. The varied musical styles and
forms of the region are attributed to Spanish influences.
One popular musical style which the Spaniards have influenced is the Balitaw. The Balitaw is a songand-dance debate between a man and a woman. It deals with topics on love and marriages.
Pinalangga Ko is a childrens song in 4/4 time time signature.
Visayan natives are known for being skilled musicians. Majority of them know how to play the guitar,
the famous string instrument introduced by the Spaniards. The other native instruments are generally
made of bamboo, wood and animal skins.
VISAYAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
Buktot four-stringed Visayan instrument
Lantoy small flute
Tulali a flute made of bamboo with holes for the fingers
Tugo drum
Litguit - violin

ART and CROPS OF MIMAROPA


Arts and Crafts
Mindoro Arts and Crafts

Mangyan Iraya Tribe weaving Nito Plates


While it does not have the colorful tribes of Africa nor the modern bustling metropolitan
allure of Singapore, the Philippines, in particular Puerto Galera, has tropical forests at
their most natural, an indigenous tribal culture at its best along with modern beaches
and resorts and it is visited with great enthusiasm by local and foreign tourists alike.

Mangyan Basket Weaver


In addition to some great beaches and superb coastal cuisine, Puerto Galeras other
interesting attractions include a day trip to the Mangyan Village. The Iraya Mangyan
Village is located at the foot of Mt. Malasimbo in Barangay Talipanan about 9 kilometers
from the town center.
This village was founded by philanthropist Jaime Zobel de Ayala and his wife Donya Bea
in the 90s, and today it provides shelter and sustenance to many Iraya-Mangyan families
who have been re-settled here (Mangyan is a collective name for the native people of
Mindoro, the 7th largest island in the Philippines).

Iraya Mangyan weavers at work


Spending a relaxed afternoon with the Iraya tribal people at the Mangyan Village is both
refreshing and stimulating. It can give you a chance to experience first-hand what life in
the village is like, as well as see (and buy) their traditional handicrafts and art, which is
one of their sources of income.

Mangyan Handicraft Display Center


Inside the village, a huge traditional hut serves as a gallery of finished woven handicrafts
which are ready for delivery to its prospective clients while others are exported to other
countries.

Mangyan Handicrafts
The village itself is a paradox with its simple modernity. Tribal women sit under a
thatched roof, weaving local nito vines or native vines into baskets, beer bottle holders
and place mats amongst other eco friendly products, plus a construction site building a
computer centre for teaching Mangyan children.

Mangyan Kid from Iraya Tribe


This is not an unusual sight here, and youll also find that Mangyans make boxes of all
shapes and sizes, place mats, plates, trays, trinkets, bowls and baskets of all sizes all
beautifully woven by hand-interweaving colorful vines to make traditional designs. The
indigenous arts and crafts of the Mangyans are also transported for sale to two stores
opened by the Ayalas at Makati City.

Nito Weave Decorative Jars


Mangyan art and heritage, including their written language of the Hanunuo and Buhid
Mangyan The Ambahan written in the Surat Mangay have almost died out. These are
the last remnants of their pre colonial traditions and handicrafts, which makes this
experience even more unique for anyone who appreciates history. And at the same time,
while the traditions are dying here, theproducts of the tribes work can often be found in
many countries in Asia in particular India, Bangkok and Singapore.
While it is a very unique type of shopping trip compared to the one we would usually
make to collect souvenirs from our vacation for family and friends back home, it was
simply refreshing to see a community of indigenous people making a mark for
themselves with their handicrafts. Its a rare thing in life, and as our civilization
progresses, it will sadly become even rarer and more unique.

Mangyan Traditional House


Like most indigenous people in other parts of the globe, the tribesmen are usually taken
for granted and not given equal opportunity but in Mangyan Village, they are recognized
as an important part of the community. Aside from introducing them to modern
technology, the village was also built to help in the preservation of Manyans language,
writing, songs, poems, intricate weaving and art.
Its definitely a good idea to experience it while you can, because a few decades down
the road, who knows what kind of situation well be in, and how much of that will be left
for people like us to explore.
HANUNUO
The Hanunoo Mangyan have preserved a great part of their beliefs and culture despite
the unavoidable onslaught of the lowland culture brought by the lowland traders,
religious missionaries, private organizations, and government workers. Perhaps it is
the direct result of their retreat to the mountains in the face of the grabbing of their
ancestral lands.
Their way of dressing (rutay Mangyan) distinguish the Hanunoo from other indigenous
groups as well as from the lowlanders (Padilla 1991). The male uses g-string balled
ba-ag for the lower part, and for the upper part the sleeved balukas, which reaches the
navel. The females use the ramit or dress. There are two kinds of covering for the
upper part of the bodythe sleeved lambong and the sleeveless subon. These articles
of clothing are made from cotton, which they plant, and color with an indigo dye from
the plant named tagom. They are woven by the women with a backstrap loom, and
are normally embroidered with red and white crosslike designs called pakudos.
Miyamoto (1988:29) believes that the pakudos motif might also be explained by the
sacred number four and the mandala symbol often seen in Southeast Asian art.
Hanunoo men and women wear the hagkus or willed rattan belt with a pocket.
Women wear the hulon, a belt made from the nito, around their waist. They wear
their hair long, and sometimes use a headband made of beads or buri and nito.
Hanunoo Mangyan of all ages and both sexes are fond of wearing necklaces and
bracelets made from beads. These beads are used not only for decoration but also for
magical, religious, and judiciary purposes. They are used as adornments by lovers,
in curing a sick person (white beads only), in rituals presided over by the pandaniwan,
and for paying fines, the quantity depending on the severeness of a wrongdoing.
Among the Iraya, males wear bahag or loincloth fashioned from tree bark, the kaitong
or belt, and the talawak or headband. The females wear the tapis or skirtlike covering
made from bark, the lingob or belt, and the sagpan or pamanpan to cover the breast.
They wear necklaces called kudyasan, made from tigbi seeds, and the panalingnaw or
earrings.
Some Ratagnon males still wear the traditional loincloth, and the women wear a
wraparound cotton cloth from the waistline to the knees. They weave a breast
covering from nito or vine. The males wear a jacket with simple embroidery during
gala festivities and carry flint, tinder, and other paraphernalia for making fire. They
also carry betel chew and its ingredients in bamboo containers. Strings of beads or
copper wire may adorn their necks. Both men and women wear coils of red-dyed
rattan at the waistline.

Among the Hanunoo, men forge and repair blades for knives, axes, bolo or long knife,
spears, and other bladed instruments. Women traditionally spin, dye, and weave
cotton cloth for clothing and blankets. Tailoring and the embroidery of garments is
usually womens work, while men carve the handles and scabbards. Woven basketry
is mainly womens work, but sewn goods, twisted cordage, and other goods are crafted
by both sexes.
Basket making is well developed among the northern Iraya and southern Hanunoo
groups. Lane (1986:141-144) describes the various kinds of Mangyan baskets. The
Iraya have the hexagonal household basket, which is always made in small sizes, from
18-20 centimeters in diameter. The materials used consists of soft and narrow strips
ofthe buri palm leaf, which are then overlaid with nito strips. Another Iraya basket is
the open grain basket made from bamboo strips, which are first blackened and dried.
Variations in the weaving process produce the many designs of the basket.
The Hanunoo baskets are small, fine, and leatherlike in texture. Various designs such
as the pakudos or cross pattern are created with split nito or red-dyed buri laid over
strips of buri. The base of the basket is square but the mouth is round. Other types
of Hanunoo basketry include purses and betel-nut carriers which come in round,
polygonal, or other shapes. The covers fit snugly on the container.
Palawan Arts and Crafts

The traditional costumes of the Tagbanua were fashioned from the bark of
trees, particularly the salugin. The preparation of this bark was unique. After being
felled, the tree would be cut around the trunk, the outer bark stripped off to expose
the inner layer. This layer would be beaten with a wooden mallet, until it was soft
and pliant enough to hang loose from the bole. This was then washed in the river
and dried out under the sun. No dye was applied to it, and no decorations either.
The Tagbanua have always depended on this inner tree bark because back-loom
weaving is unknown to them, as with all Palawan groups. In the past, menfolk wore
simple loincloths (G-strings), supported by a woven rattan waistband called
ambalad, while the women wore only brief wraparound skirts made from bark.
The Tagbanua later came to adopt some articles of Muslim clothing. At present, while
many Tagbanua still wear their traditional apparel, Western-type clothing has found its
way among the people.
The Tagbanua have had more aesthetically delicate creations in terms of
body accessories. In the past, when both men and women wore their hair long, they
filed and blackened their teeth, and carved earplugs from the hardwood
bantilinaw. These ornately designed plugs were inlaid with mother-of-pearl in geometric
patterns. The Tagbanua also carved wooden combs and bracelets. They strung bead
necklaces to be used in covering womens necks. Anklets of copper and brass wire were

also crafted and worn by women. The earlobe plugs, combs and bracelets, necklaces and
anklets have now become quite rare.
Baskets and wood carvings are the more notable products of Tagbanua artistic crafts
today. They excel in the number of designs which they apply to their tingkop (harvest
baskets) made of hard-strip bamboo. These baskets are occasionally made of blackened
and natural bamboo, which make the designs stand out. Sometimes, only the natural
color of bamboo is used, and the design is created by an extremely subtle changing of
the under-over pattern of the bamboo strips. The cone-shaped colander type of basket is
another fine example of Tagbanua skilled artistry. Using black and natural color designs
outside, the center of the cone has the bamboo strips skived slightly smaller, creating
even holes for the screen. The funnel effect is accomplished through a close weaving of
the bamboo strips towards the top. (Lane 1986:148)

The soft rice baskets, called bayong-bayong, are made with different unusual
shapes. These have generally square bases and round tops. To produce interesting block
and V-shapes, the plain buri sides are superimposed with colored buri. Color is
woven into the Tagbanua basket with the use of dyed palm leaves. Among the colors
used are red, blue, violet, grey, black, and green. There are at least three common
designs for hand baskets, which are used as tobacco containers (De los Reyes 1977:215).
Blackened wood carvings of animals, with simple etched or incised features exposing the
original white grain of the wood, are the most well-known examples of Tagbanua wood
carving or sculpture. Long since available in the market as tourist commodities, these
wood carvings traditionally formed part of the ritual offerings.

The process begins with the cutting of the branches of the alimutyugan tree. This wood,
soft and white, is cut into foot lengths, split in half, and debarked. Rough blocks are
made with the bolo called barong. For carving the actual shape and the fine details of the
object, a small curved knife called pisay is used. The sculpting done, the Tagbanua artist
then uses a sandpaper leaf called agupi or isis to smoothen out the surface, after which
sweet potato, yam, or cassava leaves are rubbed all over it, giving it a greenish color
because of the leaf juice. For blackening, a piece of the almaciga resin is burned on the
ground, and the object is passed over the burning resin to blacken it thoroughly with
soot. The blackened object is given a second scrubbing with the leaves, then passed over

the smoke again, this process being repeated until the black coloring no longer comes off
despite rubbing.
Finally, incisions, etchings, and scrapings, are made on the carving, using the knife. The
strokes are swift and sure: eyes, polka dot designs, V-marks, white triangles, plant and
leaf motifs, lines and geometric shapes, and other designs complete on the Tagbanua
carving.
Some of the objects carved are mammanuk (rooster), a ritual bowl, kiruman
(turtle), kararaga (a native bird), dugyan (a small ground animal), lizards, and wild
pigs. Carved animals are used with rice, betel nut, and other offerings to attract the
deities and spirit-relatives in the pagdiwata rituals. The turtle, for instance, floats on
grains of palay in an ancient Ming trade bowl. Lizards, turtles, and wild pigs, when
not used as ritual objects, become toys for children.

EXERCISE PROGRAMS: Training Guidelines


Endurance, Muscle, Bone Strength Activities:
A. Dual Sports
Badminton - a game played on a rectangular court by twoplayers or two pairs
of players equipped with lightrackets used to volley a shuttlecock over a highnet
that divides the court in half

Table Tennis - a game resembling tennis, played on a table withsmall


paddles and a hollow celluloid or plastic ball.

Tennis - a game played on a rectangular court by twoplayers or two


pairs of players equipped withrackets, in which a ball is driven back and
forthover a low net that divides the court in half.

HEALTH
Stang J, Story M (eds) Guidelines for Adolescent Nutrition Services (2005) 21
http://www.epi.umn.edu/let/pubs/adol_book.shtm Chapter 3 NUTRITION NEEDS OF ADOLESCENTS
Mary Story and Jamie Stang NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS The phenomenal growth that occurs in
adolescence, second only to that in the first year of life, creates increased demands for energy
and nutrients. Total nutrient needs are higher during adolescence than any other time in the
lifecycle. Nutrition and physical growth are integrally related; optimal nutrition is a requisite for
achieving full growth potential.1 Failure to consume an adequate diet at this time can result in
delayed sexual maturation and can arrest or slow linear growth.1 Nutrition is also important
during this time to help prevent adult diet-related chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular
disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. Prior to puberty, nutrient needs are similar for boys and girls.
It is during puberty that body composition and biologic changes (e.g., menarche) emerge which
affect gender-specific nutrient needs. Nutrient needs for both males and females increase
sharply during adolescence.1 Nutrient needs parallel the rate of growth, with the greatest
nutrient demands occurring during the peak velocity of growth. At the peak of the adolescent
growth spurt, the nutritional requirements may be twice as high as those of the remaining period
of adolescence.2 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES Dietary reference intakes (DRIs) developed by
the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine provide quantitative estimates of
nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people.3-7 The DRIs
replace and expand upon the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The DRIs contain four
categories of recommendations for nutrient reference values: Recommended Dietary Allowance
(RDA): The average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement
of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in an ageand gender-specific group. Adequate Intake
(AI): A recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined
approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people that are assumed to
be adequate used when an RDA cannot be determined. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL):
The highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for
almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential
risk of adverse effects increases. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): A daily nutrient intake
value that is estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in an age and
gender group. Used to determine dietary adequacy of populations but not for individuals. 22
GUIDELINES FOR ADOLESCENT NUTRITION SERVICES Tables 1 and 2 provide the DRIs for
adolescents. The DRIs provide the best estimate of nutrient requirements for adolescents;
however these nutrient recommendations are based on chronological age categories, as opposed
to individual levels of biological development. Thus, health care providers should use prudent
professional judgment and consider growth and sexual maturation status (see Chapter 1), and
not rely solely on chronological age, when determining the nutrient needs of an individual
adolescent. TABLE 1 DRIs and AIs: Recommended intakes for Adolescents; Vitamins and Minerals
Females Males 9-13 yrs 14-18 yrs 19-30 yrs 9-13 yrs 14-18 yrs 19-30 yrs Energy (kcals/day)
2,071 2,368 2,403a 2,279 3,152 3,067 Carbohydrate (g/day) 130 130 130 130 130 130 Total
Fiber (g/day) 26 28 25 31 38 38 n-6 Polyunsaturated Fat (g/day) 10 11 12 12 16 17 n-3
Polyunsaturated Fat (g/day) 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.6 Protein (g/day) 34 46 46 34 52 56 Vitamins
Vitamin A (g/d) 600 700 700 600 900 900 Vitamin C (mg/d) 45 65 75 45 75 90 Vitamin D (g/d)

5 5 5 5 5 5 Vitamin E (mg/d) 11 15 15 11 15 15 Vitamin K (g/d) 60 75 90 60 75 120 Thiamin


(mg/d) 0.9 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.2 1.2 Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.9 1.0 1.1 0.9 1.3 1.3 Niacin (mg/d)f 12 14 14 12
16 16 Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.3 Folate (g/d)g 300 400 400 300 400 400 Vitamin
B12 (g/d) 1.8 2.4 2.4 1.8 2.4 2.4 Pantothenic acid (mg/d) 4 5 5 4 5 5 Biotin (g/d) 20 25 30 20
25 30 Choline (mg/d) 375 400 425 375 550 550 Elements Calcium (mg/d) 1,300 1,300 1,000
1,300 1,300 1,000 Chromium (g/d) 21 24 25 25 35 35 Copper (g/d) 700 890 900 700 890 900
Fluoride (mg/d) 2 3 3 2 3 4 Iodine (g/d) 120 150 150 120 150 150 Iron (mg/d) 8 15 18 8 11 8
Magnesium (mg/d) 240 360 310 240 410 400 Manganese (mg/d) 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.3
Molybdenum (g/d) 34 43 45 34 43 45 Phosphorus (mg/d) 1,250 1,250 700 1,250 1,250 700
Selenium (g/d) 40 55 55 40 55 55 Zinc (mg/d) 8 9 8 8 11 11 Note: This table presents RDAs in
bold type and AIs in ordinary type. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake.
RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97-98%) individuals in a group. The AI is believed
to cover needs of all adolescents in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent
being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.
Source: Data from reports from the Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, Standing
Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes,3-7 by the National
Academy of Sciences, courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington DC.
(http://www.nap.edu/) Chapter 3. Nutrition Needs of Adolescents 23 TABLE 2 DRIs: Tolerable
Upper Intake Levels* (UL), Vitamins and Elements Females Males Pregnancy Lactation 9-13 yrs
14-18 yrs 19-30 yrs 18 yrs 18 yrs 9-13 yrs 14-18 yrs 19+yrs Vitamins Vitamin A (g/d) 1,700
2,800 3,000 2,800 2,800 1,700 2,800 3,000 Vitamin C (mg/d) 1,200 1,800 2,000 1,800 1,800
1,200 1,800 2,000 Vitamin D (g/d) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Vitamin E (mg/d) 600 800 1,000
800 800 600 800 1,000 Vitamin K NDf ND ND ND ND ND ND ND Thiamin ND ND ND ND ND ND
ND ND Riboflavin ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND Niacin (mg/d) 20 30 35 30 30 20 30 35 Vitamin B6
(mg/d) 60 80 100 80 80 60 80 100 Folate (g/d) 600 800 1,000 800 800 600 800 1,000 Vitamin
B12 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND Pantothenic Acid ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND Biotin ND ND ND
ND ND ND ND ND Choline (g/d) 2.0 3.0 3.5 3.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 3.5 Carotenoids ND ND ND ND ND ND
ND ND Elements Arsenic ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND Boron (mg/d) 11 17 20 17 17 11 17 20
Calcium (g/d) 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 Chromium ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND Copper
(g/d) 5,000 8,000 10,000 8,000 8,000 5,000 8,000 10,000 Fluoride (mg/d) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
10 Iodine (g/d) 600 900 1,100 900 900 600 900 1,100 Iron (mg/d) 40 45 45 45 45 40 45 45
Magnesium (mg/d) 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 Manganese (mg/d) 6 9 11 9 9 6 9 11
Molybdenum (g/d) 1,100 1,700 2,000 1,700 1,700 1,100 1,700 2,000 Nickel (mg/d) 0.6 1.0 1.0
1.0 1.0 0.6 1.0 1.0 Phosphorus (g/d) 4 4 4 3.5 4 4 4 4 Selenium (g/d) 280 400 400 400 400 280
400 400 Silicon ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND Vanadium (mg/d) ND ND 1.8 ND ND ND ND 1.8 Zinc
(mg/d) 23 34 40 34 34 23 34 40 * UL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely
to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from
food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for
vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, or carotenoids, arsenic,
chromium and silicon. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming
levels above recommended intakes. Source: Data from reports from the Institute of Medicine,
Food and Nutrition Board, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference
Intakes,3-7 by the National Academy of Sciences, courtesy of the National Academies Press,
Washington DC. (http://www.nap.edu/) 24 GUIDELINES FOR ADOLESCENT NUTRITION SERVICES
NUTRIENT INTAKES: NATIONAL SURVEY FINDINGS Nutrient intakes of US adolescents suggest that
many youth consume inadequate amounts of vitamins and minerals.8-11 This trend is more
pronounced in females than males. This is not surprising, given the fact that most adolescents do
not consume diets that comply with the Food Guide Pyramid or the Dietary Guidelines for
Americans.12 On average, adolescents consume diets that are inadequate in several vitamins
and minerals, including folate, vitamins A and E, iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium.8-11 Dietary
fiber intake among adolescents is also low. Diets consumed by many teens exceed current
recommendations for total fat and saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium and sugar. Table 3 lists
nutrients of concern in the diets of adolescents. TABLE 3 Nutrients of Concern in the Average Diet
of US Adolescents Nutrient Intakes Females Males Vitamins Folate Vitamin A Vitamin E
Vitamin B6 Minerals Calcium Iron Zinc Magnesium Other Lower than
Recommended Intakes Fiber Total fat Saturated fat Sodium Cholesterol
Higher than Recommended Intakes Total sugars Source: Data from8-11 The 1994-96 USDA
Continuing Survey of Food Intake By Individuals (CSFII) 24-hour recall data using a 2-day average
showed that among all age groups of children and adolescents, females ages 14-18 had the
lowest mean intakes of vitamins and minerals.9,13 Based on CSFII dietary data, Figures 1 and 2
show the percent of females and males ages 9-18 whose diets are below recommended
guidelines for several nutrients. Several studies have found that mean nutrient levels among
adolescents do not vary greatly by income level.8,9 On average, white children have somewhat

higher intake levels of minerals and vitamins than black children. Chapter 3. Nutrition Needs of
Adolescents 25 FIGURE 1 Percentage of Females and Males Ages 9-13 and 14-18 Whose Usual
Dietary Intake is Below Recommended Guidelines for Selected Vitamins and Minerals* *Nutrient
intake based on two-day dietary data from CSFII, 1994-96. a Intake below the Estimated Average
Requirement (EAR) of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). b Intake below 80% of the RDAs. c
Intake below adequate intake of the DRI. Source: Data from Gleason P, Suitor C. Childrens diets
in the mid-1990s: dietary intake and its relationship with school meal participation, DCN-01-CD1.
Alexandra, VA: US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; 2001.
http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/CNP/cnp.htm 59 90 26 44 40 41 8 14 35 46 39 52
39 44 33 89 30 2 9 21 11 24 27 1 2 16 62 58 36 36 41 26 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 913y 14-18y 9-13y 14-18y 9-13y 14-18y 9-13y 14-18y 9-13y 14-18y 9-13y 14-18y 9-13y 14-18y 913y 14-18y Females Males Folatea Vitamin Ab Vitamin Eb Vitamin Cb Calciumc Zincb Ironb
Magnesiuma % 26 GUIDELINES FOR ADOLESCENT NUTRITION SERVICES FIGURE 2 Percentage of
Females and Males Ages 9-13 and 14-18 Whose Usual Dietary Intake Does Not Meet the
Recommended Guidelines for Fat, Sodium, Cholesterol, and Fiber* *Nutrient intake based on two
day dietary data from CSFII, 1994-96. a Intake below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). b Intake below 80% of the RDAs. c Intake below adequate
intake of the DRI. Source: Data from Gleason P, Suitor C. Childrens diets in the mid-1990s:
dietary intake and its relationship with school meal participation, DCN-01-CD1. Alexandra, VA: US
Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; 2001.
http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/CNP/cnp.htm ENERGY AND NUTRIENT NEEDS
Energy Energy needs of adolescents are influenced by activity level, basal metabolic rate, and
increased requirements to support pubertal growth and development. Basal metabolic rate is
closely associated with the amount of lean body mass. Adolescent males have higher caloric
requirements since they experience greater increases in height, weight, and lean body mass
than females.1 Due to the wide variability in the timing of growth and maturation among
adolescents, the calculation of energy needs based on height will provide a better estimate than
total daily caloric recommendation.14 The 73 67 86 69 83 80 9 15 82 95 80 24 54 59 72 76 86
99 94 95 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 9-13y 14-18y 9-13y 14-18y 9-13y 14-18y 9-13y 1418y 9-13y 14-18y Females Males Total Fata Saturated Fatb Sodiumc Cholesterold Fibere *Nutrient
intake based on two day dietary data from CSFII, 1994-96 aRecommendation is no more than
30% of energy from total fat;bRecommendation is no less than 10% of energy from saturated fat;
c Recommendation is no more than 2400 mg of sodium/day;dRecommendation is no more than
300 mg of cholesterol/day;eRecommendation is more than (age plus 5) g of fiber per day %
Source: Data from Gleason P, Suitor C, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service. Childrens diets in the
mid-1990s: dietary intake and its relationship with school meal participation, CN-01-CD1.
Alexandria, VA: US Dept of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; 2001. Chapter 3. Nutrition
Needs of Adolescents 27 RDAs for total calories and calories per centimeter of height by age
group are listed in Table 4 and the DRIs for total energy intakes by age group are listed in Table 1.
TABLE 4 Recommended Caloric (Kcal) and Protein Intakes for Adolescents *2.54 cm = 1 in
Source: Data taken from Gong EJ, Heard FP. Diet, Nutrition and adolescence. In: Shils ME, Olson
JA, Shike M, eds. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 8th Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lea &
Febiger, 1994; and 1989 Recommended Daily Allowances, 10th Edition of the RDAs, Food and
Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1989.
The DRI for energy is based upon the assumption of a light to moderate activity level.
Adolescents who participate in competitive sports and those who are more physically active than
average may require additional energy to meet their daily caloric needs. Adolescents who are not
physically active and those who have chronic or handicapping conditions that limit mobility will
require less energy to meet their needs. One day dietary recall data from the third National
Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-94 showed a mean energy intake of
1793 calories/day for females ages 12-19 and 2843 calories/day for males ages 12-19.15 Using
CSFII data, Subar and colleagues16 showed the top 10 sources of energy among teens were milk,
breads, cakes/cookies/donuts, beef, cereal, soft drinks, cheese, chips, sugar, and chicken. In
NHANES III, beverages provided 21% of energy intake, with soft drinks alone providing 8% caloric
intake among adolescents. The adolescent growth spurt is sensitive to energy and nutrient
deprivation. Chronically low energy intakes can lead to delayed puberty or growth
retardation.17,18 Insufficient energy intake may occur because of restrictive dieting, inadequate
monetary resources to purchase food, or secondary to other factors such as substance abuse or
chronic illness. Protein Protein needs of adolescents are influenced by the amount of protein
required for maintenance of existing lean body mass and accrual of additional lean body mass
during the adolescent growth spurt. Protein requirements per unit of height are highest for
females in the 11 to 14 year age range and for males in the 15 to 18 year age range,
corresponding to the usual timing of peak height velocity. When protein intakes are consistently

inadequate, reductions in linear growth, delays in sexual maturation, and reduced accumulation
of lean body mass may be seen. Calorie (Kcal) Protein (grams) Age (years) Kcal/day Kcal/cm*
Grams/day Grams/cm Females 11-14 2,200 14.0 46 0.29 15-18 2,200 13.5 44 0.27 19-24 2,200
13.4 46 0.28 Males 11-14 2,500 15.9 45 0.29 15-18 3,000 17.0 59 0.34 19-24 2,900 16.4 58 0.33
28 GUIDELINES FOR ADOLESCENT NUTRITION SERVICES US adolescents consume more than
adequate amounts of protein. National data suggest that on average, teens consume about twice
the recommended level of protein and 31% of adolescent boys 14-18 years of age consume more
than twice the RDA for protein.9 Subgroups of adolescents who may be at risk for marginal or low
protein intakes include those from food-insecure households, those who severely restrict calories,
and vegans (see Chapter 17). Recommended protein intakes based upon age, gender and height
are shown in Table 4. DRI values for total protein intake by age are listed in Table 1.
Carbohydrates Carbohydrate is the bodys primary source of dietary energy. Carbohydrate-rich
foods, such as fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes are also the main source of dietary
fiber. Dietary recommendations suggest that 50% or more of total daily calories should come
from carbohydrate, with no more than 10-25% of calories derived from sweeteners, such as
sucrose and high fructose corn syrup. DRI values for total carbohydrate intake are listed in Table
1. Adolescents consume approximately 53% of their calories as carbohydrate.19 Foods that
contribute the most carbohydrate to the diets of adolescents include (in descending order) yeast
bread, soft drinks, milk, ready-to-eat cereal, and foods such as cakes, cookies, quick breads,
donuts, sugars, syrups, and jams.16 Sweeteners and added sugars provide approximately 20% of
total calories to the diets of adolescents. Mean intake of added sugars ranges from 23
teaspoons/day (nearly 1/2 cup) for females ages 9-18 to 36 teaspoons/day (3/4 cup) for males
ages 14 to 18.9 Soft drinks are a major source of added sweeteners in the diets of adolescents,
accounting for over 12% of all carbohydrate consumed.20 Soft drink consumption has steadily
increased over the years among adolescents; among teenage boys it nearly tripled between
1977 and 1994.21 Fat The human body requires dietary fat and essential fatty acids for normal
growth and development. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that adolescents
consume no more than 30% of calories from fat, with no more than 10% of calories derived from
saturated fat.22 The DRIs do not list specific requirements for total fat intake, but do make
recommendations for the intake of linoleic (n-6) and -linolenic (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids
(Table 1). Studies consistently show that adolescents intakes of total fat and saturated fat
exceed recommendations.9,11,21 Dietary 24-hour recall data from NHANES III (1988-94) showed
the mean percentage of energy for adolescents ages 12-19 was about 34% from total fat and
12% from saturated fat.15 There were no differences by gender. Only about one-third of females
and one-fourth of males ages 14 to 18 met the recommendations for total fat and saturated fats
(Figure 2). National data suggest black adolescents consumed more total fat and saturated fat
than did white youth.9,15 Major sources of total and saturated fat intakes among adolescents
include milk, beef, cheese, margarine, and foods such as cakes, cookies, donuts, and ice
cream.16 Minerals Calcium Calcium needs during adolescence are greater than they are in either
childhood or adulthood because of the dramatic increase in skeletal growth. Because about 45%
of peak bone mass is attained during adolescence, adequate calcium intake is important for the
development of dense bone mass and the reduction of the lifetime risk of fractures and
osteoporosis.23 By age 17, adolescents have attained Chapter 3. Nutrition Needs of Adolescents
29 approximately 90% of their adult bone mass. Thus, adolescence represents a window of
opportunity for optimal bone development and future health. The DRI for calcium for 9 to 18
year olds is 1300 mg/day. Only 19% or about 2 out of 10 adolescent girls meet their calcium
recommendations. In NHANES III, the mean calcium intake of adolescent girls ages 12-15 was
796 mg/day and 822 mg/day for ages 16-19.24 Males consume greater amounts of calcium at all
ages than females (Figure 1). Milk provides the greatest amount of calcium in the diets of
adolescents, followed by cheese, ice cream and frozen yogurt.16 Calcium-fortified foods are
widely available (e.g., orange juice, breakfast bars, bread, cereals) and can be excellent sources
of calcium; many of these foods are fortified to the same level as milk (300 mg/serving). Soft
drink consumption by adolescents may displace the consumption of more nutrient-dense
beverages, such as milk and juices. In one study, adolescents in the highest soft drink
consumption category were found to consume less calcium and vitamin C than non-soft drink
consumers (Table 5).25 TABLE 5 Mean Nutrient Level of Soft Drink Consumption for Adolescents
Nonconsumers (n = 70) 0.1 12.9 oz/day (n = 136) 13.0-25.9 oz /day (n = 120) 26 oz/day (n =
97) Energy (kcal) 1984 2149 2312 2604 Folate (g) 239 238 191 178 Vitamin C (mg) 98.3 100.6
62.2 52.5 Calcium (mg) 820 804 652 636 Source: Data from: Harnack L, Stang J, Story M. Soft
drink consumption among US children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 1999:99(4); 436-441.
Supplemental calcium may be warranted when adolescents are unable or unwilling to get
sufficient calcium from food sources. Most chemical forms of calcium carbonate, citrate, lactate,
or phosphate have 25-35% absorption rates. Of the calcium supplements available, calcium

carbonate contains the highest proportion (40%) of elemental calcium by weight and is the least
expensive.26 The efficiency of absorption of calcium from supplements is greatest when calcium
is taken with food in doses of not more than 500 mg. Alternatives exist for youth with lactose
intolerance. Many adolescents with lactose intolerance can tolerate small amounts of milk,
especially when consumed with meals. Lactose-free and lowlactose milks and chewable enzyme
tablets are also available. Yogurt and aged cheese are better tolerated than milk.23 Iron Iron is
vital for transporting oxygen in the bloodstream and for preventing anemia. For both male and
female adolescents, the need for iron increases with rapid growth and the expansion of blood
volume and muscle mass. The onset of menstruation imposes additional iron needs for girls. Iron
needs are highest during the adolescent growth spurt in males and after menarche in females.
The RDA for iron is 8 mg/day for 9-13 year olds, 11 mg/day for males ages 14-18 and 15 mg/day
for females ages 14-18. 30 GUIDELINES FOR ADOLESCENT NUTRITION SERVICES Estimates of
iron deficiency among adolescents are 3-4% for males and females ages 11-14, 6-7% for females
ages 15-19, and 0.6% for males ages 15-19.27 Rates of iron deficiency tend to be higher in
adolescents from low-income families. National data suggest that most adolescent males (98%)
met recommended dietary intake guidelines for iron, but only about half (56%) of females ages
14-18 had adequate intakes (Figure 1). The most common dietary sources of iron in diets of
adolescents included ready-to-eat cereal, bread, and beef. The availability of dietary iron for
absorption and utilization by the body varies by its form. Heme iron, which is found in meat, fish,
and poultry, is highly bioavailable while nonheme iron, found predominantly in grains, is much
less so. More than 80% of the iron consumed is in the form of nonheme iron. Bioavailability of
nonheme iron can be enhanced by consuming it with heme sources of iron or vitamin C. Because
the absorption of iron from plant foods is low, vegetarians need to consume twice as much iron
to meet their daily requirement.28 (See Appendix A: Food Sources of Vitamins and Minerals).
Zinc Zinc is associated with more than 100 specific enzymes and is vital for protein formation
and gene expression. Zinc is important in adolescence because of its role in growth and sexual
maturation. Males who are zinc deficient experience growth failure and delayed sexual
development. It is known that serum zinc levels decline in response to the rapid growth and
hormonal changes that occur during adolescence. Serum zinc levels indicative of mild zinc
deficiency (<10.71 umol/L) have been found in 18% to 33% of female adolescents.27 The RDA
for zinc for males and females ages 9-13 is 8 mg/day. For males and females ages 14-18, the
RDA is 11 mg/day and 9 mg/day, respectively. Data from the CSFII showed that about one-third of
adolescents had inadequate intakes of zinc (Figure 1). Zinc is naturally abundant in red meats,
shellfish, and whole grains. Many breakfast cereals are fortified with zinc. Indigestible fibers
found in many plant-based sources of zinc can inhibit its absorption. Zinc and iron compete for
absorption, so elevated intakes of one can reduce the absorption of the other. Adolescents who
take iron supplements may be at increased risk of developing mild zinc deficiency if iron intake is
over twice as high as that of zinc. Vegetarians, particularly vegans, and teens who do not
consume many animal-derived products are at highest risk for low intakes of zinc. Vitamins
Vitamin A Besides being important for normal vision, vitamin A plays a vital role in reproduction,
growth, and immune function.28 To ensure adequate body stores of vitamin A, boys and girls
ages 9-13 should consume 600 g/day, females ages 14-18, 700 g/day and males ages 14-18,
900 g/day. In the CSFII survey about 30% of adolescents had inadequate intakes of vitamin A
(Figure 1). The most obvious symptom of inadequate vitamin A consumption is vision
impairment, especially night blindness, which occurs after vitamin A stores have been
depleted.28 Vision impairment caused by inadequate vitamin A is rarely seen in the US.
However, up to 500,000 children in developing countries go blind each year because of vitamin A
deficiency.28 Chapter 3. Nutrition Needs of Adolescents 31 The top five dietary sources of
vitamin A in the diets of adolescents are ready-to-eat cereal, milk, carrots, margarine, and
cheese. Beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, is most commonly consumed by teens in
carrots, tomatoes, spinach and other greens, sweet potatoes, and milk.16 The low intake of
fruits, vegetables and milk and dairy products by adolescents contributes to their less than
optimal intake of vitamin A. Vitamin E Vitamin E is well known for its antioxidant properties,
which become increasingly important as body mass expands during adolescence. The RDA for
vitamin E for 9-13 year olds is 11 mg/day and 15 mg/day for 14-18 year olds. There are few data
available on the vitamin E status of adolescents. National nutrition surveys suggest that dietary
intakes of vitamin E are below recommended levels.9 About 40% of adolescents had lower than
recommended intakes in the CSFII survey (Figure 1). Among adolescents the five most commonly
consumed sources of vitamin E are margarine, cakes/cookies/quick breads/donuts, salad
dressings/mayonnaise, nuts/seeds, and tomatoes.16 Increasing adolescent intakes of vitamin E
through dietary sources is a challenge, given that many of the sources of vitamin E are high fat
foods. Fortified breakfast cereals and nuts are good sources of vitamin E to recommend for
youth. Vitamin C Vitamin C is involved in the synthesis of collagen and other connective tissues.

For this reason, vitamin C is an important nutrient during adolescent growth and development.
The RDA for vitamin C is 45 mg/day for 9-13 year olds, 75 mg/day for males ages 14-18 and 65
mg/day for females ages 14-18. According to CSFII data, 86-98% of adolescents had adequate
dietary intakes of vitamin C (Figure 1). Almost 90% of vitamin C in the typical diet comes from
fruits and vegetables, with citrus fruits, tomatoes and potatoes being major contributors. The five
most common sources of vitamin C among adolescents are orange and grapefruit juice, fruit
drinks, ready-to-eat cereals, tomatoes, and white potatoes.16 Evidence suggests that smokers
have poorer vitamin C status than nonsmokers, even with comparable vitamin C intakes.
Because smoking increases oxidative stress and metabolic turnover of vitamin C, the
requirement for smokers is increased by 35 mg/day.4 Nationwide, 33% of students in grades 9-12
report current cigarette use.29 Male students (37%) are more likely to smoke compared to
female students.29 On average, adolescents who use tobacco and other substances have poorer
quality diets and consume fewer fruits and vegetables, which are primary sources of vitamin C.
Folate Folate plays an integral role in DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Thus, adolescents have
increased requirements for folate during puberty. The RDA for folate is 300 g/day for 9-13 year
olds and 400 g/day for 14-18 year olds. National data suggests that many adolescents do not
consume adequate amounts of folate (Figure 1). The top five sources of dietary folate consumed
by adolescents include ready-to-eat cereal, orange juice, bread, milk, and dried beans or
lentils.16 Teens who skip breakfast or do not commonly consume orange juice and ready-to-eat
cereals are at an increased risk for having a low consumption of folate. Severe folate deficiency
results in the development of megaloblastic anemia, which is rare among adolescents. There is
evidence, however, that a number of adolescents have inadequate folate status. In one study,
12% of adolescent females were mildly folate-deficient, based on low serum folate levels, while
8-48% of female teens had been shown to have low red cell folate levels indicative of subclinical
folate deficiency.30,31 32 GUIDELINES FOR ADOLESCENT NUTRITION SERVICES Adequate intakes
of folate prior to pregnancy can reduce the incidence of spina bifida and select other congenital
anomalies, and may reduce the risk of Down syndrome among offspring.32 The protective effects
of folate occur early in pregnancy, often before a teen may know she is pregnant. Thus, it is
important that female adolescents who are sexually active consume adequate folic acid. In view
of the evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that
all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 g/day from supplements or highly
fortified breakfast cereals in addition to food folate from a varied diet that includes fruits,
vegetables, and whole grains. Other Food Components Fiber Dietary fiber is important for normal
bowel function, and may play a role in the prevention of chronic diseases, such as certain
cancers, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adequate fiber intake is also
thought to reduce serum cholesterol levels, moderate blood sugar levels, and reduce the risk of
obesity. Recommendations by the American Health Foundation suggest that daily fiber goals for
youth be based on an age plus five rule, where the individuals age is added to the number
five.33 A factor of 10 is added to age to determine the recommended upper limit of fiber intake.
Adolescents mean fiber intake is well below the age-adjusted target goal (Figure 2). National
data show that mean daily fiber intake among girls ages 9-18 is only 12 g, and among males 918 years of age it is 15 g.16 Significant sources of fiber in the diet of adolescents include whole
grain breads, ready-to-eat cereal, potatoes, popcorn and related snack foods, tomatoes, and
corn.16 The low intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains among adolescents is the greatest
contributing factor affecting fiber intake among adolescents. Adolescents who skip breakfast or
do not routinely consume whole grain breads or ready-to-eat cereals are at high risk for having
an inadequate consumption of fiber. Cholesterol and sodium Mean cholesterol and sodium
intakes increase with age for both males and females. Males ages 14- 18 have a mean
cholesterol intake of 320 mg/day, which exceeds the goal of 300 mg/day.22 The suggested
sodium intake is 2400 mg/day.22 Average intake for both adolescent males and females exceeds
this target (Figure 2). Adolescent males 14-18 have especially high mean intakes 4474 mg/day,
almost twice the target goal.9 FACTORS INFLUENCING NUTRIENT NEEDS There are many factors
and conditions which affect nutrient needs during adolescence including pregnancy, lactation,
level of physical activity, and chronic illnesses. These are discussed in the individual chapters on
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