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Welding of Dissimilar Materials

Combinations for Automotive
Applications
November 10, 2011
Jerry E. Gould
Technology Leader
Resistance and Solid State Welding
ph: 614-688-5121
e-mail: jgould@ewi.org

15 0. 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 Cooling characteristics of magnetic pulse welds for a number of materials 0 0 0. 25% pene.8-mm resistance spot welds on mild steel 0. C) Temperature (deg.05 0.15 0.2 0.25 .3 Temp (deg.Metallurgical Aspects of Joining Aluminum to Steel • • • • Suppression of solidification defects Suppression of Fe2Al7 Empirically observed critical cooling times Process selection to achieve necessary cooling times 1800 6061 Aluminum 1400 1010 Steel 1200 409 SS 1000 2000 800 1800 600 1600 400 1400 200 0 0 0.1 0.2 Time (sec) Cooling characteristics for 0.1 0.25 Time (sec) 0. C) 1600 0% pene. 50% pene. 75% pene.05 0. 100% pene.

Mechanisms of Solid-State Bonding • Contaminant displacement/ interatomic bonding   f R C R 1 Oxide/contaminant dissolution Second material gettering Metal Oxide Al Al2O3 3 10-29 Fe Fe2O3 1 10-15 Ti TiO2 1 10-01 2 Keq 1 f 1 t* Q2 1 exp t R T* 1 Ts 3 2 .

Friction Welding Aluminum to Steel Process characteristics – Inertia and direct-drive friction welding variants Low surface velocities Short heating times Forging only in the aluminum – – – 3000 2500 2000 RPM • 1500 1000 500 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 -500 Time (ms) Deceleration profile for an inertia weld between aluminum and steel Macrosection of an aluminum to steel inertia friction weld .

Intermittent Nature of Intermetallic Formation Intermetallic across joint .

Governing Equations Relating MPW Processing and Contact Velocities d 2B dr 2 1 dB k 2B 0 r dr Maxwell equation defined in cylindrical components 2 n f2 2 o I t 2 2 L P Pressure on the flier as defined by the Maxwell equation v As 2 n f2 2 o I t ts 2 2 Ls m Flier velocity derived from the magnetic pressure and part geometry .

E+05 Al/steel Al/W TI/IN625 1.E+06 1.E+08 Cooling rate (C/s) • 1.E+04 1.Metallurgical Implications of MPW Thermal Cycles Cooling rates seen here comparable with other pulse welding processes – – • – – Suppression of solidification related segregation Reduced liquation cracking Reduced solidification cracking Tungsten Rapid cooling rates suppress solid state precipitation reactions – – • Aluminum Rapid cooling rates imply rapid solidification – • Percussion welding Electro-spark deposition Suppression of intermetallic phases Reduction in solid-state-related cracking Rapid cooling rates responsible for the wide range of materials joinable by MPW 1.E+03 0 10 20 30 Splat Thickness (um) 40 50 .E+09 1.E+07 1.

Resistance Welding Processes • Resistance spot welding – Prior use of transition materials – Thermal cycles as short as 200 ms – Resolidification as bonding mechanism – Button pullout behavior – Benefits of welding onto galvanized steel Direct resistance spot welds made between 1-mm Al and 0.8-mm galvanized steel sheet • Resistance butt welding – Short duration thermal cycles – Forging similar to friction welding Resistance butt joint between 1-mm 5754 Al and 1-mm galvanized steel sheet .

Dissimilar Metals Welding .Summary 1000 induced current Primary current 800 600 Current (KA) • Mechanisms of bonding for solid-state and fusion processes • Short thermal cycles a necessity • Fusion and solid-state variations possible • Suppression of intermetallics key to effective joining • Range of candidate processing technologies demonstrated in a preliminary way 400 200 0 -200 0 100 200 -400 -600 -800 Time (microsec) 300 400 .

org .Questions? Jerry E. Gould Technology Leader Resistance and Solid State Welding ph: 614-688-5121 e-mail: jgould@ewi.